Humboldt County, California

Biographies

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GEORGE F. WOODCOCK.—It is a noteworthy fact that the average pioneer is a stronger man at an advanced age than is the product of a modern and more complicated civilization, and one of the splendid evidences of this is George F. Woodcock, of Rohnerville, who, although almost eighty years of age, conducts a thrifty little ranch of some twenty odd acres between Rohnerville and Fortuna, where he may be found hard at work every day in the year. He is capable of doing as hard a day's work as a man half his years, and is not in the least distressed thereby, rather enjoying the exhilaration of the strenuous exercise. For more than half a century he has resided in California, being variously engaged during that long and eventful period, although for twenty-seven years he was in the employ of one company, being one of their most trusted and trustworthy men.

Mr. Woodcock is a native of Charlotte county, New Brunswick, having been born March 20, 1837. His father, David Woodcock, was a native of Maine, as was his paternal grandfather, also David Woodcock. Both lived and died in New Brunswick, although they were essentially American in their sympathies and ideas. The father was married in New Brunswick to Miss Sarah Thomas, a native of that province. He was a shoemaker by trade, the grandfather being a carpenter, and both were industrious and prosperous, although neither ever accumulated riches. There were nine children in the family of David Woodcock, six boys and three girls, George F., the subject of this sketch, being the eighth child. The eldest member of the family was a daughter, Ann Woodcock, who later married Elias Smith and is living in New Brunswick at the age of almost ninety years. One of the brothers, James Woodcock, was a teamster and bridge builder in Humboldt county, for many years, where he died. George F. Woodcock received very few educational advantages, there being opportunity for attending school only a few brief months in the winter. He began work as a lumberman when a boy in his native province and became at an early age inured to hardship and severe manual labor. He came to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama, going at once into the gold mines on the American river in Placer county, arriving there the latter part of September, 1859. Times were then very hard and he secured the necessary outfit for the wood chopper, laid in a simple supply of food and "batched" while he chopped wood, receiving in wages $4 per day. Later he engaged in gold mining, but did not find that the returns were satisfactory, and so gave that up. He tried to enlist in the Civil war, but was unable to get into the company that he desired, and so went north into Humboldt county, going to Eureka, where he went to work in the lumber woods. He was employed by the D. R. Jones Company and for twenty-seven years remained with them, during the last fifteen years of that time being in charge of their outside work, and much of the time running three teams and one hundred twenty men. He was married in Eureka, in 1880, to Miss Mary Wilson, the daughter of Eli G. Wilson, a stone mason by trade, a minister in the United Brethren Church, and well known in Eureka. Three years after his marriage Mr. Woodcock determined to engage in farming and so came to Rohnerville and purchased his present home property three-quarters of a mile from town. Here he has established a pleasant home and keeps the property under a high state of cultivation through his own industrious application and splendid judgment.

Mr. and Mrs. Woodcock have become the parents of eleven children, all except one of whom have grown to maturity. They are all well, known in _Humboldt county, where they were born and educated, and where they now make their homes. They are all industrious and prosperous, having inherited the splendid traits of character that distinguish both their parents. They are : Lillie, the wife of the late L. M. Nason, a school teacher, who died in Eureka in 1914; George, a woodsman for the Eel River Valley Lumber Company ; Fred, residing at home ; Frank, a teacher ; Gladys, the wife of Ed Baxter, a woodsman, and residing in Rohnerville; James, attending school in Eureka ; Percy, a teacher on the Klamath river ; Clara, Blanche and Grace, residing at home.

Both Mr. and Mrs. Woodcock are exceptionally interesting people and both are interested in many things outside their immediate home. They are particularly active in church work and are members of the Methodist Episcopal church of Rohnerville, of which Mr. Woodcock is a trustee, while Mrs. Woodcock is the superintendent of the Sunday school. Mr. Woodcock is a Progressive in his political preferences and personally he is all that the term implies, especially on questions of local import, and is always to be found in support of any movement that tends for the religious, educational or social betterment of the community. In his home life Mr. Woodcock has been especially happy.
 

J. L. JOHNSON.—The responsible position of foreman of the machine shops for the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia is at present held by J. L. Johnson, a young man of much ability and high integrity of character, who has occupied this position since June, 1911, and is giving the greatest of satisfaction. He came to Scotia and entered the employ of the Pacific Lumber Company fifteen years ago, when he was a youth of but nineteen years, and has steadily made his way upward through sheer ability and pluck. He is a natural born machinist, no doubt having inherited this tendency from his father. He always delighted in machinery and was apprenticed to learn the blacksmith's trade when he was sixteen, giving three years of time to the mastering of this trade. He was not able to secure schooling beyond the grammar schools owing to pressure of financial necessity, he being the eldest of a large family, and so obliged at an early age to shoulder his share of the responsibility. When he first went to Scotia he was put to work in the blacksmith shops, but after a comparatively short time there he was transferred to the machine shops, where he has been since that time.

Mr. Johnson is a native of. New Jersey, having been born at Jersey City, September 28, 1881. His father was J. B. Johnson, and is now a pattern-maker and car-builder for the Caspar Lumber Company, at Caspar, Mendocino county, Cal. He is a native of Copenhagen, Denmark, and served as a corporal in the Danish army and became a pattern-maker and car-builder in his native land. He came to America when he was twenty-two years of age, locating in New Jersey, where he was married to Miss Lena Price, a native of Schleswig Holstein, Germany. After some five or six years in New Jersey, the family removed to California, locating at Navarro, Mendocino county, and going from there to Caspar, where he has since resided, being for this entire time in the employ of the Caspar Lumber Company. The mother is still living. There were seven children in the family, one of whom died in childhood, the others, three sons and three daughters, living to grow to manhood and womanhood, the sons all following mechanical lines.

As foreman of the machine shops of the Pacific Lumber Company, J. L. Johnson holds a very responsible position, for the repairing of the engines, rolling stock and stationary machinery of this great company is a large undertaking. He is possessed of a mind of rare judgment and poise, and his estimates on work are phenomenally accurate. He is pleasant, congenial and well liked by those who come in contact with him, either as workmen under his direction, or as superior officers of the company.

The marriage of Mr. Johnson was solemnized in Eureka, May 18, 1905, uniting him with Miss Zella Maude Rickart, of Scotia, the daughter of Edmund L. Rickart, who is now employed as foreman of the yards for the Holmes-Eureka Company (lumber) at Eureka, but who was with the Pacific Lumber Company, at Scotia, for nineteen years. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have become the parents of three children, two daughters and a son : Mildred D., Melvin and Dorothy. Both Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have many friends in Scotia, where they are favorites in their social circle. Mr. Johnson is a member of the Odd Fellows, Hydesville Lodge No. 250. In his political preference he is a Republican and takes an interest in all that pertains to the welfare of Scotia and community. He is progressive and broadminded and is known as a citizen of sterling qualities.
 

J. A. TRAVIS.—Blessed with a buoyant spirit, a splendid intellect and a superb manhood, J. A. Travis is well fitted for the position which he occupies as manager of the Fortuna yards of the Eel River Valley Lumber Company, which is the distributing point for this place and Ferndale, and the rich country surrounding these places. He has won this position by the force of his own ability and application, his promotions following one after another until in 1909 he assumed the duties of manager of the yards, which he has since filled. He has done much for the business during that time, the volume being constantly on the increase and a splendid patronage having been built up throughout the community.

Mr. Travis was born in Fonistell, St. Charles county, Mo., but removed from that place to Benton City, Audrain county, Mo., when he was a small child, his father thereafter conducting a general merchandise store at Benton City. They remained at this place until the son was twelve years of age and then migrated to California, in 1889 locating at Oakland. Here he attended school and later took a commercial course, continuing his studies by attending night school, after he had secured a position as clerk. In the spring of 1902 he came to Fortuna and entered the employ of the Eel River Valley Lumber Company in the yards at Newburg, working up from that to his present position of trust and responsibility. Mr. Travis is the son of C. W. and Nannie (Kinney) Travis, his father being a well known farmer of the Rohnerville district at this time.

The marriage of Mr. Travis and Miss Ada Lafferty, of Coquille, Ore., was celebrated in 1904, and of this union has been born a daughter, Arletta, aged three years Both Mr. and Mrs. Travis have a host of friends in Fortuna. Mr. Travis is a member of the Eel River Lodge No. 147, F. & A. M., of Fortuna, and is deservedly prominent in Masonic circles. He takes an active part in the general affairs of the town and is regarded as an influential and progressive citizen.
 

AMOS MADISON CUMMINGS.—A young man who is rapidly coming to the front as an orchardist and rancher in the justly celebrated Bull creek district is A. M. Cummings. He it was who took the gold medal on King apples at the San Francisco apple show in 1914, and his orchards are a delight to the eye as well as being particularly profitable to their owner. He is the son of a Humboldt county pioneer, and was born and reared in the Mattole valley. He is industrious and energetic and is making a decided success of his farming enterprise. He maintains a hotel, or resort, on his ranch on Bull creek, and is well known and highly esteemed throughout this part of the county.

Mr. Cummings was born in the Mattole valley, February 5, 1876. His father, Louis J. Cummings, was a pioneer in the valley, locating there in 1867, and making his home continuously in the county until the time of his death in 1892. He was married in the east to Miss Elizabeth Miner, a native of Ohio, who is still residing in this county, making her home at Eureka with her daughter, Mrs. J. S. Burnell. The parents came to California in the early part of 1862, settling first at Marysville, where they lived for five years, coming to Humboldt county in 1867. There were four children in the family, of whom Amos Madison was the youngest born. Of the others, the eldest, George A., is a justice of .the peace and a rancher, living on the old Cummings homestead in the Mattole valley ; F. J. is ex-principal of the Ferndale High school, and is now secretary of the Dairy Association of Humboldt county, and a very well-to-do rancher living near Ferndale ; Phina is the wife of J. S. Burnell, attorney-at-law, and extensive land owner, residing in Eureka.

The youngest member of this splendid family, Amos M., was reared in the Mattole valley, attending the public schools at Petrolia, and completing his education at the business college in Eureka. Following this he returned to the Mattole valley and assisted with the care of the home place until his marriage to Miss Eunice Hazleton, of Pepperwood, which occurred February 8, 1902. He then rented a ranch in the Mattole valley and engaged in the stock business for a number of years, and in 1907 came to Bull creek, where he purchased his present home place of three hundred acres. He has cleared some of the land and enlarged the orchard, there being but four acres of orchard at the time of purchase. He now has ten acres. He is a booster for his home community, which is one of the finest apple producing sections of the state, and took an active part in the planning and arrangement of the Humboldt county exhibit at the San Francisco apple show in 1914, carrying away a gold medal therefrom, the entire exhibit taking the first prize. Mr. Cummings exhibited Kings and Jonathans, the former being his prize exhibit. He will also exhibit at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco in 1915.

Mr. and Mrs. Cummings have four children, three sons and one daughter, namely : Laurence, Laurel, Curtis and Lisle. Mr. Cummings takes an active part in local affairs and is recognized as an influential citizen. His property lies about seven miles from Dyerville, on Bull creek, and is very valuable. It was formerly the property of N. P. Endicott, who sold it to the present owner in 1907. Mr. Cummings is a Progressive in his political preferences and is all that the word implies in the best sense, being wide-awake, and always ready to give his support to movements which stand for the up-building and development of the general welfare. He has rendered valuable service on the local school board, and has taken prominent official positions on election boards and other similar positions.
 

Note: From the Files of Linda Cummings-Stelzenmueller

There is one mistake that I would like you to be aware of.  In the paragraph about the children that Amos and Eunice bore, the names have been misspelled.  The oldest was Lawrence, not Laurence and my fathers name was Lyle, not Lisle.

I know this seems like a small thing, but to me it is not.  I do hope the next time you revise this document you can make those changes.
It really was amazing to read about my fathers family, thank you for taking the time to post this on the web.
Linda Cummings-Stelzenmueller

Linda can be reached via email.

AMOS HANSELL.—As one of the enterprising and prosperous orchardists of the Eel river valley, Amos Hansell is today well known throughout his part of Humboldt county, and his orchard is one of the finest in the vicinity. He is a true pioneer, having come to this county when he was but little more than a babe in arms, and having spent his • lifetime here. His specialty in the horticultural line is apples, and he handles an extensive variety, including such kinds as Spitzenberg, Jonathan, King, Rhode Island Greenings, Bellflowers and Pippins. He has been engaged in the nursery business since he was a boy and is an expert in this line. In addition to his apples he also raises cherries and tomatoes, both of which do well in this vicinity. His ranch is 'located on the left bank of the Eel river, opposite Camp Grant,—about two miles above Dyerville, and is of a rich, sandy loam, sub-irrigated, and is very productive. The residence is especially attractive, its architecture being in harmony with the setting in which it is placed. It was erected by Mr. Hansell's father, who was a carpenter and joiner, and most of the finishings were prepared by hand, and are exquisitely done. The doors are two inches thick, and are made from selected redwood, as also are the door and window casings.

Mr. Hansell is a native of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, born April 21, 1852. His father was also Amos Hansell, a pioneer of Humboldt county, who died in Rohnerville, January 25, 1911. He came to Eureka in 1851 under an engagement to build the old Picayune mill, which was the first saw-mill built in Humboldt county. He was a native of Pennsylvania, born at Philadelphia, in 1824, and enlisted from there in the Mexican war, serving throughout the war on board the sloop Dakota, as the captain's cockswain. After the close of the war he returned to Philadelphia, and was there married to Miss Abigail Fox, and soon thereafter started for California, making the trip by way of the Isthmus of Panama. He had learned his trade of carpenter and joiner in his home city before going to the Mexican war, serving an apprenticeship of five years, and becoming a master of his trade. Arriving at Panama in the fall of 1851, he found thousands of miners stranded there awaiting the coming of the steamer to take them on to California. Mr. Hansell took employment as master carpenter on the erection of a large store building for a wealthy old Mexican, receiving $16 per day for his work. Upon arriving at San Francisco, he was soon engaged at his trade until the spring of 1852, when he was engaged by his cousins, Captain and Charles May, to come up to Eureka and build the old Picayune mill, before mentioned. Finishing this work, he went down to San Francisco to meet his wife and son, the subject of this article, and then returned to Eureka, where he continued to work as contractor and builder. At this time several prominent men in this section organized and employed Mr. Hansell as their builder. He employed a large force of men, and had erected a number of residences and mills when the company failed, owing him about $7,000. The matter was ready for court, when they compromised with promises to pay, and he received enough to pay his men off at 100 cents on the dollar, but he himself received but a few dollars for many weeks of hard work. He continued, however, to follow his trade as contractor and builder, meeting with much success. He was a friend of Colonel Pratt of old Fort Humboldt, and erected several of the buildings at the fort. He served as deputy sheriff for two terms, and was justice of the peace for many years. He was well informed on all points of law and jurisprudence and could easily have gained admittance to the bar.

In 1855 a second son, Harry, was born, and in 1859 his wife died, leaving him with these- two small boys, aged respectively four and eight years. They were put to board in the home of Charles Wiggins on Humboldt Hill for two years, and then Amos was put with Jacob Showers, at Rohnerville, where he remained until 1872, working on the farm, and attending school for a few brief months each year, the average school term being three months. In 1872 both the brothers came down to Camp Grant, to join their father, who had just taken a homestead near that point, and two miles south of Dyerville, on the Eel river. Here the father and sons cleared up thirty acres and planted it to apples, pears, prunes and peaches, and also established a nursery. There is now on this place, where Mr. Hansell makes his home, a black walnut tree with a spread of ninety feet, and a diameter of three feet and three inches. Here the father and two sons continued to do a flourishing nursery business, until the father retired, in the early '90s, and removed to Rohnerville, where he continued to reside until the time of his death. In 1905 he was married to Mrs. Gutherie, of Rohnerville, who died there in 1913.

In 1904 Amos Hansell bought the interest of his brother in the business and in 1906 he bought out his father's interest, and since that time has conducted the ranch and orchard as an independent enterprise. His marriage occurred in 1906, uniting him with Mrs. Frances Randle, the widow of George Randle, and the daughter of Willis and Menah (Hurlston) Whitaker, both natives of Kentucky. Mrs. Hansell was born in Hazleton, Ill., and was but three years of age when her mother died, and but seven when she lost her father. She was then taken by an aunt up to Wisconsin, and was reared in Grant county, that state. Both Mr. and Mrs. Hansell have many friends in their community, and take an active part in all that pertains to the welfare and inprovement of the valley. They are both keenly interested in the progress and development of Humboldt county and are recognized as citizens of ability and worth. Mr. Hansell is a member of Eel River Lodge No. 147, F. & A. M., at Rohnerville, and in his political preferences he is a Progressive Republican, and is all that the name implies in progressiveness.
 

TOSALDO JOHNSON.—Undoubtedly the foremost citizen of the Bull creek country is Tosaldo Johnson, pioneer of that locality, and the one who has done more than any other to demonstrate the adaptability of the Bull creek country to the production of apples and other fruits, for which it is now justly famous. He has been prominent in Humboldt county politics for many years and is still looked upon as a leader. He is looked up to as an authority and is highly respected, as is also his estimable wife. They are very hospitable and have many warm friends in their part of the county.

Mr. Johnson is a native of Missouri, born in Newton county, 1843. His father, James Johnson, was a Kentuckian, and died when Tosaldo was a babe of eighteen months. His mother was Martha Hamilton, a relative of Alexander Hamilton, and died in California, having lived in Butte county, Colusa and Sierra counties. Tosaldo was the youngest of a family of three children, there being one sister, Eliza, who became Mrs. French and returned to Missouri to reside ; and a brother, James. In 1850, when Mr. Johnson was a lad of some seven years, his mother crossed the plains with her family, and after a journey of six months, located in Butte county in the fall of that year. There were one hundred eighteen wagons in the train as far as Fort Bridges, where they separated, some going on to Oregon, while others continued to California. The brother, James, was then a man grown, and Tosaldo went with him to El Dorado county, where they remained for two years, after which he was with various other families until he was thirteen years of age, when he began to work out for himself. Previous to that time he had acted as chore boy with the families where he had lived and had never been allowed to go to school. Later he entered school, although many years behind his fellows, and within four months he was at the head of his classes. He showed a great desire for learning and was a splendid student. When he was seventeen he enlisted in the Kibby Rangers under Gen. Kibby, and served five months and was honorably discharged. He then went to Nevada and Idaho, where he engaged in prospecting, and later went to Texas after cattle. While in Texas he met and married Miss Addie Stewart, remaining in that state for several months. He then went to Idaho, Montana and Eastern Oregon, where he followed the cattle business, and also prospected for gold and silver, his wife accompanying him from place to place.

It was in 1872 or 1873 that Mr. Johnson came from Idaho to California and located in Humboldt county, renting property at Eagle prairie for a year. Following this he homesteaded a claim of one hundred sixty acres on Bull creek, known to this day as the Johnson homestead. Two children were born to them there : Birdie, now the wife of William A. Smith, a farmer and dairyman at Vancouver, B. C., Canada ; and Georgine, the wife of F. C. Lane, contractor and railroad builder, also residing at Vancouver, B. C. Mrs. Johnson lived here for six or seven years before her death, which occurred on the homestead. At the time that Mr. Johnson located in this district there was an abundance of wild game, and he holds a record for the number of bears, panthers, deer, and other such game that he killed. There were also a few Mad river Indians, but they were not troublesome. Mr. Johnson was one of the first men to engage in the sheep business on Bull creek. He had about two thousand head, and the bears, panthers, and other such beasts of prey killed off a thousand head in one season. This led him to engage in hunting, and many and interesting are the tales that he can tell of his experiences while in pursuit of big game.

The second marriage of Mr. Johnson occurred some three years after the death of his first wife, uniting him with Miss Roxanna Jane Hanlon, a native of Iowa. She bore her husband two children : Martha M., who became the wife of Herman Matlock, both being now deceased, leaving two children, Harold and Cora, whom Mr. and Mrs. Johnson reared from childhood and have recently adopted; and Grace, the wife of Arle Baxter, a rancher on Bull creek.

Mr. Johnson was one of the first men to demonstrate the adaptability of the Bull creek country to the raising of apples, and has prospered exceedingly in his ranching enterprises, and especially in his interests as an orchardist. He now owns three fine ranches, comprising in all some three hundred twenty acres, one hundred eighty-four being in the homestead, one hundred thirteen in the property known as the Look place, where he makes his home, and twenty-three up on the creek bottom, where he has a fine orchard of apples, peaches, pears and prunes, with a splendid variety of small fruits, such as berries, etc. He is enthusiastic over the possibilities offered to the orchardist in this vicinity, and is certain that there is no other locality that can compare with it. Besides his orchard interests

Mr. Johnson is engaged in diversified farming, and has about forty head of cattle, a hundred hogs, and several horses.
The political affairs of the district have always interested Mr. Johnson and he has taken a prominent part in all the concerns of his party. He is a Jeffersonian Democrat, of the old school, but is well informed and an independent thinker, and in all local matters gives his support and cooperation to the best man for the place. He served as deputy sheriff and constable for fourteen years and has a splendid record for efficient service. He was very conscientious in the discharge of his duty, and never allowed a law-breaker to escape him. He made many arrests and was especially keen on all measures that acted as a prevention of crime. He has also served as a member of the Democratic Committee for the county. He is a member of the Odd Fellows, at Hydesville, and of the Encampment and Veteran Odd Fellows, and is also an influential member of the Farm Center at Dyerville.
 

JOSEPH 0. BRANSTETTER.—Well known in Rohnerville and vicinity as a carpenter and builder, farmer, and business man, Joseph 0. Branstetter is descended from one of the old pioneer families of the county, his parents having crossed the plains in 1849, and in 1854 located in Humboldt county, where they resided until the time of their death. They were among the most highly respected of the early settlers, and their children are well known and honored citizens of the county. The home estate was located near Capetown, and is still in the possession of the family. Mr. Branstetter is also connected with another pioneer family through his marriage, his wife having been Miss Elizabeth Williams, the daughter of Mrs. Thomas Williams and the granddaughter of J. H. Decker, of Rohnerville, one of the oldest pioneers of the valley, and a man of splendid character and reputation.

Mr. Branstetter was born at Ferndale, Humboldt county, Cal., July 28, 1874, the son of Martin and Rachael (Kerry) Branstetter, the father being a native of Missouri, and the mother, of Switzerland. His parents were married in Missouri and came to California at the time of the gold excitement in 1849, crossing the plains with a party in charge of Oswald Kerry,. a brother of Mrs. Branstetter. He was a soldier in the Mexican war and an experienced Indian fighter, and it was largely due to his care and ability that the party escaped serious difficulties with the Indians, coming off victorious in their numerous skirmishes with the redskins. He settled in California and lived to be eighty-three years of age. Locating in Bear River valley in 1854, Mr. and Mrs. Branstetter, Sr., improved a large ranch of government land, which they located, and engaged in general farming and stock-raising. They experienced the customary exciting and dangerous times of the early settlers in this vicinity, but prospered and both lived to a good old age, the father dying at the age of sixty-five years, while the mother lived to be seventy-six, passing on in 1906.

Joseph 0. Branstetter is the youngest of a family of twelve children, all of whom are living save Walter, who died in 1913, and all well known in Humboldt county, Daniel A. Branstetter, of Ferndale, and Louis P. Branstetter, of Capetown, being especially prominent in their localities. Joseph 0. grew to manhood on his father's ranch at Capetown and afterward on a farm near Ferndale, receiving his education in the public and high schools of Ferndale. He has been especially successful in business and is prosperous, energetic, and progressive. He is one of the best known carpenters and builders of the vicinity of Rohnerville, where he makes his home, being especially engaged in the building of barns. He also owns a splendid twenty-eight acre farm near Rohnerville, which he operates as a grain and dairy ranch, where he is meeting with success. He also owns the garage in Rohnerville, which is equipped with machinery for the repair of cars, and also deals in gasoline, oils and automobile supplies.

The marriage of Mr. Branstetter took place in Rohnerville, in December, 1904, and his wife has borne him three children : Maxine, Clifton, and Van, the two oldest of whom are attending the public schools, where they are proving to be exceptionally bright and studious. Both Mr. and Mrs. Branstetter are popular with a wide circle of friends, and take an active part in social and fraternal affairs. Mr. Branstetter is an influential member of the Odd Fellows, and is noble grand of Eel River Lodge No. 210, I. 0. 0. F., at Rohnerville, there being an active membership of ninety-six members. Both he and Mrs. Branstetter are members of the Rebekahs. In politics Mr. Branstetter is a Progressive, and the broadest meaning of the term is exemplified in his life and activities. He takes a keen interest in whatever is for the welfare of his home town, the community or the state, and is broad-minded and fair in his judgments and opinions. He owns a comfortable home in Rohnerville, which he maintains in a manner that is a credit to the community and to himself.
 

EDWIN JOSEPH INMAN.—For more than forty years a resident of Humboldt county, and during all that time actively engaged in pursuits that have been developmental in their character, Edwin Joseph Inman has been an active factor in the affairs of his community and is closely associated with the history of the county since the time of his coming to California, in 1874. He built the first house in Blue Lake and moved his family there when there was no thought of a town. He has been associated with several of the big lumber companies and has built many of the sawmills and shingle mills throughout the county. At the present time he is managing his different interests and is living in Blue Lake, where he has a host of friends of long standing.

Mr. Inman is a native of Vermont, having been born in the town of Peacham, Caledonia county, June 22, 1852. His father was Joseph Inman, born in Bangor, Me., in 1823 and died in 1873. He followed the occupation of working in the woods and the sawmills for the greater part of his life, at first in the forests of Maine and Vermont. A son, Jerry Inman, had come to Humboldt county about 1860, and had been engaged in contract logging, so in 1870 the elder Inman Came to California and took charge of his son's logging business in Humboldt county for two years and then returned to Vermont, where he died the next year. He was a veteran of the Civil War, having volunteered in a Vermont regiment in response to one of the first calls of the president for troops. His son Charles was also in the Civil war, and was wounded on three different battlefields. Mr. Inman's mother was Sylvia Martin, a native of Vermont; she died in Peacham.

