History of Fresno, Tulare and Kern Counties

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J. M. Ferguson: Page 524

In the life of J. M. Ferguson we have an example of what may be accomplished by energy and pluck when combined with judicious management in this wonderfully productive State of California.

Mr. Ferguson was born in White County, Georgia, March 25, 1843, and passed his boy-hood days on the home farm. As soon as age and maturity permitted, he entered the Federal army and was mustered in at Nashville, Tennessee, in January, 1863, as a member of Company G., Tenth Tennessee Cavalry, under Colonel Habernathy. Their services were largely that of raiding through Tennessee and Mississippi, and post duty at New Orleans and Natchez, remaining in service to the close of the war, being mustered out in the fall of 1865 at Nashville.

On returning to his home, Mr. Ferguson found the country in an unsettled condition, and to him the soil seemed exceedingly poor in comparison to that of Tennessee. He soon afterward returned to Tennessee, and there began farming. He was married in Meigs County, that State, in 1872, to Miss Parthena C. Cundiff, a native of Meigs County, and there they continued to reside until the spring of 1875, when they started for California. Having friends at Poplar, Tulare County, whom they wished to visit, they came here, and were so pleased with the locality that Mr. Ferguson improved his soldier's claim and homesteaded 160 acres of land west of Poplar. The country was dry and barren, but the South Side Tule river ditch was then in progress of construction, and feeling that water for irrigation was to be the salvation of the country, he entered with vigor into the completion of the ditch, and assisted in running through the first water. His capital at that time was in currency, valued at in gold, but with fine health, a willing hand and a determination to succeed, he set to work to carve out a prosperous and happy home, and his earnest efforts have been rewarded with success. He first built a small cabin and then had to rustle for food for his family. To this end he engaged in sheep-shearing or any honest occupation which he could secure. In the winter of 1876 he put in his first crop, meeting with poor results, as the season was dry and conveniences for irrigation not completed. He then began peddling, securing fruit about Plano and selling it at Kernville. In this he did an extensive business, and the season netted him . Then by degrees he worked into farming and the stock business, renting other lands and sowing grain. From year to year he saved his earnings and made good investments, and is now the owner of 720 acres of land. in 1884 he planted an orchard which has developed very satisfactorily, and in the spring of 1891 he set thirty acres in vines. Forty acres he devotes to alfalfa, and his ranch is well stocked with horses, cattle and hogs. In October, 1887, Mr. Ferguson opened a general merchandise store in Poplar and in November, 1890 was appointed Postmaster; but, preferring out-door life to the confinement of the store, he sold out his stock in the fall of 1890, and as soon as possible turned over the office to the new incumbent.

Mr. and Mrs. Ferguson have eight children, three sons and five daughters. A handsome two-story cottage ahs taken the place of their original cabin, and they are now surrounded by all the comforts of life, happy in the enjoyment of their beautiful California home.

William S. Staley: Page 802

William s. Staley, one of the early settlers in the vicinity of Selma is the subject of this brief biography. He was born in West Virginia, July 20, 1844, and was brought up on a farm. In 1875 he emigrated to California, locating in Fresno County, one-half mile from the thriving town of Selma, where we find him today. He has been engaged in farming ever since he settled here, owing sixty acres of fine land on his home ranch.

He has lately set out a raisin vineyard, which like all the other vineyards in this vicinity, gives promise of excellent results. He also owns one-fourth section of land on the West Side unimproved.

Mr. Staley was married, in 1872, to Miss Annie Hursberger, a native of Maryland, and they have a bright family of six children.

M. M. Espitallier: Page 781

M. M. Espitallier is one of the enterprising citizens of Sumner. He is a native of France, born in Hautes Alpes in 1854. He emigrated to America in 1874,landing in San Francisco, December 15. He had learned the trade of a baker in his native land, and found employment at the same upon his arrival in San Francisco, and later in San Jose. January 7, 1887, he located in Kern County and engaged in sheep-growing for himself, which he followed until 1887. He then located in Sumner and resumed his former business, in which he still continues with success. He was married in Los Angeles, to Miss Apolonie Eyranod, in 1888.

Eduardo Salcido: Page 780

Eduardo Salcido, a prominent citizen of Kern County, is of Spanish-Mexican origin. He was born in Mexico, in the State of Sonora, October 30, 1852. He spent his boyhood and early youth in Mexico, and then came to Los Angeles, and later, to Bakersfield, where he was engaged for some years in the liquor and restaurant business, from which he has recently retired. He married July 4, 1890, Mrs. Alexander Gody, of Bakersfield. They have a fine residence and other property in and around Bakersfield.

Henry T. Freear: Page 784

Henry T. Freear, residing near Bakersfield, was born in London, England, December 18, 1845. His father, Rev. H. T-Freear, presided over a parish in Northfolkshire, England, for many years, where he died, in 1852, leaving a widow and one son, the subject of this sketch. The mother re-married, came with her husband and son to this country, and located at De Kalb, Illinois, where she died in 1881. Henry T. came west as far as Cass County, Nebraska, where he engaged in farming six years, and then came to California and located in Kern County, his present home near Bakersfield.

Mr. Freear was a soldier of the rebellion. He joined the Union army in De Kalb County, Illinois, in 1863; was mustered into the Seventeenth Illinois Cavalry, and served until the close of the war. He was at that time only about nineteen years of age.

Upon his return from the war he married Miss Mary Garlick. They have five children living. One is deceased. Mr. Freear is a member of the G. A. R., Hulburt Post, No., 127, Bakersfield. He is counted among Kern County's most upright and esteemed citizens.

James A. Kincaid: Page 689

James A. Kincaid, of Frazier valley, Tulare County, California, was born in the town of Jay, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, in 1836. His father, Eusebius Kincaid, was an extensive lumberman, owning large saw mills on the Susquehanna river, and rafting lumber from these mills down to Harrisburg and the river cities. In 1850 he moved his family to Portage City, Wisconsin, continuing his lumber business and engaging in farming in a small way.

James A. lived with his parents until he reached his twenty-first year, securing a limited education, but acquiring a thorough knowledge of the milling business. In 1857 he started out in life for himself; emigrated to Chatfield, Filmore County, Minnesota, where he engaged in farming and operating a saw mill. He was married at that place in 1861, to Miss Mary A. Dibbius, and settled on his farm. In addition to his farming and milling, he was also extensively engaged in well-boring or drilling in Southern Minnesota. In 1866 he moved to Winnebago City and bought out a small livery stable, which he operated until 1869, when he sold his interests and came to California, crossing soon after the completion of the transcontinental railroad.

Mr. Kincaid first located on the present site of Tulare, which, he says, was then occupied by "wild animals and one or two old bachelors." He took up a government claim and made some improvements on it, remaining there until a fire destroyed his property. He then moved to the north fork of Tule river, where he took up eighty acres of land, built a small saw-mill and engaged in the stock business. In 1872 he was appointed Deputy Assessor, under T. G. Jeffords, the first Republican assessor of Tulare County, and served during a term of four years, at the same time continuing his mill, farm, and stock interests. In 1878 he bought 160 acres of land in Frazier valley, where he now resides. He has since made other purchases, and is now the owner of 1,050 acres, sowing annually about 500 acres in grain, and dealing in horses, cattle and mules. His present fine residence was built in 1889. The substantial farm buildings and the general appearance of the place indicate the thrift and prosperity of the owner and proprietor.

Mr. and Mrs. Kincaid have eight children, viz.: Emma V., now Mrs. L. L. Hotchkiss; Mattie S., wife of E. C. Clements; and Roland L., Orin E., Melvin R., Laura B., Bertha O. and Lura A.

H. M. White: Page 677

After many years of pioneer work in both Illinois and California, H. M. White now resides in his beautiful home in Frazier valley, Tulare County. Situated at the foot of "Rocky Hill," and overlooking his broad acres of waving grain, this is indeed a charming abode in which to pass the evening of an active and useful life.

Mr. White was born in Tioga County, New York, in 1852, and with his parents moved to La Salle County, Illinois, in 1838, where his father followed agricultural life. Young White assisted with the farm duties and, as opportunity offered, attended the common schools. Upon the death of his father in 1845, he took charge of the farm and also purchased a saw-mill on the Illinois river, operating it until 1850.

Attacked with the gold fever which swept the country at that time, he started for the El Dorado of the West, crossed the plains with a horse team, and after a pleasant journey of one hundred and one days, arrived at Sacramento. He then went to the mines in El Dorado County, but after three months of hard work, with average results, felt that a more congenial business could be found which would pay as well. And he left the mines, never to return, going to Sacramento, where he started a provision store, keeping grain, vegetables and miners' supplies. This proved profitable until the supply of vegetables gave out in the spring of 1851, and he was compelled to close his business. He then went to Santa Cruz, rented sixty acres of land and planted it all to potatoes, his first year's profit being ,000. The following year he planted 100 acres which netted him ,000; but in 1853, with 500 acres, he lost ,000. Still he persisted until the tide again turned in his favor and he netted large results. Mr. White was also operating a line of schooners from Monterey and Santa Cruz to San Francisco, and for several years did the shipping of that locality. With a view of extending his operations, he loaded the clipper-built schooner Young America, at Monterey, with a cargo of barley and potatoes, and in command of Captain Henry Charles, with a young brother of Mr. White as super-cargo, they set sail for Melbourne, Australia. The experiment, however, proved disastrous, as neither the schooner nor its occupants have since been heard from, and Mr. White lost about ,000.

In 1856 our subject returned to Sacramento and entered the grocery business under the firm name of Owens & White; the partnership continued one year, after which they sold out to Mr. Stanford. Mr. White then purchased a stock of general merchandise which he moved to Visalia, opening business there, June 13, 1857. At that time the town numbered about one hundred inhabitants. After remaining in business there one year, he went to San Francisco and decided to engage in the sheep business, which was then in its infancy. With a knowledge of the foothills as grazing land, which were then only occupied by stockmen, Mr. White purchased a band of 800 sheep, and in 1859 crossed the Coast Range on the west side of Tulare County. His trip across the valley was fraught with great suffering for want of water, no springs being known. The heat was intense, and even Lake Tulare was so impregnated with filth and alkali that neither man nor beast could touch the water. For three days this suffering continued, and when they reached Tule river the sheep made a dash for the water and plunged in, piling on top of each other, so eager were they for water. He then drove them to Frazier valley, where he located 160 acres of land. His sheep were the first band brought to that locality. As the cattlemen were then kings of the sod, they felt sheep men were interlopers and tried in every way possible to run Mr. White from the country, destroying his crops, driving bands of horses through his sheep, and using every measure except violence to discourage him; even his friends combined against him. The opposition became so strong that Mr. White was one of the first to advocate the "No Fence" law, the passage of which brought such disaster to the stock interests. Mr. White gradually acquired land until he owned about 8,000 acres, and continued the sheep business until 1881, when he entered the cattle business, in which he is still engaged. He now owns about 1,400 acres, well fenced, with substantial improvements and beautifully located. He also raises some horses and cultivates each year about 500 acres of his land.

Mr. White was married in Visalia to Mrs. J. A. Brown, a widow with two children -- Clinton T. and William W. Brown. Mrs. White was the first to plant oranges in the foothills, bringing the seed from Visalia. Years afterward she sold her first oranges at a church fair at Vandalia for each. Oranges were then a novelty in this country. Mr. White has never sought political emolument, although for thirty years he has been a representative Republican and prominent in County and State conventions. He is of a kind and genial disposition, and without being aggressive, possesses very decided characteristics.

Harrison White: Page 625

Harrison White was born in the State of New York, June 29, 1838. He comes of good old Puritan stock. His grandfather, Silas White, was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, held a Captain's commission and served till the close of the struggle. His father, Silas White, Jr., a native of New York, married Maria McClare, who was of Scotch descent and also a native of the Empire State. Of the ten children born to them, Harrison was next to the youngest. When he was a child the family moved to Illinois and settled on a Government claim, where the children were reared and educated.

Mr. White worked on the farm and also learned the carpenter's trade. When President Lincoln called for volunteers he was among the first to enter the service of his country and help put down the rebellion. He enlisted as a private, on April 22, 1861, in Company F, Eleventh Illinois Infantry, and after his three months' term of service had expired he joined Company B, Fourth Illinois Cavalry. His company went with General Grant to Fort Henry, Donelson, Corinth and Vicksburg, and was Grant's escort until he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General and placed at the head of all the armies of the United States, having his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac. Mr. White continued to serve in the department of Mississippi until the close of the war. At the battle of Shiloh he was slightly wounded by a piece of shell. He had been promoted as Captain, and as such was mustered out of the service on the 26th of January, 1866.

After the war closed Mr. White conducted a cotton plantation in Mississippi one year. He then went to Sandwich, Illinois, and engaged in mercantile business. In the spring of 1868 he sold out and went to Montana, being in business there until the winter of 1869, again returning to Illinois. In the spring of 1870 he came to California and located in Tulare County. That summer he took the census of the County. Then or two years he was engaged in the sheep business, after which he opened a store at Porterville, remaining there six years. At the end of that time he sold out, came to Visalia, and has since made this city his home. In 1880 he received the appointment of United States Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue, and filled that office six years. He also served as Under Sheriff a year and a half. At this writing (1891) he is a United States Gauger, and is also doing a claim agency business.

in 1876 Captain White was married to Miss Hattie P. Anthony, a native of Watertown, New York. They reside in their pleasant home on Court Street, Visalia, and he is the owner of a ranch in the country, which he has rented.

The Captain is a member of the A. O. U. W., and a charter member and Post Commander of General George Wright Post, G. A. R., Visalia.

E. A. May: Page 522

E. A. May is a descendant of English ancestors. His parents came to this country at an early day, settled in Buffalo, New York, before the establishment of railroad transportation, and subsequently located in Wales, Erie County, where the subject of this sketch was born in 1847. Losing his mother at the age of twelve years, young May went to Peoria, New York, to live with his uncle, William May, a blacksmith by trade. He took advantage of the educational advantages offered there and applied himself to his studies in the high school, at odd times assisting his uncle in the shop. When he was eighteen he enlisted, at Rochester, in Company C, One Hundred and Ninety-fourth New York Volunteers, and was sent to Elmira. The war, however, being nearly over, they were soon discharged and returned to their homes.

After his discharge from the service, Mr. May went to Henry County, Illinois, to visit his father, and subsequently to St. Charles, Minnesota, where he engaged in farming and the lumber business. About 1870 he went to Canton, Lincoln County, Dakota, pre-empted and homesteaded 320 acres of wild land and began breaking the soil and sowing grain. The grasshoppers in that section of the country were very destructive and crops uncertain. In 1875 Mr. May was Sergeant-at-arms at Yankton, then the capital of Dakota, and upon adjournment of the Legislature he was sent by the citizens of the County to the States to Solicit aid for the suffering settlers, the grasshoppers having entirely destroyed their crops. While in Dakota he took an active part in politics and was regarded as one of the leaders of his party.