The early life of Edwin J. Inman was passed in his native state, where at that time his parents resided on a ranch. He attended the district schools until he completed the grammar grades and then went into the village several miles distant and attended the high school. During vacation times he worked in the sawmills to pay a part of the expense of his education. At the end of a year and a half in Peacham Academy, he returned home and worked with his father on the ranch until the time of the latter's death.

It was in 1874 that Mr. Inman determined to come to California in an endeavor to better his condition. Learning through his father and brother Jerry that there were greater opportunities on the coast for a young man than in New England, he accordingly made his way west and located in Humboldt county. For two years he worked for Joseph Russ in the butcher business in Eureka, at which time he went to Klamath river district to work in the mines, he having bought considerable stock in these same mines. Here he remained for two years, but the mining venture was not a success and the investors, Mr. Inman included, lost everything that they had invested, which with Mr. Inman was all that he had. The next year he went to work for John Vance in the lumber mills and remained with him for four years. Later he helped build the shingle mill for Fay Brothers. In 1883 this company moved to Blue Lake and Mr. Inman was sent for to help install the machinery in the new saw mill. He arrived, expecting to remain but a short time, but was employed by the company as their millwright and later built himself a home there, this being the first house erected on the present site of Blue Lake. Later this company removed their interests to Riverside and Mr. Inman again took charge of their mill there.

At this time the company changed hands and was thereafter known as the Jackson-Graham Company. They retained the services of Mr. Inman, and ten of the seventeen years of his employment there he was foreman of their mill. Later he removed his family from Blue Lake to Riverside and for many years they made their home there. In 1900 he purchased property in Blue Lake and again built a home there for his family. That year he left the mill at Riverside and went to work for Isaac Minor, contracting for the building of houses and mills throughout the county. For four years he continued thus and during that time erected four shingle mills on Warren creek and on Little river. He was also employed on the construction of the Knights of Pythias hall and also of the Catholic church in Arcata. Soon after that time he sold his home place in Blue Lake, this being the fourth house that he had built and sold there.

Mr. Inman has been twice married, the first time to Ella Mallory, a native of Iowa, born February 21, 1863. She bore him three children : Ida May, Jessie Louise and Ralph Eugene. Their mother passed away in January, 1885. The second •marriage took place in Oakland, Cal., October 27, 1907, to Evelyn N. Bunker, a native of California, born in Ukiah, Mendocino county. She is the daughter of Charles Albert Bunker, born in Maine in 1847, and who came to California via Cape Horn in 1860. He followed contracting and building. The mother, Amelia Fields, was born in Illinois. They are both deceased.

Since coming to Humboldt county Mr. Inman has been very successful in his various business enterprises. He has always taken an active part in public affairs in Blue Lake and is known as a progressive and public spirited man. He is a member of Humboldt Lodge No. 77, I. 0. 0. F., in Eureka, and has also affiliated with other local organizations of a public nature.
 

DAVID WILSON TEEL.—There is no profession which brings a man more closely into touch with the actual conditions of the country, its topography and its possibilities, than does that of the surveyor, and as David Wilson Teel has been a surveyor for practically all the years of his manhood, and as he has been engaged in the pursuit of his profession very extensively throughout California, Oregon and Washington, there is scarcely a man to be found who is more thoroughly versed in accurate information concerning the resources of these states, and especially of the localities where he has been engaged in running property and government lines. He came to California in 1875,- and has lived in this state since that time, with the exception of seven years spent in Washington ; and for the greater portion of that time he has resided in Humboldt county, which he unreservedly declares is the garden spot of the west, and one of the richest counties in the state in natural resources, many of which have not yet been touched. He has also been engaged in farming and stockraising, both in this state and in Washington, and at present owns valuable farming lands in Humboldt county. He now makes his home in Garberville, having leased his farms some time ago, and being engaged only in surveying and in timber cruising, in which he is also an expert.

Mr. Teel is a native of Indiana, having been born in St. Joseph county, August 31, 1846, near South Bend. His father was also David Wilson Teel, a native of Pittsburg, Pa., and his mother was Mariah Louisa Mallett, a native of Medina county, Ohio. They were married in Medina county, Ohio, the elder Teel being engaged in farming at that time. Later they moved to Indiana, into St. Joseph county. In the pioneer days the father was employed as an Indian interpreter at Fort Dearborn, Chicago. In the late '30s from Fort Dearborn they removed to Fort Madison, Iowa, while Iowa was yet a territory, they crossing Illinois by teams and wagons, following the furrow plowed by government dragoons as a mark for the road. Crossing the Mississippi river there, they located on Skunk river, Washington county, and farmed for a time. Later Mr. Teel laid out the town of Brighton, and after living here for four or five years, returned to Mishawaka, Ind., and bought an interest in the Studebaker foundry, in the early '40s. Later still (in 1852) the family migrated back to Lee county, Iowa, and there the present citizen of Garberville grew to manhood. He was but six years of age when this move was made, and so all his early recollections are of the Iowa farm. There were eight children in the family, all of whom are deceased save David Wilson and an elder brother, William H. Teel. who resides at Spokane, Wash.

David Wilson Teel received his early education in the public schools of Iowa, later attending the best select schools which the state afforded at that time. From 20 to 22 years of age he studied surveying and civil engineering under Orrin Baldwin at Keokuk, Iowa, and (lid some practical work there.

The marriage of Mr. Teel took place in St. Francisville, Mo., April 2, 1871, 'uniting him with Miss Sarah Alma McCormick, a native of Lee county, Iowa, and the daughter of Joseph and Lucinda (Stephens) McCormick, natives of Ireland and Indiana, respectively, and who were pioneers of Iowa. To Mr. and Mrs. Teel were born six children, namely : John Ernest, a rancher of Kern county, married Gertrude Logan, of Humboldt county, and they have one child ; Ida, wife of John A. Weeks, a rancher at Bear Butte, Humboldt county, is the mother of three children ; Amy and Maimie are twins, the former now Mrs. Charles Combs, of Garberville, and the mother of three children, while the latter is Mrs. Frederick Duckett, of Coos county, Ore., where her husband is engaged in farming, they have two children; Jesse, a rancher of Kern county, married Katie Smith, of Garberville ; and Otto Edwin, teamster, residing in Garberville, married Verna Herman, they have one child.

Shortly after his marriage Mr. Teel came to California, making the change in 1875, and locating in Butte county, where he remained for a short time, and then went north, locating in Whitman county, Wash. He worked as a surveyor in Butte county, and later in Whitman county, Wash., at the same time being engaged in farming and stock raising. He came down from Washington in 1886 to Humboldt county, locating at that time on the south fork of the Eel river, in the Bear Butte section, near Phillipsville. In the spring of 1886 he homesteaded one hundred sixty acres of land, which he still owns. He resided on this place for" many years, raising cattle, and farming and raising fruit. He also rented a tract of one hundred twenty acres adjoining, which he also farmed. In the fall of 1912 Mr. Teel gave up the care of his farm, leasing the property, and moved into Garberville, where he has since resided. He now gives his entire time to surveying and to timber cruising, in both of which professions he is an expert.

Mr. 'Teel is a splendid man, and a fine type of California pioneer. He has lived an exceedingly active and useful life and is still full of strength and vigor. His children are all grown and in homes of their own, and there are only himself and his wife left in the home-nest. Mr. Teel has seen more of the coast country than the majority of men, and is unusually well informed on conditions and resources of the country. He has surveyed and cruised for timber and land owners of Chicago and other eastern centers, throughout many of the counties of California, and has been in every county in Oregon hut one, and has been professionally employed in most of them. He has been in all the coast counties of California, and has been as far south as Tehachapi. In all his travels, he stanchly avers, he has found nothing which compares with Humboldt county, and it is needless to say that he is a stanch booster for Humboldt. In his opinion there is nothing that compares with the Humboldt county redwoods. Humboldt county stands first in the dairying industry, and the mineral resources of the county have not been touched.

In this latter phase of county development Mr. Teel is peculiarly well fitted to speak. On his farm on Eel river there is natural gas escaping in such quantities and of such a quality that it can be easily ignited by means of a lighted match. He is satisfied that the southern end of the county will yet form a gas and oil field of great importance and wealth. He has surveyed and cruised over almost every portion of the county, and is satisfied that the county is rich in minerals as well, especially in copper. In the Horse Mountain district, he avers, the outcroppings and showings of minerals are extensive and the ore is very rich in copper, platinum and gold.
Mr. Teel is regarded with the greatest respect and admiration wherever he is known, and his word is accepted as thoroughly trustworthy. He is an Abraham Lincoln Republican, but has never been actively associated with the affairs of his party. He is progressive and in favor of advance legislation, and stands for civic betterment and social progress in all lines.
 

OSCAR L. KNUDSEN.—In 1908 Oscar L. Knudsen, member of the firm of Knudsen & Lundblade, Eureka, started the business to which he has since devoted practically all his attention, and a year and a half later joined fortunes with Mr. Lundblade. Mr. Knudsen has charge of the automobile agency at No. 317 Fifth street, in the Eagles' building, while his partner looks after the bicycle and motorcycle end of the business, established at No. 332 Fifth street. Their operations cover a wide range, and their energetic management has resulted in building up a large trade in the various branches which they combine so satisfactorily. Mr. Knudsen passed most of his boyhood at Eureka, and returned to the town in 1905, since which time he has resided there. He is a native of Norway, born February 10, 1884, at Haugesund, from which port his father, Capt. L. J. Knudsen, sailed for many years.

Captain Knudsen was also born at Haugesund. He married in his native land, and came to Eureka when his son Oscar was four years old, the family residing there until 1896. Captain Knudsen commanded vessels sailing out of Stavanger and Haugesund, Norway, for years, and having visited Eureka on several of his voyages decided to make his home there, its many attractions and advantageous location appealing to him strongly. After settling there he commanded several vessels sailing out of Eureka, but when he was transferred to a boat which did not call at Eureka any more he concluded to move to Oakland, where he has been living since 1896. He is now captain of the schooner "Virginia," which is in the lumber trade, making trips to the west coast of South America. Three children were born to him and his wife, Oscar L., Helen and Kenneth, the daughter and younger son being natives of California. Helen resides with her parents at Oakland. Kenneth is proprietor of the Sequoia Tire & Oil Company, of Eureka, doing business at No. 319 Fifth street.

Oscar L. Knudsen lived at Eureka from the age of four years until the family removed to Oakland in 1896, and received his early education here, completing his course in the Oakland high school, from which he was graduated in 1899. For four years afterward he followed his father's calling, and he rose to the position of second mate, in which capacity he sailed on the "Manila," a schooner in the lumber trade, to Chile, South America. Mr. Knudsen had received some training in the Polytechnic high school at San Francisco, supplemented with study at Macy, in evening schools. In 1903 he entered the machine shop of Murray Brothers, San Francisco, to learn the machinist's trade, working there until he came to Eureka in 1905 to take a position with the Eureka Foundry Company.

He became thoroughly familiar with casting and general machine work, and remained with that concern until he began business on his own account, in April, 1908, at first handling bicycles and motorcycles and doing general repairing. On
December 9, 1909, the firm of Knudsen & Lundblade was formed, Mr. Knudsen selling a half interest to Mr. Lundblade, as the business was increasing at such a rate that there were opportunities too good to be neglected. They deal in Hudson and Overland automobiles, while the shop at No. 332 Fifth street is conducted almost exclusively in the interest of the motorcycle and bicycle trade and repair work. They deal in most of the popular makes of wheels, including the celebrated "Indian" motorcycles. They make a specialty of motorcycle and general bicycle repairing, for which their establishment has attained considerable local prominence. The business has shown steady expansion, due entirely to the close attention the young men have given their work, their reliability both as salesmen and machinists, and their integrity in all business transactions.

Mr. Knudsen is a music lover and a talented performer, having at one time been a leading member of the Eureka Military Band, but since his business has required so much attention he has given up active participation in such matters. He is an honorary member of the Norden Singing Society of Eureka. Socially he holds membership in the Elks and the Eagles.

In 1905 Mr. Knudsen was married at Eureka to Miss Selma Johansen, daughter of Samuel Johansen, a rancher at McKinleyville, this county, and they have four children : Lucile, Ione, Beatrice and Claude. Mr. Knudsen, being optimistic for the future of Eureka, has invested in real estate and is a booster for the city.
 

NIELS P. A. GRUNDT.—Since coming to Eureka in 1892, Mr. Grundt has made good, thereby proving his own force of character and sagacity of judgment, as well as the possibilities afforded by this section of the country to a foreign youth endeavoring to secure a financial foothold in a land whose people and resources were unknown to him. His own birth in Denmark and a long line of ancestry identified with the same country mark him as a Dane with the fine, sturdy traits for which the people of that land are noted the world over. Born April 16, 1867, he was twenty years of age at the time of first coming to America and during that first association with the new world he worked on a farm near Oshkosh, Wis., later at Duluth, Minn., and finally in the state of Washington, arriving on the Pacific coast in 1888. Going back to Denmark, he remained for a time, but the newer country had cast its magic spell upon him and he again sought its shores in the hope of establishing a permanent home. This time Wisconsin was his objective point, but soon he proceeded west to Oregon and found employment at Portland. When he landed at Eureka in 1892 he was without means, but he had a splendid capital in his rugged physique, stalwart frame and tireless energy. With these assets he has forged his way to the front ranks of business men.

After being employed three years on the Buhne ranch, Mr. Grundt bought a small farm outside Eureka, close to what is now Sunnyside, and engaged in raising garden truck, later driving a milk wagon for the Buhne dairy. Next he bought a small grocery at 2100 California street. In a more than ordinary degree he seemed well adapted to business affairs.

From the first he had the confidence of customers, and after a couple of years he sold his first store, and in 1900 he built a two-story, modern and substantial block at the corner of Myrtle avenue and R street, and here he has since utilized the lower floor for the display and storage of his large grocery stock. It has been his custom to take advantage of every opportunity to increase his sales and enlarge the business. During 1911 he purchased the Lohide store, at Fifth and B streets, one of the oldest stores in the county, selling a part of the stock at the original place of business, removing the balance to his establishment at No. 535 Myrtle avenue and selling to private customers at a fair profit. In fact, he took advantage of bargains in any line and always seemed equal to an emergency, disposing of them quickly, giving the people an opportunity to buy at a low figure, yet making a reasonable profit for himself. After coming to California he married Anna Halvorson, a native of Port Kenyon, Humboldt county, and a daughter of the well-known pioneer, H. J. Halvorson. Fraternally he is a member of the Danish Brotherhood.

Mr. Grundt, since the second day after his arrival in Humboldt county, has had but one employer, namely, the Buhne dairy, since which time he has been in business for himself. However, prosperous identification with commercial affairs does not represent the limit of the association of Mr. Grundt with Humboldt county, for in addition he has been a sagacious real estate dealer and investor. He has purchased several tracts of acreage in and around Eureka, which he has subdivided and sold in lots. He owns valuable property in the heart of Ferndale. More recently he purchased the old Whitmore ranch of fourteen acres, south of Eureka. It lies on a beautiful elevation, overlooking the bay and having a splendid view of the mountains. He now makes his residence on the place and has plans for laying out the rest in city lots. Adjoining his residence is a grove of spruce which he has left in its natural state for a park. All of his purchases have been made with discretion and careful thought and their profitable management indicates his own keen discrimination as a real estate buyer, as well as the possibilities offered by this county to all sagacious purchasers.
 

PETER ELWOOD FERRARA.—Prominent among the young business men of Humboldt county, who are making fame and fortune for themselves by their industry and application, may be mentioned Peter Elwood Ferrara. On his father's side he descended from an old Italian family, and is the son of Giuseppe Ferrara, well known as the "Salmon King of Humboldt County," and the pioneer in the fish industry of this section of the state. On his maternal side he descended from an old eastern family; his grandfather, Elwood Hammitt, crossed the plains to California in the '50s and became a prominent pioneer of Humboldt county. Young Mr. Ferrara is also in the fish business, having succeeded to his father's interests several years ago, and is making a splendid success of his enterprise, doing from $75,000 to $200,000 worth of business each year, the variation depending upon the run of the fish. He is also one of the stockholders in the Diamond Fruit Company of Eureka, and is the manager of the wholesale department and the traveling salesman for the company, giving his time to this enterprise during the off seasons for fishing.

Mr. Ferrara is a native of California, having been born in Eureka, Humboldt county, March 14, 1881. His father, Giuseppe, is a native of Sicily, Italy, where he was reared and educated. His grandfather was a fisherman and fish dealer, with an extensive shipping and commission business in Rome, where Giuseppe Ferrara received his first business training. There were also extensive vineyards, where much wine was manufactured and sold directly in the larger Italian cities. The father left his native land to escape the compulsory military service, coming to America in 1870, and landing at Boston. For several years he was employed at different places in the east, being for a time in Philadelphia and in Chicago, and in 1873 he came to California, by way of the Isthmus of Panama, landing at San Francisco in the spring of the year. For two years he was engaged in fishing in the Sacramento river, and in 1876 he came to Humboldt county, where he immediately engaged in fishing, being especially interested in the salmon fishing on the Eel river, although he also had boats on Humboldt bay and on the Pacific ocean. He had retail shops in Eureka, and also did an extensive wholesale business in San Francisco, Sacramento, and other large California cities. He married Henrietta Hammitt, a native of Oregon, at Eureka, in 1876, and of this union were born four children, of which Peter Elwood is the second in order of birth.

Peter E. Ferrara began his career in the fishing business when he was but four or five years of age, commencing at that time to go out in the boats with his father on Eel river. He received his education in the public schools of Eureka, and also graduated from the Eureka business college. Later he went to Alaska, and was in the employ of the Alaska Packers' Association, at Loring, Alaska, for four years, from 1898 to 1902, having signed a contract for that time and remaining during the designated period against great odds. Shortly after his return to Eureka he was married to Miss Sadie Carmichael, a native of the San Joaquin valley (California), and located at Loleta for seven years, being variously employed during that time. For a time he was with the Wheat, Pond & Herald company, milk condensers, then with the Colebrook Creamery, also milk condensers, then with the Farmers Creamery, in the butter-making business, and lastly as foreman for the Libby, McNeil & Libby Company, milk condensers, all being situated at Loleta. While thus engaged he purchased his first business in 1905 and has continued the business ever since.

Since returning to Eureka Mr. Ferrara has been exceedingly prosperous. His fish business is very extensive, and his wholesale trade in San Francisco, Sacramento, Oakland, and other large cities is very large. He makes a specialty of the famous Eel river salmon, doing an exclusively wholesale and commission business. During this time he has enlarged the business fourfold. As part owner of the Diamond Fruit Company, and traveling salesman for the company, he has another growing interest which yields a handsome profit yearly, and is constantly increasing in value. Fraternally he is a member of the K. of P. and the W. 0. W. and politically he is a Republican. He owns a fine residence on F street, handsomely improved, where he makes his home. He is more than ordinarily popular in Eureka, where he is acknowledged to be a man of superior worth and integrity.


EDWIN AUGUSTUS LIGHT.—A Native Son of the Golden West, and also of Humboldt county, and after spending almost twenty years in Eastern Oregon, where he met with great financial success, Edwin Augustus Light, feeling the lure of the home-call, which eventually is certain to reach all true Californians when they wander away from the land of their birth, returned a few years ago, and has since been engaged in the hotel business amid the scenes of his early boyhood. Born in Union Town (now Arcata), October 30, 1851, the young Edwin received his education in the public and high schools of his native village, graduating when he was nineteen. He immediately secured employment with John Bull, who was the leading butcher near Arcata, working with him in the stock business of supplying his market, and remaining with him for ten years without the loss of a • single clay. From here he went northward, when he was about thirty years of age, finally locating in Eastern Oregon and engaging in the cattle business. For eleven years he bought and sold for a San Francisco wholesale house, supplying beef for the H. Morfett Company. For eighteen years Mr. Light remained in Oregon, extending his interests in the stock business and accumulating an appreciable fortune by his industry and application. But home was calling, and he returned to San Francisco, from there finding his way into Humboldt county, where he possesses a multitude of lifelong friends. Once here he determined to engage in the hotel business and secured the lease on a resort hotel on Bear river ridge, which he conducted with much success until 1904, when he disposed of it to an advantage to John Dowd.

Mr. Light, having become interested in the resort business, sold one piece of property to purchase another, and from Bear river ridge he came to Carlotta and leased the Carlotta Hotel, a popular resort hotel, located at Van Dorn and Carlotta streets. Since December, 1911, Mr. Light has conducted the business, meeting with great success. He is well fitted for the management of a summer resort of this type, being a man of genial disposition, kindly and cordial in his manner, while at the same time being fully alive to all business interests, and keeping himself thoroughly conversant with all the details of its management. His hotel interests, however, do not absorb his entire attention, and he owns and operates a line of teams which handle all the hauling and freighting between Carlotta and Harris, on the south. He is also an active member of the Republican party, and is 'vitally interested in all political questions of the day, especially in their influence on local and state issues. He is a member of the Central Republican committee, and has served his party in various capacities of importance in days gone by.

Another of the varied activities of Mr. Light is his interest in fraternal organizations of which he is a member. He is prominent in the Eureka Lodge, B. P. 0. E., and has been a delegate on eight different occasions to the Grand Parlor of the Native Sons of the Golden West, of which he has been an influential member for many years.

Mr. Light was first married in Arcata to Susan Yocom, born in Shasta county, Cal.; she died at Carlotta, leaving him three daughters : Carrie, Mrs. Bolt of Gridley ; Mary, Mrs. Harrow of Alturas ; Ida, Mrs. Norman, a resi- • dent of Napa. He was married again at Ferndale, being united with Miss Daisy Kemp, a native of Ferndale, who is of a pioneer family and has been engaged in educational work for many years. She is a very prominent member of Ferndale Parlor, Native Daughters of the Golden West, as well as of the Ferndale Woman's Club.
 

JOHN CONRAD MONROE.—Descended from old eastern families, John C. Monroe was born in Carroll county, Iowa, October 19, 1870, and is the son of Joseph Warren and Julia (Gyzlehart) Monroe. Joseph Monroe was a native of Logan county, Ohio, and here he attended the subscription schools for a short time, leaving to engage in farming with his father. Later his parents moved to Carroll county, Iowa, in 1850. They were among the first settlers in this section and here he engaged in farming. In 1861, at the opening of the Civil war, he enlisted in an Iowa regiment, serving in the army of Tennessee for four years and eight months, taking active part in over thirty battles, notably the battle of Lookout Mountain and the battles on the march through Georgia. After the close of the war, he returned to Iowa in 1865 and again engaged in farming, following this for ten years. In 1875, leaving his family in Iowa, he decided to come to California, and, coming direct to Humboldt county, he remained here one year, returning home at the news of his wife's death. Then, taking his seven-year-old son, John C., he again started for the west, coming by rail to San Francisco, and located the second time in Humboldt county, and here he was employed by the Falk & Hawley Lumber Co. in the woods for a number of years. Later he purchased two claims and engaged in ranching and stock-raising and for twelve years he was very successful. While living in Iowa he served as Justice of the Peace, and here he became a member of the Masonic order. He has now retired from active life and is living on his son's ranch in Eureka, with his daughter, Mrs. Jennie Sellers. John C. Monroe attended the public schools of Arcata until the age of fifteen, when he left school to earn his own living. He was first employed in a shingle mill and later contracted for himself in the making of shingles. in 1899 he rented his father-in-law's ranch of ninety-six acres of highly cultivated bottom land located at Bayside and engaged in farming and dairying, and he now possesses a fine herd of Guernsey cows. He is a member of Blue Lake Lodge No. 347, I. 0. 0. F., and is an ardent Republican, and although he has never sought office he has always been interested in all movements for the good of the community. He entered into marriage with Marguerite I. Smith, a native of Eureka, Humboldt county, and of their union there are four children : Wilber, Ernest, Curtis and Bertha. Mrs. Monroe's father was John Smith, a native of New Brunswick, and while in the east he was actively engaged in farming. In 1856 he came to California via the Isthmus of Panama, locating in Humboldt county, and here he engaged in logging for a number of years and later purchased the home place of ninety-six acres at Bayside. He returned to New Brunswick and there married Marguerite Isabel McKinsey, in 1869, and together they returned to Bayside, California, and located on his ranch, where he resided until the time of his death, December 10, 1913 ; his wife had passed away six years previously. Mr. Monroe has been very successful in his dairying and. farming interests since taking charge of the Smith ranch, and is a progressive, enterprising man, respected by all in the community. He was one of the original stock holders and builders of the United Creameries, Inc. This company began business about eight years ago and has built up a large business. The main plant is near Arcata, where all the manufacturing of butter and casein is done, and from here it is shipped out. There is a skimming station at Bay-side and one on Mad river on Arcata bottoms, the cream being then brought to the Arcata creamery. Mr. Monroe has been a director of the company for the last five years and has served as president of the board. Mrs. Monroe is a member of the Presbyterian church at Bayside, Mr. Monroe being a member of the board of trustees.
 