Mr. May was married at Yankton, in December, 1876, to Miss Martha Jones, a sister of State Senator A. S. Jones, of Dakota. They then came to California and after passing a few months with his father and brother at Modesto, in April, 1878, settled at their present location, southwest of Poplar, Tulare County. He bought a timber culture claim of eighty acres and 160 acres of railroad land adjoining; set five acres to timber from rooted plants and cuttings, but experienced great difficulty in getting them to grow, and for four years kept filling in the vacancies and made it a success. He now has forty acres in alfalfa and annually sows 175 acres to grain. The country being undeveloped when Mr. May came here, he has devoted much time to experimenting with deciduous fruits, berries and vines, now having five acres in orchard and twelve in grapes. The water supply for the valley being very uncertain, owing to the natural run of the streams, Mr. May is practically demonstrating the fact that, with abundance of water fifteen feet below the surface, every man owns his own water-right if he will but take the means and measures to raise it to the surface. He bored two wells about ten feet apart and erected over them an electric and gasoline engine with a centripetal pump connected with both wells, from which it draws alike and throws to the surface fifteen miners' inches of water. This is the first engine and pump of the kind erected in that part of the valley, and affords the most perfect power with the least trouble and consumption of fuel of any pumping apparatus the writer has ever seen. Mr. May is also giving much attention to raising horses, with his Percheron stallion, which weighs 1,5000 pounds, is improving the standard of draft horses.

Mr. and Mrs. May have two children: E. Howard and Ivy, both at home and in pursuit of their education. Mr. May is a member of the I. O. O. F., of Woodville, and of the Farmers' Alliance, being lecturer of his lodge.

N. P. Duncan, M. D.: Page 405

Prominent among the young professional men of Hanford, Tulare County, California, is the subject of this sketch, who was born in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, in 1849. He is of Scotch descent, his ancestors being among the early settlers of Louisiana. His father, Robert C. Duncan, a native of Louisiana, emigrated to Pittsburg about 1820, and was there engaged in the mercantile business. His mother was Nancy (Patterson) Duncan, a daughter of Nathaniel Patterson, a surveyor and engineer, who was prominently connected with the platting of land and laying out of the city of Pittsburg.

N. P. Duncan was educated in the Beaver Academy and the Washington and Jefferson College. He then commenced the study of medicine under the preceptorship of Dr. David Stanton, of New York City, in 1871. He then began practice at Eno, Pennsylvania, where he remained until 1873, when he came to California. After spending two years in traveling over the State, he practiced one year in Fresno, and in 1876 located at Lemoore, Tulare County, where he was subsequently married to Miss Mary A. Cranmer, a highly educated and accomplished lady and a native of Calaveras County, California. The Doctor enjoyed a successful and lucrative practice at Lemoore, and remained there until 1884, when he moved to Hanford, purchased property at the corner of Doughty and Eighth Streets, built a handsome two-story residence, which is ornamented by attractive lawns, and established his permanent home. He is engaged in a general practice of medicine and surgery. By holding his patrons at Lemoore and in the West Side districts and extending a helping hand to those at Goshen, Traver and Tulare on the east, his professional engagements cover a broad area of country.

The Doctor owns 160 acres of land in the River Lawn country, which is irrigated by the Crescent ditch, and he has forty acres of vineyard south of Lemoore. He is a member of Hanford Lodge, No. 189, A. O. U. W. to the Doctor and Mrs. Duncan one child has been born, a bright little son, who at the age of five years suffered a fall while at play in Lemoore which caused his death.

Having practiced about fifteen years in the Lucerne district, Dr. Duncan considers it a locality of great longevity, free from all epidemics; and the malarial diseases, being of mild form, are very susceptible of treatment and seldom fatal.

John Smith Cole: Page 699

John Smith Cole, Traver, Tulare County, California, is one of the substantial business men of his town and merits representation in the history of his County.

Mr. Cole comes of English and German ancestors, who settled in the State of Pennsylvania at an early date. His Grandfather, David Cole, was born in England, and when quite young came to America and located in the Keystone State, where his son, James R. Cole, was born and reared. The latter married Miss Cassie Strayer, a native of Pennsylvania, of German ancestry, and a Quakeress. Her parents were David and Anna Strayer, and three of her brothers were Union Solders in the late war, and sacrificed their lives for their country. Mr. Cole also had two other uncles who were Union soldiers, so that the family was not wanting in patriotism. James R. Cole and his wife became the parents of eight children, all of whom are still living. He died at their ranch near Traver, in 1889. The subject of our sketch was born in Pennsylvania, November 3, 1849; received a limited education in the public schools of his native State, and learned the trade of a gunsmith in Pittsburg. Being a natural mechanic, he has also taken up the blacksmith and carriage-making trades, and has learned engineering.

In 1879 he came to California, and for several years was variously employed; he worked at Kernville, assisted in building a tramway for mining purposes, helped to construct two large overshot water-wheels in the Piute mountains, for the purpose of furnishing power to crush quartz and worked at lumbering in the mountains of Tulare County, also doing some work at the carpenter's trade.

In the spring of 1883, when the first sale of lots was made in Traver, he purchased lots 17 and 18, on block 88 soon afterward building a house and shop, the first buildings completed in the town, which he has continued to occupy, and where he is carrying on his blacksmith and carriage-making business. Mr. Cole has located a homestead of 160 acres of land a mile and a half south-west of the town, on which he has built a house and barn; has been farming it to grain, but more recently is giving it over to the culture of raisin grapes and other fruits, among which are oranges. One two year-old tree bore 300 well formed oranges.

Mr. Cole was united in marriage, in 1874, to Miss Mary E. Baer, a native of New York City. Her parents, Peter and Martha Baer, were born in Germany, but reared in the United States. The children born to Mr. and Mrs. Cole are Martha, Mamie and Frank.

In politics he is an enthusiastic Republican, but in County affairs he does not adhere strictly to party lines. He is a member of the A. O. U . W., the K. of P., the Foresters and the Farmers' Alliance, and has also been a Granger and a Good Templar, having been an officer in all these societies.

In connection with his ancestry, it should be further stated that among his German forefathers were physicians of eminence, and their history has been handed down through several generations. They were also men who enjoyed the sport of deer-hunting in the Allegheny mountains, his grandfather, David Cole, having died at the age of ninety-six years, from a hurt received from a wounded deer.

Peter T. Brady: Page 350

The subject of this sketch is a native son of the Emerald Isle. He was born in County Meath, Ireland, March 17, 1839, son of Bryan Brady, a blacksmith by trade. Peter T. learned the same trade with an older brother, and in 1868 emigrated to America. After a brief sojourn in Connecticut, he came direct to California and to Kern County. Like the most of new-comers to this State at that time, Mr. Brady had his experience in the mines. However, he only mined about a month; located in Havilah, where he conducted a blacksmith shop five years. During the gold excitement at Kernville he again sought the mines, and when mining interests declined there he located on a ranch on South Fork of Kern river, where he has 160 acres of farming land.

Mr. Brady married Miss Mary E. Irving, daughter of Robert Irving, deceased. She is a native of San Francisco and of American parentage. Their union has been blessed with five children: Bernard Philip, Robert James, Peter John, Patrick Eugene and Katie Susan.

Mr. Brady is a man of business enterprise and industry. Besides developing his ranch, he conducts Mr. Scodie's well equipped and blacksmith shop at Scodie, besides his own, during the summer months.

When the biographer styled Mr. Brady a native son of the Emerald Isle the phrase called up in the memory of the latter the following reflections:

The great feature of our destiny as traced in our history is that it was the will of God and our fate that a large portion of our people be constantly either driven from the Irish shore or obliged by the course of circumstances or apparently of their own free will to leave. The 'Irish Exile' is a name recognized in history; the 'Irish Exile' is not a being of yesterday or of last year. We turn over these honored pages of history until we come to the very brightest pages of the national records, and still we find emblazoned upon the annals of every nation of the earth the grand and the most honored names of the 'Exiile of Erin.' And I, O mother, far away from thy green bosom, hail thee from afar as the prophet of old beholding the fair plains of the promised land, and proclaim this day that there is no land so fiar; no spot of earth to be compared to thee; no nation rising out of the waves so beautiful as thou art; and that neither the sun nor the moon nor the stars of heaven shine down upon anything so lovely as thee, O Erin

Jesse Morrow: Page 349

Jesse Morrow, a prominent citizen of Fresno, was born in Canton, Ohio, in 1827.

He was reared on a farm and educated in the public schools, remaining at home until he reached the age of fourteen. He was then apprenticed to the trade of saddler and harnessmaker at Paris, Ohio, where lie served three years, after which he returned home and assisted his father on the farm until July 4, 1849.

While thus quietly employed in agricultural pursuits, the wonderful stories about California and her rich treasures of gold reached him and inspired him. with a spirit of adventure. he joined an emigrant party to cross the plains for Salt Lake City, there expecting to winter; but the Mormons were so dictatorial and belligerent that life itself was unsafe in their midst: so a small party was formed and they pushed on to California by the Southern Pass. At the Big Muddy they found one foot of snow and the party broken up. Nothing daunted, Mr. Morrow with six others took food and blankets on their back's and continued their way westward, coming through Cajon Pass. There he traded his rifle for a beef to supply the party with food. They jerked the meat and took it with them on their way north. After crossing Kern river, and while in camp at Posey creek, they were approached by two men, the only surviving members of an earlier party of sixteen who had been attacked by Indians. All then returned to Kern river, where they met a train, among the number being Dr. Lewis Leach. Thus re-enforced they again pushed forward. At Woodville, Tulare County, they came to the scene of the above mentioned slaughter and found fourteen bodies, which they buried. They camped through the night, under guard, and, after shooting wild cattle to supply food, continued on to King's river; camped at Smith's ferry, then went forward to San Joaquin river, where they met Major Lane and a portion of the party hired by him to work his mines above Ft. Miller. The Indians, however, were so troublesome that the Major was frightened away. Mr. Morrow and party then bought a mining outfit and continued to work through that year, meeting with success. He mined at Fine Gold Gulch and on the San Joaquin river until 1856, when he went to Los Angeles and engaged extensively in the stock business. He bought 1,100 head of cattle, drove them to the San Joaquin valley, and on King's river continued the business until 1871, keeping an average of 500 head. In 1875 Mr. Morrow turned his attention to sheep raising on the plains between King's and San Joaquin rivers, his flock numbering from 4,000 to 20,000, In this business he was engaged until 1882, when he sold out. In 1874 Mr. Morrow was instrumental in building the Southern Pacific Hotel, which in 1876 came into his possession, and which he still owns and leases. At one time he was extensively interested in money loaning, and through poor securities he lost about ,000.

Mr. Morrow was married at San Joaquin, in February, 1857, to Miss Mary I. Davis, a native of Texas. They have three children. The family moved from the ranch on King's river to San Jose, where they resided fourteen years and where the children were well educated. They now reside in Fresno.

Mr. Morrow has been more or less interested in mining ever since lie came to California, and he thinks the outlook today as favorable as in 1849 to the careful prospector.

J. R. Reily, M. D.: Page 349

J. R. Reily, M. D., a prominent physician of Fresno, was born in Callaway County, Missouri, in 1838. His father, Samuel Reily, was a pioneer of 1821 to Missouri, and was an extensive farmer, owning from 500 to 1,200 acres of land. Dr. Reily was educated in the public schools of Missouri and at Westminster College, which is the Presbyterian college of the State, situated at Fulton, the County seat of Callaway County. Owing to broken health he did not graduate.

In 1857 he began the study of medicine, and in 1859-'60 he attended the Missouri Medical College at St. Louis, under the direction of Dr. Joseph N. McDowell, Professor of Surgery and a man of great prominence in his profession through the West. After completing two courses of study, Dr. Reily joined his brother, Dr. William C. Reily, in Pettis County, Missouri, and with him began practice, remaining until June, 1861, when he joined the Missouri State troops, under General Price, in sympathy with the Confederate cause, as Assistant Regimental Surgeon. Later he enlisted in the Confederate service; was sent on a recruiting expedition to Central Missouri, and was there captured and paroled.

In the spring of 1863 Dr. Reily came to California via the Isthmus route, and at once started, in company with a number of young men, to return south through Arizona. While waiting at Visalia for others who desired to join them, he was thrown from a buggy and his left leg broken. This accident necessitated the mortification of seeing his companions depart without him. In May of that year, and while yet wearing splints, he formed a partnership with Dr. William A. Russell, at Visalia. They continued a successful and extensive practice until 1867, when our subject gave up his professional duties to look after mining interests in Kern County. After six months' experience and a loss of property, he resumed the practice of medicine. In 1871 he settled in Bakersfield, Kern County, then a town of 200 inhabitants, now an active business center with a population of 3,600. During the early history of the town it was so malarious that there were not more than enough well people to care for the sick; but time and cultivation have exhausted the malaria, and the town is now as healthy as any part of the valley.

Nearly twenty-eight years of his life have been spent in the practice of medicine and surgery in the great San Joaquin valley. In February 1889, the Doctor came to Fresno. He purchased an improved vineyard of forty acres on Cherry avenue, thirty-two acres being in Muscat vines and the rest in fruit and alfalfa. This property is located one mile south of the city. In 1890, the first season of picking, he marketed eighteen tons of raisins. The Doctor still practices in a limited way, but gives the most of his time to his vineyard.

Dr. Reily's wife was Miss Ellah P. Maze, a native daughter of the Golden West and daughter of Mr. S. M. Maze, a wealthy citizen of Santa Clara County, California, who came to the coast in 1849. They have no children.

Dr. Reily is, at time of writing this sketch, president of the Fresno County Medical Society.

S. H. Cole: Page 345

S. H. Cole -- In a volume of history, such as this, in which are recorded not only the events of interest in the past, but the movements which have led up to the present condition of affairs, there can be no more entertaining topic to the best class of readers than that which treats of the building up of a prosperous, enterprising city. Important cities and trade centers are only partially the result of necessity. The progressive spirit of the founders of one locality will place it in advance in the race as against another with better natural advantages which has no public-spirited men to look after its interests.

Fresno, with the development of irrigation, enjoyed the advantage of a very good site for a future commercial center, and whatever else was lacking has been supplied by a coterie of as determined men of push and energy such as is not equaled in all the past history of California. Of this band of energetic spirits the opinion of his fellow citizens has accorded to S. H. Cole, whose name begins this article, a place in the very foremost rank; and certainly the publishers of this volume may be permitted to add that while all have done grandly, certainly none have given so much of their own time so unselfishly for the good of Fresno, and with no other object than her advancement, than the subject of this mention. A brief outline sketch of his career, therefore, follows here as a matter of course, and as a necessary portion of Fresno's contribution tot he history of Central California.