JOHN HENDERSON BROWN.—California has always .pointed with pride to her native-born children, and one of these is John Henderson Brown, who was born at Grizzly Bluff, Humboldt county, January 13, 1856. Mr. Brown's father, Thomas Brown, was born in Tennessee, thence removing to Missouri, and in 1849 he crossed the plains with ox-teams to the gold fields of California. He spent some years in the mines and then came to Humboldt county, about the year 1852, and engaged in farming at Grizzly Bluff, being one of the first to locate in the wilds. He had to go to Eureka for provisions and during the early years many a trip was made on foot. He went through the Indian troubles, his family being in continual danger of being massacred, a fate which befell others on the Eel and Van Dusen rivers. The father took part in rounding up some of the Indians and in taking them to the Hoopa reservation. He died at Centerville. The mother was Sarah Dean, born in Missouri. She also crossed the plains with her parents in the pioneer days. She died at Grizzly Bluff. She was the mother of seven children, six living, of whom John Henderson is the second oldest.

John Henderson Brown attended the public schools until sixteen years of age, remaining at home for a few years after finishing his education, working on the home place at general farming. Going to Rohnerville when nineteen years old, he apprenticed himself to learn the blacksmith's trade, serving three years in the shop of Fred Leach, but in 1878 he gave this up and, going to Centerville, he there engaged in farming for two years. Then he went to Fortuna and again opened a blacksmith shop for himself and ran it for four years. Selling out the business and all his interests in Fortuna in 1885, he moved. to Rio Dell, where again he engaged in his trade and continued in the same until 1908, his shop being the only one in Rio Dell. For twenty-eight years he successfully conducted the business in Rio Dell, the farmers coming for miles around to have their work done by him. He sold this business to H. Hansen. During 1894 and 1895 he was engaged in the hotel business. In 1896, his health beginning to fail him, he went to the Mark West springs, in Sonoma county, and remained there one year and was greatly improved in health. He then returned to Humboldt county, but practically retired from active business, leasing his shop for short terms to others. In April, 1901, he purchased a ranch of forty acres in Rio Dell and engaged in dairying, but for the last three years he has leased his ranch and has retired to his home place to rest from the many cares of his active life. In national politics he is a stanch Republican and is a member of the Alton chapter, N. S. G. W. He was married in Rohnerville to Christina Ellen Smith, a native of Jefferson county, Iowa, having been born there September 6, 1860. Her father, James Smith, came to California and engaged in the mines in Nevada county for a few years, later coming to Humboldt county and locating on the Van Dusen, where he engaged in farming. His ranch was located on the South Fork at Bear Buttes and was a fine place of seventeen hundred acres, well adapted to stock-raising. He was a very successful farmer and stock-raiser and was one of the pioneers of the county. To Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Brown have been born three children: Sarah Ellen, deceased ; Thomas H., engaged in dairying on the home place ; and Lloyd, engaged in the livery business at Rio Dell. J. H. Brown's success is entirely due to his own unceasing efforts and labors and he is a man whom every one is proud to call a friend.

THOMAS WILLIAM POWER.—There is no other profession which gives to a man or a woman so great an opportunity for influencing the life of a community as does the profession of school-teaching. This is particularly true of the teacher in the country school, or in the village or small city, where the contact between pupil and teacher is constant and direct both in the school room and in the social life of the community. Judging by this acknowledged standard, it is safe to say that there is not a man in Humboldt county who has had more to do with the shaping of its destinies than has Thomas William Power, pioneer educator, who for nearly forty years has been actively associated with the educational life of the county, and for the past ten years a member of the county board of education, and having just been reappointed for the sixth term.

Mr. Power was born in Guilford Township, near Galena, Jo Daviess County, Ill., March 1, 1849. He was a country lad and received his early education in the schools in the neighborhood of his home. The story of his entrance into his chosen profession well illustrates the keen, wide-awake quality of mind that has made him a factor in the educational life of his chosen county. While he was in the last year of the grammar school, the teacher was taken sick and was obliged to give up the school. Young William immediately conceived the idea that he might pass the teacher's examination and take the place of the former teacher. Thought was at once followed by action. The examination was successfully passed and the youth found himself installed as teacher where he had so lately been a pupil. His ambitions were high, however, and he later completed his studies and fitted himself for his life work by a course at the State Normal School at Plattville, Grant County, Wis. This he accomplished by attending school during the summer and teaching during the winter months.

The first school that Mr. Power taught was in Guilford school district, Jo Daviess County, Illinois. For the next few years he taught in his native county, also teaching one winter in southeastern Dakota and another in Wisconsin. In 1875 he came to California and located in Humboldt County, and March, 1876, began teaching on Dows Prairie. In the fall of 1876 he returned to his native state and that winter taught again in the same school which he had attended as a boy. During that winter he wooed and won Mary A. Collins, also a native of Jo Daviess County, having also been born in Guilford Township. They were married May 8, 1877, and that same year Mr. Power returned to California with his bride, locating at Blue Lake, Humboldt County. Here he purchased a ranch on Mad river, on the opposite side from Blue Lake, and engaged in farming. Though he did not give up his profession, for he taught school at the same time, he carried on farming for ten years on two different farms. In 1879 he taught for a few months in Redwood district and later went to Orleans for a short time, returning the following year to resume his duties in Redwood district. Since 1880 he has been constantly engaged in teaching in Humboldt county and today there is scarcely a section of the county which has not felt his direct influence, while the boys and girls whom he has helped to guide in paths of usefulness are scattered far and wide. A brief resume of his work will give some idea of the extent of his influence in local affairs : In 1881-82 he taught in Bald Hill district; in 1883-84, in Mad River school district; from 1885 to 1888 in the West End district; from 1889 to 1893 in the Maple school district ; in 1894 one term in Blue Lake ; from 1894 to 1896 in Iaqua; from 1897 to 1899 in Trinity ; from 1899 to 1904 in the Eel river district ; in 1904-05 in Grant school district; from 1905 to 1912 he taught in Weitchpec on Klamath river, and in 1912 he began teaching in the Little River school district, continuing until May, 1914, when he retired from teaching, making his home at his residence in Blue Lake, where he is serving as president of the Board of Trustees of the city of Blue Lake, where he is guiding the destinies of the city of his adoption, having resided on his ranch across the river before Blue Lake had sprung into existence.

Mr. Power has preferred teaching to all other occupations, and is a man well fitted for the work he has chosen. He has always taken a keen interest in all public affairs and has ever been active in all movements for the uplift and general welfare of the county. During his almost forty years of teach­ing in California he has witnessed many changes, not only in his own im­mediate locality, but throughout the entire state as well, and he has the satisfaction of knowing that he has done his full share in the accomplish­ment of all worthy progressive movements in Humboldt County.

In addition to his educational work, Mr. Power was supervisor of the third district from 1885 to 1893. He is a Democrat in political affiliation, and has always been interested in local politics from a broad standpoint. He is a member of the Independent Order of Foresters.

Four children have blessed the union of Mr. and Mrs. Power, namely: William, Mary Helen, Florence and Emily. Of these, two have followed in their father's footsteps. Mary Helen, now the wife of F. M. Broderick, was before her marriage a teacher in the public schools for six years, first at Cedar Springs, and the remaining five years at Blue Lake. Emily is at present a teacher in the grammar school at Blue Lake, where her parents make their home.

 

JENS E. CLAUSEN.—For more than forty years a resident of the United States, and for almost that length of time located in Humboldt county and engaged in general farming and the dairy business, Jens E. Clausen is today one of the best known and most honored citizens of Humboldt county. He is one of the genuine old pioneers, and his steady application to business and his splendid judgment and natural business ability have placed him in a position of wealth and influence in the valley. He now makes his home on the island in Pacific township, this county, where he owns about one hundred seventy-four acres of well. improved dairy land.

He is the eldest son of a German banker, Paul Henry Clausen, his mother being Margareta, the first wife of Paul Henry Clausen. She died when the present honored citizen of Humboldt county was five or six years of age, and left four small children, the youngest an infant. Of these, Jens Edward, the subject of this article, and Frederick, now retired, and residing at Husum, Schleswig, Germany, which is the family home, are the only ones living, the third and fourth born having died when very young. The father married a second wife, Louisa Backsen, also of Husum, Schleswig, and by her had eight children, two of whom are now dairymen in Humboldt county, they being Henry and Martin Clausen. The father died at the family home at Pellworm six years ago.

Mr. Clausen was born November 29, 1845, on the island of Pellworm, Schleswig, Denmark, but since 1871 a part of Germany, although his parents were true Germans. He was educated in the German schools and confirmed in the German Lutheran Church. His boyhood was spent on a farm in Germany and he early mastered the rudiments of farm life and labor. It was in 1871, when he was just past twenty-five, that Mr. Clausen resolved to come to the United States. With him, then as now, to resolve was to execute, so at an early date he set sail from Hamburg for the new land, arriving in New York, and after a brief stay there going on to Davenport, Iowa, where he found employment on the farm as a general farm hand, but later he rented a dairy farm for two years, but met with ill success at the time, which was followed by illness brought about by unsatisfactory climatic conditions, and so determined to seek the brighter land of Cali­fornia. Accordingly he came to Dixon, Solano County, in August, 1875, and was soon employed in a meat packing house in San Francisco. It was in 1876 that Mr. Clausen finally came to Humboldt County, and on his arrival there his world wealth consisted of but $10. He soon secured employment on a farm, however, and saved his money. Then he entered into partner­ship with three other young men and they rented and operated an eighty-acre farm together. This was the rather inauspicious entrance of the pros­perous farmer into the business of which he has since made so great a success. It was in 1882 that he made his first purchase of land, buying at that time a tract of forty acres, which formed the nucleus of his present large farm. Later he purchased an additional tract of one hundred forty-eight acres on Eel River, known as the Herrick ranch. For some years he was interested in running the ferry across the Eel river, known as Singley's Ferry, and it was a financial success which was due to his foresight and management, and an account of the operation of the ferry during the storms and floods would make a volume in itself.

The marriage of Mr. Clausen occurred at Eureka in 1884, uniting him with Miss Marie Rumpf, a native of Kemnitz, Brandenburg, Prussia, about twenty-five miles from Berlin. Her father was August Rumpf and her mother Carolina Wolf in her girlhood, both of them being natives of Prussia, where they lived and died. Mrs. Clausen is the youngest of seven children, six girls and one boy. She came to California in 1881 with an older sister, Fredrika (Rumpf) Schoenemann, and located in Humboldt county, the sister now residing on a farm at Table Bluff. Mr. and Mrs. Clausen are the parents of four children, three daughters and one son. Of these the son, Henry August, is the eldest born, being now eighteen years of age. He is engaged in dairying his father's ranch on Paradise Island in partnership with Anton 'Tedsen. Of the daughters, the eldest, Gertrude Louisa, keeps house for her brother; Anna Blanche is a Junior in the Ferndale high school, and Lena Marie resides at home, attending the grammar school in their district.

Both Mr. and Mrs. Clausen are well known and generally liked in their community. They are both members of the German Lutheran church at Ferndale and take an active part in the affairs of that denomination. They are also members of the Fraternal Brotherhood, and Mr. Clausen is a member of the Knights of Pythias, while his wife is a prominent member of the Pythian Sisters. Mr. Clausen has served the interests of the farmers in the county in many ways during his long years of residence here. He was for eight years the president of the Excelsior creamery, and was one of the first men to take an active part in the organization and establishment of this creamery. In the course of events the enterprise reached a point where five hundred dollars more were necessary for the completion of the plans, and, although he had then invested as heavily as he felt he cared to do, Mr. Clausen had the interests of the undertaking so closely at heart that he added the necessary amount to his previous investment. For many years this creamery was one of the most successful in the county, and was eventually sold to Mr. Jensen, of the California Central Creamery Company. He is a Republican in his political views, and has been closely associated with the affairs of his party for many years. He has also been influential in school matters of Ferndale, having served as a trustee of the grammar school, and also as a director of the Ferndale high school. Within recent years Mr. Clausen has been afflicted with a degree of deafness which has necessitated his resignation from both these educational bodies, and also, to a very large extent, his withdrawal from political life and from many lines of commercial enterprise. This is greatly regretted, not only by him­self, but also by his friends and associates in his various lines of activities, for he is a man of splendid abilities and with a great natural aptitude for the successful handling of large business undertakings, and his cooperation and support are greatly missed.

In his home life Mr. Clausen is especially happy. He is hospitable and cheerful, and his wife is a pleasant hostess, while his daughters are musicians, both charming and well bred.       

 

NATHANIEL BULLOCK—The material upbuilding of the city of Eureka, Cal., during the early era of its growth was in large measure pro­moted by Nathaniel Bullock, one of the most prominent citizens of the place, and a man who has always been ready to give of his time and means to the betterment of the city and the advancement of the interests of its residents. Skilled in the substantial carpentering of the old school, a master of his craft, Mr. Bullock was the builder of some of the pioneer houses and business blocks that still stand, visible monuments to his painstaking care and mas­tery of his craft. A few years later, but still in the pioneer period of local development, he embarked in the lumber business and continued in that work for many years. Nor did such lines form the limit of his energy and helpful spirit. On the other hand, he was public spirited in an exceptional degree, filling a number of offices faithfully and well, and even now, though retired from the strenuous struggle of earlier days, he keeps posted concerning every matter of importance and favors with unabated zeal every progressive plan for the further development of city and county.

The Bullock family is of English descent, and the grandfather, Hezekiah Bullock, served in the War of 1812, afterward removing to Michigan, where he spent his last days. The father of Nathaniel Bullock, Benjamin R., was born near New York City, and became a farmer at Yates Center, Orleans County, in the same state, later removing with his family to Michigan, where he cleared and improved a farm and was successfully engaged in business until settling in Detroit, where he died at the age of eighty-four years. His wife was formerly Cynthia Barry, of Scotch descent, and also born near New York City, her death occurring in Orleans County before the family moved west. She was the mother of nine children, of whom Na­thaniel is the third oldest, he having been born at Yates Center, Orleans county, N. Y., September 26, 1831. He was a lad of but six or seven years when the father removed to Lansing, Mich., and in that place he received a public school education and was afterwards apprenticed to the carpenter's trade. From Lansing, he came to California via the Nicaragua route, almost a decade before the transcontinental railroad was in operation, and on the 17th of July, 1860, arrived in Uniontown, now Arcata, in Humboldt county, where for a year he rented land, the following year coming to Eureka, in the same county, where he has made his home ever since, and is now the owner of residence property at No. 314 H street, where he lives in retirement after years of activity spent in carpentering and the manufacture of lumber. In this latter occupation he was associated with Joseph Russ, well known as one of the prominent pioneers of the county, and with others, under the firm name of Russ, Pickard & Co., on Humboldt Bay, of which firm Mr. Bullock was the manager for over twenty years. During that time he was also manager of the Russ Market for Joseph Russ for more than twenty years, after which he held the office of postmaster, having been appointed thereto by President McKinley, and was for many years director in the Humboldt County Bank and the Home Savings Bank. As county coroner and public administrator he was also actively helpful to certain departments of the county work, and through his capable services as road overseer he promoted the building of highways in Humboldt county, none having been laid out before the time of his arrival in the district, Mr. Bullock recognizing from the first the vital importance of well-built roads through this section of the country.

Always stanch in his allegiance to the Republican party, Mr. Bullock has been one of its local leaders and has accomplished much in its interests. His fraternal associations are with the Masons, he having been made a member of the Humboldt Lodge No. 79. Since his retirement from active business life, Mr. Bullock has devoted his time to the administration of his own interests in the California city where he has made his home. By his mar­riage to Sarah M. Huestis, who was born at Buckingham, Va., the daughter of Hon. A. J. Huestis, a pioneer judge of Humboldt county, Mr. Bullock has a family of seven children, namely : Mrs. Minnie Sevier, Mrs. Nellie Libby, Mrs. Blanche A. Snow. of Santa Ana, Cal.; Mrs. Gertrude McMurray of San Francisco, Bertram N., Russ R., a physician in San Francisco, and Miss Edna Bullock, all of whom are residents of Eureka except Mrs. Snow, Mrs. McMurray and Dr. Russ Bullock.

 

GIACOMO FLOCCHINI.—One of the enterprising and successful dairymen of Humboldt county, Cal., who has won his success by close application to the industry he has chosen for his life work, is Giacomo Flocchini, a native of Italy, who has become well and favorably known in the California county where he has made his home.

Born in Ono Degno, in the province of Brescia in northern Italy, Sep­tember 22, 1875, Mr. Flocchini is the son of a farming and teaming con­tractor, Francisco Flocchini, who died in his native land, and Dominica (Dusi) Flocchini, who still lives in Italy. Of their family of nine children, Giacomo is the second in age, the names being as follows ; Andrea, who remains at the old home ; Giacomo, of this review; Anna, now Mrs. J. B. Zanotti of Waddington; Francisco, who lives at Fortuna; Giovanni, who is in the employ of his brother Giacomo ; Nicola, a resident of Crescent City ; Marie, now Mrs. Bacchetti of the last-named city; Celeste B., who is a partner of his brother Giacomo ; and Amato, who also lives at Crescent City. It will thus be seen that all the children except the oldest have made their home in California. Growing up on his father's farm in Italy, Giacomo Flocchini received his education in the local public schools until the age of nine years, after which he spent his time assisting with the work upon the farm, until March, 1904, at which time he removed to California, locating at Eureka. In the same month he went to work on the Dinsmore ranch,, where he continued for a period of three years and nine months, at which time, in the autumn of the year 1907, he started in business for himself, leas­ing the place where he had formerly been employed, which consisted of one hundred twenty-five acres of rich land, where he carries on a successful dairy business, milking a herd of seventy cows, and raising a sufficiency of hay and green feed for his stock. In April, 1915, Mr. Flocchini's brother Celeste became his partner, and in the same year they also leased the old Lynch place at Grizzly Bluff, in. Humboldt County, which comprises one hundred ninety acres, and here it is their intention to operate a dairy with a herd of about eighty cows. The interest taken by Mr. Flocchini in his chosen occupation is in part shown by his active membership in such local organizations as the Ferndale Dairymen's Association and the Ferndale Cow Testing Association, and in his political preferences he is a member of the Republican party.

At Ono Degno, Italy, Mr. Flocchini was married on January 10, 1903, to Miss Lucia Dusi, also a native of that place, and they became the parents of four children, by name, Francisco, Dominica Beatrice, Anna A., and Marie.

 

EUGENE SULLIVAN.—A well known and highly respected citizen of the Eel River valley, Eugene Sullivan has made for himself a reputation there as a successful farmer and dairyman, standing high among men in that industry in Humboldt county, Cal.

Born in County Cork, Ireland, January 15, 1867, Mr. Sullivan was the son of Patrick, a farmer of that county, who died in 1912, and Ellen (Dempsey) Sullivan, who still resides at the old home in Ireland. Of the family of eight children, seven are still living, Eugene being the eldest and brought up on the home farm and educated in the national schools of his country. He remained at home until the year 1889, when he removed to San Francisco, Cal., where he was employed for a short time in teaming, in March of the next year coming to Humboldt County, there finding employment in a dairy near Ferndale. Deciding to go into this business independently, he in 1895 purchased his present place on Cock Robin Island, where he commenced dairying on property comprising twenty-two acres, also renting twenty-two adjacent acres, and milking a herd of twenty-seven cows, for which he raises on his own property an abundance of hay, grain, clover, carrots and beets. One of the original stockholders of the Valley Flower Creamery, he was also for some years a member of the Ferndale Cow Testing Association, and at present holds membership in the Ferndale Dairymen's Association. Politically he is a strong and ardent Democrat, while his fraternal associa­tions are with the Knights of Columbus in Eureka and the Y. M. I. in Fern­dale. He is a member of the Catholic Church in the same city.

The wife of Mr. Sullivan was formerly Miss Mary Conway, who was born at Sacramento, Cal., but grew up near the city of Ferndale. Mr. and Mrs. Sullivan are the parents of four children: Mary P., Eugene P., John D. and Leo S.

 

CORNELIUS THOMPSON.—The life of Cornelius Thompson, a pros­perous stock raiser and dairyman of California, has been spent in this state since infancy, when he made the journey across the plains from Missouri with his mother and relatives. Born in Howard County, Mo., December 17, 1850, he was the son of Joseph Thompson, a farmer in Howard County, who was born in Alabama, and Malinda (Banta) Yates-Thompson, the descendant of one of the prominent old families of Virginia, where she was left a widow with a little family before her marriage with Joseph Thompson. She was the mother of six children in all, the youngest of whom was Cornelius Thompson, whose father was killed by the Indians during a trip across the plains to California in 1849. Undaunted by this tragedy, however, his widow, with her children and a party of relatives, set out upon the same journey in the spring of 1851, traveling by means of ox teams, as was the usual custom in those days. In California she was again married, this time to Stillman Fales, a pioneer and farmer of this state, and after his death continued to make her home with her children, dying in Berkeley at the advanced age of one hundred and three years, having been well and strong up to the last. Her brother, Henry Banta, also attained a great age, living to be one hun­dred and four, exceeding by one year the age of Mrs. Thompson at her death.

Brought up on the farm near Nicholson, Sacramento county, Cal., Cor­nelius Thompson received a good education in the public schools of that vicinity, and at the early age of twelve years began farming for himself. in partnership with his brother, M. J. Thompson, who was sixteen years old. Taking up a ranch near Nicholson, the two boys engaged thereon in farming and stockraising, doing well in their venture. Removing later to Colusa county, they rented land which they devoted to the raising of grain, there­after purchasing three hundred twenty acres, where Mr. Thompson continued to reside until his removal to Humboldt county in 1885, where he located on the Klamath river, where his brother had preceded him. On April 23, 1887, Mr. Thompson was married in Eureka, Cal., to Miss Martha Shelton, and they became the parents of one daughter, Pearl F. Thompson, now the wife of William Peugh, who assists Mr. Thompson in the stock business. They have two children, Wilma Monroe and Neil Thompson. Like her husband, Mrs. Thompson is of a pioneer family, having been born on the Klamath river, the daughter of Abraham and Mary (Hopkins) Shelton, natives of Lynchburg, Va., and Humboldt county, Cal., respectively. Her father was a veteran of the Mexican war, who came to California in 1849 and engaged in gold mining, later becoming a merchant on the Klamath river. The mother died in Humboldt County, and in 1887 the father moved to British Columbia, where he died. For three years after his marriage with Miss Shelton, Mr. Thompson lived near Loleta, after which he located a homestead on Bald Hill, twelve miles east of the town of Orick, where he improved the farm and took up stock raising, also purchasing the adjoining land, thereby acquiring a fine ranch of six hundred forty acres, besides one hundred sixty acres of timber land which he owned, his wife also being the possessor of the same amount of timber land. In 1907 he sold his Bald Hill ranch, and later also the three hundred twenty acres of timber land, and purchased two hundred forty acres, two miles north of Orick, on Prairie creek, which he has trans­formed into a stock and dairy ranch, and together with adjoining land which he has leased, is now operating six hundred acres of property. In 1914 he rented for dairy purposes the lower portion of his lands which he had recently purchased, but still retained the stock ranch. The interest which he takes in educational affairs where he lives is proved by the fact that he was for four terms school trustee in the Bald Hill school district and three terms in the Orick district. Fraternally he is a member of the Humboldt Lodge, No. 77, I. 0. 0. F., and of the Hoopa Tribe, No. 145, I. 0. R. M., while in his political associations he is a supporter of the Republican party.

 

JAMES M. LEAVER.—For the past six years the assistant manager of the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia, one of the largest lumber com­panies on the Pacific coast, J. M. Leaver, Sr., is prominent in public affairs at Scotia, and is recognized as a man of ability and personal power. He is probably the greatest "system" man when it comes to handling lumber that there is now living on the Pacific coast. He has a peculiar ability for the discharge of large affairs, and keeps every detail in his mind at all times, and without apparent effort. He has charge of the construction of buildings and the installing of power engines and machinery connected with this enormous plant. He is an authority and expert in the operation of saw mills, and dry kiln plants. At this time the Pacific Lumber Company has large planing-mills at Oakland and Wilmington, but is now constructing a gigantic planing-mill at Scotia, and will close the mills at Oakland and Wilmington, and all this work will be done at the home plant, under the direction of Mr. Leaver, thus concentrating the work at one place. Since the completion of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad into Eureka, the lumber is all kiln dried before it is shipped in order to save freight charges, and in this particular Mr. Leaver is an expert, having invented the Leaver system of drying redwood, which is patented by him, and which is a decided advantage over other methods. The plans of this great company include the building of ten additional dry kilns, which will give them a total of thirty-eight, there being twenty-eight now in successful operation. This will give them a splendid equipment, and all lumber to be shipped by rail will be kiln dried, thus working an enormous saving in freight rates.

Mr. Leaver is a native of Scotland, born at Glasgow. He came to America when he was about thirty years of age, and made his first start in the lumber business at Buffalo, N. Y., commencing in office work, and working his way up to his present position of responsibility. He has been engaged in this business now for thirty years, and is thoroughly familiar with its details. From Buffalo he went to Saginaw and Bay City, Mich., where he managed a large box factory, and sash and door plants, and from there came to the Pacific coast ten years ago. At first he was with a large lumber company at Sonora, Tuolumne county, and then in the service of the Pacific Lumber Company, starting the plant at Wilmington.

The dry kilns and various other valuable devices for the manufacture of lumber are manufactured by the Leaver Manufacturing Company of Oakland, Cal., of which Mr. Leaver is president and his son James is manager. This company is engaged in introducing the Leaver patented dry­ing system, and is a partnership between father and son. Mr. Leaver, Sr., has invented many useful and valuable devices for various uses and in his work at the Pacific Lumber Company plant at Scotia he has accomplished remarkable savings with electrical and steam devices for the handling of lumber. He is well liked in Scotia, both by his employers and by the men under his management, and has many warm personal friends.