Mr. Cole is the descendant of German ancestry. He was born in Hamilton County, Ohio, about sixteen miles from Cincinnati, July 17, 1838, his parents being Adam and Elizabeth (Shull) Cole. In 1840 the parents moved to Switzerland County, Indiana, and in that locality made their home for many years. The subject of this sketch received the advantages of the best educational facilities obtainable in his boyhood days, but he was compelled by force of circumstances to give up regular attendance at school at the age of fifteen years. He had been reared to farm life, and on leaving school devoted his entire time to agricultural pursuits. He assisted his father in conducting the farming work until 1856, when, branching out on his own account, he purchased half of the home place. For several years thereafter, eh purchased, sold and improved considerable property. For the purpose of investigating the climate and resources of Kansas, which State was then receiving much attention, he spent the winter of 1871-'72 there, returning in the spring to Indiana. Soon afterward, he saw in the New York Sun an advertisement of Charles Nordhoff's now well-known book, entitled, "California for Health, Pleasure and Residence," issued by Harper Bros. Mr. Cole was greatly impressed by the contents of this interesting work, so much so indeed, that he determined to sell his property in Indiana, and move at once to California, which resolution was promptly carried out. Although the change of residence was quite an undertaking, entailing a loss in the disposal of his Indiana farm and a heavy expense en route, he has never regretted the step, but now says, "The half was not told in that volume of Mr. Nordhoff's."

Arriving in California on a slow freight, Mr. Cole and his family went to San Francisco. There he met a gentleman who had visited the San Joaquin valley, and from his ascertained that there was plenty of Government land to be had in Fresno County, and to this point Mr. Cole directed his steps, arriving in Fresno September 27, 1873. He had to sell his greenbacks for gold at 85 cents on the dollar, and paid gold for fare from San Francisco to Fresno. At that time the only hotel in the place was a French one near where the pioneer store of Louis Einstein now is, opposite the depot of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. Mr. Cole states that the clerk of the hotel escorted him from the station to the hotel with a lantern and gave him the best room in the house. He at once engaged in farming, locating near the foothills, fifteen miles northeast of Fresno on 320 acres of Government land. In May, 1882, he determined to go north on a tour of inspection, and after a three months' visit to the region surrounding Puget Sound he returned to Fresno, being more than ever satisfied with California. Mr. Cole invested in some very valuable fruit property, and for a time was actively engaged in fruit and grain raising.

In November, 1886, he moved into the city of Fresno, being influenced in this course largely by the desire to give to his children the educational advantages afforded by the schools of the city. While a resident of the outside districts, he had taken a deep interest in the matter of irrigation, on which the prosperity of the County so largely depended; and it was soon seen that he had determined to be more active in working for the advancement of Fresno. As soon as he was fairly located in the city, he established himself in the real estate business, and the very next summer consummated, among other operations, a deal of large proportions, the sale of a 2,000 acre tract. Later on, he associated with himself his brother, J. A. Cole, and his nephew, F. M. Chittenden, under the firm name of Cole, Chittenden & Cole, and this firm was continued until the erection of the new building of the Farmers' Bank took away their office facilities, and the partnership theretofore existing was dissolved, our subject retiring from the firm in October, 1888. He still continued, however, in the performance of his duties as Notary Public, to which position he had been appointed as one of the last official acts of the late Governor Bartlett, and two years later Governor Waterman reappointed him to the position for a term of four years.

In January, 1889, J. H. Hamilton resigned from the Municipal Board of Fresno, and partly through a desire to recognize the work of Mr. Cole in behalf of Fresno, as well as to place him in a position where his energetic services could be made most available, he was chosen by the unanimous vote of the Board to fill the vacancy. Before the next election, which occurred in April, 1889, the city was divided into wards, and Mr. Cole, without the formality of a nomination, was elected to represent the second ward in the City Council of Fresno, by the unanimous vote of all citizens of whatever political party. he was chosen as chairman of the Street and Finance Committee, and the initiative in all matters of that nature in the great reign of improvement which followed, at once devolved on him. Bonds to the extent of ,000 had been voted for the construction of a sewer system, and a contract let to the amount of ,000, though as yet but little of the right of way had been secured; but he carried through this very essential part of the programme in a manner which was extremely advantageous to Fresno, and which reflected great credit on his energy and watchfulness of the city's interests. As an instance of the favorable terms he made in this matter it may be mentioned here that on one 160-acre tract, where ,000 was asked for right of way, and where it was expected that amount would be required, Mr. Cole exerted himself to such an extent that he was enabled to secure that particular right for . The amount of the. bonds was expended in the work undertaken, and a total of ,000 utilized on the sewer system of the city during Mr. Cole's incumbency of the chairmanship of the Street and Finance Committee, and to such good effect was this money expended that it may safely be said that no municipality has ever gotten a more thorough and satisfactory return for its money.

This, however, is by no means the sum of the permanent improvements effected in his department under his chairmanship. During its term, the whole of the eleven blocks of splendid pavements have been laid. The pavements of Fresno are not excelled in the world, consisting of three inches of bituminous rock on an eight-inch concrete foundation, the work being performed in the most approved manner. There have also been twenty miles of Street sidewalk built, graded and curbed during this time, and among the. other improvements of the same period may be mentioned the fire alarm system, and the unexcelled Street-sprinkling plant.

On the 20th of April, 1891, at the reorganization of the Board, Mr. Cole was elected president of the City Council, and as Mayor of the city he has well borne the honor of his position. Being reluctant, however, to retire from the active working field of his old position, one of his first official acts in his new capacity was to appoint himself back to his old position as chairman of the Street and Finance Committees. On the 18th of April, 1891, an election was held for the purpose of voting on the proposition to bond the city in the sum of ,000 for the construction of a new and commodious brick high school building; and as the issue was successful Mr. Cole will have these bonds to sign as one of his duties.

It is not merely in his capacity as a city official, however, that Mr. Cole has been performing his untiring work for Fresno. He took an active part in the organization of the Fresno County Board of Trade, which was consummated in January, 1887, and was one of the charter members of that organization which has done so much for this city and County. From the first he was one of tile most enthusiastic members of the board, and became recognized as one of its mainstays, whose enthusiasm did not dwindle as time progressed. In September, 1890, he was elected secretary of the board, to take the office on the first of October following, and certainly every one conversant with the facts recognize the fact that no mistake was made in that action. Following this, he was elected as executive committeeman from the Fresno organization to the State board of Trade, and has charge of the local exhibit in the State board rooms. In his various capacities as an official, and as an interested private citizen, Mr. Cole has been a great practical benefit to this community, and his earliest, honest personal conversation with visitors to the city, has resulted in many very desirable acquisitions to the citizenship of Fresno city and County. He has also been a liberal contributor toward new enterprises, among the latest of these being the mountain railroad; and in his capacity as Mayor of Fresno he took a prominent part in the ceremonies attending the commencement of work on that road, July 4, 1891.

Besides the positions already mentioned, Mr. Cole held the office of Justice of the Peace in 1881, an appointment by the Board of Supervisors, but resigned therefrom in 1882, when leaving for his trip north in that year. In 1889 he was solicited by a number of influential intimate friends to accept the nomination for State Senator from this district; but, thanking his friends, he declined the proffered honor, reminding them of the fact that he was chosen by the votes of both the leading political parties to do some work for Fresno oil tile municipal board, and that that work was yet uncompleted.

Mr. Cole is on intimate terms with the leading business men and representative citizens generally of this community, who respect him as well for the strict integrity of his public and private life, as for the tireless energy he has displayed in advancing the welfare of all, arid for his undoubted natural abilities.

Thrice married, Mr. Cole rejoices in a large family of children. By his first marriage to Clarissa Hageman, of Indiana, there were four children, three of whom are living, namely C. M. Cole, Mrs. C. A. Owen, and Adrian S. Cole. The oldest of these, Mr. C. M. Cole, is the largest grain farmer of the County, and has, in 1891, 10,000 acres of grain. This young man inherits the energetic qualities of his father, and has attained his present position in life through his own efforts. Our subject married for his second wife, Mary Margaret Warfield, also of Indiana. By this marriage there were no children. His present wife was Maggie J. Griffin, who was born in Union County, Indiana, but reared in Iowa. They are the parents of six children, namely: Orrell A., Robert W., Eva B., Alice L., Charles Chester, and Mary Augusta.

In closing this brief sketch it is but justice to the subject to refer to one feature in his career, that is much to his credit. In his entire lifetime he has never been a principal in a lawsuit; and during the whole time of his connection with the local government of Fresno the city has never been sued. As a trustee he has always favored arid followed the precepts adopted in his private business; and, while being universally recognized as one of the most zealous upholders of the interests of the city, he has always favored the consideration of all just rights of individuals as well as corporations whenever there has been any occasion for friction or clashing of interests. This has inspired in the parties a Confidence in the fairness of his intentions which has always as yet resulted in honorable compromise and ultimate satisfaction to all concerned.

One of the most delicate matters which comes within the province of the governing bodies of a city is the handling of corporations having large interests there so as to retain the friendship and good-will of those who control the capital that is necessary to keep the various branches of industry in operation, while at the same time demanding of them the bearing of their proper proportion of the burdens of the community. On this line of duty Mr. Cole has shown signal ability. His firmness of character has never been better displayed than on the national holiday of 1891, when he adhered to his purpose in protecting the lives and property of citizens by preventing tire explosion of fireworks, against considerable influential opposition, and was afterward congratulated by many from that same opposition for his firm stand and the consequent leading part he had taken in making Fresno's celebration of the occasion of that year the most successful by all odds in her history. In concluding it will not be out of place to say that the uniform courtesy as the city's chief executive, displayed alike to citizens and strangers, has done much to ward spreading abroad a good impression of Fresno.

W. J. Graham: Page 412

W. J. Graham, one of the active citizens of Kern County, was born in Calaveras County, this State, November 13, 1859, was educated at Santa Ynez, Santa Barbara County, and learned the blacksmith's trade, which he successfully followed at Bakersfield for several years. He was married April 11, 1878, to Miss Agnes, daughter of P. J. and M. A. Sullivan, who are amongst the earliest and respected pioneers of San Jose, Santa Clara County. In 1888 Mr. Graham was elected Sheriff of Kern County, on the Democratic ticket. His administration of the affairs of his office were eminently satisfactory, and he retired from its duties with an honorable official record. Michael Graham, father of ex-Sheriff Graham, came to Kern County during the Clear Creek gold excitement, about 1867. He was an old placer miner in Calaveras County, and spent a short time in Los Angeles prior to taking up his residence at Havilah. He was a native of Ireland, emigrated to America at about eighteen years of age and located in Rhode Island, where he entered merchandising on a modest scale, in the city of Providence. There he married his wife, Helena Hanna, also a native of Ireland. They had seven children, six of whom were born in this State, and all but one are living.

Austin Young: Page 333

Austin Young is the popular landlord of the Piute Hotel, and one of the leading citizens of Tehachapi. He is a son of Edmund Young, M. D., of Fruitvale, East Oakland, Alameda County, California. Dr. Young graduated in medicine at Syracuse, New York, and practiced his profession for a time, retiring in 1860. He is a native of Yates County, New York, and married Eleanor Bell, also of that County. They came to California, landing in San Francisco, May 6, 1865, their family then consisting of three sons and two daughters, of whom Austin Young is the oldest.

Mr. Young was educated in the public schools of Solano County, and at Heald's business college, graduating at the latter institution in the class of 1876. After leaving school en conducted one of his father's farms for about six years; was employed one year as a shipping clerk at Port Costa, Contra Costa County, and served as a letter carrier in the United States postal service, in San Francisco, four years and a half. Mr. Young located at Tehachapi, March 1, 1889, and conducted the Golden Gate restaurant about eighteen months, after which, in 1890, he built and opened the Piute Hotel and bar.

June 6, 1888, Mr. Young married Miss Marian Goyhen, of San Francisco. She is a daughter of Peter Goyhen, deceased, a native of south France. Mrs. Young was born in San Francisco on the 6th day of May, 1862. She is a lady of fine domestic tastes and modern education, speaks the French, Basque, Spanish and English languages fluently, and the graceful and quiet manner in which she fills the position of landlady of the new Piute Hotel is evidence of her social tact and executive ability. Mr. Young is a genial and social gentleman, an enterprising businessman, and a popular citizen. His hotel is an orderly and favorite one--such an institution as no town of modern pretentions and aspirations can afford to do without.

F. E. Davis: Page 722

F. E. Davis is a pioneer and a leading merchant of Delano. He first came to California from Chicago in 1873. He was born in Utica, New York, August 5, 1848. His father, Thomas Davis, was a blank book manufacturer of New York City. Mr. Davis learned the trade of a marble cutter, which he later pursued in Detroit, Michigan, and at Fort Wayne, Indiana. He followed the business from 1863 to 1887 when he located at Delano and engaged in general merchandising, being the third merchant of the town. He married in Butte County, at Chico, California, January 18, 1882, Miss Anna M., daughter of J. H. Parr, and they have three children, Ferdinand, Vivian and William. Mr. Davis is a progressive merchant and businessman. He owns a fine ranch of 160 acres two miles from Delano, on which he raises wheat without irrigation. He also owns property near Tulare, which he is planting to prunes. Mr. Davis is wide awake to the best interest of Delano, and is highly esteemed.

Louis Gundelfinger: Page 377

Louis Gundelfinger is a native of Wurtemberg, Germany, born in 1849. He came to America in 1868, and for three months made his home in New York City. Receiving a liberal offer of a business position in San Francisco, he started for the West via the Isthmus of Panama.

From 1868 until 1872 he was employed as bookkeeper for the wholesale liquor firm of Wormser Bros., in San Francisco. In the latter year he accepted a similar position in the wholesale clothing establishment of Greenbaum Bros., and was with them two years. Then he was employed as bookkeeper for Levi Strauss & Co., a wholesale dry goods firm.

In September 1877, he purchased the interest of H. D. Silverman in the pioneer firm of Silverman, Einstein & Co., Fresno, Mr. Silverman having died in August of that year. Since that time Mr. Gundelfinger has been connected with this firm and has witnessed a large and steady growth in trade. He is the active manager of the business, president of the stock company, and a faithful and energetic worker. The firm does business in their fine building at the corner of Mariposa and Front Streets, the site of the original one story frame building which was occupied by the pioneer Otto Froelich. They do an immense business in wholesale and retail general merchandise, their trade extending throughout the entire San Joaquin Valley.

Mr. Gundelfinger was married in 1879, and has a family of three children, all sons.

Elonzo P. Davis: Page 376

Elonzo P. Davis is one of the well-known, popular and successful business men of Bakersfield, one of a class who by their own personal efforts have fought their own way to an honorable position among his fellow men, against many reverses, and as a citizen and business man commands the respect of all who know him.