 

HON. B. H. McNEIL.—Capitalist, ex-member of the state legislature, and still active in business, the Hon. B. H. McNeil, of Rohnerville, is a well preserved man of keen intellect, splendid judgment and broad and generous outlook on life in general. His friendship is highly valued by all who know him, and his council and advice are often sought. He has served his home city, his county, and his state with honor and distinction in the law-making body of the commonwealth. He is interested in real estate in Humboldt County, especially near Rohnerville and Fortuna, where he also has varied commercial interests. It is interesting to know that originally Mr. McNeil was ordered to California by his physician for two years, and came reluc­tantly, determined to stay the necessary time and return at the earliest pos­sible moment to his home in Iowa. At the end of the two years, however, he was so thoroughly imbued with the California spirit that he has not cared to return to his former home state.

Mr. McNeil is a native of Ohio, born in Adams county, near Ripley, March 6, 1848. His father, Nelson B. McNeil, was a land-owner and farmer in Ohio, and moved with his family to Iowa in 1855, settling at New London, that state, where he engaged in farming and in the grain business until within a few years of the time of his death at the age of seventy-five years. He was a native of Virginia, but of Scotch descent. His mother's maiden name was Miss Nancy Foster, who came of English and German ancestry. Her brother, Jeremiah Foster, of Kentucky, was a slaveholder and a Whig, a most contradictory combination. But he became convinced of the error of slavery and freed his slaves before the war. There were six children in the McNeil family, of which the present honored citizen of Rohnerville was the fifth born. One of the brothers, Samuel, enlisted in the Union army during the Civil War and was killed during the siege of Vicksburg. The oldest brother, Jeremiah, is still living at New London, Iowa, at about the age of seventy-five years, he being the only other living son.

B. H. McNeil was seven years old when his parents moved to Iowa, and there he grew to maturity, attending the public schools and later taking a business course at Burlington, Iowa, where he learned telegraphy. He then became a telegraph operator on the line of the C. R. I. & P. Railroad, being in the train-dispatcher's office at Burlington. He worked very hard and, being ambitious to rise in his chosen line, overtaxed his strength and his health was broken. The attending physician ordered him to go to California and live in the open air for two years, and accordingly he came west, accom­panied by his wife, by way of the Northern Pacific and Central Pacific to Marysville, near Sacramento. There he went to work on his father-in-law's farm near Marysville, remaining for a year, and then going to Butte creek, where he preempted one hundred sixty acres, and after improving it, pur­chased an additional tract of the same size from the railroad company. He was located here at the expiration of the prescribed two years, but was by that time an enthusiastic booster for California, with no desire to return to Iowa and a telegrapher's desk. Mr. McNeil's ranch was near Gridley and he farmed there until 1882, when he disposed of his property and went to Los Angeles, where for a number of years he engaged in the building and contracting business, making a great success of his undertaking. In 1887 he came north again, locating this time in Humboldt county where he bought the furniture and undertaking business then owned by Seth Crabtree, one of the pioneer settlers of the county. He also became postmaster at Rohnerville in 1887, serving in that capacity for ten years. In 1903 he became deputy internal revenue collector of the fourth district, serving until 1912, when that district was merged with the first district. Mr. McNeil owns extensive property in Rohnerville and vicinity, and also holds stock in var­ious banks in Eureka. He is also half owner of the cigar factory at Fortuna, the firm being known as Smith & McNeil. They manufacture a line of well known and popular cigars, probably the favorite being the justly popular "Fortuna", a 5-cent cigar. Other brands are the "Large Americana", the "Small Americana", "Porto Rico", and "La Diesta." Mr. McNeil is himself on the road for the firm, selling to the Humboldt county trade, among whom he is a prime favorite.

Mr. McNeil was elected to the state legislature in 1900, and served in the Assembly of 1901, and was re-elected in 1902, serving in the Assembly of 1903. He made an enviable record for himself and won the praise and appreciation of his constituency. He was particularly interested in the law which allowed the state to lease the China Basin, in San Francisco, to the Santa Fe Railroad Company, and it was through his strenuous support of this bill that it eventually was passed, although he was not its author. He introduced a bill for an appropriation for the Steel Head Hatchery at Wey­mouth, in Humboldt county, which became a law ; and together with State Senator Selvage introduced jointly a bill for the riprapping of the banks of Eel river, which also was passed. It is a noteworthy fact that this ener­getic legislator succeeded in having passed every bill that he introduced, and as the' interests of Humboldt county were very near to his heart it goes without saying that his home county profited by his service. He was rec­ognized at Sacramento as a man of ability and was placed on many important committees. Among these were the committee on Agriculture, of which he was chairman; the committee on Commerce and Navigation; and also the committee on Fish and Game, this being in 1901, while even more important posts were assigned him in 1903. Mr. McNeil was and is a loyal Republican, having unwavering faith in the Grand Old Party and its ability to steer the affairs of the state and nation in ways of prosperity and peace. He has always been interested in the cause of education and has served almost continuously as school trustee of Rohnerville district since 1887.

The marriage of Mr. McNeil was solemnized in Iowa in 1868, uniting him with Miss Hattie Miller, born near New London, Iowa. A son was born to them in Iowa, William A., who is now postmaster at Rohnerville. He is married to Miss Mamie Reinhart, and they have one child, a son, Brice, aged twenty-one years, and an employee of the Pacific Lumber Company, at Scotia, where he has a clerkship in the office. This grandson is a favorite of Mr. McNeil, Sr., and they are great friends and companions. After coming to California a daughter was born to Mr. and Mrs. McNeil, she being Clara, now the wife of Fred Smith, a partner with her father in the cigar manu­facturing business, and also a partner in the hardware firm of Leach & Smith, at Fortuna. They have one child, a daughter, Reva.

Mr. McNeil is a favorite throughout Humboldt county, and is one of the best known traveling men of that part of the state. He is prominent in Masonic circles, being a member of the Eel River Lodge, No. 147, F. & A. M., at Fortuna, of which he has twice been master. Both he and Mrs. McNeil are members of the Eastern Star and take an active part in the affairs of that order. Mr. McNeil is also keenly interested in all that pertains to the welfare of Rohnerville and is always to be found in the van of any movement for the up-building and improvement of the city and community. He is an ardent advocate of education and has done much for the cause of the schools of the county. Mrs. McNeil is highly esteemed throughout the com­munity and is loved by all who know her.

 

CHARLES D. BUCHANAN.—As master mechanic for the Pacific Lum­ber Company at Scotia, Charles D. Buchanan occupies one of the important positions with that great corporation, the wonderful smoothness with which the machinery in their various plants runs being largely due to the skill and efficiency of this man. This company has some $14,000,000 invested in its plant at Scotia and the care of all this vast machinery and the installation of the new machinery which is constantly being added is no mean task. To the lay observer it seems an almost impossible thing that one mind should grasp the multitude of intricate details that must be involved in so stupen­dous an undertaking, but to the clever master mechanic it is all in the day's business. He is a man of superior intellect, well trained and perfectly poised, with a knowledge of machinery that places him in perfect accord with every detail of his work. It is especially worthy of note that the larger of the company's mills, Mill "B," is known to be the most smoothly running mill on the coast, and that here as nowhere else the maximum of efficiency is realized from the minimum of outlay and labor.

Mr. Buchanan is a native of California, born at Cuffey's Cove, Men­docino County, December. 31, 1879. His father, Colin James Buchanan, was a native of Canada, born in Nova Scotia. He was a lumberman there and later in Maine, where he was known as the best axman in the state. He came to Point Arena, Mendocino County, in the early days and went to work in the lumber woods on, the Garcia river. He was married to Miss Mary McMasters in Mendocino County, the bride being a native of Maine, where she had been the sweetheart of Mr. Buchanan before he came to California. After his marriage Mr. Buchanan, Sr., engaged in the livery business at Cuf­fey's Cove, and later at Greenwood. He retired from business at Green­wood, where he and his wife now make their home, two of their sons con­ducting the business. Mr. Buchanan also owns a large ranch near Green­wood which he now rents. There were seven children born of this union, five of whom grew to maturity and are now well known in Mendocino and Humboldt counties. They are : May, engaged in teaching school in Mendocino county ; Charles D., the subject of this sketch; Colin J. Jr., engaged in the livery business at Greenwood ; Edward, who died in July, 1913, at the age of twenty-nine years ; Hugh, who was drowned seven years ago in the Navarro river ; Flora E., a teacher at Albion, Mendocino county ; and Frank, who is in the livery business in Greenwood, in partnership with his brother, Colin J.

The boyhood days of Charles D. Buchanan were spent in Greenwood, where he assisted his father in the livery business, and attended school until he was sixteen years of age. He then spent a year at the Sacramento Insti­tute, which is a branch of St. Mary's College, of Oakland. Following this he was apprenticed to learn the machinist's trade under James Britt, then foreman for the L. E. White Lumber Company at Greenwood, where he served an apprenticeship and then became a journeyman machinist. He worked in different shops for various companies at San Francisco and in the lumber mills of Mendocino county, always with the greatest success. In 1902 he was married in San Francisco to Miss Louise Elizabeth Meade, a native of Albion, Mendocino county, who was orphaned at the age of six years, and was reared by an aunt, Mrs. J. Conway, at Greenwood. For two years before and five years after his marriage Mr. Buchanan was a machinist for the Union Lumber Company, during which time he purchased a resi­dence property there which he still owns. In 1907 he went over to Albion and became machinist for the Albion Lumber Company mills, and in 1908 was promoted to the position of master mechanic, which position he held until 1910, when he was offered the position of master mechanic for the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia, which he accepted, assuming his new duties in December of that year, since which time he has held this position of responsibility and trust.

Mr. Buchanan is very popular in Scotia, both with his employers and with his co-workers in the mills and shops, and among his many personal friends. His work in the mills brings him in contact with the employees of practically every department, and his own workmen are loyal to him, almost to a fault. He is possessed of wonderful executive ability and is a true leader of men. Both he and his wife are well known socially, and have many warm friends. They have three children: Delphine Ruth; Charles D., Jr., and Colin E. Mr. Buchanan is a member of the Catholic church and an influ­ential member of the Knights of Columbus. In his political connections he is a stanch Republican, although in local questions he follows his own judg­ment as to the men and measures in question. He is progressive and broad minded and keenly alive to all that will benefit the community.

 

JOSEPH C. BARKDULL.—Although a native of Oregon, Joseph C. Barkdull is a California pioneer of the truest type, having come to California from his native state with his parents in 1860, when he was but two years of age. They located in Humboldt County, in the Mattole valley, where his father became the owner of Barkdull ridge stock range, and since that time Mr. Barkdull has been a resident of this county, and is one of her most loyal and enthusiastic supporters. He owns much valuable property at this time, and is residing at Rio Dell, where he has a valuable farm of thirty acres. Other property includes two well improved ranches of forty acres each at Pepperwood, a stock range of one hundred sixty acres back of Pepperwood, and three hundred twenty acres in the upper Mattole valley.

Mr. Barkdull was born at Butte Disappointment, near the city of Eugene, Lane County, Ore., April 29, 1858. His father, John L. Barkdull, was a native of Ohio, and crossed the plains to California in 1850, locating at Hangtown, of early day fame, and was one of the gold miners of that period. In 1853 he went to Oregon and settled at Butte Disappointment where he engaged in stock-raising. While there he met and married Miss Nancy Bagley, the daughter of Eli and Nancy (Belt) Bagley. The parents of Mrs. Barkdull were both natives of Indiana, who came first to Iowa, and later to Missouri, eventually crossing the plains and locating in Oregon. There were ten children in the family of Mr. Barkdull's parents of whom he was the second born. They were all well known in Humboldt County, where most of the living members have been, or are now, associated in bus­iness activities of various sorts. They are : (1) Enoch J., who died at the age of forty years, at Table Bluff, where he was engaged in ranching, he was married to Miss Delia Smith of Lake county, and they had five children; (2) Joseph C., the subject of this sketch ; (3) Mendocino, who was the first white girl born south of Cape Mendocino, in Humboldt county, and is now the wife of Mr. Breitweiser, a contractor, at Alameda, Cal.; (4) Nancy, who died in San Francisco ; (5) Mary, who died at the age of sixteen years ; (6) Sarah, residing in Oakland, and the wife of Charles Hamilton, a car­penter; (7) E. R., residing at Eureka, where he is secretary and bookkeeper for the Humboldt Brewing Company ; (8) Calvin, who is in Alaska, located near Petersburg, where he owns the hotel and valuable gold mines and is also engaged in raising silver, black and blue foxes, having five hundred in all, and having rented for the purpose two islands near Petersburg, and who is the first to have made a success of fox farming, and he is preparing a book on the subject for the government ; (9) George, who was accidentally killed by a horse at the age of twelve years, and (10) Daniel, who died at the age of six. The father was engaged in farming until the time of his death at the age of seventy ; the mother having passed away in 1885, at the age of forty-four years.

It was in 1860 that the parents of Mr. Barkdull came to Humboldt County and located in the Mattole valley. During the years from 1862 to 1866 they ran a dairy farm, making butter and cheese which they sent over the mountains to the mines at Weaverville. They remained in the valley continuously up to 1874, save for a brief time when the Indians were on the warpath and Mr. Barkdull, Sr., was obliged to seek refuge for himself and family in Eureka. At this time the Indians killed Mr. McNutt and corralled all of the Barkdull cattle, killing all the calves and yearlings. Later the father bought a ranch at Table Bluff, where Loleta now stands.

Young Joseph Barkdull attended the public schools at Table Bluff and later Forrester's Business College in Chico. When he was twenty-one years of age he went to Sacramento where he entered machine shops, but not caring for the machinist's trade, he commenced buying and selling cattle, horses and mules in the Sacramento valley, sometimes bringing them over into Humboldt County. He rented his father's farm on "Niggerhead", and fol­lowed this business until in 1892, when illness necessitated his leaving the low country around Loleta and he removed to Pepperwood, where he pur­chased forty acres which he cleared and improved. Next he bought the old J. H. Montgomery farm at Pepperwood, which he cleared and improved, and afterward bought the range land. While on the Pepperwood ranch he kept a stopping place for travellers and stock, known as the Travellers' Inn ; he ran this for ten years in connection with the farms and it became well known. In 1907 he located on his present place at Rio Dell, where he follows stock-raising.

The marriage of Mr. Barkdull occurred in 1888, uniting him with Miss Minnie Brown, a native of Humboldt County, and the daughter of Thomas Brown, of Grizzly Bluff, one of the pioneers of the county, going through the Indian wars, having come to California across the plains in 1854. Mr. and Mrs. Barkdull live very quietly at their home at Rio Dell, where they dispense a charming, old-fashioned hospitality, and have many warm friends and ac­quaintances in their section of the county. In his political affiliations Mr. Barkdull is a republican and is one of the influential men of the vicinity. He is well informed on all questions of the day and is an independent and force­ful thinker, being especially well posted on all local issues of importance. He was made a Mason in Eel River Lodge No. 147, F. & A. M., and with his wife is a member of Rohnerville Chapter, No. 76, 0. E. S.

 

JAMES THOMAS CLEARY.—The popular young manager of the Metropolitan Redwood Lumber Company's store at Metropolitan, James Thomas Cleary, is a man of brain and brawn, clever, capable, and energetic, with a pleasant and genial manner which draws and holds friends and so adds greatly to his value to the company in his present capacity. His bus­iness ability is well above the average and his management of the company store is capable and efficient, it having been especially profitable under his supervision. He is also postmaster at Metropolitan, this office occupying space in the store building. Mr. Cleary received his appointment as post­master April 1, 1911, and since that time has discharged the duties of this office with ability and dispatch. Both he and his wife are deservedly popu­lar with a wide circle of friends and are among the most prominent people in this thriving little town.

Mr. Cleary is a native of Tennessee, having been born at Aetna, March 17, 1888. He remained in Tennessee until he was six years of age, and then went with his parents to Marquette, Michigan, where they remained until he was sixteen. In 1904 they came to California, locating first at Sacramento, living later for a time in Los Angeles, and eventually coming to Humboldt County and settling at Eureka. Young James Cleary attended school first in Michigan, and later in Sacramento and Los Angeles, completing his edu­cation by a course in the Eureka Business College. His ability as a stenog­rapher and bookkeeper secured him his first position with the. Metropolitan Redwood Lumber Company, and his capabilities and careful application to business resulted in his promotion to his present position of responsibility and trust ; Mr. Cleary has enjoyed some very unique experiences for a young man, being something of an adventurer and having traveled extensively. In 1906 he joined a whaling expedition bound for the Arctic, shipping from San Francisco for the Herschild Islands. They went a thousand miles into the Arctic and during their cruise of nine months secured six large bow-head whales. That the trip was one of thrilling experiences and narrow escapes goes without saying.

The marriage of Mr. Cleary occurred. in July, 1911, uniting him with Miss Alice L. Thompson, a native of Humboldt county, and the daughter of Robert Thompson, of Metropolitan, one of the well known farmers of this part of the county, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work. Mr. and Mrs. Cleary have two children, Leota Jane and James David. Mr. Cleary is a Democrat in his political associations, and takes an active and influential part in all local affairs. He is a man of sound judgment and advanced views and follows the dictates of independent thought rather than strict party lines, and is always to be found advocating local progress, social betterment and improvements of a permanent character, building for the future rather than for the present. He has always been active in fraternal affairs, and is a member of the Eureka Lodge of Elks, and also of the Knights of Columbus, at Eureka.

 

ROBERT THOMPSON.—Although for many years prominently associated with the lumber interests of Humboldt and Butte counties, Robert Thompson turned farmer more than a quarter of a century ago, and since that time has been a tiller of the soil, meeting with splendid success. He purchased his first •farm in this county in 1888 at Pepperwood, which he sold in 1892, and soon thereafter bought his present place near Metropolitan, on what was then known as McDiarmidt prairie. He is engaged in general farming and dairying, keeping a string of high grade Jersey cows, and a registered Jersey bull. He is a patron of the Grizzly Bluff creamery, and separates his cream at home. His home place is one of the most attractive in the vicinity, and all the improvements have been made by Mr. Thompson. At the time of purchase the land was entirely unimproved and largely covered with a heavy growth of pepperwood trees. It is now under a high state of cultivation, with comfortable dwelling, barns, and other improvements.

Mr. Thompson is a native of Canada, born in Huron County, Ontario, where he was reared and educated. His father was Robert Thompson, a native of County Antrim, Ireland, where he met and married Miss Sarah Morrow, also of Irish birth and parentage. They became the parents of seven children, three born in Ireland and four in Canada, Robert, the subject of this sketch being the fifth born. They were : Rachael, who was married to Andrew Elliott, and died in Canada in 1913, leaving six children; W. J., a carriage-maker and horseman, who owned several of the finest trotting horses in Canada, where he died in 1913; Margaret, who was the wife of John Thompson, and died, leaving a family of five children ; Dora, now the widow of Frank Sannigan, residing in New London, Canada ; Robert ; Samuel, a farmer of Huron County, Canada; and Thomas, deceased. Robert was educated in the public schools of Ontario, where the parents continued to live during their lifetime, the father passing away at the age of seventy-two, the mother outliving him by ten years, and dying at the age of seventy-five.

It was in the fall of 1875 that Mr. Thompson finally left Ontario and came to the United States, coming at once to California and locating in Butte County, where for nine years he was identified with the lumber interests of that section. While there he was married to Miss Augusta Lemm, the daughter of Charles and Mary (Stealman) Lemm, both natives of Ger­many. Her parents were married in New York state and came to California about 1858, locating in Butte county, where her father engaged in teaming and freighting over the mountains, going from Butte county to Nevada. Her father died in Butte County at the age of fifty-eight years, her mother living to be sixty-five. There were ten children in their family, only three of whom are now living, Mrs. Thompson being the fifth born. She has borne her husband three children, all now residing in Humboldt county, where they are well and favorably known: Albert, married to Miss Bertha John­ston, is engaged in dairying on the home place; Charles is a partner with J. C. Brunner in the Elite Garage at Ferndale; and Alice is the wife of James T. Cleary, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this edition, he being the manager of the Metropolitan Redwood Lumber Company's store, and also postmaster at Metropolitan.

After his marriage Mr. Thompson came to Humboldt county, where he was in the employ of John Vance in the lumber business on Mad River, until 1887, when he came to Scotia, his being the first family to settle there. He was with the Pacific Lumber Company in various positions of responsibility for many years and was well acquainted with the early men of the company, including Messrs. Curtiss, Rigby, Paxton, and others. In the spring of 1888 he bought the Barkdull place at Pepperwood, this being his first ranch in Humboldt county. He improved this property and continued to make it his home until 1892, when he sold it and bought twenty acres on the McDiarmidt prairie, which, together with an additional five acres bought later, form his present home place. He usually votes the Republican ticket, but is essentially independent in his inclinations, and forms his own opinions as to what will be most beneficial to the community.

 

ROLLA BRYANT, SR.—The Bryant family is one of great refinement and Rolla Bryant was of the same blood as the famous poet, William Cullen Bryant. He was born in Richmond, Vt., July 15, 1828, and was the son of Seth Thomas and Lodoski (Pierce) Bryant. Until the age of twenty, he lived on his father's farm and then followed the carpenter's trade until 1852. With his eldest brother, Calvin, he then started west, sailing from New York on May 2, 1852, and landing at Aspinwall on May 14. Traveling by train, flat-boat and on foot, they reached Panama, where they remained three days, leaving there on a steamship which brought them to San Fran­cisco on June 16.

Mr. Bryant engaged in mining at the North Yuba River, twelve miles below Downieville. It was here that he met Chris Luther who became his lifelong friend. Together they went to Camptonville, Yuba County, where they operated a hydraulic mine, in those days a dangerous business, and Mr. Bryant and a companion once almost lost their lives by the caving in of the banks while engaged in this work. Mr. Bryant could claim the dis­tinction of being the builder of the first tunnel for hydraulic mining in the state of California. This tunnel was five hundred feet in length and sup­ported by heavy timbers to prevent accidents which were of common occurrence.

In 1856 Mr. Bryant married Elizabeth Josephine Mallory who was born in Pennsylvania and had spent some of the earliest years of her life in Tazewell County, Ill. Here her father, William Mallory, had practiced law and engaged in farming, dying when his little daughter was only five years old. Her mother, Malissa Stephens Mallory, left her in a school in Jefferson, Grant County, Wis., and crossed the plains to California in 1852, settling at Camptonville, in Yuba county. Here her daughter joined her in 1854, having traveled across the plains at the age of fourteen with a brother and a number of friends. In 1856 the mother moved to Humboldt County, where she was married to Seth Chisholm, an old-time supervisor of the county.

Mr. and Mrs. Rolla Bryant were the parents of eleven children: Cyrus Edwin, a farmer, owns a part of the old Bryant place; William Mallory, blacksmith and dairyman, lives at the Bryant homestead, and has three children and three grandchildren, his children being Mrs. Eva Garner of Ferndale, Rolla Theodore of Alton, and Maimie Bryant Frost of Fortuna; George Ralph, the third child of Rolla Bryant, died at the age of six years; Albert B., farming part of the old homestead, married in Kansas City, Mrs. Louise Wilson ; Adelinda Isabel, died at the age of nineteen ; Orlena Malissa married E. E. Cornell of Ferndale, foreman on the state highway, and mechanic and filer, they have two children, Edwin Bryant and Lathor ; Della Josephine, wife of Charles Luther, manager of Russ Market, Eureka; Stella M. died at five years of age; Seth died in infancy; Rolla, Jr., and Edna Leona live at home.

After his marriage Mr. Bryant continued to live in Yuba county for two years. Then in 1858, with his wife and one child, he sailed from San Francisco for Humboldt County. Owing to rough weather, they were landed at Trinidad, whence they went at once to the Eel River Valley, and Mr. Bryant bought the farm which continued to be his home until his death. He died at his home at Alton, on the ninth of April, 1911, and is survived by his widow and seven children. Mr. Bryant also left a sister, Mrs. Eliza Drew, of Boston, Mass., and three brothers, George E. Bryant of Lowell, Mass.; James H. Bryant of Williston, Vt., and William K. Bryant of Richmond, Vt.

Mr. Bryant was charitable and just to his fellow men, and in business he was the soul of honor. His is a name that will be remembered and respected by his friends and by the dwellers in this western country which he helped to build.

 

SHERMAN A. MILLER.—Although a resident of Scotia but a com­paratively few years, Sherman Miller, now justice of the peace, is one of the best known men in the township and exceptionally popular. He is a Republican and takes an active interest in the affairs of his party, whether local, state or national, and is an acknowledged power in the political sit­uation at Scotia. He is also well known in a business way and stands very high in commercial circles.

Mr. Miller is a native of Tennessee, born at Blue Springs, Hamilton County, May 5, 1865. When he was three years of age his parents removed to Kansas, locating in Wyandotte County, where the father engaged in farm­ing. There Sherman grew to young manhood, attending the public schools of the district and assisting his father on the farm. In 1887, when he was twenty-two years of age, he came to Oregon, in company with his father, and there found employment as a farm hand for a time, and later went into business for himself in Portland, where he owned and conducted a barber shop, which he opened in 1889. Later, in 1891, he went to Hillsboro, where he also owned and conducted a barber shop, meeting with great success, and remaining until 1895. He has been at various places on the coast for periods of varying length, generally working at his trade of barber, having spent some time at Seattle and Ellensburg, Wash., Portland and Hillsboro, Ore., San Francisco, Oakland and Scotia. Mr. Miller came to California in 1900, and has spent most of the intervening time in this state. He owns a fine residence property in Oakland, where he made his home for some time, and where he was married to Miss Zua Guider, of San Francisco, in 1907. Mr. and Mrs. Miller have five children as follows: Pearly, Edith A., Arvilla, Ila and Sherma.

When Mr. Miller first came to Scotia he engaged in the barber business, opening a small jewelry department as a side line. In this latter line he prospered, and in 1906 he went to San Francisco and learned the watch repairing business, and on returning he enlarged his stock of jewelry and has since that time made this his specialty. He now carries a complete line of jewelry, silverware and watches and also handles the Eastman kodaks. His stock is all high grade and every article that he sells is guaranteed to be up to standard and quality. This stock is valued at more than $4,000.

Mr. Miller is very popular with his many friends and political constit­uents, and is especially well liked in his official capacity. He is a member of the Woodmen of the World, being affiliated with the lodge at Seattle.

 

J. O. PERMENTER.—Descended from old Southern families on both his paternal and maternal side, and a native of Texas himself, J. 0. Permenter has won his way up in the lumber industry in California through sheer force of character, industry and application. He now occupies the responsible position of mill foreman for mill "B", of the Pacific Lumber Company, at Scotia, where he has been employed for a number of years, his present posi­tion being the result of the splendid service rendered by him in minor capac­ities for this company, his promotions following each other with unfailing regularity. Mill "B" is one of the largest lumber mills on the coast, having a capacity of 200,000 feet per ten-hour day. It is also one of the most thor­oughly modern and best equipped of the coast mills, and acknowledged to be the best managed and smoothest running as well.

Mr. Permenter was born in Moody, Bell County, Texas, September 20, 1883. His father, M. F. Permenter, was a native of Mississippi and descended from an old South Carolina family, while his mother, Sarah E. Barefoot, was a native of Arkansas, her family being originally from Mississippi. They were the parents of a family of seven children, six sons and one daughter, the subject of this sketch being the eldest born. The father was killed in an accident at Bakersfield, February 20, 1914, at that time being a resident of Lerdo, Kern County, this state, where the mother still makes her home. He was fifty-seven at the time of his death. The boyhood days of J. 0. Permenter were spent in Texas, and when eighteen years of age he removed with his family to New Mexico where they engaged in farming. When he was twenty years of age he left the family environs and came to California, locating in Humboldt County, where he engaged in the lumbering industry. He was first with the Northern Redwood Company at Korbel, and later went to Glendale where he was with the Minor Mill and Lumber Company until November, 1904, when illness in his family necessitated his return to New Mexico. He remained there until August, 1905, when he returned to California, locating at Bakersfield, where he found employment in the machine shops at Kern, working for the Southern Pacific Railroad. In April of the following year, however, he returned to Humboldt County and again was engaged by 'the Northern Redwood Company at Korbel where he went to work in the lumber mill. From that time until he came to Scotia and entered the employ of the Pacific Lumber Company in April, 1910, Mr. Permenter was variously occupied in different capacities with different lum­ber companies of Humboldt county, always being promoted for the quality and quantity of his service and leaving one position only to accept a better one with another company. He was with the Hammond Lumber Company in 1908, at Sonoma, with the Minor Mill and Lumber Company at Glendale, then with the Little River Valley Lumber Company, at Little River, from which position of manager of the wharves, he came to Scotia and entered the employ of the Pacific Lumber Company, first as night foreman of the old mill yards, and when mill "B" was completed in the fall of 1910 he was transferred to that place, where he has since remained. For a time he was at the sorting table, and after two and one-half years he was made foreman, which position he has since filled with more than ordinary satisfaction to the management, and also to the men employed under him. Mr. Permenter knew no one when he came to Humboldt county, and his success has been in no way due to influence or preference, but has been based alone on ability and application to business.

The marriage of Mr. Permenter took place in Eureka, January 1, 1911, uniting him with Miss Bea Bolsen, of that city. They have become the parents of one child, a daughter, Muriel. Mr. Permenter is very popular in Scotia where he has many warm friends. He is an influential figure in the fraternal life of the community, being a member of several of the most im­portant lodges, including the Knights of Pythias, Scotia Lodge, No. 310, of which he is chancellor-commander, and also Odd Fellows, in Blue Lake Lodge, No. 347, of which he is past noble grand. In his political views he is a Democrat and a strong party man. He is broad minded and progressive, is deeply appreciative of any movement that will work for the betterment of the community, and in all local questions of public interest he gives his aid to the right men and measures rather than the strict party endorsement.

 

ROBERT McINTOSH.—A native of Restigouche county, New Bruns­wick, where he was born July 24, 1859, Robert McIntosh is of Scotch de­scent, the son of John McIntosh, a native of Perthshire, Scotland, and his wife Catherine (Dutch) McIntosh, who was born in New Brunswick, of Scotch parents. The grandfather, Robert McIntosh, was a ship builder of Scotland, who brought his family to New Brunswick when the father of Robert McIntosh was but eighteen years of age. Having learned his father's trade, the young man continued in that occupation with his father in the new country, continuing alone in the business for many years after his father's decease, during the latter part of his life being engaged in farming. His wife, coming to California in later years, died in Eureka, this state.

Of the family of seven children, Robert McIntosh was the third oldest, and was brought up on the home farm and educated in the public schools of the neighborhood. In the autumn of the year 1879 he came to Wisconsin, where he secured employment in the woods, and also across the line in the Michigan woods. In 1880 he removed to Atchison County, Mo., and in the spring of 1881 to Placer county, Cal., later going to Sacramento in this state, in the fall of the same year moving to Eureka, Cal., where he was employed in logging in the woods, for many years holding the place of head log fixer. Meantime he had located a homestead of one hundred sixty acres on Prairie creek, above Orick, in the same county, where he has since made his home, and began at that time to make improvements thereon; finally proving up on the property about ten years ago, he resigned his work in the woods and has since spent his time on his ranch, which consists of one hundred fifty-two acres, he having sold eight acres of the estate. Mr. McIntosh is a busy man, for besides having improved his homestead, he has erected a blacksmith's shop on his land, where he does much work in that line, as well as engaging in the raising of stock upon his ranch. Political interests also occupy a part of his time and attention, he being well known as a loyal supporter of the principles of the Republican party, and he enjoys the esteem and good will of all with whom he comes in contact.

 

GIOCONDO CELLI.—A native of Italy, where he was born in the city of Pescia, province of Lucca, in Toscano, January 18, 1876, Giocondo Celli, now the proprietor of the New Colombo Hotel, at Eureka, Cal., an enterpris­ing man, liberal and well liked in the California town where he has chosen to make his home, was the son of Riccardo Celli, an Italian farmer, and was brought up as a farmer's boy in that country, receiving his education in the public schools and working on his father's farm until mustered into the Italian army. There he served the required time and was honorably dis­charged, and, having heard good reports of better opportunities in America from countrymen returning from the United States, Mr. Celli was seized with a desire to try his fortune in the new world.

In 1902, therefore, Mr. Celli came to Chicago, Ill., where he was em­ployed on railroad construction work, three years later removing to San Francisco, Cal., thence going to Eureka, where he immediately found work with the Santa Fe, now the Northwestern Pacific Railroad company, and for the three years following was engaged in construction work on the Scotia bluff, which has a record of being a very dangerous piece of work for the men employed thereon. Mr. Celli himself had several narrow escapes from being buried by the sliding of the overburden during the construction work, when slides thereabouts rendered the safety of the men most precarious. For a while Mr. Celli ran a hotel at Shively, Cal., and then made a trial of ranching, but deciding on hotel management as the most profitable occupa­tion for himself, in 1913 he purchased the New Colombo Hotel, on First Street, Eureka, of which he has since remained the proprietor, and in his chosen line of business has met with the success due his endeavors and enjoys the esteem of his townspeople.

The marriage of Mr. Celli took place in his native land, uniting him with Miss Ida Fantozi, who was also born in that country, and they became the parents of seven children, namely, Renato, Inez, Annie, Argia, Riccardo, Giocondo and Ida.

 

BATTISTE TOMASINI.—Having been born and brought up on his father's farm in Italy, where he became thoroughly conversant with dairying as it is carried on in that country, it is small wonder that Battiste Tomasini, now a resident of Trinidad, Cal., has brought to the new country with him a proficiency in that art which has easily placed him at the head in that line of occupation in his district. The father of Mr. Tomasini is Pietro Tomasini, a farmer and dairyman in the Alps, where he is still actively engaged in the making of butter and cheese on a large scale, also serving as one of the town trustees, his wife being Santa Bachetti Tomasini. Of their nine children, Battiste is the third in age, and until he had passed his seventeenth birthday he remained in his native country, where he attended the local schools and learned the dairying trade from his father.

In 1903 Mr. Tomasini removed to San Francisco and came on imme­diately to Humboldt county, upon his arrival finding employment in a dairy at Arcata, after which he came to Eureka. For two years he worked in the woods, but determining to carry on the dairy business independently, this being the occupation in which he felt the greatest interest, he rented a ranch at Loleta, Cal., where for a year he conducted a dairy consisting of fifty cows. Selling the lease on this property, he returned to Italy for a visit to his old home, remaining there nine months, during which time he was mar­ried, on July 27, 1910, to Miss Regina Bonomi, also a native of Brescia and a daughter of Bartolo Bonomi, a farmer in that district, Mr. Tomasini him­self having been born in Liverno, Brescia, on February 27, 1885. In Sep­tember, 1910, taking with him his bride, he left his native land for California once more, coming direct to Humboldt county, which had been his home during his former stay in California. Here, in December, 1910, in partner­ship with Paul Grazioli, he leased the John Plitsch place at Stone Lagoon, where the two partners are now operating a large dairy, milking eighty cows, and also carry on stockraising to a large extent. Here, on the ranch of twenty acres, which is nearly all bottom land, they are meeting with much success in their business, being enterprising men provided with the best modern means for carrying on the same. The milk from their ranch is separated by gas engine power, the cream being shipped to the California Central Creamery Company at Eureka.

In his political interests Mr. Tomasini is a supporter of the Republican party. He is the father of two sons, namely James and Peter, and in his adopted home in California is well liked and respected as a progressive man in his chosen line of business.

 

EDWIN HORACE CAMERON.—Although a resident of California since the year 1868, having made his name well known in the lumber indus­try in this state, Edwin Horace Cameron is of Canadian birth and, as his name implies, of Scotch ancestry, the name of Cameron being one that is prominent in the history of Scotland. In that country his father, George W. Cameron, was born in the town of Thurso in 1818, his grandfather, John Cameron, also of Thurso, having been an adjutant in the English army, stationed in Canada, where he resided with his family until the time of his death. His son, George W., was only a lad at the time of his coming to Canada. where he received his education in the public schools and followed lumbering, first as superintendent of one of the Gilmour Company's mills at the town of Hull, and later, with his brother, John 0., building a saw mill and engaging in the manufacture of lumber at Thurso, Que., a place which they named from the town of their birth in Scotland, and where they made their home, also erecting and operating a mill at North Nation, Que. A large lumber manufacturer for his time, George W. Cameron continued in that business until his death, amassing what was considered a fortune in those days. He was known as a kind, liberal and enterprising man, philan­thropic, in that, besides educating his own children well, he also provided many other young men with the means of securing a college education. In his religious associations, he was a member of the Baptist Church. The wife of George W. Cameron was Frances Baldwin, a native of the state of Connecticut, and they were the parents of six sons and one daughter, of whom only three are now living, Edwin Horace being the only one of the family making his home in California.

The third in order of birth, Edwin Horace Cameron was born in Hull, a suburb of Ottawa, Can., on July 30, 1848, and grew up in Thurso, receiving his primary education in the local public schools. He then spent two years in the Department of Arts at Woodstock College, Woodstock, Ont., prepara­tory to entering McGill University in 1865, where he continued his studies until the close of his sophomore year. During that time he also attended the Military college at Montreal, where he was graduated September 21, 1867, being commissioned ensign in the Thurso Infantry Company, later be­ing promoted to the position of lieutenant, and still later to that of captain. At odd times during these years Mr. Cameron acquired a working knowledge of the Morse code of telegraphy, he being a person who never let slip an opportunity for increasing his fund of practical knowledge. In 1867 he entered the employ of the Ottawa River Navigation Company as purser, and it was about this time that he became interested in California, through his acquaintance with D. W. McCallum, superintendent of the Caspar Lumber Company at Caspar, Mendocino county, Cal. Determining to come to the Pacific coast, Mr. Cameron made the trip by way of the Union Pacific Rail­road, the extreme connections being made by means of a hand car, whereby he arrived in San Francisco in July of the year 1868. The first employment of Mr. Cameron after coming to California was with the Caspar Lumber Company, at the town of Caspar, where he spent a year in their store, -after­ward accepting a position in the store of William H. Kelly, in Mendocino City, where he remained for some time. During the building of the Pacific Telegraph Company's lines from Petaluma to Eureka, Cal., Mr. Cameron was in the employ of that firm, at first on the survey, coming to the city of Eureka with the survey corps in 1870, after which he became electrician on the line, later being made operator at Mendocino, then at Navarro, and then at Cuffey's Cove, during which time he was also engaged in teaching begin­ners in that branch and installing offices. In the summer of 1874 Mr. Cam­eron was stationed at Eureka, and later spent two years as line repairer, with his headquarters at Usal, Cal. About the year 1880 he severed his connection with the company, and secured employment as a clerk for George S. McPhee at Westport, in 1881 forming a partnership with T. H. Smith in that town, under the firm name of Smith & Cameron engaging in general merchandise, also as contractors of ties and bark, which were shipped in schooners to San Francisco and southern points. Six years later the part­nership was dissolved, Mr. Cameron retaining the store while Mr. Smith assumed charge of the outside business, and in 1890 Mr. Cameron sold the store to assume the duties of deputy county assessor for northern Mendocino county under W. P. McFaul, his district comprising the territory from Fort Bragg to the Humboldt county line. This position he held for a period ot eight years, during this time, in 1892 and 1893, also being bookkeeper for the De Haven Lumber Company, afterwards holding the same position with the Cottaneva Lumber Company at Rockport, and for a time being in charge ot the wharf and store of Ray Brothers at Shelter Cove. Removing to Eureka in 1899, Mr. Cameron there became salesman in the yard for McKay & Com­pany, at the Occidental Mill, later accepting a position with the Hammond Lumber Company, where for some years he had charge of the telephone lines, resigning there in order to become bookkeeper for J. A. Cottrell's moulding mill, a position which he filled acceptably for five years, since which time he has been engaged as salesman for the Oregon Nursery Com­pany.

While engaged in mercantile pursuits at Westport, Mr. Cameron was married, on December 25, 1884, to Miss Nettie Hickman, a native of Montecello, Ind., the daughter of Benjamin Franklin Hickman, who was born in Jasper county, Ind., December 6, 1840, the son of Hiram and Eleanor (White) Hickman. Previous to the Civil war, Benjamin F. Hickman had removed to Grant County, Wis., and there he was among the first to respond to the call for troops, enlisting in Company K of the Twentieth Wisconsin Regi­ment of Volunteer Infantry, serving three years and being wounded at the battle of Prairie Grove, Mo. He was married in Rosedale, Ind., on Novem­ber 22, 1864, to Jennie B. Fisk, the daughter of John J. and Elizabeth A. (Page) Fisk. Mr. and Mrs. B. F. Hickman came to California with their two little daughters, Nettie and Nona, in 1872, the father thereafter following the trade of harnessmaker at Bloomfield, Sonoma county, till 1882, when he located at Westport, where he engaged in contracting and building until the time of his death, which occurred on December 1, 1896. A violinist of much ability, his services were continually sought for parties and dances, where he enjoyed much popularity. Since his death, his wife resides in Eureka. Their daughter, now Mrs. Cameron, a cultivated and refined woman, was brought up and educated in Westport. Mr. and Mrs. Cameron are the parents of four children, namely, Edwin Franklin, who took a four years' course in civil engineering at the University of California, and is now in the employ of the Southern Pacific Railroad, making his home in Berkeley ; Mrs. Agnes B. Carlson; Mrs. Vreda E. Hess; and Guy 0. Cameron, who is with the Northwestern Pacific Railroad Company, and, like his two sisters, makes his home in Eureka.

 

GEORGE MURDOCK SCOTT.—One of the upbuilders of the city of Trinidad, in Humboldt county, Cal., is George Murdock Scott, who, since the year 1880, has been a resident of this part of California, whence he came from his home in far-away Nova Scotia.

It was in May of the year 1880 that Mr. Scott arrived in California, making his home for some time thereafter with John Vance, in Essex, Humboldt county, in 1894 removing to Trinidad, where he bought out the Tom Fitz blacksmith shop and continued in business there for eight years. After selling out his business in that line, Mr. Scott gave up blacksmithing, and since April 7, 1907, when his wife was appointed postmaster at Trinidad, he has acted as assistant, and takes an active part in the affairs of the office, being also a member of the board of city trustees of Trinidad and president of the board, or mayor of the town. When he came to Trinidad, there was no public water supply in the place, the water being brought from springs and pumps by the residents, and he realized the great need of a water sys­tem. He and his wife are now the principal owners of the Trinidad Water and Supply Company, a company which was incorporated on June 29, 1908, of which Mr. Callstrom is president, Mr. Scott vice-president and superin­tendent, and his wife secretary, and by the efforts of this company the waters of old Mill creek have been brought to the city, providing a sufficient water supply with a pressure of sixty pounds. In order to do this, it was neces­sary to buy a right of way across the Hammond Lumber Company's land, and a galvanized iron pipe line was laid, one and three-quarters miles in length to reach the city. It will thus be seen that Mr. Scott is a public-spirited man who takes an intense interest in the welfare of the district where he has chosen to make his home. He is also the owner of property at Trinidad, and he and his wife are known for their enterprise and liberality.

The grandfather of Mr. Scott was a Scotchman, who brought his family with a colony from his native land to Nova Scotia, where he became a land­owner and farmer, his son James, the father of Mr. Scott, having been born in Edinburgh, Scotland, and come with his family to the new country, where he was a farmer and also blacksmith. Mr. Scott's mother, formerly Margaret Nicholson, was born in Gallowayshire, Scotland, and removed with her par­ents to Nova Scotia at the same time with the Scott family; her parents died there, and there also took place her marriage to James Scott. Of their eight children, George Murdock Scott was the youngest, and was brought up on the farm, educated in the public schools and learned the blackmith's trade under his father, working with him until seventeen years of age. At that time he left home, going to Spring Hill Junction, where his sister, Mrs. Har­rison, lived, and where he became a brakeman on the Inter-Colonial Railroad, but eighteen months later met with an accident which resulted in the loss of his left foot. It was a few years after his recovery from this operation that

Mr. Scott removed to California, where he has continued to make his home ever since. From Nova Scotia, where his birth occurred in the town of Pugwash, in Cumberland county, January 19, 1859, to Humboldt county, Califor­nia, where he has spent the latter part of his life, is indeed a long journey, and one which has taken him through varied scenes on the American conti­nent, but that Mr. Scott has never regretted the change is proved by the active interest taken by both himself and his wife in the affairs of the Cali­fornia city where they make their home.

 

PAUL GRAZIOLI.—From Italy to California is a long journey and a complete change in modes of living for a boy of eighteen years, but this has been the experience of Paul Grazioli, an ambitious Italian youth who left his native home to see what life held for him in a new country, whither many of his countrymen had preceded him to seek their fortunes. Mr. Grazioli was born in Liverno, Brescia, Italy, on April 28, 1888, the son of Stephen Grazioli, a farmer of that district, and received a good education in the pub­lic schools of that country. Leaving home in 1906, he set out for San Francisco, Cal., where he arrived, as numerous of his compatriots had done before, to seek employment in a new land. After two months spent at Petaluma, Cal., he went to Monterey, in the same state, where he was employed as a gardener upon the beautiful grounds of the Hotel Del Monte, an establish­ment which is famous the country over as a favorite resort for tourists. Re­turning to San Francisco, Mr. Grazioli worked there for eight months in a paint factory, in June, 1908, removing to Humboldt County, where he was employed in dairying at McKinleyville, and later at Bayside, after which he was employed for a period of eighteen months by two different dairies at Loleta. Having acquired the necessary experience for independent work and also saved his money during the years of his employment by others, Mr. Grazioli, in the autumn of the year 1910, formed a partnership with Battiste Tomasini, a native of the same country as himself, and also making a success of his business endeavors in California, and the two men, under the firm name of Tomasini & Grazioli, rented the John Plitsch ranch at Stone Lagoon in the same county, where they have since that time been engaged in conducting a large and prosperous dairy of eighty cows. Aside from being an industrious and energetic dairyman and making a success of this line of business, Mr. Grazioli also has engaged in stockraising upon the ranch with his partner, the two being the possessors of a fine herd of cattle.

Although actively engaged in his business, with a faithfulness of endea­vor which is bringing him a large measure of success, Mr. Grazioli yet finds time to interest himself in the political affairs of his adopted home, and in this connection is an upholder of the principles of the Republican party.

 

JAMES EMANUEL MATHEWS.—To an exceptional degree the youth of James Emanuel Mathews represented a contest against obstacles, a strug­gle with hardships and a constant familiarity with privation. When only four years of age he was orphaned by the death of his father, and thus was added to New York City, where he was born on the 22d of February, 1845, another poor boy, orphaned and friendless, illy prepared to cope with the difficulties of existence and deprived of any satisfactory educational advantages. As a newsboy selling the Brooklyn Eagle he earned his first money and he con­tinued with that paper for a number of years. It was the custom of the boys, while waiting for the Eagle to be issued each day at three o'clock, to go to the Columbia street hill and play "shinney." It was also the custom of Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, then at the height of his fame, to pass along the street about that hour of day. One afternoon in 1858 Mr. Mathews accidentally struck the famous minister with a shinney block. At once Mr. Beecher seized the boy by the coat collar and hurried him to the top of the hill, where he put him into the hands of a policeman, under arrest for the offense. However, the officer released him and dropped the charges, upon hearing from witnesses an account of the affair and learning that it was entirely the result of accident.

During the Civil war Mr. Mathews was employed on steamers running from New York to Havana, Vera Cruz, Aspinwall, New Orleans, Galveston and Charleston, S. C. While in Havana in 1864 a lady offered him the situa­tion of overseer of her plantation in Matanzas, Cuba, but he declined, feeling that the position entailed too much responsibility for one of his youth and lack of experience. As his ship cruised on the coast of Florida early in 1865 a gunboat, painted lead color, was sighted and passed. On returning from Havana the same boat was seen, but this time it was painted black and carried its flag at half-mast. Investigation as to the reason gave the first news of the assassination of President Lincoln to the crew of the vessel homeward bound. On casting anchor in the harbor of New York they found an immense throng of people forming a line that extended from the City Hall to the Battery, all eager for a last glimpse of the face of their martyred president, then lying in state in the. City Hall of the metropolis of the east.

An uneventful period of employment as a glassblower in a factory did not quench the love of adventure innate in the young New Yorker, so that he was ready, at an hour's notice, to set sail from his city December 10, 1867, on a steamer bound for Panama. Thence he sailed up the Pacific on the steamer Constitution, which landed in San Francisco January 23, 1868. For some time he was employed on steamers out of San Francisco to other ports of the Pacific Ocean. Later he engaged briefly in selling charts of Grant and Colfax and Seymour and Blair. From San Francisco he came to Eureka in March of 1871. Early experiences around newspaper offices and later adventures in the world peculiarly adapted him for the book business, in which he has since engaged. Recently he celebrated his fortieth anni­versary of business association with Eureka. Although his stock is mainly books and stationery it is not limited to these lines, but is so varied that one in search of some unusual novelty, not to be found elsewhere, is frequently advised to inquire at his store, with the result that the article desired is often found there. The first name of the shop was The Little Store Around the Corner, which came to Mr. Mathews through early familiarity with the historic church around the corner in New York City. Later the business was referred to as The Old Curiosity Shop, but with the frequent accessions to the stock and a change of location to the Gross block, one of the substantial and modern buildings of Eureka, the name of the business has been changed to The Home of Music, Song and Story. The shop ranks as the pioneer piano house of Humboldt County, and the sale of pianos has been an impor­tant accessory of the business for many years. Recently Mr. Mathews came into prominence through the fact that, after having represented the San Francisco Examiner in Eureka for twenty-seven years or more, as a reward for continued and faithful service he was presented with a handsome en­graved gold watch by William Randolph Hearst. Politically he is a life­long Democrat, devoted to the party. Interest in his adopted locality ap­pears in the fact that he is a charter member of the Chamber of Commerce. His fraternities are the Eagles and Foresters. Besides his business property and home in Eureka, the family own four thousand acres of timber land, mostly located north of Eureka. His marriage was solemnized in San Fran­cisco, his bride being Delia Lineger, who was born in Australia but has lived in California from the age of six months. They are the parents of three children, Ellenor Rose, Mary Gertrude and Florence Catherine, all of Eureka.

 

ISAAC MOXON.—Although not a native of the United States, Isaac Moxon has for the greater part of his life been a resident here, and for almost thirty-five years has lived in Humboldt county, Cal. He is as stanch and loyal a son of the Stars and Stripes as may be found in any place, and during his years spent on the coast has been an active factor in the building up and development of his community, where he is today one of the foremost citi­zens. His undertakings have prospered greatly, and although he arrived in Humboldt county with only $700, he now possesses hundreds of acres of rich lands, many head of stock and wide fields of grain, and his wealth cannot be estimated in dollars and cents, so rapidly are his holdings increasing in value.