He was born in Arkansas, September 22, 1853. His father, now a resident of Bakersfield, is a mechanic by trade, a veteran of the Mexican war, and has fought in all the Indian wars since that time, including the Seminole war in Florida. He is an intrepid and fearless man still, in his declining years, bearing the marks of an aggressive and uncompromising patriot and frontiersman. Mr. Davis' mother was by maiden name Miss Mary Farley, of Scotch ancestors, and like her husband, was born and raised in Tennessee. They reared four sons and four daughters, six of whom reside in Kern County. Mr. Davis has for twelve years past lived at Bakersfield or in its vicinity. He married Miss Maggie Hope Taylor, a native of Virginia, January 4, 1882, and they have two daughters and one son, Myrtle, Elonzo and Pearl.

Mr. Davis is the proprietor of the popular Dexter Livery and Boarding Stables and also owns a ranch in Kern County. He is a public-spirited and open-handed son, father, and husband.

J. A. Cole: Page 376

J. A. Cole, a prominent businessman of Fresno was born in Switzerland County, Indiana, in 1842. In 1859 he moved with his parents to Kentucky, remaining on the farm with his father until 1869. His education was obtained in the common schools of Indiana and at Beach College, Kentucky, he being a graduate of that institution.

In 1869 Mr. Cole left his Kentucky home and went to Kansas, taking up a Government claim in Riley County. Owing to the dry seasons, his venture was a losing one, and in 1872 he emigrated to California, landing on Big Dry Creek, Fresno County. Having lost what means he had in Kansas, he arrived in this State with no capital save a willing hand and a determination to succeed. For some time he worked at mining and was variously employed, working by the day. As the years passed by he saved his earnings, and in 1879 purchased 640 acres of land, located ten miles northeast of Fresno, upon which he carried on wheat-farming, also renting additional land and harvesting from 3,000 to 10,000 sacks per year. Mr. Cole has since added to his first purchase and his ranch now numbers 1, 120 acres. He still continues to rent some land, and sows from 1,000 to 1,5000 acres of wheat per year. In the fall and winter of 1884 and 1885 he was five months in plowing, and put out a crop of 1,500 acres. He and his nephew brought the first header and thresher to this valley in 1883, the machine requiring twenty-four horses to run it. During the following year it was in operation eighty-four consecutive days and cut nearly 3,000 acres of wheat. This ranch is now under the direct management of Mr. Cole's eldest son.

In 1886 the subject of our sketch purchased a residence on Blackstone avenue, Fresno, where he has since made his home. At that time he engaged in the real-estate business under the firm name of Vincent, Chittenden & Cole, which, in the spring of 1890, consolidated with Sharp & Gordon, and the firm now carry on an extensive business.

Mr. Cole has been married three times, twice into the Darnold family of Kentucky, each wife leaving one child. In 1882 he was married in Fresno to Miss Sara Russell, a native of Missouri. This union has been blessed with four children.

Andrew Jackson Davis: Page 724

Andrew Jackson Davis, one of the well-known early settlers of Farmersville, Tulare County, California, was born in Tennessee, November 23, 1833. He left home in 1854 and arrived at Sacramento, this State, in the spring of the following year. He engaged in mining at Hangtown, on the Frazier river, for three years was moderately successful, saved his money and came to Tulare County in 1858. Here he took up a Government ranch near Farmersville, established his home on it and at once began to make improvements. He married Sarah Ann Davis, a native of Illinois, a relative of his, however. They took up their abode on the farm and here reared their family. To them were born seven children, four sons and three daughters, namely: Alfred Ambrose, Fitzhugh, Eva, Irene, Elizabeth, Clemens and Porter. Fitzhugh died in early manhood, Eva, at the age of seven years, and Irene at five. The mother passed away in August, 1880.

Alfred Ambrose, the oldest of the family, was born, reared and educated in Tulare County. In 1888 he married Alice R. Johnson, a native of his own County. One son has been born to them, whom they have named Ira. The subject of our sketch resides with them, and father and son are carrying on general farming. The father owns 160 acres of choice land, located a half mile south of Farmersville. In politics both are Democrats. The senior Mr. Davis has passed through many thrilling scenes during his experience in California, especially in the early mining days. Time has dealt gently with him, and he is still hale and well preserved.

Alexander P. Davis: Page 567

Alexander P. Davis, a pioneer, was born in Pennsylvania, November 12, 1826. His paternal ancestors originated in Wales, his grandfather Davis having been born there. George Davis, his father, was a native of Pennsylvania and a soldier in the war of 1812. His mother, nee Rebecca Porter, was born in Virginia, her father being a native of the Old Dominion and her mother of Ireland. To George Davis and his wife nine children were born, Alexander P. being the fifth and one of the four now living.

Until he reached his twentieth year his life was spent in his native State--reared on a farm and educated in the public schools. He then went to Virginia, and for nine years was engaged in cultivating lands belonging to his aunt. In 1856 he came to California, located in Placer County and mined for seven years, meeting with moderate success. He has never since lost his interest in mining, and is still to some extent engaged in developing mines; is the discovered of one in Fresno County. He has a quartz-mill, and a road is now being improved from it to the mine, which will soon be in active operation. He and his partners have assays of the ore, ranging from to per ton. They have named their mines, Oraphana, Monitor, Peeler and Dipper. Mr. Davis has also been in the timber business in Tulare, Calaveras and Santa Cruz counties, having followed that business thirteen years. For twelve years he did an ice business in Fresno and Tulare counties. He came to his present location in Tulare County in 1888, purchased 329 acres of land, built a comfortable home and planted trees and vines. One hundred and twenty acres are devoted to Muscat grapes, and both vines and trees are in a flourishing condition. He also has eighty acres of land on the West side, and is raising wheat and some stock.

In 1880 Mr. Davis returned East and married Dranna L. Baker, a lady he had known when they were both young. They now reside at their pleasant home on the ranch, surrounded by all that goes to make life happy in this sunny clime.

Before the war he entered the service as Second Lieutenant in the One Hundred and Forty-fourth Virginia Artillery Company, being promoted to Captain of the company. He is in politics a staunch Republican, and is one of Tulare County's most honorable and reliable citizens.

Samuel James Hinds: Page 607

As one of the prominent attorneys of Fresno, this gentleman is entitled to consideration in the history of Central California.

Mr. Hinds was born in Barren County, Kentucky, November 22, 1850. In 1860 his father and family crossed the plains with ox teams, and established their home in California. Samuel J. attended Santa Clara College two years and a half, after which he studied law three years with Byers & Elliott of Stockton. In this office he met many celebrated attorneys, known throughout the State. Following his valuable experience with this distinguished law firm, Mr. Hinds went East and entered the law school at Albany, New York, graduating at that institution in 1873.

Returning to California, he entered the law office of D. M. Delmas, of San Jose, and remained with him one year, and afterward opened an office for himself and practiced there six years. During this period Mr. Hinds was engaged in much important litigation. He was attorney for the Farmers' National Gold Bank and also for the same institution when it reorganized as the first National Bank of San Jose. In 1882 he came to Fresno and associated himself with judge Campbell, with whom he practiced several years. He is now alone in his professional work. He has an extensive practice in both civil and criminal law, being particularly successful in the latter, as also remarkably successful in the timberland litigation in the circuit courts of the United States.

Personally Mr. Hinds has many pleasing traits of character. His candor and integrity inspire the confidence of all with whom he is associated. As a lawyer he excels in his clear conceptions of a cause, and such a logical presentation of the facts as carries conviction with his argument in the minds of the jury and court.

Mr. Hinds was married November 11, 1873, the day of his graduation at the Albany Law School, to Miss Jennie Wing, of Dutchess County, New York. They are the parents of three bright children.

W. D. Nelson: Page 569

W. D. Nelson was born in Lee County, Iowa, in 1847. His father, John M. Nelson, an extensive farmer and stock-raiser, crossed the plains to California in 1850, and two years later returned to Iowa with ,000--the results of his labors in the mining districts of this State. His death occurred in 1857.

In 1862, W. d. Nelson, with his mother and her family, moved to California and settled at Linden, San Joaquin County. At the age of nineteen he began to work for himself and engaged in teaming from Shingle Springs to Virginia City, which he followed about two years, and then turned his attention to wheat farming near Stockton. In the latter occupation he did an extensive business, sowing from 1,000 to 2,000 acres in wheat. Being with the machine during the threshing season, he learned engineering, and in 1874 accepted the position of engineer at the Paradise flourmill in Stanislaus County. In 1876 he became interested in a mining claim near Coulterville. The venture, however, was a losing one, and he abandoned his interest in it and returned to agricultural pursuits, which he followed until 1882. His knowledge of heavy farm machinery gained for him a position with the Northwestern Manufacturing Car Company, and later with Hawley Brothers, of San Francisco, as traveling salesman through California.

In 1886 Mr. Nelson settled at Traver, as a member of the firm of Kitchner & Co., in the business of warehouse, agricultural implements, real estate and insurance, and in 1888 he organized the Traver Warehouse & Business Association, where he remained until he came to Fresno in 1889. He here accepted a position with the Fresno Agricultural Implement Works, as solicitor and collector, remaining with them until September 1890, when he became manager of the Fresno branch store of Truman, Hooker & Co., of San Francisco, in the handling of general hardware, agricultural implements and road and farm wagons.

Mr. Nelson was married at Stockton in 1871, to Miss Mary E. Garrison. They are the parents of three children: Eva, William Garrison and Albert Leroy.

The following are the fraternities with which Mr. Nelson is connected: Traver Lodge, No. 292, F. & A. M.; of chapter No. 44, R. A. M., of Visalia; Mt. Whitney Lodge, I. O. O. F.; and the A. O. U. W., of Traver.

Francis Marion Cook: Page 663

Francis Marion Cook was born in Iowa, November 10, 1852, son of James Montgomery and Elizabeth (Killebrew) Cook, the former a native of Ohio and the latter of Illinois, both being the descendants of early American settlers. Francis M. is the second eldest of their six children, five of whom are living. He was reared in Illinois and attended the public schools until he was sixteen years of age, when, in 1868, the family came to California and settled in Solano County.

Mr. Cook first began business for himself in Colusa County. He established a meat market, which he conducted on year, and after that went to Tehama County and purchased 640 acres of land on Cottonwood creek, twenty-two miles above Red Bluff, where he was engaged in the farming and stock business six years. In 1885 he disposed of his property there and located in Fresno County. He bought sixty acres of land, at a cost of per acre, and on it planted a vineyard, build a residence and otherwise improved the property, and, after living on it six years, sold it for per acre. He then came to Orosi, purchased sixty acres, built a good house, planted the most of his land to raisin grapes, and every thing about the premises indicates thrift and prosperity.

Mr. Cook was married, in 1874, to Elizabeth Cartwright, and by her has two sons, Francis Elmer and James Earnest, both natives of Colusa County. They lost one child, Edward, at the age of ten years.

Mr. Cook is a Good Tamplar and a member of the Farmers' Alliance. While in Tehama County he held the office of Justice of the Peace.

B. C. Mickle: Page 662

B. C. Mickle was born in Dixon County, Tennessee, in 1859, the descendant of Scotch ancestry, who came from the vicinity of Edinburgh to this country. His father, John G. Mickle, a prominent physician of Tennessee and a practitioner for forty years, retired in 1884, came to California, and is now a resident of Hanford.

B. C. Mickle received his literary education at Bethel College, McKenzie, Tennessee, and graduated with the degree of Ph. B. He then attended the law school at Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tennessee, and received the degree of LL.D. in June, 1884. He entered upon a professional career in Fulton, Kentucky, but in the fall of 1885 came to California and settled at Hanford, Tulare County [Now Kings County], where his brother Porter Mickle, then resided. He at once engaged in the practice of law, in which he has met with eminent success. February 12, 1891, he was appointed Deputy District Attorney under Maurice E. Power, which throws him into criminal law, although his specialty is civil law and probate business.

October 11, 1890, Mr. Mickle was united in marriage at Centreville, to Miss Mary E. Lowrie, a native of California and of Scotch descent. They reside in their comfortable residence on Eighth Street. In connection with S. J. White, Mr. Mickle owns a valuable eighty-acre ranch near Armona, which is devoted to fruit and vines.

Thomas Lavers: Page 662

Thomas Lavers, one of the substantial citizens of Lynn's valley, came to California in 1852 and to Kern County in 1859. His native home is Nova Scotia, and his father's name was James Lavers, who was a farmer by occupation. Upon arriving in California Mr. Lavers first spent one month in San Francisco, and then engaged in farming in the Santa Clara valley. He remained there, however, but a short time, and took up his residence in Lynn's valley in the early part of the 1860, where he has since resided and successfully pursued farming and stock raising.

He married in Visalia, in 1875, Miss Mary Gurnette, and they have four bright children, Etta, Lewis, Winifred and Lawrence. Mr. Lavers owns 160 acres of good land in Lynn's valley, where he ranges 150 head of cattle and about thirty horses. He is a man of unpretentious and quiet manners, strictly reliable, and highly esteemed.

William O. Clough: Page 642

William O. Clough, a fruit-raiser near Visalia, was born in Erie County, New York, November 23, 1851. He attended the common schools in his boyhood days and subsequently took a course at Porter's College. His father moved to Illinois in 1856, where he engaged in farming. William started out in life for himself at the age of eighteen. In 1875 he came to California, and for two years was engaged as clerk and driver for a grocery store in Visalia. In 1878 he took up a claim of 160 acres of land in the foothills east of Visalia, on the south fork of the Kaweah river, which he has put under a good state of cultivation, and at present is engaged extensively in fruit raising. Mr. Clough has mined considerably, and at Mineral King he sunk a shaft fifty feet deep, where he found gold, silver and lead. At Lady Emma he sunk a shaft twenty-two feet deep, and found porphyry and lime.

On the south fork of the Kaweah river he discovered a cave, which has already attracted the attention of geologists. The cave was discovered by him in July, 1887, and very properly bears his name. It is 1,000 feet deep, under Baldy mountain, a peak in the Sierra Nevada's. The width varies from five to seventy-five feet, and the height from ten to twenty-five feet. The formation is lime, six varieties of marble, gypsum, slate, gold, tin, square iron pyrites and some quartz. the sparkling stalactites and stalagmites are numbered by the millions, and are in size from an inch to twenty-give feet in diameter. All colors are represented: some are transparent, some translucent, and some opaque. A person who is musically inclined may enter the cave with a small hammer, and by striking the stalactites and stalagmites of different lengths and sizes, can play any tune he pleases, and the perfection and harmony of the sounds is equal to the best-tuned piano. The cave has already been visited by hundreds of people, and when a good road is made to it, will surely be visited by many more.

Mr. Clough is yet a single man. He is a Republican in politics, and although not a member of any church denomination, he holds religious services for the scattered families residing in the foothills.