Mr. Moxon is the son of Henry and Abigail (White) Moxon. His father, a native of Nova Scotia, born in 1826 at Shipanacady, of English descent. He followed farming and lumbering in Carleton County, New Brunswick, the greater part of his life, and in both enterprises was very successful. His mother was a native of Hudson, Me., but removed to New Brunswick with her parents, where she married, the officiating clergyman being Parson Harton. She became the mother of fourteen children, four of whom died very young, and ten living to grow to manhood and womanhood. Of these six are living at the present time (1914). Isaac, the fourth oldest in order of birth, was born in Shipanacady, Nova Scotia, June 15, 1857, but in the fall of 1858 removed to New Brunswick with his parents. He resided on his father's farm near Woodstock, New Brunswick, where as a child he at­tended the public schools. Later he attended the best private school in the neighborhood, until he was sixteen years of age, when he stopped school and worked with his father on the farm. When he was twenty-one, he de­termined to come to the United States, where reports led him to believe con­ditions were better and wages higher. Accordingly he went first to Minne­apolis, and from there went to work in the sugar pine woods logging, on the Moose river, remaining for three or four years. The demand for men on the Pacific coast was very great at that time, and the wages paid were even better than those received along the Northern Mississippi, and so in April, 1881, Mr. Moxon determined to again move westward, this time choosing California as his stopping place. He arrived in Humboldt County, May 31, 1881, and went immediately to work in the woods, logging in the lumber camps, where he remained for a few years. The first year he was in the employ of Kirk, Minor & Culberg on Warm creek, and also worked for Frank Graham, all pioneer lumbermen of Humboldt County.

In 1884, Mr. Moxon met with a serious accident, which changed the trend of his life, determining him, as it did, to give up the life of the woods and take to agricultural and farming pursuits. A heavy log slid and crushed his leg, making active work in the lumber camps out of the question for a long time. It was then that he purchased thirty acres of bottom land near Arcata, which is at the present time his home place. This tract is beautifully situated on the higher bottom, and so is absolutely free from danger of floods, being well above the high water line. At the time of the great flood in 1860 this property was the only one in that region that was not touched by the high waters, most of the surrounding places being completely submerged.

After purchasing this place, Mr. Moxon improved it and engaged in farming. In 1895 he began dairying with a herd of twenty-five milch cows, which he has since materially increased. When he first began farming he made a specialty of raising potatoes and grain ; has raised as high as one hundred sacks of potatoes to the acre, and as high as one hundred forty-seven bushels of barley to the acre.

Later, his business enterprises prospering, he was enabled to make addi­tional investments, and he has always chosen to put his surplus capital back into the soil. In partnership with Ralph Bull, in August, 1911, he purchased six hundred eighty acres of land on Big creek, in Trinity county, known as the Big creek ranch, upon which the partners are engaged in raising live­stock, grain and alfalfa. In 1913 they cut three crops of alfalfa from their fields, averaging over five hundred tons. Since purchasing this property they have improved the land and brought it under a high state of cultivation, while at the same time they have added to their equipment all manner of modern implements and buildings, until at the present time they have the most thoroughly modern ranch in Trinity County.

On the home place of Arcata bottom land great improvements have also been made. Also to the original thirty acres additions have been made from time to time until now it comprises one hundred twenty acres, all highly im­proved, lying two miles west of Arcata. This place is devoted to dairying (stocked with Holstein cattle), and like the larger place, has proven to be a great financial success. The place is well improved with three residences and two sets of barns, and a family orchard, and it is the consensus of opinion that these buildings are among the best and most modern in this section, and the ranch is the cleanest from weeds, in fact the only one that is free from mustard. The original $700 which Mr. Moxon brought with him to Humboldt county has grown and doubled and redoubled itself so many times, and so often, that there is no semblance of the original nest-egg left in the vast holdings of the former lumberman. Mr. Moxon is interested vitally in the dairy and creamery interests of Arcata, having been an active factor in their upbuilding, and is a stockholder in the United Creamery.

The marriage of Mr. Moxon and Miss Emma Amelia Nelson took place at the home of the bride in Arcata, December 14, 1884. Mrs. Moxon was born at Little River Beach, Humboldt County, Cal., May 22, 1859, the daugh­ter of Christian and Augusta (Bayreuther) Nelson, among the oldest settlers of Humboldt county. They came to Arcata from Little River Bridge, where they were driven and burned out by the Indians. Mrs. Moxon became the mother of five children, four sons and one daughter, all living at present save the eldest, Chris Christian, who passed away in 1887. The other mem­bers of the family are Isaac Leland, now operating the home ranch ; Leslie Augustus, and Clarence Hector, managing the Big creek ranch ; and Gertrude Elaine, who is now Mrs. Axel Anderson of Arcata. All are well and favor­ably known in Arcata, where they were born and reared, and where they now have many warm friends. The sons are all members of several prominent lodges and are well known in business and social circles. All three are members of the Masons, and I. Leland and Leslie also belong to the Odd Fellows. Isaac Moxon, Sr., is himself a prominent lodge man, and is well known as a member of the Odd Fellows and also of the Woodmen of the World. He is a veteran Odd Fellow and a member of Anniversary Lodge No. 85, I. 0. 0. F.

In politics Mr. Moxon is a Republican, as are his sons, but he has never taken an active part in political affairs. He is interested in all matters which pertain to the welfare of the community. In all his business dealings Mr. Moxon has an established reputation for honesty and square dealing that places him high in the scale of business standards and gives him a place in the affairs of his city and county that is without a superior. He is one whom young men would do well to emulate.

 

ARTHUR EARL CARTWRIGHT.—The popular fire chief and fire warden of Scotia is one of the important men in the city, and on his shoulders rests the grave responsibility of preventing the devastation of the town by fire, this being a constant danger in the lumber town, where the means of conflagration are unusually plentiful. Mr. Cartwright was elected as fire chief by the members of the various volunteer fire companies of Scotia, and was appointed fire warden by the Pacific Lumber Company, in whose employ he had been for a number of years, holding positions of trust and responsi­bility, and in every instance proving himself well worthy of their confidence.

Mr. Cartwright is a native of California, born in Yuba county, January 25, 1882. His father, Harry B. Cartwright, was a native of Pennsylvania, and came to California at the time of the gold rush in 1849, making the trip by way of the Horn. For a time he followed placer and quartz mining in Sierra county, and then went into Yuba county and took up a claim of government land and engaged in farming and stock-raising. Mining appealed to him far more strongly than farming, however, and he continued to engage in the more hazardous occupation from time to time, whenever he could be spared from his farm, for many years. He was married to Miss Maria Frances Seth, a native of Pennsylvania, who came to California via Isthmus of Panama, in 1851. They became the parents of six children, as follows : Phoebe, now the wife of Emmett Gleason, a rancher, residing on the old Cartwright place in Yuba county ; Wallace, who died at the age of eight years ; Elizabeth, who died at the age of two years ; George W., a contractor and mill builder, at present engaged with the Buhne Hardware Company of Eureka ; Edna, Mrs. Davis, residing in Seattle, Wash. ; and Arthur Earl, the subject of this sketch. The parents came to Eureka when Arthur Earl was seven years of age, and there he passed his boyhood days, attending the public schools and high school. Later he went to Everett, Wash, where he was engaged with a real estate and insurance firm, and while in their service he also studied typewriting and stenography. After a year spent at Everett he returned to Eureka in 1903, and went to work as a millwright under his brother George. At the same time he joined fire company No. 5, in Eureka, and commenced to take a great interest in the subject of fire protection. While with his brother he assisted in the building of the Holmes-Eureka mill, at Eureka, and of the Little River Redwood Company's mill at Little River, in Humboldt county. It was in November, 1910, that Mr. Cartwright eventually came to Scotia, and entered the employ of the Pacific Lumber Company as millwright superintendent, being in this position until May 1, 1914, when he assumed his duties as fire chief and fire warden, which he has since discharged with efficiency.

Mr. Cartwright was interested in the work of the fire department from the time that he came to Scotia, and is thoroughly familiar with the plans and requirements of its work. He was a charter member of the fire depart­ment known as the Scotia Volunteer Fire Department, organized in 1910, with Charles Wescott as fire chief. He became foreman of Company No. 1 in 1912. He is now carrying out the plans originally laid out by the com­pany and hopes to prevent another such disastrous fire as that which occurred in 1912 destroying the dry kilns at mill "B". New fire proof kilns have since been built, and other modern means of fire protection have been adopted by the Pacific Lumber Company recently. The fire department consists of five hose companies of twenty men each, one engine company of eight men and eight fire policemen. Each company has a foreman and an assistant foreman, and each has its own hose cart and hose house. The arrangements for the water supply are very complete and modern, and with the capable supervision of Mr. Cartwright there should be no great difficulty in handling any situation which might arise.

The marriage of Mr. Cartwright occurred in Eureka, February 23d, 1911, uniting him with Miss May Cameron, born in Eureka. Mr. Cart­wright takes an especially keen interest in all that pertains to the general welfare of Scotia, and any movement for its betterment, educationally, socially, or commercially is given his instant and hearty endorsement. He is a man of great ability, ingenuity, popularity and force of character, and is a power in the local affairs of his party, he being a stanch Republican. He is also prominent in fraternal affairs and is a member of several beneficial orders, among which may be mentioned the Odd Fellows, his membership being claimed by the Fortuna Lodge. Mr. Cartwright is also well known in Eureka, where his mother still makes her home, and where he is a frequent visitor. His father died in Yuba county a number of years ago, at the age of seventy years.

 

GUST RICKTER.—As road overseer for one of the largest road districts of this County, and one in which the road conditions are of the very best, Gust Rickter has made for himself a warm place in the hearts of the people of his district. He resides at Rio Dell, where he owns two fine farms, and his road district includes, among other places, Scotia, the principal lumber town of Humboldt county, which is admittedly the best ordered and ar­ranged, the most orderly and beautiful of all the lumber towns in this part of the state. To be road overseer in such a district gives evidence of a scientific knowledge of road-making, and above all, of not being afraid of hard work. Mr. Rickter comes from a highly respected family of Sweden, where his father, Lars Anderson, was a well-to-do farmer, owning three valuable ranches. He is a man of great ability, a capable financier and man­ager and is very prosperous. He is liberal and public spirited and contributes freely, both in time and money, to what is for the best interests of his com­munity. His sons now manage his two farms. Gust Rickter has recently erected a handsome residence at Rio Dell where he resides with his wife, who is a woman of ability and charm, and a delightful friend and hostess.

Gust Rickter was born in Skaane, Sweden, March 20, 1869, the son of Lars and Louise Anderson. Like many others of his nationality he took an old family name, Rickter, on taking naturalization papers, instead of the name Larsen. He received a common school education in his native place and when he was sixteen was apprenticed to learn farming, dairying and cheese-making, receiving a diploma as a cheese and butter-maker. His father was engaged in the nursery business, and lived to be seventy-two years of age. Gust was the youngest of a family of eight children, and when he was eighteen years of age he determined to come to America, making the journey directly from his native land to California, and going at once to Eureka, where an elder brother, Lewis Larsen, was already established. He was for a time employed at Fay's Shingle Mill at Eureka, but soon re­turned to his former occupation on the dairy farm, and was employed on various places in the county for a number of years.

The marriage of Mr. Rickter and Miss Matilda Youngberg was sol­emnized in San Francisco, October 5, 1889. Mrs. Rickter is a native of Sweden, like her husband, born in Skaane, and is the youngest of a family of twelve children. Her father was a farmer and owner of valuable property in his native land. She has borne her husband three children, two sons and a daughter: Lillie Aurora, now a graduate nurse in the county hospital in Eureka ; Gustav E. and Oscar, the two sons being farmers and now engaged in the conduct of their father's two ranches at Rio Dell. This property con­tains about two hundred forty acres, and they are following diversified farm­ing, and are raising large numbers of cattle, sheep and hogs for the market.

Mr. Rickter has been road overseer in the Rio Dell and Scotia districts for a number of years, and has made for himself an •enviable record for efficiency and thoroughness. He has brought the condition of the roads up to a high standard, under very adverse circumstances, by much labor, time and careful thought. He is a Republican in his political views, and takes a deep interest in all that concerns his home district; he is a member of the Humboldt County Farm Bureau, and of the Farm Center at Eureka. In fraternal circles he is a member of the Knights of Pythias, Scotia Lodge, No. 310, of which he is a charter member. Mr. and Mrs. Rickter have been married over twenty-five years, and on October 5, 1914, they celebrated their silver-wedding anniversary, attended by a large number of invited guests, among friends and relatives, being entertained by a big dinner, and the silver couple were recipients of many valuable presents and remembrances. He has by his industry and ability accumulated a snug fortune and his place shows evidence of refinement and wealth.

 

FRANCIS MARION BRUNER, M. D.—The descendant of genera­tions of keen and talented ancestors, including men and women of unswerv­ing integrity, strong individuality, high culture and not a little literary ability, types of the best class of the pioneers of the east and the middle west, Francis Marion Bruner, M. D., of Ferndale, Humboldt county, was born in the city of Monmouth, county of Warren, in Illinois, September 21, 1865. Possessing the keen desire for intellectual development that came as a her­itage from past generations, he was not satisfied with such advantages as common schools and academies made possible, but aspired to university training and classical studies. Partly through his own efforts it was pos­sible for him to spend two years in the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and the completion of the literary course marked the beginning of profes­sional studies. Of these he enjoyed the very best, for he is a graduate of Bellevue Medical College in New York City, one of the most famous schools of the kind in the world.

The year subsequent to graduation from Bellevue was passed by the young doctor in professional work at El Paso, Texas, whence in 1891 he removed to St. Louis, there to engage in private practice, as well as in special professional labors in the interests of the health department and the Associated Charities. Between 1894 and 1899 he was located in Des Moines, Iowa, going there to be near his father during the last years of his life, after whose death he fulfilled a long-felt desire to come to California and removed to Santa Ana, Cal., where for eleven years he enjoyed a growing patronage. Meantime he assisted in the organization of the Santa Ana hospital and became a physician on its staff. During a service of two years as health officer he drafted a new health ordinance for the city for the care and preven­tion of contagious and infectious diseases; this law is now being enforced and is proving a great benefit to the city.

Arriving in Ferndale, Humboldt County, on the 2nd of January, 1911, Dr. Bruner has since built up an important practice in the community and in addition, since July of 1913, he has owned one-half interest in the Ferndale general hospital, a well-known institution of great value to this section of the county.

Dr. Bruner was first married in St. Louis to Miss Sadie E. Murray, a native of Rochester, N. Y. She died on their return to St. Louis two years later, leaving an only daughter, Frances, a graduate of Drake University, Des Moines, and now engaged in kindergarten work in the Ferndale grammar school, making her home with her father. After coming to Ferndale Dr. Bruner married Mrs. Lela Worthington, a native daughter born in Blue Lake, Humboldt County. She is a graduate nurse and is ably assisting the Doctor in the conduct of the Ferndale Hospital. In the different places of his residence he has been prominently identified with county, state and the American Medical Associations. Shortly after his removal to the west he became attached to the National State Guard of California as a surgeon with the rank of major and he continued in that office for five years. During the latter part of the time he filled an appointment as major-surgeon of the Sev­enth Infantry, N. G. C. to which he was appointed by Governor Gillett. He was made a Mason in Santa Ana Lodge F. & A. M., but is now a member of Ferndale Lodge No. 193, F. & A. M. He is also a member of Ferndale Chapter No. 78, R. A. M., and Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T., transferring to all of these bodies from Santa Ana. He is a member of Active Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., in Ferndale, and is past grand of the order. Although he has not been long established in Ferndale, his reputation for skill in diagnosis and accuracy in the use of remedial agencies had preceded him here, so that he has been fortunate in quickly winning the confidence of the people. Years of painstaking preparation, followed by practice in various centers of popula­tion, have qualified him to fill a high position in the medical profession and to maintain a deserved reputation for skill and proficiency.

 

DANIEL JAMES TURNER.—One of the prosperous and respected citizens of Humboldt county is Daniel James Turner, thrifty and energetic farmer of Arcata, whose handsome home place four miles northwest of town is one of the attractive as well as one of the most profitable farms in the valley. Mr. Turner is a native of the county, having been born in Eureka. His father was one of the pioneers of early days, coming to Eureka when it was only a straggling street with a few rough shacks, and settling in the midst of the towering forests. The enterprises of both the father and the son have been successful, and today Mr. Turner is one of the prosperous men of the community, with property of appreciable value, well improved and well stocked, and constantly increasing in its value.

Born September 4, 1862, the boyhood days of Mr. Turner were passed in Eureka on the home farm, and he attended the public schools in Eureka. After finishing his schooling, at the age of sixteen, he began to assist his father on the farm. This comprised several hundred acres, and most of it was unimproved, being thickly covered with trees and brush. Father and son cleared this land and brought it under cultivation. It was exceedingly rich and farming thereon was profitable. Mr. Turner remained at home and assisted his father in managing the ranch until he reached the age of thirty-three years, when he married and purchased one hundred and forty acres of the home place from his parents. This land he cleared and improved and started the first farm crops. In 1895 he engaged in dairying and stock raising and has followed this special line since that time. He is also interested in the creamery business and is associated with the affairs of the United Creamery of Arcata.

Although one of the successful farmers of the region and a man who is liked and trusted by all who know him, Mr. Turner has never taken an active part in the public affairs of the community, but has devoted himself ex­clusively to the care of his business interests. He has, however, a wide circle of warm friends who fully appreciate his splendid qualities and with whom he is justly popular. He is also a prominent member of the Knights of Pythias.

The marriage of Mr. Turner with Sarah Jane Robinson occurred at Eureka, October 23, 1895. Mrs. Turner is a native of Sierra County, Cal., born April 26, 1866. She is the daughter of John and Eliza (Rudd) Robinson, natives of England. The father came to the United States, where he fol­lowed the blacksmith trade in the east until he came to California in the early '50s. He followed his trade in Sierra County, where he became well known for his method of sharpening and hardening picks. In Sierra County he married Eliza Rudd, who had come to California in 1849. She died in Sierra County in 1892 and the father died in Humboldt County. Mr. and Mrs. Turner have four children, Mary Eliza, Ephraim Stimpson, Edna Hazel and Sophia Hannah, all of whom are well known in Arcata.

The father of Mr. Turner was a native of St. John, New Brunswick, Canada, where he was born May 17, 1819. He was Ephraim Turner, as was his father before him, and was descended from a long line of English ancestry, of which he was justly proud. The father attended school but six weeks in all his young life, as in that period the teachers went from house to house, there being no regularly established schools. At an early age he went to work on his father's farm near St. Stephens, and later worked on the farms of the neighborhood in the summer and in the winter hauled logs. He varied this by other work in the woods, but either that or the farms claimed his attention until he came to California. He was twice married, the first time to Julia Laskey, of New Brunswick, in 1839. She bore him three children, but she died while they were very small. In 1845 he married again, this time to Mary Brown, born in New Brunswick, September 3, 1820.

It was in 1853 that Ephraim Turner determined to leave the east and come to California, as the wages were better and the opportunities for the establishment of a home greater on the Pacific coast. He left his wife and family (six children) and came to California alone, making the trip by way of the Isthmus, and landing in San Francisco March 4, 1854. From there he sailed north to Trinidad (Humboldt County) and from Trinidad he walked down the coast toward Eureka. At that time the land was in a wild state and in crossing the Mad river Mr. Turner stopped under a large spruce tree to rest, one of the largest trees that he had ever seen, it measuring over forty-five feet in circumference. Remembering the location of this great tree, several years later he returned and bought the land where it stood. In 1854 he proceeded down the coast, through Eureka, then the merest village, to Elk River, where he went to work in the woods logging. Later he spent some time at work in the mines, but he was principally engaged in the lumbering industry, and was the first man to haul logs on wheels in the county, about 1857.

Up to 1873 Ephraim Turner followed logging in the Arcata bottom lands, and after accumulating a sufficient fund began purchasing land for farming purposes. His first venture was a purchase of two hundred eighty acres of land where the big spruce grew, after which he engaged exclusively in farming, always with fair success. In 1859 he went back to New Bruns­wick for his family, and returning with them settled on the home place. From time to time he purchased property and at one time owned seven hundred forty acres of bottom land and much range land. This he sold off at various times, and at the time of his death owned three hundred acres of land. An­other venture was in running a butcher shop, which he conducted for a few years, but soon gave up the idea to engage more extensively in farming. He was a very successful farmer and business man and was highly esteemed in Humboldt county as one of the splendid old pioneers. He was active up to the time of his death, which occurred in New Brunswick, August 23, 1900. After his retirement from business he desired to return to the home of his boyhood and made the trip east. There he met with an accident, and never returned to his California home again, passing away at last where he had played as a happy boy. His wife survived him by three years, she passing away February 3, 1903. Mrs. Mary Turner was a very remarkable woman, industrious, brilliant and capable. Her son has inherited some of her splendid traits of character.

 

CHARLES PRYDE CUTTEN.—One of the native-born sons of Hum­boldt county in whom she has reason to take pride is Charles Pryde Cutten, now of San Francisco, a descendant of one of the little group of men who laid out the town of Eureka. He is wearing a respected name worthily, for his achievements in his profession and in public life have strengthened its connection with the early history of this region, the usefulness to society of the present members of the family reflecting credit on their honored ancestors. Mr. Cutten's parents were David Page and Katherine (McGrath) Cutten, and it is a matter of family interest that his maternal grandparents, Hugh and Jane (Gibson) McGrath, first met at the Admission Day ball in San Francisco September 9, 1850. They were married soon afterward, and removed to Humboldt County, Mr. McGrath having been one of the men who "discovered" this region. In company with James T. Ryan and Samuel Brennan, of San Francisco, he laid out the town of Eureka, and he and his descendants in turn have from that time to the present been prominent in the most substantial enterprises advanced for its upbuilding.

Charles Pryde Cutten was born May 8, 1875, and received his preparatory education in the schools of his native county. Then he took a course at Leland Stanford University, graduating in law in 1899 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He was admitted to practice by the Supreme Court of California in June, 1901. Returning to Eureka he began the practice of law, maintaining an office there until he removed to San Francisco in June, 1911, to enter a wider field. During those ten years he .reached a position which few may hope to gain in so short a time. From 1904 until 1909 he was associated in practice at Eureka with Senator T. H. Selvage, and afterward until June 1, 1911, with Governor Gillett and Judge F. A. Cutler. The mere fact that he was admitted to these partnerships shows how highly his ability was valued by those most competent to judge. His work justified their confidence. Meantime, in addition to attending conscientiously to the de­mands of a growing practice, he had taken some part in public affairs, and was welcomed as a candidate whose possibilities the community could not afford to overlook. In 1907 he represented the northern Humboldt district in the lower house of the state legislature, and soon after the completion of his term was returned to the state legislature as a member of the senate, in which he served during the thirty-eighth and thirty-ninth sessions, from 1909 to 1911. Mr. Cutten has the distinction of having been a member of the legislative holdover committee which in 1908 drew up the present Cali­fornia bank act, which has been praised by bank examiners and financial experts generally as "the best bank act in existence." In 1911 Mr. Cutten was chairman of the finance committee of the state senate, an honor which he well merited. As a member of the assembly he was instrumental in secur­ing the first appropriation for the Trinity state highway and during his last session in the senate secured an appropriation of $50,000 to complete this road. This magnificent highway is the only connecting link between the northern coast counties and the Sacramento valley. It is of great benefit to Humboldt county and its importance will increase as coast and valley con­tinue to grow in population and wealth. On June 1, 1911, he located in San Francisco, having been appointed attorney for the state commission in lunacy, resigning in August, 1913, in order to devote more of his time to the duties connected with his position as attorney for the Pacific Gas & Electric Com­pany of San Francisco, with which he became connected on March 1, 1912. Mr. Cutten's record needs no comment. The heavy responsibilities which have been confided to him at what may be practically regarded as the outset of his career have not dismayed him, rather they have brought out qualities which might have lain dormant for years under less strenuous conditions. The vigor of his intellect, his clearness of perception, and instant grasp of the important features of all matters which come into his care, are apparent even to those whose acquaintance with him is only casual.

Mr. Cutten belongs to the Union League Club and the Commercial Club of San Francisco, and to Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., and Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E., both of Eureka. He was married at Eureka September 18, 1906, to Miss Marjorie V. Barnes, by whom he has three children, Elizabeth, Ruth and Kathleen.

 

FRED WILLIAM SMYTHE.—As the pioneer automobile agent and owner of the second motor car brought into Humboldt county, besides being for some time the proprietor of the garage on J street opposite the court house in Eureka, Mr. Smythe had considerable prominence and prestige in the business prior to embarking in auto-stage line enterprises, which he has developed into large and profitable proportions. Having exceptional ability as a machinist and being fond of mechanical work of every kind, he is well qualified to manage the system. The maintenance of a close supervision over his large and powerful cars reduces tire troubles and engine defects to a minimum, while at the same time it prevents the accidents that so greatly annoy passengers and delay the speed of the stage over the customary route.