Paige, Root and Chittenden: Page 734

After a long experience and acquaintance with Mr. E. J. Root, Mr. L. S. Chittenden came with him to Hanford in the fall of 1889. They selected a valuable tract of 960 acres of land belonging to timothy Paige, of San Francisco, and the firm of Paige, Root & Chittenden was established and the Lucerne Vineyard organized. The land was then a wheat field. Preparations were at once commenced and on February 1, 1890, the planting of vines began, with a large force of men, and inside of two months 930 acres were set to raisin grape-vines. Thus was established the largest raisin vineyard in the world. By wise and careful management ninety five per cent of the vines lived, an unusual stand for so large an acreage. Twenty acres are in alfalfa for pasture, and ten acres represent the area for buildings. About fifty head of horses and mules are employed in the vineyard and about fifty men are steadily engaged outside of packing season, when many hundreds are employed. They have an improved drying house, 93 x 130 feet, with a capacity of sixty tons of fruit, through which steam is distributed by a system of pipes and hot air forced by a steam hot blast apparatus. Their packing house is 80 x 100 feet, weight room 36 x 40 feet, steaming room 40 x 72 feet, with steam steamer and box factory, 40 x0 60 feet. Grapes and raisins are distributed from house to house by a track and cable system, power being gained from a seventy-five horse-power Corliss engine, which will do the steam work of the establishment.

The boarding and lodging house for women is a handsome two-story structure, 26 x 76 feet, very complete in appointments. A similar house has been erected for men, cottages for families and numerous buildings to accommodate the animals and implements of the ranch. The establishment embraces thirty-eight buildings and is the largest and most complete raisin vineyard in the known world. Messrs. Root and Chittenden reside on the vineyard in their tasty cottages, which are handsomely fitted up. In their different departments they superintend and manage this vast enterprise, and with their superior knowledge of the business they are the right men in the right place.

Dr. J. D. Wagner: Page 542

It is our pleasure, in this brief sketch, to record a few of the facts and incidents in the life of one of the pioneer physicians of Selma.

Dr. Wagner is a native of Savannah, Tennessee, born in 1844. His parentage is decidedly foreign, the German, the Scot and the Dane being represented in his ancestry. At the age of sixteen he entered the Confederate army, and fought for the Southern cause all through that memorable conflict. After the war was over, he took up the study of medicine, attended the medical school at Nashville, Tennessee, where he graduated in March, 1870. After receiving his diploma, he at once commenced the practice of medicine at his old home in Savannah, and there passed a successful professional career of thirteen years. In 1869 he married Miss Elizabeth Gray, a native of Highman County, that State. Some years later her health failed, and, as her symptoms were that of consumption, it was deemed wise to seek an entire change of climate.

Thus it was that, in 1878, the Doctor moved to California. He at once came to Fresno County and bought some land near Fowler, living there for four years. In 1882 he removed to Selma, where he has since resided. He is now actively engaged in the practice of medicine, is highly esteemed by his professional brethren, and has the confidence of all who know him.

Dr. Wagner is much interested in the growth and development of this section of California. He has invested in real estate, and owns valuable property in and around Selma. He has a twenty-acre vineyard in full bearing and 2000 acres of improved land adjacent to the town. His residence is located on a valuable one-acre lot, and is within a stone's throw of the principal commercial buildings in Selma.

The balmy climate of California, although perhaps it prolonged Mrs. Wagner's life, did not restore her health, and she died of consumption in 1886, leaving a family of five children.

A gentleman of intelligence, pleasant and affable manners, a skillful and popular physician, Dr. Wagner is a power for good in the community where he lives.

B. R. Clow: Page 415

B. R. Clow, M.D., resident physician of the town of Grangeville, was born in Lyons, Wayne County, New York, October 13, 1854. His preliminary education was received at the public schools and the academy of his native town. At the age of eighteen years he went to Memphis, Missouri, and began reading medicine under the preceptorship of Dr. P. E. Minkler, a Candadian physician of considerable prominence, with whom he began his practice. He subsequently located at Marcella, Arkansas, where he was married in 1880, to Miss Mary L. Hill, of Nashville, Tennessee. In 1881 Dr. Clow took one course at the Eclectic Medical Institute at Cincinnati, Ohio, the oldest eclectic college in this country, chartered in 1845, and for thirty years under the presidency of Prof. J. M. Scudder. After completing his course Dr. Clow pursued his practice until 1883, when he returned for a second course, after which he resumed his practice at Moody, McLennan County, Texas. In 1884 he attended clinics at the Bellevue Hospital College in New York City. Returning to Moody he continued his practice until the fall of 1888, when he took a third course at Cincinnati and graduated. In June 1889 he moved his family to Grangeville and has since followed a general practice in that locality and the surrounding country. Besides his town property the Doctor owns forty acres adjoining the Lucerne Vineyard, which is fully planted in vines and trees.

Mr. and Mrs. Clow have three children, Mattie B., Abby L., and Scudder B. The Doctor is a member of the Masonic Order of Hanford and of the Farmer's Alliance.

Frank Dusy: Page 634

A prominent pioneer of California, and one of the old-time sheep owners in Fresno County, forms the subject of this biography.

Mr. Dusy is the son of Anthony Dusy, a native of Canada, and was born December 17, 1837, one in a family of eight children. At the age of eleven years he was thrown upon his own resources. He went to New Hampshire and started out to earn his own living as a farmer's boy, obtaining what little education he could while he worked on the farm. In 1852 he went to Maine, and on Fox Island, opposite Rockland, he was employed in the Stone-cutting business, learning the trade and doing well in that occupation for a period of three or four years.

In the fall of 1858 our subject started for the Pacific coast, making the trip via the Isthmus of Panama. After landing in San Francisco he very soon started for the mines, and for three or four years was engaged in Tuolumne and Stanislaus counties, hunting for gold. He met with very good success in this field, but subsequently turned his attention to other pursuits, and at various times was in Mariposa and Merced counties engaged as a produce dealer, photographer, etc. In 1869 He embarked in the sheep business in Fresno County, in which occupation he was engaged for many years, and in which he was eminently successful. Mr. Dusy's settlement in Fresno County as a sheep rancher, was not, however, his first experience in this locality. In 1863, during the war, he enlisted in Company H., Third California Volunteer Regiment, and was sent at once on detached duty. The company was ordered to Fresno and Merced counties, and for a year and a half he was in the service, doing valiant work and passing through many exciting experiences.

In his sheep operations Mr. Dusy first settled between Big and Little Dry creeks, and later removed to the vicinity in which he now resides, three miles from the town of Selma. This country was then a vast desolate plain. No inhabitants save Mr. Dusy arid his herders were to be found between the site of the now thriving city of' Fresno and the King's river, and it was many years before any system of irrigation was put in operation, and cultivation and development were begun. He moved to his present ranch, four miles north of Selma, six years ago. His land interests are quite extensive. Besides the 160 acre where he lives, he owns a half section of land half a mile distant, 520 acres in the mountains, and various other holdings smaller in extent. A raisin vineyard of 100 acres on his home ranch is a fine specimen of the industry in this County.

Another important industry in which Mr. Dusy is extensively engaged is the manufacture of pressed brick, having yards in operation in Reedley and Kingsburg, from which he derives a good profit. He is one of the directors of the Fowler Switch Canal Company, was its president and superintendent.

Mr. Dusy was happily married in 1878 to Miss Catherine Ross, a native of Nova Scotia, by whom he has had five children. The family residence, just completed, is one of the largest and most elaborate in the County. It is built of brick, and in design is most attractive. The interior appointments are in excellent taste, and need only to be seen to be admired. Rising several feet above the roof, and at a height of seventy-five feet from the ground, is the tower, from which may be had a magnificent view of the surrounding country. This view is well worth the trip from the adjoining towns, should the tourist be so fortunate to enjoy the hospitality of Mr. Dusy.

Jacob H. Trauger: Page 633

Jacob H. Trauger, Recorder of the Mineral King Mining District was born in Wayne County, Ohio, December, 2, 1833, the son of John and Mary (Fisher) Target, natives of Pennsylvania. Jacob, their only child, received a common-school education, and started to work for himself at the age of fifteen. At the age of twenty-one he inherited several thousand dollars, and went into the mercantile business and farming in Wayne County, Ohio. He continued there until 1857, when he became interested in the Frazer river excitement in British Columbia. He went to San Francisco by steamer, but changed his original plans and went to El Dorado County, and followed mining there and in Placer County until 1862, when he went To Idaho. At Walla Walla he found that matters were overdrawn, and he went to Griffin's Gulch. His next move was to Burnt river, then to Mormon Basin, then to Willow creek, and then to Snake river. In 1864 Mr. Trauger went to British Columbia, and from there to Idaho and Montana.

In 1871 he returned to Ohio and married Miss Mary Holben, a native of Stark County, Ohio, June 21, 1874. After their marriage they came to California, where he bought twenty acres of land in San Jose for per acre, but in a short time sold it for per acre, and went to San Francisco, where he made some investments which broke him. He then went to Inyo County, and from there in 1876 to Tulare County. Since then he has mined some, and is now experimenting with all kinds of fruit on his ranch far up on the side of the rugged mountains. Here with the wife of his youth he lives, seven miles from the nearest neighbor. Deer and bear are plentiful, and Mr. Trauger could relate enough interesting reminiscences, breadth escapes, hardships endured and obstacles overcome to fill a volume the size of this work.

Arthur W. Mathewson: Page 633

Arthur W. MATHEWSON has been a resident of California since 1856 and is well known as an early settler of Tulare County.

Mr. Mathewson was born in Wheelock, Caledonia County, Vermont, November 14, 1834. His father, Charles Mathewson, was a native of Rhode Island and the descendant of English ancestors who settled ill that State at an early day. He married Sara Williams, also a native of Rhode Island and a descendant in direct line of Roger Williams. She was also a relative of Governor Sprague, of Rhode Island, and her family were largely interested in the manufacture of cotton in that State.

Mr. Mathewson was the sixth of their ten children, of whom only four are now living, He was reared on his father’s farm and received his education in the public schools and in the academy at Linden, Vermont. From the time he was sixteen years of age he has been self-supporting. He worked in a tannery two years, returned to the old farm and remained three years, and then came to California. He mined two years before coming to Tulare County, and one year after he came here, meeting with reasonable success. This sojourn in Tulare County was in 1858. He then went to San Jose, Santa Clara County, bought a farm and remained on it until 1861, and after he had it well improved discovered that it was a Spanish grant and lost it all. Returning to Tulare County in that year, he engaged in the sheep business, his herds increasing until he kept as high as 4,000 sheep. From time to time he purchased land in different places, has disposed of several pieces of property and is now the owner of 500 acres. He is doing a general farming business, raising grain, cattle, sheep and hogs, and is also interested in fruit culture.

Mr. Mathewson was married in 1866, to Miss Lucinda Tinkham, who was born in Iowa, the daughter of Nathaniel Tinkham, a native of Vermont. Eight children have been born to them, two of whom died in infancy. Six are living, three sons and three daughters, all in California, single and residing with their parents. Their names are as follows: Pearly, Levi, Edith May, Early, James A. and Maud.

In politics Mr. Mathewson is a Republican. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. and of the Farmers' Alliance. For the past seven years he has been president of the People's Consolidated Ditch Company, and has done much to promote irrigation in this County.

Ezekiel Ewing Calhoun: Page 632

Ezekiel Ewing Calhoun, the son of Patrick Calhoun, and a second cousin of John C. Calhoun, was born in Kentucky, at the junction of the Cumberland and Ohio rivers, in the year 1825.

Patrick Calhoun settled in that State in the year 1785. He married a daughter of General Pickens of Revolutionary fame, and by her had a family of thirteen children, seven sons and six daughters. Mr. Calhoun was a contractor by occupation and carried on an enormous river business, being considered a rich man in his time.

Ezekiel Ewing Calhoun, the subject of this sketch, passed his childhood and youth in the western part of Kentucky. He was educated in Louisville, graduating in the law department of the university there in 1850. He also attended a full course of medical lectures in that institution. Among his medical preceptors may be mentioned Doctors Gross, Caldwell, Miller, Drake and other distinguished physicians and surgeons of our day.

After practicing law at his old home one year, he crossed the plains to California, arriving in San Bernardino County after a journey of six months. he soon leased of Governor Pico the famous Santa Margarita ranch, located in the northern part of San Diego County, and for three years successfully conducted that large estate.

In 1854 Mr. Calhoun came to the San Joaquin valley, camping in various parts of this then barren land. He is distinctly a pioneer in this locality, as subsequent events clearly show. Moving to Visalia in 1855, he had much to do with the shaping of events in the early history of that town. He was made County Clerk of Tulare County in 1855, and for three years held the office of County Judge. In 1866 Kern County was organized and the Judge was its first District Attorney. The offices of County Surveyor, County Auditor and School Superintendent, he also held at various times.

For a short period prior to 1884 he resided with his family in Santa Clara County, and in that year he moved to Fresno, living there until 1887, when he came to Selina, his present residence. The Judge, though somewhat infirm, is still in the possession of his faculties and is regarded an excellent legal authority in the community. Well informed, thoroughly conversant with every detail of the early settlement and occupation of this valley, a fluent speaker, his society is most enjoyable, arid those fortunate enough to be included among his friends will not soon forget the many interesting anecdotes arid reminiscences he relates.

Judge Calhoun was married October 17, 1861, to Miss Laura Davis, a native of the South, by whom he has had several children, all living. Their family is an exceptionally bright and gifted one. The three elder daughters are graduates of the State Normal School at San Jose. Eleanor H., the oldest, is now a resident of Paris, where she has lived four years. Possessing marked dramatic ability, she has attained a very high degree of success on the French stage, and also in London, where she first studied for a few years. Jessie, another gifted daughter, has for some time been Professor of Elocution at the University of the Pacific, San Jose, recently resigning that position to fill a wider field of labor.

Herbert Z. Austin: Page 324

Herbert Z. Austin, the popular young attorney who forms the subject of this sketch, is a native of New York State, born in St. Lawrence County, January 15, 1864. He was educated at home, and, selecting the law for his profession, entered the Law School at Albany, New York,-the law department of Union College of Schenectady,-perhaps better known as the Albany Law School. This institution is celebrated throughout the country as one of the best preparatory law schools in the land. During the period he was in attendance there he also studied in the law office of Louis Hasbrouck, Esq., of Ogdensburg. After his graduation, in 1888, he came West and settled in Fresno, entering the office of Judge W. D. Grady, with whom he is now associated in practice, under the firm name of Grady & Austin.

Mr. Austin was the Republican candidate for District Attorney of Fresno County in 1890, but was defeated along with the rest of the ticket.

He is unmarried.

Tipton Lindsey: Page 323-324

Tipton Lindsey, a worthy member of the bar of Tulare County, California, is one of the men who came to this State in 1849, and helped to lay the foundation for this great commonwealth.

Mr. Lindsey is a native of Indiana, born in Delphi, Carroll County, May 21, 1829. His father, John Lindsey. a native of Kentucky, removed to Indiana in 1810, at the age of nineteen years; took part with Harrison in the war of 1812, and had the honor of being a member of the first Legislature of Indiana, being elected Speaker of that body. In 1829 he received the appointment from the Government as miller and gunsmith for the Pottawatamie nation, and served in that capacity seven years. He was living in the heart of the Indian country at the time of the Black Hawk war. He married Elizabeth Shields, a native of Tennessee, and of the seven sons born to them the subject of this sketch was the sixth, and is now the only survivor. Until Tipton was fifteen years old they lived where there were no school facilities. At that time a friend bought his time from the father for $100, amid it was intended that he should work for that gentleman until he earned the money. That arrangement, however, was not carried out, and when Mr. Lindsey came to California he returned the money to his friend. Young Lindsey had obtained a little schooling in South Bend, Indiana, and read law under Hon. Thomas S. Staufield. He had confined himself so closely to study and writing that his health had become impaired. The California gold excitement broke out, and it was thought that it would benefit him to cross the plains, which he did, driving an ox team and walking the entire distance from Platte City, Missouri, to "Hangtown," California. arriving there on the 5th of September, 1849. Mr. Lindsey says it was a kill or cure medicine, but it helped to cure him.

Arrived in the Golden State he mined for a year with moderate success, after which he settled in Santa Clara County, and for ten years gave his attention to agricultural pursuits. In 1860 he purchased cattle and brought them to Tulare County, which was then a fine stock range, unexcelled by any in the world. In this enterprise he was successful until 1864, when the great drought caused most of his cattle to die. Soon after this he received the appointment from Andrew Johnson of Receiver of the United States Land Office, and filled that position four years. At the expiration of that time he began the practice of law, and in1873 was elected on am independent ticket to the State Senate, where he helped to enact the no-fence law of the State. After this he was again appointed Receiver of the Land Office, served eight years and again took up the practice of law, which he has since continued.

Twenty-five years ago Mr. Lindsey purchased land in Visalia, and built a home in which he has since resided. He has also invested in lands, and with his son is engaged in fruit-culture.

Mr. Lindsey was married in this State to Miss Eliza Fine, a native of Missouri, but who was reared in California. They have had three children, two of whom are living,-Charles T. and Kate, wife of M. P. Frazer. He is a Mason, an Odd Fellow and an A. O. U. W., and in his political views is a liberal Republican. Few citizens of the community have seen more of the wild West than he.

J. S. Bedford: Page 324

J. S. Bedford, County Surveyor of Fresno County, California, was born in Cherokee County, Georgia, in 1848. His parents moved to Marshall County, Alabama, in 1859, where the father carried on farming, and where young Bedford received his education. He attended the high school at Jacksonville, Alabama, and graduated in 1865. Then he gave attention to the study of surveying, and in 1868 began work in Nebraska on the Missouri & Pacific railroad and the M. K.. & T, railroad, and was engaged one year in locating and laying out these roads. He then worked on the Kansas City & Texas railroad about eighteen months, after which he located in Palo Pinto, Texas, as surveyor and engineer of the Palo Pinto Land District, where he remained four years. He went to Cisco, and was also invested in stock and mercantile business.

Mr. Bedford came to Fresno in 1885, and was engaged in fruit culture about two years, investing in city and ranch property. In the fall of 1888 he was elected County Surveyor, and was re-elected in 1890. His work has been chiefly laying out County roads and locating sections and ranch boundaries.

Mr. Bedford was married in Texas, in 1875, to Miss Mary F. Holcomb, a native of Georgia. They have five children, all living at home. Our subject is a member of the F. & A. M. and K. of P. at Cisco, Texas.

Clement T. Buckman: Page 314

Clement T. Buckman, Auditor of Tulare County, California, is a son of Clement E. and Survilla (Shanks) Buckman, natives of Kentucky. His mother was descended from Maryland ancestors. He was born in Kansas, March 31, 1859, while his parents were en route to California. They did however, come direct to this State but remained a few years in Arizona, reaching California in 1864.

Mr. Buckman was educated in the Visalia Normal School. For a number of years he was engaged in farming and stock-raising on a ranch of 400 acres purchased by his father. He now owns a ranch of 160 acres which be rents. He acted as Deputy Assessor of the County for six years, and in 1888 was elected County Auditor, being re-elected for a second term which he is now serving. His position is one of importance, as he has the oversight of all the receipts and disbursements of the County. Sixteen years ago Mr. Buckman had the misfortune to lose his right arm, the result of an accident with his gun while he was crossing a fence; and he has learned to wield his pun in a swift and graceful manner with his left hand.

He was married September 13, 1882, to Miss Irene Combs, a native of Missouri and daughter of the late J. C. Combs. They are the parents of three children: Ethel F., Clement T., Jr., and Chester Raymond.

Mr. Buckman was born a Democrat, and has taken a deep interest in local politics. He is a member of the A. O. U. W., and by all who know him he is regarded as a most reliable citizen.

Hon. Wellington Canfield: Page 553-554

Hon. Wellington Canfield -- There are few men in Kern County whose name is more familiar to the people at large than that of Wellington Canfield. He is truly one of the Argonauts of California, having come to the State in 1850.

He was born in the town of Alexander, Genesee County, New York, January 3, 1827. His parents were Augustin and Electa (Gillett) Canfield, natives of Roxbury, Litchfield County Connecticut. He spent his boyhood in his native County, receiving a thorough education in that popular and well-known school, the Genesee and Wyoming Seminary. At twenty-three years of age his attention was attracted to the new El Dorado by the reported discovery of gold, and with two companions, Charles G. and Henry C. Attics, came to California, by way of the Isthmus, arriving at San Francisco in the month of August. He proceeded to the mines on the Merced river, and thence to Calaveras County. In 1851 he formed a partnership with F. A. Tracey, who was for many years a prominent actor in the business history of Bakersfield and Kern County, and they engaged in the stock business in Tulare County. In 1857 they continued the business at Four Creeks, and in 1859 in Fresno County. In 1863 they transferred their base of operations to Kern County, and pastured large bands of cattle on the then open range. In 1872 they commenced the purchase of lands, and they have from time to time added to their estate until they now own about 3,400 acres, 1,200 of which lie on the north side of Kern river. Their well-known ranch of 2,200 acres lies in the Canfield precinct, and it has for years been under the personal supervision of Mr. Canfield, upon which he also conducts all extensive dairy, milking about 300 cows; the milk is manufactured into cheese. This dairy is fitted out with modern appliances; and the product, owing to its excellent quality, finds a ready market. An abundance of artesian water from a well 480 feet deep supplies the dairy and stock. Another feature which has recently been added to this firm, is a newly set vineyard of fifty acres of Muscat raisin grapes, which is in a most thrifty condition.

November 12, 1873, Mr. Canfield married Miss Julietta Cooley, at Attica, Wyoming in(, County, New York, her native home. Mrs. Canfield's parents were George and Nancy (Hunter) Cooley. Her father was a native of Granville, Massachusetts, and her mother was born at Ballston Spa, Saratoga County, New York. Mr. Cooley was by occupation a farmer, was a pioneer in western New York, and was a Democrat in politics, wielding an influence in the councils of his party. In 1844 he was a Presidential elector, and in 1848 a candidate for Congress, running far ahead of his ticket, although failing of election. Mrs. Canfield was educated at Mt. Holyoke Seminary in Massachusetts, and graduated at that well-known institution while it was under the charge of the celebrated Mary Lyon. She taught school in western New York for several years, holding a State certificate. She is a lady of fine domestic tastes, great energy and executive ability, and the evidence of these accomplishments are noticeable on every hand in and about the Canfield home.

Mr. Canfield's life has been a singularly industrious and busy one. Awake to the needs and growing demands of a progressive country, he has acted promptly in, and contributed liberally to, all movements tending to the advancement of the community. In his opinions he is conservative, and thoroughly honest and frank in expressing them. He was chosen to represent Kern County in the State Legislature of 1873-'74, and his services were rendered with true fidelity to the highest welfare of his constituency. As a result of his many sterling qualities, he is held in the highest estimation by all who have known him. As one mark of the esteem, the voting precinct, as likewise the school district, in which he has for so many years lived, have been named in his honor. He is a quiet and unostentatious man in his life, and strictly temperate in his habits. He is a truly representative Californian, and his wife an estimable lady; and upon the urgent suggestion of their many friends the publishers have graced this work with their portraits.

A. P. Cromley: Page 326-327

A. P. Cromley, Tulare, California, is a rancher and one of the pioneers of this State.

He was born in Jefferson County, Pennsylvania, November 13, 1829, but his earliest recollections are of Ohio. His father, accompanied by his family, removed to Hancock County, Ohio, in 1831, and died there at the advanced age of ninety-five years. A. P. Cromley received his education in his native State and remained at home until 1849, when, with the vast emigration of that year, he, too, pushed westward across the plains, landing at Placerville in the fall of that year. For five years he was engaged in mining, with average success, and in 1854 turned his attention to the stock business near Sacramento. In 1855 he moved to King's river, where he bought 300 acres of land and raised stock and kept 1,000 head of hogs. He followed the stock business about fifteen years, changing from hogs to cattle and then to sheep. In 1870 he came to Tulare County and was among the first to settle in the valley. He took up 160 acres of land west of Tulare, upon which he still resides and upon which he has since been engaged in agricultural pursuits. He has traded some in land and has sold a portion of his home ranch, retaining ninety-seven acres of it. He annually rents and sows about 400 acres to grain and is still engaged in the stock business, keeping horses, cattle and hogs. A five-acre orchard of mixed fruits furnishes the supply for home use, and sixty acres of his land are devoted to alfalfa.

Mr. Cromley was first married on the King's river. Subsequent to the death of his first wife he was married again, at Visalia, February 18, 1866, to Miss Susan Dunn, a native of Arkansas. By the two unions he has had fifteen children, thirteen of whom are still living.

Mr. Cromley is a member of Four Creeks Lodge, No. 94, I. O. O. F. He has devoted all his life to agricultural pursuits and has never held or sought public office.

Samuel Dineley: Page 793

Samuel Dineley, one of the early settlers of Visalia, came to California in 1854. He is a native of England, born October 17, 1829. His father, Samuel Dineley, was an Englishman and a small farmer. He was a member of the Episcopal Church. He emigrated to America with his family, and settled in New York in 1840, residing there twelve years. Samuel was sent to school in New York City and began the barber's trade there in 1846. When they removed to New Orleans in 1852 he continued the barber business and secured a position as barber on the steamer Winfield Scott, running between New Orleans and Cincinnati. In 1853 he engaged to drive cattle to California, spending the winter at Salt Lake. He came to Volcano, Amador County, and mined a little, but was engaged principally in the barber's business. When he left there in 1855 he went to Fort Millerton and from there in 1858 to Visalia, which was then a town of about 200 inhabitants. He has resided in this place continuously for the past thirty-three years, and has seen all the phases of the settlement and growth of the town. He opened the first barber shop in Tulare County and carried on the business for thirty-one years in the same locality. He owns the lot on which the shop stood since 1858. In 1888 he opened a variety store in the same locality, and he is in that business now. He was married on April 3, 1861 to Charlotte E. KELLENBERGER, a native of Washington City, who was raised at Alton, Illinois. There have been born to them in Visalia eleven children, ten of whom are living. The oldest, Cora L. is the wife of A. O. MILLER; Kate is the wife of Hardey KELSEY; George is a surveyor; Florence and Josephine are both single; Fanny is the wife of William HANES; the other children are Lou, Clarence, Eve and Harry, all born in the same house, which the father built in 1861, and to which he has since made additions.

Mr. Dineley has always been a Republican in politics, and voted at the first election held in Fresno County. He is one of the respected early settlers of the County, who will be remembered long after he has passed away as an obliging, kind-hearted and loyal citizen.

William Josiah Ellis: Page 341-342

William Josiah Ellis was born in Washington County IL July 10, 1834, son of Rev. Dr. Thomas Oliver and Sarah (BABB) ELLIS, both native of MO. When his mother died, his father married again and by his second wife had fourteen children. In 1840 he moved to Mississippi, and in 1846 to Upshur County, Texas, where he engaged in the practice of medicine and the drug business. In 1852 he moved to Smith County, Texas, following the same business three years, and then moved to northwestern Texas. His death occurred in Fresno County, California in 1879.

William was educated in the common schools, finishing his literary pursuits at the high school at Tyler, Smith County, Texas. July 15, 1855, he married Miss Elizabeth Jane LEONARD, native of Pope County, Arkansas, and daughter of Samuel and Mary (ELROD) LEONARD. After his marriage Mr. Ellis farmed for some years, and was elected Justice of the Peace in township No. 2, parker County, Texas. April 7, 1857, he started for California in a large train by the southern route and in November arrived at El Monte, Los Angeles, County, from which point he went to San Bernardino County, and bought land near old San Bernardino. The next year he sold out and moved to Los Angeles County, where he raised one crop. He subsequently moved to San Luis Obispo County, where he lived four years; the railroad depot and residence portion of the city of San Luis Obispo are on land once owned by him. He sold out there in 1863, and went to lower California, and after a year's sojourn there moved to Tulare County. At first Mr. Ellis worked by the day and mined, and has seen some of the rough side of those early days. After his labors and adventures in the Kern River mining district, he came to the San Joaquin Valley, and engaged in farming in different places. In 1859 he was elected County Assessor and served two years; in 1879 he was elected County Superintendent of Schools, which office he held 3 years; he also taught school three years in primitive days. He also served for 4 years as Deputy Sheriff and County Jailer. Mr. Ellis owns at present a section of land in the foothills, devoted to stock raising.

The members of his household are: Thomas E. who died July 29, 1857 near Tucson AZ on the way to California; Mary E., now Mrs. John M. Stone, of Fresno County; Samuel N. who married Eliza J. Cortner; Sarah A., wife of William E. Russell, of Traver; Havilah J., wife of Morgan P. Elam, of Fresno County; Isabella J., wife of Frank Scoggins, of Fresno Co; John W., who died in January 1864, en route to Mexico; Georgia S., wife of Alvah R. Peugh, of Tulare Co.; and Rose Mary, now Mrs. John W. Miller of Stockton.

Mr. Ellis has for many years been an active and consistent Christian gentleman, and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. His walk and conversation have always been such as "becometh godliness," and he is a "living epistle, known and read of all men." As he and the companion of his youth walk together down the shady side of the hill of life, hand in hand, they can look back on a life well spent, their children well settled and useful members of society, and wait in patience with and with joy the "Master's call."

M. Farley: Page 328-329

M. Farley was born in Montgomery County, Alabama, in 1828. His father, J. C. Farley, a native of Massachusetts, was a merchant and farmer. He settled in Alabama in 1817, two years before Alabama became a State, and built the first house of sawed lumber in the city of Montgomery.

At the age of nine years young Farley went to Jamica Plain, Massachusetts, to attend the private school of Stephen Minot Weld, and remained five years. He then returned to his home, where, until 1851, he was engaged in teaching his younger brothers and studying and reading law with a Mr. Harris. In 1851 he entered a law school at Tuskagee, Alabama, taught by Judge William P. Chilton; 1853 found him in Jefferson, Texas, launching out upon a professional career. During one year of his residence in that place he edited the Jefferson Gazette. He met with flattering success in the practice of law, and resigned his position as editor to give his undivided attention to his profession.