A native of Eureka, Greenwood county, Kan., born March 20, 1871, Mr. Smythe learned the trade of a machinist in Kansas City, Mo., where also he acquired skill in mechanical drawing. For a year after coming to California in 1888 he worked on mining machinery at Sutter creek in Amador county, after which he went to Benicia, Solano County, and engaged in drawing plans for ships in the drafting department of Captain Turner's shipyards at that place. More than once after he came to Eureka in the fall of 1892 he saw in the harbor of Humboldt bay vessels for which he had drawn the plans during the period of his employment at Benicia. For a time after his arrival in Humboldt County he engaged as a machinist with the Eureka Foundry Company. Later he started the California Iron Works, and after the concern had been incorporated he was chosen secretary and manager, but eventually disposed of his stock in the company for the purpose of attention to other lines of business. The first condensed milk factory in Humboldt County was built by him at Port Kenyon and later sold to Fred Smith, who removed the plant to Loleta. Meanwhile Mr. Smythe had become interested in a garage at Eureka, but this he sold in the spring of 1908 and then established an auto stage line, operating between San Francisco and Eureka, in time connecting with Northwestern Pacific trains at Fort Seward and Longvale, and there is probably no single enterprise that has been of more convenience and service to the people of Humboldt county and the bay section. The first year the line was developed from Eleanor to Harris in Humboldt County, where it connected with the horse stage. The next year the system was extended as far as Cummings, Mendocino County, on the south. During the third year the stage was run through from Holmes to Sherwood, Mendocino county, where connection was made with the railroad. In the following year a line was opened from Longvale to Holmes on the South Fork, during the spring and summer of 1913 the stage was run from McCann's to Longvale, and finally the stage was run from Fort Seward to Longvale. Meanwhile the business had increased from twelve hundred passengers during the first year to five thousand in 1913. At Fort Seward, the northern terminal, Mr. Smythe built a substantial garage and cottage and there he makes his head­quarters in the summer months, while in the winter he conducts the business from No. 1634 I street, Eureka. Both at McCann's and Fort Seward he has developed an electric lighting plant. For the convenience of his auto-stage line he maintains eight touring cars, mostly of the Pierce-Arrow high-powered type. These are equipped with telephones, so that in case of trouble it is possible to tap the wire at any place and secure the needed help from town. Although the road extends wholly through a mountainous •country there has never been an accident and delays are very rare, this being due to the fact that only the most experienced and careful chauffeurs are employed, while at each end of the route the machines are carefully overhauled by expert machinists. Besides his large business interests Mr. Smythe owns a ranch of four hundred eighty acres on the Eel river near Fort Seward and is now developing the tract into a large apple orchard, certified dairy and sanitary hog farm. Fraternally he is identified with Fortuna Lodge, I. 0. 0. F. Through his marriage to Grace Morrison, formerly of the Ferndale district, and a daughter of Thomas Morrison, an early settler of that section, he is the father of two daughters, Helen and Edith.

 

DAVID D. PEEBLES.—Although a native of Salt Lake City, Utah, where he was born October 13, 1884, David D. Peebles came to Eureka when he was a lad of but sixteen years, and has since that time been well known here, although he has not always made this city his home. Since 1911 he has been established in business in Eureka, being a stockholder and taking an active part in the Pacific Oil and Fuel Company, in which concern he is heavily interested. Even in this brief time he has done much for the interests of the company and their business is rapidly expanding.

Mr. Peebles is the son of Rev. David Peebles, whose death occurred in Los Angeles in 1913, aged eighty-six years. He was born in Madison county, N. Y., and graduated from Oberlin College, Ohio. He served as a member of Company A, First Michigan Cavalry, in the Civil war. He became a minister in the Congregational church, and at the time of the birth of the present respected citizen of Eureka he was pastor of the Congregational church in Salt Lake City. He removed with his family to Eureka in 1900, being retired from the clergy, but is remembered with much love and affec­tion by the people with whom he came in contact. Mr. Peebles' mother was Alice M. Conley, a native of Virginia, and she now resides in Los Angeles. David Peebles attended the Eureka high school, after which he went to San Francisco and became apprenticed as a machinist at the Union Iron Works, where he remained for four years. During this time he took a course at night school at the Humboldt School of Mechanics in San Francisco, where he completed a thorough course in mechanics. He then became a partner in the firm of Wilson & Peebles in an automobile repair machine shop at San Jose, continuing there until 1909, and meeting with much deserved success. At that time he became the traveling salesman for the California Compound­ing Company, carrying a general line of lubricating oils, and remaining with this firm for some two years.

It was in 1911 that Mr. Peebles bought an interest in the Pacific Oil and Fuel Company, a corporation capitalized at $10,000. Since the association of Mr. Peebles with the company they have added an extensive line of lubri­cating oils, under his special direction, and are now supplying many of the boats at Eureka and also many of the sawmills in the vicinity. The company has acquired a large business in the sale of refined oils, carrying all grades of Pennsylvania lubricating oils, including Peerless automobile oils and Peer­less valve oils, as well as gasoline and kerosene. They also deal extensively in wood and blacksmith coal. They have extensive wharfage and railway switching facilities, which adds greatly to their ability to handle their trade and to give prompt and efficient service in the matters of delivery, thus adding materially to their business. The offices and warehouses are on the water front as well as on the line of the Northwestern Pacific Railway Com­pany, and are located at the foot of K street.

Mr. Peebles is one of the most energetic and progressive young men in Eureka today. He is a loyal and devoted son of his adopted state and has an abiding faith in the future development of the commonwealth, and of Eureka and Humboldt county in particular. He is a thorough optimist, and with his bright and cheerful disposition makes friends readily and holds them always. While in business at San Jose he was married to Miss Lelia Turner, a daughter of the late J. W. Turner, a prominent attorney of Eureka. Mrs. Peebles has borne her husband one child, a daughter, Lelia Lois. Fraternally he is a member of the Sons of Veterans and the Modern Wood­men of the World. 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Peebles are prominent in their social circle, in Eureka, as they also were in San Jose, while residing there. Mr. Peebles is closely allied with the progressive interests of Eureka and is taking a prominent part in all matters which tend to the general welfare of the city, its develop­ment and upbuilding. He is a member of several of the best known of the local fraternal organizations, and is well liked wherever he is known.

 

GEORGE EDMONSTONE.—The Edmonstone brothers, Donald and George, are now ranked among the well-to-do landowners in the vicinity of Petrolia, Humboldt county, to which locality they came in the summer of 1869, to take advantage of the opportunities offered to settlers in the stock-raising industry in this section. They are Scotchmen by birth and endowed with the sturdy characteristics of the Highland race from which they spring. For generations the family was established on the river Dee, about thirty miles north of Aberdeen, Scotland, and Donald Edmonstone, father of Donald and George, was there engaged in the live stock business, dealing in cattle, sheep and wool. He was a thrifty and intelligent business man and in very fair circumstances. Born in Aberdeenshire, he passed all his life in his native heath, dying there at the great age of ninety-five years ; his wife, Jane (Mc­Pherson), a native of the same county, lived to be seventy-five years old. We have the following record of their seven children: John, a farmer, who died in Scotland, was married and reared a family of five children. James, a farmer, also deceased in Scotland, had but one child, a daughter. Peter, a miller at Broxburn, died in Scotland in 1913, leaving eight children, two sons and six daughters. Jane married James Emslie, a turnpike road contractor, of Aberdeenshire, and died in Scotland leaving two sons and one daughter. Donald, born May 15, 1841, settled in Humboldt County in 1869 and became well known here, but is now living at Palo Alto, Cal.; he was married in this county to Miss Maggie McCombie, and has two sons and one daughter. Alexander, the first of the family to come to America, died of yellow fever in 1867, at Galveston, Texas. George completes the family. 

George Edmonstone was born November 27, 1845, on the river Dee, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, and obtained his education in the local public schools. Brought up on a stock farm, he naturally learned the business thoroughly, his experience proving very valuable to him in his later ventures in Humboldt County. In company with his brother Donald he came to America, the young men first locating in Canada, at Chatham, county of Kent, Ontario, where they were employed at teaming and farming for two years. Then they came out to the Pacific coast by way of the Isthmus, and on the trip north from Panama, made in a steamship, narrowly escaped ship­wreck by an immense waterspout which overtook the vessel. It was sighted in the morning off to the west, as they were approaching Manzanillo, Mexico, and several others made their appearance also, but the one which struck the vessel about noontime was exceedingly large and violent. The boat shot into it when right opposite Manzanillo, and it broke just before reaching the ship, which was drenched and injured but not disabled, being able to continue on to San Francisco and land its passengers safely, in May of 1868. From that port the Edmonstone brothers proceeded north to Napa, where they found work on ranches and at teaming, hauling cordwood for Sam Brennan in Napa county during the fall and winter. In the spring they went up to Puget sound, where they found employment in sawmills and lumber camps until the summer of 1869, when reports that a new railroad was about to be built and plenty of land in Humboldt county made available for settlement attracted them southward again. They came down to Eureka, this county, and from there made their way to Petrolia, where each filed on a one hundred sixty-acre preemption claim on the north fork of the Mattole river, working out to make a living while proving up on the same and undertaking the expense of necessary improvements.

From the time of their arrival in the county the brothers labored together to their mutual advantage, and as they became more extensively interested in ranching and cattle raising acquired possession of considerable land, now owning two tracts, one of fifteen hundred acres on Taylor's Peak, on the north fork of the Mattole river, and called the Taylor Peak ranch, and the other a ninety-acre tract on the Eel river bottoms between Fernbridge and Ferndale. Both are now rented, the tenants operating them as the owners did, the larger tract as a stock ranch for the production of beef, the other as a dairy farm. The Union oil well was sunk on their Taylor Peak ranch and oil was obtained and shipped in the '60s. It was necessary at that time to pack the oil out on muleback, but this being too expensive the enterprise was given up. The difficulty of transportation is the principal reason for the non-development of the Petrolia oil fields. This was one of the few wells sunk in the vicinity which produced sufficient oil to justify further attempts at operating in the Petrolia field.

George Edmonstone, with John McCombie, owns a thirty-five-acre ranch on the Mattole about half a mile west of Petrolia, which he operated until December, 1914. Though he still owns his interest in the ranch he now makes his home in Eureka, where he has just completed a modern bungalow at Ninth and N streets, where he resides with his wife. In maidenhood she was Georgia Fulmore, born in Nova Scotia, the daughter of Samuel Fulmore, who migrated to Humboldt county with his family in 1869. Mr. Fulmore is extensively engaged in dairying on Eel River Island, owning one hundred sixty acres of bottom land. Mrs. Edmonstone was educated in Humboldt county, having spent her life here from childhood. Mr. Edmonstone has always taken a public-spirited interest in the general welfare of his locality, and has rendered excellent service to his fellow citizens, being in a position to give time and attention to matters of importance to the community, and sincere in his intentions towards bettering conditions in the county. He is a Democrat in his political associations and an ardent party worker, and he is usually a member of the local election boards, on which he has served for thirty years. His influence is always given to worthy movements, and per­sonally he is well liked for his kindliness and trustworthy character, while his successful business career has helped very materially in the improvement of his section of Humboldt County.

 

REV. LAWRENCE KENNEDY.—The work of brave and worthy priests formed the foundation upon which the Catholic church stands today in Eureka and Humboldt county. In this pioneer work the name of Father Croke is worthy of mention. Father O'Reilly was the first resident priest and was followed by Father Maurice Hickey, he being succeeded by Father Crinnion, both of whom succumbed to the arduous and fatiguing work consequent upon their duties. Following these pioneer priests came Father Grace, the present bishop of Sacramento; Fathers Henneberry, Kelly, Nulty, Lynch and Sheridan, the last as well as the first one named taking a vital part in building up the church which embraces the parish of St. Bernard. The present church edifice is large, 125x64 feet, with a seating capacity of seven hundred and fifty, being a great contrast to the first church, which was only 48x24. There is another church building in a growing part of the city seating about three hundred, adjoining which is .a convent and school. In the early days the parish of Eureka consisted of Arcata, Fortuna and Fern­dale, each of which is now a separate parish.

The present rector of St. Bernard's parish is Very Rev. Lawrence Ken­nedy, V. G., a man of intellect and breadth of character who is well fitted to bear the title of "First Citizen of. Eureka," a title which all (regardless of race or creed) agree to be a fitting one. As vicar of the diocese he holds the rank of Monsignor and is given recognition as a leader among the fore­most intellectual men of the church in the west. Forty years have brought their changes to Humboldt County since Father Kennedy came here, in the flush of young manhood, educated thoroughly in the Roman Catholic institu­tions of learning, and consecrated to the work of the church. His has been a busy life, loyally given to the advancement of Catholicism, and now, in the afternoon of a helpful existence, with strength undimmed and energies unflagging, he is still in the forefront of every worthy movement and still leads his denomination in this section of the state. Father Kennedy made his preparatory studies for the priesthood in All Hallows College in the city of Dublin, Ireland, but the greater part of his ministerial work has been connected with Humboldt County. However, he had a previous experience as assistant pastor at Marysville, where he was ordained in 1867 by Bishop O'Connell, and also at Grass Valley, coming from the latter parish to Hum­boldt County in 1874 and engaging as pastor at Eureka. From 1878 until 1892 he was pastor of St. Mary's Catholic Church in Ferndale and since 1892 he has held the pastorate of St. Bernard's Church in Eureka, at the present time receiving the helpful and capable assistance of two subordinate priests assigned to his parish in order that the heaviest burdens of the work may be somewhat lightened for his willing shoulders.

It may be of interest to the general public as well as to the Catholics themselves to know that the first services of the church were held in Humboldt County as early as 1854. At that time the population of the county was very small and so few Catholics as yet had sought this section of the country that when Father Croke came up from San Francisco services were held in a private home in Bucksport, and the house, although small, was amply large to accommodate the few communicants present. It became the custom for a city pastor to come by boat to Eureka and hold services at least once a year. Thus the few members were kept united and interested. As their numbers increased they formed a congregation and erected a small house of worship on the site of the present church home, facing Sixth Street.

It was about 1870 that the first convent was established in Humboldt county. It was presided over by the Sisters of Mercy, who purchased the old seminary building on a block of ground between G and F and Seventh and Eighth streets, where they carried on an academy until about 1904, when it was discontinued. Some six years ago, with a view to establishing and building a convent and academy, Father Kennedy purchased the present site of a block of ground between Henderson and Dollison and Williams and C streets. On June 22, 1912, a school was opened in the Y. M. I. Hall on Sixth and I streets by the Sisters of St. Joseph. In 1913 the present new convent and school buildings were erected at an expenditure of about $50,000, and for the convenience of the members of the congregation living in that vicinity he also built a church edifice where services are held regularly every Sunday. The convent and school buildings are modern, being equipped with up-to-date facilities, and opportunity is afforded for the most modern educational advan­tages to the two hundred boarding and day pupils. The curriculum also includes a regular graded high school course. The control of the institution is under Sister Bernard, formerly of Chicago, as Sister Superior, assisted by fifteen sisters trained in different departments of work and admirably quali­fied to cooperate in the progress of the convent from the standpoint of physical training and mental culture as well as spiritual uplift.

 

SAMUEL WARTH.—One of the successful business men of Eureka, Cal., was Samuel Warth, whose death occurred in January, 1913, and whose business interests since that time have been successfully carried on by his wife, under whose guidance and practical management they are attaining large proportions, and holding a high place among the industries of the town.

Though the son of a native of Germany, John Warth, who came to Cali­fornia when but fourteen years old, in the early pioneer days, Samuel Warth was truly a native son of the state, having been born at Salinas, Cal., in 1871, and brought up at Salinas and San Miguel, receiving his education in the public schools of these towns. His entry into the business world was made in New York city, where for a time he followed the shoe business, on his return to the west spending some time in Los Angeles, Cal., and also in Arizona. He was married in San Jose, Cal., in 1899, to Ora Holloway, who was born in Gilroy, a daughter of Steadman and Salona (Miller) Holloway, who were also pioneers of California. About the year 1900 Mr. and Mrs. Warth settled at Fresno, Cal., where Mr. Warth started the Fresno City Towel Supply, a business which under his splendid management became an enterprise of importance and worth. In the year 1907 he removed to Eureka, where he organized the Warth Towel Supply, the first of its kind in the city, and built up for himself a large business in this line. Four years later, pur­chasing property at the corner of Tenth and I streets in Eureka, he built for himself a comfortable and pleasant bungalow home and also a large bunga­low building, in which he installed a modern laundry fully equipped for handling linen supplies. The business grew rapidly, and became a very suc­cessful enterprise, but the death of Mr. Warth occurred while he was en­gaged in the active management of the establishment. Since then his wife has very successfully carried on the business, in this way proving herself a woman of fine business acumen and practical sense, well fitted to continue the work of her husband. A Republican in her political interests, her fra­ternal associations are with the Ladies of the Maccabees, her husband having been a member of the Knights of the Maccabees, and both Mr. and Mrs. Warth have earned for themselves the esteem of all in the community where they made their home.

 

JAMES HERNDON STILL.—As engineer at the Bayside mill, Eureka, where he has been engaged for the last six years, James H. Still has a responsible position for which he has proved well qualified. His experience in that line of work began about thirty years ago, and has been sufficiently varied to make him self-reliant and competent. Personally he is a man of high character, commanding the respect of his fellow citizens at Eureka, where he has lived for some years. The larger part of his life has been spent in Humboldt county, for he was but nine years old when he accompanied his parents from Missouri to the coast, the family making the trip overland.

J. E. Still, father of James Herndon Still and a native of Kentucky, moved from that state to Missouri in the early days and thence to California in 1865. He followed farming in Humboldt County the rest of his life, owning a dairy farm at Willowbrook which still belongs to his widow. His death occurred twenty-two years ago. He married Mrs. Susan (King) Marr, who was born in Tennessee and who still survives, well and hearty though now eighty-four years of age (1914), and makes her home at Eureka. James Herndon was the eldest of the three children born to this couple. His birthplace was Missouri, where he first saw the light July 22, 1855. Reared on his father's farm in this county, he followed agricultural work in his early life, about thirty years ago beginning to follow his present calling. For a period of about eleven years he ran a "donkey" engine in the woods, and he has been employed as a stationary engineer for the last twelve years, six years ago taking his present place as assistant engineer at the Bayside mill, at Eureka, where he has gained the reputation of being a thoroughly dependable worker. He performs his duties with painstaking attention to every detail, and devotes himself untiringly to his work, rising at four every morning to be at his post in good season. He has charge of the steam engines at the mill, two of two hundred and fifty horsepower each, which drive the mighty machinery at the plant. Some years ago Mr. Still held the position of agent for the North­western Pacific Railway Company at Singley (Fern Bridge), Humboldt county, being thus engaged for five years.

Mr. Still was married to Miss Emma Knight, of Detroit, Mich., and three children have been born of this union: George, who is now employed as filer at the Occidental mill at Eureka; Mrs. Louisa McDirmid, who lives in Portland, Ore.; and Vincent, who works in the filing room at Samoa. The family have a very pleasant home, Mr. Still owning the residence they occupy at No. 1533 Dean street, Eureka.

 

HARRY A. GRIES.—The celebrated Ocean House ranch, near Cape-town, Humboldt county, a valuable property belonging to Mr. Joseph Russ, of Ferndale, has been under the capable direction of Harry A. Gries since July, 1913, and in his excellent services on that place he is adding to a reputation for reliability and trustworthiness which secured him the position.

Mr. Gries is a native of Butte County, Cal., where his parents were residing at the time of his birth, September 23, 1870. They were old-time pioneers in this state, sharing the freedom and the hardships of the early days before the country was opened up to civilization. Eventually they settled in Humboldt County, where the father became the owner of a dairy ranch which he conducted for several years before his death. The mother is also deceased. Industrious, honorable people, they led worthy lives and by all who knew them were thoroughly respected for their thrift and estimable character. Of their three children, George now operates a farm in the state of Washington; John resides in Ferndale; and Harry A. is foreman of the Ocean House ranch.

Harry A. Gries was a boy when his parents removed. to Humboldt county. He had a common school education, and when old enough to begin work took employment in a humble capacity, being promoted as he acquired famili­arity with ranch work and showed himself responsible and willing to take hold of the more important duties. His intelligence, foresight and confidence, combined with a faculty for hard work which makes his executive qualities particularly valuable, have gained him a strong place in the esteem of his employer, who made him foreman of the Ocean House ranch in July, 1913. The ranch is very appropriately named, being romantically situated just south of Cape Mendocino, the westernmost point on the mainland of the United States, in full view of the majestic Pacific. The property comprises more than eighteen hundred acres, and all its operations are looked after in the most business-like manner by- Mr. Gries, who attends to his work with the utmost fidelity. Yet he is never too busy to lend a helping hand to a neighbor or do a good turn to any of his fellow men, and in public matters, as in his personal relations, is ready to show the right spirit whenever called upon, supporting the best interests of his county and state with his ballot or influence as necessary.

JUDSON WILLIAM CRAIN.—Eureka's superintendent of streets came to California from Illinois but claims Michigan as his native commonwealth, having been born in the city of Detroit, January 5, 1860, receiving fair advan­tages in the public schools and through the development of native ability becoming skilled as a mechanic and able to install and repair machinery of every kind. While yet a very young man he became a locomotive engineer and ran a locomotive on a railroad out from Saginaw. In the course of a few years he left the railroad and went to Illinois, where he alternated work on a farm with the running of an engine in a paper mill, continuing at such employment for a brief period. When twenty-two years of age, in the fall of 1882 he came to California and found employment with the great house of J. I. Case & Co., manufacturers of threshing machines. During the four years of his connection with the corporation he was engaged in installing machinery and setting up threshing machines in different parts of the state. When he first came to Humboldt County he ran a locomotive on the jetty. After two years at that work he went to Tuolumne County and engaged in work on the dam across the Tuolumne River, also aiding in building the irrigation system connected with the dam. Following that period of employ­ment he went to Trinity County and engaged in mining for about three years.

The year 1898 found Mr. Crain a permanent resident of Humboldt County, where for some years he conducted a growing business in teaming and Braying. From the time of his arrival in the county he has been interested in its growth, and particularly has he been devoted to the progress of his home city. Recognition of his loyal citizenship and energy in work came with his election in 1907 as superintendent of streets. During his term crushed rock was first used for street work in Eureka and the new Vrooman state law became operative. After an interval of a few years he was again elected to the office in 1913, and has since devoted his entire attention to the duties of the position, which is one of great responsibility, demanding high qualities of character as well as the most unwearied industry. His fraternities are the Eagles and the Woodmen of the World, and to each he has contributed when called upon to aid in their charities. Through his marriage to Annie Shafer, a native of Trinity county, he has four children, August, Louis, Ethel and Allan.

 

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN FLINT.—The present supervisor of the first supervisorial district of Humboldt county, Benjamin Franklin Flint is one of the most popular and capable men in the county, with a business record of which he may well be proud. He is discharging his new duties as super­visor with much ability and bids fair to make the same class of record here that he has always made in other undertakings. He has tried many occupa­tions during his lifetime and his varied experiences have given him a broad grasp of the affairs of men and an outlook on life that is at once sympathetic and comprehensive. Having been selected by Governor Johnson to fill the vacancy left by the death of his predecessor, George Hindley, his commission bears the date of March 18, 1914, when he assumed the duties of his office. In the fall of 1914 at the primaries he received the majority vote for supervisor to succeed himself, and at the November election was elected without opposition.

Mr. Flint is a native of Milan, Coos County, N. H., born January 19, 1862. His father, Benjamin Flint, was a native of Maine, and for practically his entire life was engaged in farming and lumbering. He came to Coos county, N. H., when a boy, and there he later met and married Miss Electa Lary, a native of New Hampshire, and now residing at Ferndale, at the age of eighty-five years, making her home with her daughter. The father came to California in 1865, locating in Humboldt County the following year, making the long trip by way of the Isthmus of Panama. The family remained behind and joined him four years later, in 1869, at Capetown, Humboldt county, where he was engaged in farming. The father died near Ferndale in April, 1893. There were four children in the family, all of whom grew to manhood and womanhood, and all are well known in Ferndale and Humboldt county. They are : Carrie, the wife of H. D. Smith, capitalist and rancher, residing near Ferndale ; Benjamin Franklin, the only son, and the subject of this article; Phila, the wife of William Timmons, foreman of the slaughter house of Russ & Sons, of Eureka ; and Alice, the widow of Robert McGlauchlin, residing in Ferndale.

The large stock ranch was the scene of the boyhood days of Mr. Flint, and there at an early age he assumed his share of the family responsibilities, caring for the stock, milking cows and doing all manner of labor while he was still a mere lad. He attended the public schools of his district, com­pleting his education in a private school in Ferndale, at this place learning bookkeeping, which he has since found a most valuable accomplishment. In 1890 he became foreman for the Russ and Robarts property, known as the Occidental Ranch, remaining in this capacity for five years. He then accepted a position as engineer and tester for the old Eel River Creamery, remaining with this concern for twenty-seven months. Subsequently he became fore­man for the Buhne ranch of one thousand eighty acres, just south of Eureka, occupying this position for four years. Later he became interested in the steamship business as agent for the steamer Argo, and conducted the Port Kenyon end of this enterprise for four years. His services were again sought by the Buhne ranch at this time, and for two and a half years he was again foreman of this property. At a later date he acted as bookkeeper for the J. C. Bull, Jr., interests, at Arcata, remaining there for eighteen months, since which time he has been variously employed at different undertakings, such as store keeping and carpentering.

Mr. Flint has been twice married. His first bride was Miss Clara Crank, and three children were born of their union, all of whom are now grown to womanhood and happily married, their names being as follows : Madeline, now the wife of Alva Barkdull, a rancher near Zenia, Trinity county ; Edna, the wife of Harland Stead, a wireless operator in the employ of the United States government and located at Oakland ; and Carrie, married to Wallace Criley, a civil engineer at San Bernardino. The first wife died in 1893, and in 1895 Mr. Flint was married to Miss Mary Catherine Goble, the daughter of W. W. Goble, of Fortuna. The second Mrs. Flint is a woman of much charm and has a host of friends in Ferndale, where she is deservedly popular. The daughters of Mr. Flint were reared by her as her own and have for her all the affection of daughters of her own blood. Mr. Flint is very popular in fraternal circles, and is a prominent member of the Knights of Pythias and the Woodmen of the World. Mr. and Mrs. Flint now make their resi­dence in a bungalow he has just completed in Ferndale.

 

MRS. JOSEPH E. HARMON SMITH.—As proprietor of the Overland Hotel at Blocksburg, Mrs. Joseph E. Smith is especially well known to the traveling public. Her hotel enjoys well-merited patronage and is one of the pleasant hostelries of the county. Mrs. Smith herself is a splendid type of the broadminded, clever, capable California women who have succeeded largely in business, she being a native daughter, and one of the oldest living white women born in the state. She was in girlhood Frances Milsap, the daughter of Hiram and Ann (Montgomery) Milsap, who settled near New­ville, in what was then Colusa county, but now Glenn county, in 1857. Mr. Milsap came to California across the plains with ox teams in 1854, and en­gaged in farming. There were nine children born to himself and wife, Mrs. Smith being the fourth oldest. Her father died in Glenn County at the age of eighty years, and her mother is still living in the old locality in Glenn county at the age of eighty-four, and is very capable and efficient for her age.