In 1861 Mr. Farley enlisted in Texas, in the Trans-Mississippi Department, entering as a private and being promoted to Lieutenant in the Ordnance Department. He subsequently became the ordnance officer of the division, with brevet rank of Major. He served all through the war and never received a wound.

After peace was declared, he returned to his family in Texas and remained there until 1868, when he came to California. His first location in the Golden State was at Salinas, Monterey County. In 1874 he was elected District Attorney of Monterey County, and in 1876 Justice of the Peace and Police Judge of Salinas, and during his term of office wrote the city charter. In 1880 Mr. Farley removed to Downieville, Sierra County. From that place he was sent to the State Legislature for the general session of 1883 and the special session of 1884. After retiring from the Legislature he was seriously ill and came south for a milder climate settling in Fresno in 1887. In March of the following year he entered into a partnership with Judge Holmes, and is now engaged in a general law practice.

Mr. Farley was married in Jefferson, Texas, in 1857, to Miss Rosalie Reid, a native of Alabama. They are the parents of six children, all settled in California.

John Iribarne: Page325-326

John Iribarne is one of the leading citizens and business men of Tehachapi. Viewing the somewhat unusual circumstances of his birth, education and early business experience, the reader can in a large measure account for the unique position he occupies in the business and social circles of his County and home town, and in a region where success in any ordinary vocation in life means so much as it does here.

Mr. Iribarne was born in St. John, August 13, 1851. His father, Bernard Iribarne, was a native of France, born in 1826. By trade he was a stone mason, but upon arrival in California he promptly engaged in mining at Murphy's Camp in Calaveras County, where he met with more than average success and remained about fifteen years. Then he took up his residence in Los Banos, Merced County, and engaged in raising cattle and sheep. After continuing thus until 1880 he made a trip to his native country. In 1886 he returned to California and located in Los Angeles, and lived there in retirement until his death, in 1888, when he was sixty-four years of age. Mrs. Iribarne, his wife, died in Merced, Merced County, in 1872, fifty-six years of age. Her maiden name was Grace Oyamburn, and she was a member of one of the early French-Basque families of San Francisco.

Of the four children in the foregoing family the subject of this sketch is the only one living. He was sent to France in 1857, at six years of age, to be educated, and spent eight years there in one of the leading educational institutions. It was the fond ambition of his parents to prepare him for and see him enter the priesthood. It became evident, however, that his tastes inclined in the direction of business; and after finishing his preparatory studies and taking a business course, his school days were brought to a close, and he rejoined his parents in Calaveras County, this State. In 1876 his father joined him in the mercantile business at Merced. In 1884 he took up his residence in Sumner, Kern County, and there, as confidential man and bookkeeper for Ardizzi & Oleese, he remained two years. In 1886 he came to Tehachapi and entered the warehouse business, building the first warehouse at the Tehachapi railroad station, in 1889, which he still conducts, under the firm name of John Iribarne & Co., S. Hineman and L. Bachman being his partners. He is also associated with the firm of S. Hineman & Co. and his extended acquaintance and wide business experience is of course invaluable to the company.

March 21, 1878, at Milton, Calaveras County, California, he married Miss Mary, a daughter of Peter Goyhen (deceased), a native of the south of France and a pioneer and prosperous rancher of California.

Mr. Iribarne is recognized as a leader in the business, social and political circles of his community. Educated as he is, in various languages, speaking English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Basque, his acquaintance is widely extended. He is fortunately social and happy in his disposition, intuitively quick to read and discern the thoughts, tastes and motives of those whom he meets, and to adapt himself in manner and conversation to the individual members of the decidedly cosmopolitan community in which he lives and transacts an extensive business.

In politics he is a pronounced Democrat, whose opinions are respected. He is a public-spirited citizen, proud of his country, of the Tehachapi valley, and in particular of the town of Tehachapi. He has graced it with one of the finest residences in Kern County, a modern and a model home, filled with all the interior conveniences for luxurious living and exterior furnishings, etc., to constitute it an ornament and a source of just pride to the entire valley.

Mrs. Iribarne is a lady eminently fitted to do the honors of so beautiful a home, not the least attractive feature of which is the presence of two daughters Bertha, born December 24, 1880, and Blanch, born September 27, 1882.

James W. McCutchan: Pages 579-580

James W. McCutchan was born in Virginia, July 29, 1858, but was reared and educated in Tulare County, California, He comes of Scotch-Irish ancestry. His parents, William Y. and Catharine (Firebaugh) McCutchan, were both natives of Virginia. To them were born five children, four of whom are living, the subject of our sketch being the youngest child. Twenty years ago his father settled on 160 acres of land, on a portion of which James W. now resides. The father died in 1873 and the mother is still living.

Mr. McCutchan was married, in 1885, to Miss Belle Doty, a native of Sacramento County, California, and a daughter of Francis Doty, who came to this State in. 1872. Mr. and Mrs. McCutchan have two children: William Francis and Earl Clifton. He is a member of the Farmers' Alliance, and in politics is a Democrat. An enthusiastic and enterprising rancher, he takes a just pride in the growth and development of Tulare County.

Stiles A. Mclaughlin: Page 328

Stiles A. Mclaughlin, vineyardist and rancher at Lemoore [now Kings County], was born in Ashtabula County, Ohio, in 1852, a son of Wm. H. McLaughlin, a mechanic by trade. In 1862 the latter moved to Pennsylvania, and in 1866 to Mercer County, Illinois, where he followed his particular industry. Our subject lived at home until 1872, when he came to California, first settling at Woodland, Yolo County, as an employee upon the fruit ranch of R. B. Blower, one of the first raisin developers of California. 1n 1873 Mr. McLaughlin came to Lemoore and bought a claim for 160 acres of railroad land, where he began farming, and in the spring of 1874 he received grape cuttings from Mr. Blower, of Woodland. He set out about two acres to vines, and made the first raisins in that part of the valley. In 1878 he sold his ranch and purchased his present place of forty acres, west of Lemoore. In the spring of 1879 he set out ten acres in fruit and vines, and has since added to the amount of twenty-eight acres, the remainder of the ranch being in alfalfa. His vines are in full hearing and are considered very fine, as they produce two and a half tons of raisins to the acre. In 1888 Mr. McLaughlin, in partnership within I. H. Ham and C. L. Dingley, of San Francisco, purchased 421 acres of land adjoining the town. In the spring of 1889 they set eighty acres to fruit-trees and vines, to which they have since added, and now have sixty acres in fruit and 170 acres in vines, all doing well and just coming into bearing. Mr. McLaughlin superintends the ranch, and its fine condition is the most substantial evidence of its able management.

Mr. McLaughlin built his handsome cottage home in 1889; and his tank-house adjoining, covering his artesian well, is both useful and beautiful. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. of Lemoore, and of the Farmers' Alliance. Active in all of his pursuits, he is deeply interested in the fruit interests of California.

He was married at Lemoore, in 1876, to Miss Mary Wright, a native daughter, and the union has been blessed with two children: Wilmot Wright and Aimee Edna.

W. R. McQuiddy: Page 327-328

W. R. McQuiddy is a native of Coffee County, Tennessee, born in 1849, son of Thomas J. McQuiddy, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work. He attended the common schools, and at the age of twenty began teaching, thus by personal effort securing a higher education at the Manchester College in Coffee County.

Mr. McQuiddy was married, in 1872. to Miss Ida C. Putnarn, and in 1874 they came to California and settled in the Mussel slough district, Tulare County. He took up 160 acres of railroad land, amid was one of the incorporators of the Settler's Ditch Company, organized to divert water from Cross creek. The country being so dry and farming unprofitable, Mr. McQuiddy returned to the occupation of teaching, which he followed for six years in Tulare and Fresno counties, and for three years was a member of the Board of Examiners for Tulare County. Owing to the land troubles with the railroad company, improvements were slow and the people were in an unsettled condition for several years.

Having lost his wife in 1874, Mr. McQuiddy was married a second time, in the fall of 1879, near Hanford, to Miss Rebecca McMillan, a native of Louisiana. In 1880 he returned to farming, but in 1883, having previously sold his claim, he gave up agricultural pursuits and settled in Hanford, where he engaged in life, fire and accident insurance, and also in the real-estate business. In 1885 he was appointed Deputy Sheriff, which gave him an inclination toward the practice of law. In 1886 he was elected Justice of the Peace of Mussel Slough Township, which office he held for two years. Since that time he has engaged somewhat in the practice of law in the justice court, although devoting most of his time to the insurance business, and to looking after collections for outside parties.

Mr. and Mrs. McQuiddy have two children: Inez, aged eleven years; and Edna, aged six years. He is a member of Hanford Lodge, No. 264, I. O. O. F. For eight years he has been secretary of the People's Ditch Company, one of the most important ditches of the Lucerne district.

John H. Mitchell: Page 679-680

John H. Mitchell, a Tulare County rancher, was born in Ottawa, Canada, in 1833. His father was a farmer and also held a government position as lock-master on the Rida Canal.

Mr. Mitchell was educated in Canada, and remained at home until 1854. At that time he came to California and for one year was engaged in mining in Tuolumne County, after which he settled at Colterville, in the same County, and gave his attention to farming and stock-raising, utilizing 800 acres, and dealing extensively in cattle. He sold out in 1871 and with his brother, William T. Mitchell, purchased 3,000 acres in Merced County, near Planesburg and carried on grain farming until 1881. In that year the subject of our sketch came to Tulare County to superintend the Page ranch of 8,000 acres west of Tulare, and with Mr. Page he is interested in the ranch produce and the raising of stock. They sow annually 4,000 acres in wheat, have 350 acres in alfalfa, and raise horses and mules, keeping about 200 head. The ranch is well watered and ditched for irrigating purposes, as they own one-half the water of the Packwood creek. They carry on their agricultural pursuits in the latest arid most approved manner, using gang plows, headers and combined harvesters, and the fine condition of the ranch and crops is the best evidence of its able management. Mr. Mitchell owns improved town property, but devotes all his time to ranch interests.

He was married in Tulare, January 10, 1883, to Miss Carrie Ross, a native of San Francisco. He has one son, Willie, by an earlier marriage, and an adopted daughter, Pearl, having no issue by his present wife.

Mr. Mitchell is a member of the I. O. O. F., having united with that fraternity in 1857. He is now associated with Lake Lodge, No. 333; Visalia Encampment, No. 44; and Rebecca Lodge, I. O. O. F. He is also a member of the Grangers of Tulare.

J. P. Murry: Page 753

Prominent among the earliest stockmen to settle upon the Tule river is Mr. J. P. Murry, who was born in Louisiana. His early life was passed upon the home farm until his eighteenth year, when he struck out in life and started for California in 1852. He went to Independence, Missouri and was there engaged by John Montgomery to assist in driving a band of 600 cattle across the plains to California. The trip was successfully made and they entered California through Carson and lone valleys to Stockton, and then to Bear creek, in Merced County, when the cattle were turned out to graze. Mr. Montgomery and Mr. Murry soon after returned to Missouri by water, and in 1853, another band of 700 was started, with Mr. Murry in charge, crossing by the old route. There were many Indians seen along the route, but they were not troublesome, and the passage was made without particular incident, driving their cattle to Bear creek.

The subject remained with Mr. Montgomery until 1855, when he started in business with a Mr. Johnson, who was later called "Tule river" Johnson, to designate him from others by the same name. They went to Los Angeles and purchased cattle in 1855, and wintered on Tule river. The only stockmen then on the river were Elisha Packwood and Joshua and Jesse Lewis -- and with abundance of fine feed and free grazing the cattle fattened, and in the spring of '56 they were driven to the mines and sold. Making a success of this first venture, Mr. Murry continued in the business and became one of the prominent stockmen of the valley.

The range of the San Joaquin valley was then common property, and the private brand of the stockmen was the only identification of their cattle. The stockmen had undisputed possession until 1859, when the sheepmen began coming in, seeking the mountain ranges of the Sierras. Soon after followed the farmer, who to protect their crops, evolved the "No Fence" law, prohibiting free grazing, and this was a death blow to extensive ranges, and the stock business gradually decreased. Mr. Murry has been an extensive dealer, and in 1874, in partnership with Henry Mentz, they owned 12,000 head; but the dry year of 1877 was very disastrous, as they lost 5,000 head from starvation, and for want of suitable range, sold the balance to J. B. Haggin at $10 per head, who turned them off the following year at $40 per head, making a handsome speculation. Mr. Murry was then out of business for several years.

In 1883 he went to New Mexico to buy cattle and stock ranches for Messrs. Haggin & Heart and was in their employ about four years, purchasing over 8,000 head of cattle. In 1887 Mr. Murry returned to Porterville, and has continued in stock speculations, owning a range of about 1,400 acres lying upon or near the Tule river. In 1888 he attached Murry's addition to the town of Porterville, and subdivided eighteen acres for building purposes.

Mr. Murry was married in Visalia in 1858, to Miss Martha Kenney, a native of Ohio, and to the- union has been added two children-Theodore R. and George G. He is a member of Porterville Lodge No. 199, A. O. U. W. Mr. Murry has speculated somewhat in mines, but only as a side issue, as cattle-raising and selling have been his business first, last, and all the time.

Susman Mitchell: Page 324-325

Susman Mitchell, cashier of the bank of Harrell & Son, Visalia, is a native of the golden West.

His father, Hyman Mitchell, a native of Prussia, came to California in 1847, and was subsequently married in Stockton to Dora Jacobs, also of Prussia. Susman was their only child. Hyman Mitchell removed to Visalia six months after the birth of their son, and engaged in mercantile business, remaining thus employed until 1859, when his death occurred.

The subject of our sketch attended the public schools of Visalia and also the San Jose Business College, graduating in the latter institution. He then became a clerk for his uncle, Elias Jacobs, and remained with him six years, until he received the appointment of Deputy Postmaster of Visalia. Three years later he was appointed Postmaster by President Cleveland. He did efficient duty in that capacity, made several improvements in the office, and during his term the salary was increased $600 per year. He resigned his office in order to accept the position of cashier with Harrell & Son, Bankers, which he has acceptably filled for the past two years.

Mr. Mitchell was married February 14, 1888, to Miss Eva Rozenthal, a native of Stockton. He built the beautiful home in which they reside, corner of School and Locust Streets. He also owns a ranch, located one mile from the courthouse, where he is engaged in French--prune culture.

Mr. Mitchell is a public spirited man, and has done much to promote the best interests of Visalia. He is treasurer of the Board of Trade of Visalia, secretary of the Fifteenth District Agricultural Association, and is a member of the common council of the city. He has passed all the chairs of both branches of the I. O. O. F., and is now treasurer of the lodge. He is a charter member of the Parlor of Native Sons of the Golden West, takes a just pride in the society, and also in the great State in which he was born.

George C. Moore: Page 566

George C. Moore, an enterprising young man residing in the Wild Flower district, Fresno County, California, is a native of Pike County, Missouri, born July 30, 1863. At the age of nineteen he went to Wellsville, that State, where he attended the best schools of the neighborhood for two years. At the expiration of that time he started for California. Arrived in the Golden State, he settled near Minturn station, Fresno County, and there for a time engaged in the cattle business with S. N. Straube. These gentlemen now own and operate one of the finest stock ranches in the valley, located eight miles from Selma and sixteen miles from Fresno. It consists Of 160 acres, and is well equipped for the purposes intended. Among the horses raised here are some fine specimens. A visit to this ranch will amply repay the tourist.

Mr. Moore also has land interests in his old home in Missouri. He is unmarried.

William Dutton Sprague: Page 745

William Dutton Sprague has been identified with the interests of Tulare County since 1872, and is regarded as one of her enterprising and reliable citizens.

Mr. Sprague was born in Ohio, November 2, 1846. His ancestors came to the United States before the Revolution, and were participants in that struggle for independence. His father, Enos Sprague, was a native of Ohio, his family being among the early settlers of that State. He [ed note: Enos Sprague] married Miss Jane Price, also a native of Ohio and a member of a pioneer family. Her mother was of Spanish ancestry. To them were born two sons and a daughter. The last is deceased. From the time he was six until he was in his eighteenth year, William D. lived in Iowa. At that time, in 1864, he enlisted in Company D, Tenth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and served with Sherman on his memorable march "from Atlanta to the sea." After the grand review at Washington he returned to his home and learned the carpenter's trade, following it three years. We next find him engaged in farming on rented lands in Missouri.

In 1872 Mr. Sprague came to California and located at Visalia. At first, he worked for wages, afterward rented lands, and now has a ranch of 400 acres of his own. For five years he has been engaged in raising wheat, cultivating his own and other lands, annually sowing about 700 acres; he owns a header, and harvests and threshes his crops himself.

In 1869 Mr. Sprague wedded Miss Margaret E. Hill, a native of Indiana. Their five children were all born in California, and are named as follows: Clara Adaline, Charles Henry, Minnie Alice, Elizabeth and Maud. Mr. Sprague's political affiliations are with the Republican party. He is a charter member of the G. A. R., and has held the office of junior vice-commander.

W. H. Parker: Page 320-321

W. H. Parker, one of the early pioneers of Fresno County, is a man who has eagerly watched the development of the great vineyard and cattle interests, and the many other enterprises of the San Joaquin valley.

He was born in Marion County, Missouri, September 20, 1830. At the age of nineteen he went with his father to Council Bluffs, where they had charge of sonic cattle for three or four years. In 1849 Mr. Parker was united in marriage with Miss Nancy Wells, a native of Kentucky, reared in Missouri; with her and their two children he set out for California in the year 1853, coming across the plains in the pioneer way. Arriving in Salt Lake City they spent the winter there. The following spring they moved to Carson river, where he left his family and went on to Hangtown. There he bought a small stock of goods, and had them packed backed to Carson river. To move these goods it cost him twenty-five cents per pound. On Carson river he established a trading post, and with his family lived there for some mouths. In the fall of 1854 he moved on to California, first settling in Amador County, and next in what was then known as Mariposa County, and early in 1856 he came to his present place, now Fresno County. In the latter part of that year he came to King's river, bringing what cattle he had, and here launched out in the stock business. He moved to Millerton in the fall of 1856, and there conducted a restaurant for several years. Mr. Parker relates in a graphic manner many interesting reminiscences connected with the early history of Millerton.

In the spring of 1865 he located in old Fresno City, engaging in various enterprises, staging, general merchandising, etc. The great flood of 1868 drove him out of the place. At one time during its Progress he and his entire family were in eminent danger of drowning. For many miles on either side of their house was an expanse of water, rapidly increasing in depth, and there seemed to be no chance of their escaping a watery grave. At this juncture, however, a small steamer which had been running up and down the river, packing freight, etc., appeared and rescued them from their perilous position.

Mr. Parker then moved to San Joaquin river, on what is known as California ranch; opened a general store and conducted a cattle ranch. He sold out his interests there in 1872, and went to Nevada to make a sale of some horses and mules. This he succeeded in doing, but it was an unfortunate transaction, and he lost a large sum of money. His next and last move was in 1873, to Sycamore station, now known as Herndon. He first bought a store and afterward engaged in general farming and sheep raising. He has disposed of his sheep interests, and now devotes his time wholly to his farm. He owns a valuable ranch of 600 acres, and has been eminently successful in his farming operations.

Mr. Parker has cut a prominent figure in the many localities in which he has resided; has had a great deal to do with their growth and development, and has ever cast his influence for good. He is a man of strong individuality. Once secured as a friend, he is faithful and true. He served on the first grand jury ever held in this County. That was in the fall of 1856. While living in Millerton he was the deputy sheriff for three years. he was also Supervisor from that district one tern].

October 30, 1890, Mr. Parker met with a sad loss in the death of his wife. A heroic woman and a devoted wife, she stood by her husband through his reverses and successes, through his pioneer struggles as well as his latter prosperity, and ever proved herself a helpmate in the true sense of the word. Her funeral was attended by a large concourse of friends and relatives, among whom were eighteen grandchildren and her four children. The names of the latter are as follows: John F., James T., Mary, now Mrs. Charles Strivens, and Kittie, now Mrs. Bratton,-all residing in Herndon.

John L. Spear: Page 659

John L. Spear has been a resident of California since 1853. He was born in Page County, Virginia, July 1, 1811, son of Jacob and Polly (Hardberger) Spear, natives of Pennsylvania who removed to Virginia soon after their marriage. There were nine children in the family, but as Mr. Spear lost trace of them during the civil war be does not know how many are living.

He was reared in his native State and was there married to his first wife. She bore him a daughter, Sarah Ann, who is now the wife of Edwin Davis. Mr. Spear removed to Missouri, and there his wife died in 1836. In 1844 he wedded Mary R. Garvin, a native of Missouri, who is his present companion. To them six children were born, one dying in infancy. Those living are as follows: Jacob, who is now with his father; Margaret, wife of John Fox, a resident of Los Angeles County; Frances Eliza, wife of R. C. Glass, of Bakersfield, Kern County; and Agnes, wife of John Woolley, who resides at Exeter, this County. (See history of Mr. Woolley in this work.) Henry E. has a ranch adjoining, his father's.

The family crossed the plains with ox teams to this State in 1853, coming on account of Mrs. Spear's ill health. She began to recover as soon as they were well started on the journey. Arrived in California, they first settled in Stanislaus County, where they spent two years. Mr. Spear then went to the mines and followed the various fortunes of the minor from 1855 till 1861, losing all he had, and from there coining to Tulare County. At first he settled on eighty acres of timber land, and afterward came to his present locality near Farmersville. He and his sons have four hundred acres of land, the oldest son being single and residing with his father. Both sons are intelligent, industrious and respected citizens.

Mr. Spear is now eighty years of age, and he and his wife have lived together forty-five years. He was made a Master Mason in 1852. In politics he was first a Whig, later a Democrat, and is now an earnest temperance worker and votes with the Prohibitionists.

Joseph Spier: Page 321-323

Joseph Spier, a prominent horticulturist of Visalia, and an early settler of California, was born in Saratoga County, New York, November 15, 1826. He is of English ancestry, and three generations of the family, including himself, were born in the State of New York, all having the same name. Grandfather Joseph Spier was one of the brave soldiers who fought to free the colonies from the dominion of King George. The Spiers were by occupation farmers, and in faith Protestants. Mr. Spier's father married Jerusha Taylor, a native of his own State, and a descendant of Holland ancestry, who settled on the Mohawk river. To them were born four children.

The subject of this sketch was educated in New York. He learned the sign-writer's trade and ornamental painting, and has developed much taste and talent in decorative and also in landscape painting. He emigrated to Illinois in 1844, being in Chicago in August of that year, growing up with that country. He lived in Chicago, Elgin and Peoria at different times.

In 1852 Mr. Spier came to California and first engaged in mining at Columbia, Tuolumne County, and in company with others he mined in various ruining districts of California, often meeting with good success, finding as high as $500 per day. Like nearly all the early miners of California, he would be rich one day and lose everything the next, and, nothing daunted, start in again and make more. While in Tuolumne County he improved a nice home, but when the mining interests declined he sold out for a trifle. In 1868 he located in Tulare County, being at that time financially embarrassed, and took rip a Government claim of 160 acres. The County was then a great cattle range. He went to work and made improvements on his land, but sold his claim, as he was unable to keep it. Shortly afterward he purchased forty acres of land, the property on which he now resides and which is now within the city limits of Visalia. Gradually, as he was able with his own labor, he improved this property by planting it to fruit trees of every variety grown in California. He has seedling orange trees twenty years old, grown from seed he himself planted. On the 6th of May, 1891, time writer of this sketch had the pleasure of eating an orange plucked from one of these trees. Mr. Spier has also gone into the nursery business quite extensively. In partnership with his son, he is doing a large business, employing several men as assistants. In 1890 they sold 60,000 young trees, and that year, for the large variety of fruit exhibited at the agricultural fair, received the sweepstakes. Mr. Spier also delights in the cultivation of choice flowers, and in this his wife takes equal pleasure. During all his horticultural experience in this County he has been constantly making experiments to discover the varieties of trees and fruit best suited to his locality, and at considerable expense has gained valuable information. Some of his young trees have been sent to all parts of California and to portions of Oregon. In the production of table grapes he has also been very successful, and bias a large variety of the best kinds.

Mr. Spier is one of the pioneers in the use of water both for mining and agricultural purposes. In 1854, with Andrew Fletcher, Dr. Windler, John Jolly and others, he organized a company and built one of the most extensive ditches of that time, being over six miles in length; and the organization was incorporated as the Stanislaus and Tuolumne Water Company. Messrs. Spier and Fletcher superintended the construction of this immense watercourse, which cost $2,000,000. The company met with strong opposition by rival water companies, and they were finally financially swamped. Mr. Spier always relied upon his talents with the brush to help him out in case of financial failure in business, and never has parted with his artistic outfit, frequently being called upon to paint some fine silk banner or some scenic work for the ladies' socials and dramatic entertainments. He has not confined himself to the artistic part of painting, being one day working on a fine silk banner, the next possibly painting the side of a house; the next painting a fine carriage, and the next day be might be seen on the stage of a theater, flinging colors on a big canvas flat to be used in some extravaganza soon to be brought out, etc. Nor did he confine himself to painting alone. Being a natural mechanic, he frequently worked at other mechanical business or professions. The knowledge of engineering, acquired while ditching in an early day, made him quite proficient with the transit, and many times he has been called upon to survey mining claims involving intricate underground engineering work. But particularly did the knowledge acquired in early days prove of great benefit in locating ditches or canals in this and other portions of the State.

In 1861, in company with two others, he built a flouring-mill near Columbia, one of the partners being a professional miller. After one year, the miller being dissatisfied, the partners bought him out, and therefore Mr. Spier became his own miller, making a superior quality of flour and taking first premium at the Stockton district fair. In 1863, during the last of April, in company with two others, Mr. Spier crossed the Sierra Nevada range on foot. There were no inhabitants for sixty miles, and only a blazed trail to follow. They had to carry their own blankets and provisions, and travel twenty miles over deep snow. On this trip Mr. Spier discovered a new pass, through which the Sonora road now runs, being near 1,000 feet lower than the one passed over by the trail.

Since locating in Tulare County, Mr. Spier has interested himself in irrigation improvements, knowing that the success of the country depends on it. He has located several ditches and has water supplied to all of his land.

Mr. Spier was married in 1848, at Saratoga, New York, to Miss Sarah M. Green, a native of Saratoga and a daughter of Daniel D. A. Green, who was born in Albany, New York. The Greens are descended from an old American family who made their home at Greensend, Rhode Island, the place taking its name from the family who settled there and passed through many trying scenes in the Revolution. The celebrated Greening apple originated on this farm. Mr. and Mrs. Spier have had five children, two sons and three daughters, only two of whom survive, viz.: Josephine, wife of George W. Hale, now residing at Sonora, Tuolumne County; and Charles A., who is in partnership with his father. Their oldest son, Thurlow, lived to he twenty-one years of age, and died at their home in Visalia.

Mr. Spier was made a Mason in 1847, at time age of twenty-one, and is still a member in good standing. Among his other paintings he has made three allegorical pictures in Masonry, namely, Sunrise, High Meridian, and Sunset. They are creditable paintings amid illustrate his talent in that direction.

In his early life Mr. Spier was a Whig. At the organization of the Republican party he joined it and voted for Fremont. When the Greenback party organized he united with it, and he now works in the ranks of the Farmers' Alliance. He strongly favored the new Constitution of California, and was chairman of the Workingmen's Committee of his County. At his own expense he published a campaign paper in their interest, and every candidate he worked for was elected. Mr. Spier, as is readily seen by a perusal of this sketch, is a man of versatility of talent, he has done much in many ways to advance the interests of California, and is well and favorably known by many of the pioneers of this State.

Such, in brief; is a sketch of one of the most prominent citizens of Tulare County.

John Riley Woolley: Page 450

John Riley Woolley, a well-known farmer of Exeter, Tulare County, and an early settler of California, is a native of Missouri, born February 18, 1849. His father, Alfred Woolley, was born in Illinois, and his mother, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Ferril, was a native of Missouri. The family crossed the plains to California in 1854, when he was a boy of five years. They first stopped in Amador County, where the father engaged in mining and obtained considerable gold. Like most other miners however, he afterwards lost it. Then they moved to Santa Cruz, from there to Lake County, and in 1866 came to Tulare County, settling near Farmersville. Three years later they sold out and returned to Lake County, and there the father died.

John R. came to his present location in February, 1877, and purchased 160 acres of land, which he has improved by building, etc., and on which he lives. Here he is engaged in general farming and raising horses. He is also proprietor of the stage line from Exeter to Visalia, and has charge of the United States mail over this route.

Mr. Woolley was married in 1869 to Miss Agnes Spier, who was born on the plains in 1853, while her parents were on their way to California. Of the ten children born to Mr. and Mrs. Woolley, three died when quite young, and those living are as follows: Laura Ellen, wife of Frank Harp, Visalia; Leora M., wife of C. S. Dann, Camp Badger; Charles H., Annie L., Roy, Mary, Elizabeth, and Alta May. Mr. Woolley has been a Democrat, but for the past few years not voted with any particular party. He is a most worthy citizen and is highly respected by all who know him.

Memorial and Biographical History of the Counties of Fresno, Tulare and Kern, California

Illustrated - The Lewis Publishing Company -1892

Transcribed by: Martha A Crosley Graham

23 May 2008


                                                                 Site Created: 24 May 2008

                                                                 Martha A Crosley Graham

                                                                   Rights Reserved: 2008