Mrs. Smith was born near Sacramento, but was reared and educated in Glenn county. In 1877 she came to Hydesville, Humboldt County, and in Eureka was married to Mr. Smith in 1881.

Joseph Elisha Harmon Smith was a native of New York State and was reared in Will County, Ill., where he enlisted and served during the Civil war, fighting for the preservation of the Union. He was honorably discharged and came to California in 1869. After his marriage with Miss Frances Milsap in 1881 the young couple located near Bridgeville, where they ranched. on Chalk mountain. Later they moved to Garberville, where they also engaged in ranching and stock raising, and in 1891 they came to Blocksburg, locating on a ranch and engaging in stock raising. In 1907 Mr. Smith purchased the property known as the Overland Hotel, which he rebuilt into a modern hostelry. It is now conducted as a first-class house and receives the patron­age of the best class of travel. Mr. Smith died in September, 1912, at the age of sixty-nine years, and since that time Mrs. Smith has continued to conduct the hotel and has been exceedingly successful in her management. She is a woman of great capability and her judgment and business acumen are well above that of the average person. She is the mother of six children, all of whom are living and are well known in Blocksburg and vicinity. They are : Maude, the wife of George G. Burgess, of Blocksburg, and the mother of three children ; Mabel, the wife of J. E. Godfrey, of Eureka, and the mother of two children ; Josephine, the wife of E. I. Burgess, of Blocksburg, and the mother of five children ; Gertrude, the wife of Charles H. Johnson, of Alder-point, and the mother of three children ; Frank J., a railroad man, residing at Bandon, Ore. ; and George E., residing at home.

 

ELMER LESLIE DEVLIN.—Of Canadian descent, Elmer L. Devlin is nevertheless "a native son of California," having been born in Eureka, this state, August 1, 1877, his father having been Charles Leslie Devlin, a native of Perth, Ont., a shoemaker by trade, who came to Eureka in the early '60s, where he engaged in the shoe business on Second street, continuing there for many years until elected city assessor, a position to which he was reelected for over eight years, until his death in 1899, having also been one of the councilmen of the city and a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Knights of Pythias. His wife was formerly Carrie F. Spaulding, born in Hartford, Conn., who joined her father in Humboldt county, Cal., about the year 1875, whither her grandfather, Lucius Spaulding, had come in the early days, as well as his wife, formerly a Miss Fay, and her two brothers, George and Nahum Fay, who engaged in the manufacture of shingles and shakes at Fay's Mill on the Peninsula in the early '50s. The death of Elmer L. Devlin's mother occurred in Eureka, where he, the eldest of her four children, was educated in the public schools and the Eureka Business College.

The first employment of Mr. Devlin was as a clerk for D. Barry on Fourth street, Eureka, where he remained for two years, thereafter entering the employ of the Humboldt Manufacturing Company as clerk in their store at Arcata, Cal., where he later became manager of the store, resigning from their employ after ten years, to engage in business independently. In August, 1913, removing to Orick, Cal., Mr. Devlin bought the small store of Robert Swan, where he continued the mercantile business which he enlarged until he has now an extensive, well selected line of general merchandise. During this time he built a hotel, known as The Orick Inn, which is commodious, well furnished and modern in every detail, being the largest and finest of its kind between Arcata and Crescent City, so that Mr. Devlin is well and favorably known as a hotel man as well as a merchant and postmaster, to which last office he was appointed at the time he took over the store from Mr. Swan. He is likewise a notary public and a trustee of the Orick school district, and in fraternal circles, also, is well known, being a Mason in the Arcata Lodge, F. & A. M.; a member of the Anniversary Lodge No. 85, I. 0. 0. F., and with his wife holds membership in the Arcata Chapter, 0. E. S., and the Rebekahs at Arcata. Politically Mr. Devlin is a supporter of the principles of the Republican Party, while his religious associations are with the Episcopal Church. 

The marriage of Mr. Devlin occurred in Arcata, uniting him with Miss Ethel Cates, a native of that city and daughter of Sewell Cates, who was born in the state of Maine. Mrs. Devlin is a woman of charming personality and enters heartily into her husband's enterprises, rendering him material aid in the success which he is achieving. They are the parents of two children, namely, Beatrice and Earl Devlin. Liberal and open-hearted, and progressive in the best sense of the word, Mr. Devlin has built up a good business in his chosen line, and with his family has won a high place in the esteem of all who know them. 

CELESTE FLOCCHINI.—The younger brother and partner of Giacomo Flocchini, of the firm of Flocchini Brothers doing a large dairy business at Alton, Humboldt county, Cal., Celeste Flocchini is an educated and well informed young man, who since 1907 has made his home in California. 

Born at Ono Degno, in the province of Brescia, Italy, Celeste Flocchini is the son of Francisco and Dominica (Dusi) Flocchini, his birth having taken place on May 26, 1891. The parents were farmers in Brescia, where the mother still lives, the father's death having occurred in July, 1914. Of the nine children, Celeste is the second youngest, and all but the eldest now make their home in California. Having completed the course of instruction obtainable in the local public schools, Celeste Flocchini after the age of eleven years was occupied with work upon the home farm until October of the year 1906, .at which time he removed to the United States, his first stopping place being Pittsburg, Pa., where he was for a short time employed in the coat mines. This not proving to his liking, however, in March, 1907, Mr. Flocchini came to Alton, Cal., where for nine months he was in the employ of a Mr. Dinsmore, after that working on dairies in the vicinity of the City 'of Ferndale, and then for three years was employed by Mrs. R. Hill at Alton. After two more years spent in the dairy business, Mr. Flocchini decided to start out independently, and accordingly leased one hundred sixty acres at Waddington, in the same county, there for eighteen months operating a dairy consisting of twenty cows. In January, 1915, he purchased a half interest with his brother Giacomo in their present dairy, a short time later the old Lynch ranch being leased by them also, a place which covers an area of one hundred ninety acres, near Grizzly Bluff, Cal. Here it is the intention of the brothers to run a dairy of about eighty cows, Celeste to be in charge of this place, while Giacomo manages the property at Alton of one hundred twenty-five acres with a dairy of seventy cows. The two brothers are thus together operating one of the large dairies in Humboldt county, and the success with which they are meeting is notable and well earned. They have already made for themselves a worthy and enviable reputation in their chosen line of business, and are respected and well liked in the home of their adoption.

Mr. Flocchini was married in Fortuna, Cal., on March 12, 1912, to Adelia Laffranchi, also a native of Italy, she having been born in the town of Avenone, in Mr. Flocchini's native province of Brescia.

JOHN JAMES CAIRNS.—As city attorney for Eureka and one of the leading citizens of Humboldt county, Cal., John James Cairns is widely known throughout this portion of northern California. To those who know his personal history and his long struggle to secure an education, his success is especially interesting and noteworthy, for it is recalled by his old friends that he Avas forced to make his own way in the world from the age of eleven years and his studies were carried on largely of evenings at the close of a day of manual toil.

The father of Mr. Cairns, James A. Cairns, was born in Scotland, and with his brother Hugh migrated to Indianapolis, Ind., where he followed the occupation of farming, in 1869 removing thence to California, where he settled in Santa Clara county and engaged in the business of farming and horticul­ture until the time of his death, which occurred in the year 1879. The wife of James A. Cairns was Annie Stanfield, a native of Belfast, Ireland, who came to Boston, after a few years spent in that city removing to California, via the Isthmus of Panama, until her marriage residing in Santa Clara county, where her brothers and sisters had made their home. She became the mother of three children, of whom John James Cairns is the eldest, and living until the age of seventy-nine years she was known to all the school children of the vicinity as Granny Cairns, for, although paralyzed for twenty-six years, in spite of her helplessness she was possessed of a sweet disposi­tion, which was shown by her kind words and greetings to all with whom she was associated, and she was loved and esteemed by all who knew her.

Born near San Jose, Cal., February 17, 1873, John James Cairns, the son of James A. and Annie Cairns, is one of those native Californians whose success has come through their own determined efforts, his force of will having led him out of the unpromising life of a cowboy into the arena of professional usefulness, and his profound knowledge of the law, coupled with an unusually powerful mind, enables him to grasp with exactness the most intricate prob­lems brought into relation with any case. After he had gained a rudimentary knowledge of the law through evenings of study and during leisure days, Mr. Cairns left the cattle ranch where he had been employed, to complete his readings under more favorable surroundings in San Jose. Admitted to the bar of. California during September of the year 1900, and for seven years a practitioner in his native city of San Jose, he came to Eureka in 1907 and here has built up a valuable practice, besides which he was for about three years referee in bankruptcy for Humboldt and Del Norte counties, resigning on May 1, 1915; he also served as city attorney for Blue Lake for a period of about four years, his resignation from the latter office being accepted on July 6, 1915. On June 21 of the same year he was elected city attorney of Eureka, receiving a handsome majority. Although not prominent in fraternal matters, Mr. Cairns is actively identified with the Woodmen, Red Men and Odd Fellows. By his first marriage he has two children, Cyril, who is now a law student, and Chispa. His present wife, who bore the maiden name of Amelia Bianchi and is a native of France, is a woman of broad culture and such linguistic ability that she has mastered all the Latin languages.

JOHN ALEXANDER AGGELER.—Born on the old Aggeler home­stead near Ferndale, Cal., July 1, 1887, John Alexander Aggeler may truly be called a native son of California. His grandfather was well known among the pioneer settlers of the county, where he was a successful farmer until the time of his death, and his father resided here since the age of fifteen. The grandfather, Joseph, and his wife Mary came originally from St. Gallan, Switzerland, and settled at Pleasant Point, on the Eel River in Humboldt County, opposite the city of Fortuna, the grandmother still living in Fortuna, a wonderful woman for her age, and having sold the farm in 1915 after the death of her husband. Their son, John Bernard Aggeler, the father of John Alexander, was born in Nevada county, Cal., on March 26, 1857, at the age of fifteen years removing with his parental family to Humboldt county, where he continued to reside until the time of his death, having lived in the Grizzly Bluff section as well as at the Island, which was his home for the last twenty-seven years of his life. At Rohnerville he was united in marriage with Miss Margaret McDonald on January 1, 1880, the daughter of Martin McDonald, who operated ferries across the Eel River at Dungan's, Singley, Alton and Fortuna, and died in December, 1905.

John Alexander Aggeler is one of a family of five: Mary, John Alexander and Constance, who live at the Island ; David,. of Eureka ; and Ann Aggeler, of San Francisco. John Alexander was brought up as a farmer's boy, assist­ing his parents at home and receiving his education in the public schools. He was the only member of the family who witnessed the death of his father, which occurred August 27, 1912, and was caused by runaway horses while Mr. Aggeler and his son were driving a load of wood to their ranch on the Island, and for the year following the accident John Alexander Aggeler assisted his mother in the management of the farm and dairy, in 1913 leasing the place himself, which he is now operating successfully as a dairy farm. The estate comprises forty acres of fertile land, which provides ample pasture for his herd of about twenty-five cows, and also admits of the raising of an abundance of feed for them of various kinds. In his political preferences Mr. Aggeler is a Republican, while his fraternal associations are with the Knights of Columbus of Eureka and the Ferndale Parlor No. 94, Native Sons of the Golden West. His mother died here July 18, 1915, just after returning from a trip of two months on San Francisco bay.

It is such families as the Aggelers which our country is glad to welcome from foreign shores and to watch grow up in the spirit of loyalty to their new home, and perhaps none others in Humboldt county have held a higher place in the esteem of all who knew them, or have done more by steady purpose and patient industry for the betterment of the land where they have chosen to locate, than have the father and grandfather of Mr. Aggeler, who are spoken of with admiration in the community where they made their home. His mother was endowed with wonderful business ability and an exceptionally fine personality, and the son, in his enterprise and liberal disposition, has proved himself a worthy descendant of his respected family.

VICTOR AMBROSINI.—The firm of F. and V. Ambrosini, dairymen in Humboldt county, Cal., is one well known in this part of the state, where they hold a high place among the men engaged in that industry, the two brothers working together in perfect harmony since they began dairying.

The birthplace of Victor Ambrosini was Lodrino, in the Canton of Ticino, Switzerland, where he was born August 28, 1875, the second oldest of a family of five children, his parents being Gervaso, the descendant of an old family of the place, and Maria (Sacchi) Ambrosini, both of whom are now deceased. Victor received his education in the public schools and on the home farm learned dairying and the manufacture of butter and cheese. His brother Ferdinand having gone to Humboldt county in 1892, his satisfac­tion with the new country and belief in the opportunities there offered en­couraged the brother Victor also to try his fortunes on the Pacific coast. Accordingly, on March 2, 1894, he arrived in Eureka, Cal., soon finding em­ployment at a dairy on the Bear River Ridge, following that line of work until he became foreman of the West Point ranch, a position which he held for two years. In 1903 he became associated with his brother Ferdinand, they forming the partnership of Ambrosini Brothers, which has lasted ever since. Leasing two ranches, the Woodland Echo and the Mayflower, they thus secured a combined acreage of twenty-six hundred acres, located on Bear River Ridge, where they conducted a large dairy, also engaging in stock raising. Here they milked a herd of one hundred seventy cows, and manu­factured butter, which they shipped in squares or kegs to Eureka and San Francisco, meeting with success and being rewarded for their hard work and close application to business by the gaining of good profits. Meantime they looked about for an investment for their surplus, and in 1910 pur­chased the old Gries place of seventy-two acres, adjoining Ferndale on the northeast, at which place Mr. Ambrosini now resides. Until 1913 they rented the place, at which time they moved there and commenced dairying, giving up the ranches on Bear River Ridge. Since then they have been continuously engaged in operating the Gries ranch, in addition leasing an adjoining thirty-eight acres, making a total of one hundred ten acres, where they raise an abundance of hay and green feed for their herd, which consists of seventy-five high grade Jersey cows and Shorthorn Durhams. They also rent a stock ranch of six hundred six acres in the Guthrie district, on the coast, about ten miles from Ferndale, where they carry on the raising of cattle. Ex­perienced and well-informed men in the dairy and cattle business, the Am­brosini brothers are among the leaders in these lines of business in Ferndale and vicinity, where they also take an active part in all movements for the best interests of the community. A Republican in politics, Mr. Ambrosini is a member of the Ferndale Dairymen's Association and the Ferndale Cow-Testing Association, through his membership in which he is active in for­warding the good of the dairy industry.

His marriage took place in Ferndale in October, 1900, his wife having formerly been Miss Emma Tonini, a native of Petrolia, Cal., her parents having been Antonio and Sabina (Mattej) Tonini, born in Cavergno and Cevio, Ticino, Switzerland, respectively, and they were early settlers in Humboldt county, her father having come to California over forty years ago and become a prominent dairyman. Mr. and Mrs. Ambrosini are the parents of seven children: Mary, Walter, Florinda, Henry, Archie, Sadie and Clarence Weston.

HAGBARTH NIELSEN.—A native of the distant country of Norway, Mr. Nielsen has chosen to make his home in northern California, where he has cleared and improved land, and in the cultivation of the soil and the occupation of dairying is meeting with success.

 

 

Born in Drammen, Norway, in 1867, he received a good education in the public schools of that country, where for ten years he was employed as a grocery clerk. Then, led by the wish to come to the new world and seek his fortune in California, he made the trip in 1893, settling at Eureka, in Humboldt county, Cal., where for five years he was engaged in driving a milk wagon for the Buhne dairy. Upon the discovery of gold in the Klondyke region, Mr. Nielsen determined to take the trip to Alaska, as so many others were then doing, and accordingly in the year 1898 set out on the journey in search of gold, going by trail over Chilcoot Pass, being there at the time of the big slide. There were said to be about ten thousand on the trail, but only about fifty-two met their death in the slides. After this he and his com­panions made their way to the Yukon River, where they built two boats by which they made the trip down the river, passing through Miles Canyon and over White Horse Rapids to Dawson. Mr. Nielsen took up a claim, but as it did not prove valuable, he found employment in the mines, thus making sufficient money to cover the expenses of the trip. After five years spent in the frozen north, he returned to the United States, as he had become a sufferer from rheumatism, and settled once more in Humboldt County, where he leased the hotel at the Stone Lagoon, conducting it with success for five years. After disposing of his interests in the hotel, Mr. Nielsen purchased his present ranch in 1910, consisting of forty acres of bottom land on Redwood creek, at the town of Orick. Here he has cleared most of the property and improved it so that he has good pasture and fields for the raising of hay and other feed for his cows, of which he has twelve at the present time, a number which he is steadily increasing both as to milch cows and young stock. Aside from improving the land from an agricultural point of view, Mr. Nielsen is interested in constantly beautifying his home surroundings in every way possible, setting out trees, both fruit and ornamental, and many varieties of flowers upon his property. In his political interests Mr. Nielsen is a member of the Republican Party, and while in Eureka held membership in the Nor­mana Literary Society.

 

DENVER SEVIER.—With one of the many expeditions that crossed the plains during the summer of 1850 there came to the then unknown and undeveloped regions of the Pacific coast a stalwart young man, a native of Indiana, Abner D. Sevier, by name, who in the year following his arrival in California joined the few isolated frontiersmen then established in Hum­boldt county. Already logging camps had been established in this section of the state. The vast forests were beginning to be devastated for the up-building of the west. For a time he had work as the driver of an ox-team in one of these camps, but later he went to the Eel river section and took up a government claim. In the early period he endured many hardships. To earn a livelihood from the undeveloped land was most difficult, nor was it easy to find a market for such crops as could be secured. Determination, perseverance and unceasing hard work brought their merited results and eventually he became a prosperous farmer and a man of wide public in­fluence, serving for two terms as county sheriff and also filling the office of county supervisor with recognized efficiency. For almost thirty years he was a resident of Humboldt county, and his death, March 24, 1888, was recognized as a distinct loss to his community. Fraternally he held mem­bership with the Masons. By his marriage to Sarah A. Stringfield he be­came the father of four children, of whom only one is living, Denver, born at Eureka, Cal., February 19, 1860, educated in local schools, admitted to the bar in 1889, and since then a member of the brilliant company of attor­neys practicing in .Eureka. In this city he married Miss Minnie Bullock, daughter of Nathaniel Bullock, and of the union there are two sons, Donald B. and Kenneth D.

 

CHARLES CROSS.—The ranch owned and occupied by Charles Cross is situated on Van Dusen river, two miles from Carlotta, and is one of the most attractive in the county. It comprises two hundred ten acres of fertile land, which he has acquired by hard work and frugality, so that the term self-made applies to him in its truest sense. Like so many of those of eastern birth who have turned their attention to dairying and farming in this land of sunshine, he has been very successful and today his dairy of twenty fine milch cows is one of the best equipped in the county. In every transaction of life he has been honest and upright, kind and generous to a fault, a respected citizen and good neighbor. He was born at Hampden, Penobscot county, Me., August 30, 1860, the son of William and Sarah (Morse) Cross. The parents, who were farmers, were natives of Maine, the father of Welsh and the mother of English ancestry. In 1869 they moved to Grinnell, Iowa, three months later removing to Smith County, Kans., where the father homesteaded and resided ten years. In 1882 the family removed to Oregon and one year later to Humboldt County, Cal.

 

On account of poor health the father removed to Nevada, thence to Oregon, where he died. The mother died in Rohnerville, Humboldt County, in 1898. They had two children, namely, A. N. and Charles, the former residing with his brother.

 

Circumstances were such that Charles Cross had very limited educational advantages, for when he was quite young it was necessary for him to become self-supporting. For several years he was in the employ of the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia and afterward worked for the Holmes Lumber Company of Eureka.

 

Imbued with the qualities which usually bring success, young Cross saved his earnings and in due time was enabled to purchase a ranch of twenty-five acres at Rio Dell, which he improved while with the Pacific Lumber Company, making it his home for seventeen years. After selling it he bought his present ranch on Van Dusen River, most of the place being bottom land, on which he raises grain, hay, carrots, beets and alfalfa. Many of the progressive movements of the county have enlisted his influence and his career throughout is worthy of emulation. Frater­nally he is a member of the Hydesville Lodge of Odd Fellows, and in poli­tics votes with the Republican Party.

 

While living in this county Mr. Cross was married at Rio Dell July 10, 1889, being united with Miss Hattie Corning, born in St. James,. Watonwan county, Minn., December 22, 1870, the daughter of Smith P. and Orpha M. (Smith) Corning, born in New York and Ohio, respectively.. They were married in Minnesota. Mr. Corning served in Company B, Second Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, through the Civil war. Until 1873 he resided in Minnesota, then removing to Ottawa County, Kan., where the family resided for a year. In that year Mr. Corning came to Humboldt county, the family joining him in 1875. A millwright by trade, he helped build various mills in the county. He spent his last days at Rio Dell, passing away in 1910, the mother having died at Shively in 1882. Of their seven children, Mrs. Cross, the fourth oldest, received her education in Humboldt county. Mr. and Mrs. Cross are the parents of seven children: Ruby (Mrs. Guy Stapp of Carlotta, the mother of one child, Albert Ever­ett) ; Earl Everett; Irene Elizabeth; Florence Marie; Agnes Zella and Anna Ella (twins); and Cecil Wilbur. Mrs. Cross is a member of the Hydesville Lodge of Rebekahs, No. 98, and is interested in the cause of education. Mr. Cross was formerly a member of the board of trustees of Rio Dell district.

 

JAMES E. NEIGHBOR.—Though a comparatively new resident of Eureka, Mr. Neighbor has become so intimately associated with the affairs of the city and of Humboldt county as well that he has been welcomed as an acquisition in the best circles. The promptness with which he entered into local movements for the general welfare has been a source. of gratification to his fellow citizens, for he is a worker of trained ability, with several years of successful service to his credit, principally in the activities of the Young Men's Christian Association. As a business man also he has a high record, and has added to his reputation in that line by his able management of the Bayside lumber mill at Eureka. He "arrived" in the milling business by a rather roundabout route, having for. a number of years been engaged with a saw manufacturing firm in the east, through which he made acquaintances which led to his present con­nection when he decided to settle in California.

 

Mr. Neighbor is of English ancestry, his father, grandfather and great-grandfather having been born in England. Edward Neighbor, his grand­father, brought his family to America when the Rev. R. E. Neighbor, father of James E., was a boy of twelve years; Robert Neighbor, the great-grandfather, also accompanied them. They settled in Racine County, Wis., where Edward Neighbor, formerly a school-teacher, took up a farm and followed agricultural pursuits. R. E. Neighbor was born in 1842 at Wisbeach, England, and began his education in his native land. He passed his youth on his father's farm in Racine County, Wis., attended Racine College, and later took a course at the University of Chicago, from which institution he was graduated. Having prepared for service in the Baptist ministry, he was ordained, and his first pastorate was in Kane County, Ill. Having been appointed to do missionary work for his denomination in India, in the province of Assam, he gave up his charge and for the next eight years served in the India mission field of the Baptist Church, during that time residing principally at Nowgong, Assam. His son James was an infant, when he went out, and three children were born in India, so he and his wife concluded it best to return to America in order to give their children proper educational advantages. For a time the family lived at Chicago, Ill., later at Elkhart, Ind., and then at Indianapolis, and Rev. Mr. Neighbor is still actively engaged in the service of the Baptist Church, doing special work. He resides at Indianapolis, but is called to various points. For twenty-five years he was connected with the Baptist State Convention of Indiana, and he is well known through his contributions to the several church periodicals, having written considerably on religious topics for the Baptist Observer of Indianapolis, the Baptist Review of New York City, the Bibliotheca Sacra of Oberlin, Ohio, and The Review and Expositor of Louisville, Ky. At two different periods he has been editor of the Observer. His able services in every capacity have received flatter­ing recognition in the church.

 

Rev. Mr. Neighbor was married at Chicago, Ill., in 1868, to Miss Anna Maria Bell, who was a native of Ireland, of Scotch-Irish descent. She lived to be over seventy years old. Five children were born of, this mar­riage, viz.: James E.; Arthur, of Rosenberg, Texas, a physician and surgeon; Robert W., manager of the branch house of E. C. Atkins & Co. at San Francisco, and living at Oakland; Agnes D., wife of George T. Purves, of Indianapolis, bookkeeper for the Marion County Construction Company; and Ethel M., who was born at Elkhart, Ind., and who is unmarried.

 

James E. Neighbor was born February 2, 1870, at St. Charles, Kane County, where his father was stationed until he took up missionary work in India. He was but seven months old when he landed with his parents at Calcutta, and a boy of nine when they returned to America. He attended school in Chicago for one year, was in the high school at Elkhart, Ind., six months, and completed the four years' high school course at Indianapolis, graduating when seventeen years old. Two months before graduation he had been offered a position with E. C. Atkins & Co., saw manufacturers of Indianapolis, and he entered their service as mailing clerk. After one year he became billing clerk, making out all the invoices, besides which he waited on all outside customers who came to the house and filled the position of office salesman. At the time the Spanish-Ameri­can war broke out he was a member of the Indianapolis Light Artillery, and enlisted for service with that organization, which went into the army as the Twenty-seventh Indiana Light Artillery, but he was rejected at the federal examination. At this time the president of the Indianapolis Mercantile & Trust Company offered him a position as manager of the Indianapolis office. This concern later developed into the Merchants' Association. For four years Mr. Neighbor devoted his time to Y. M. C. A. work. Having taken the position of assistant secretary, he held it for two years, and during the next two years was acting general secretary. At the end of this period he became superintendent of the Badger Furniture Company at Indianapolis, holding that position for four years, when his health broke down and he found it necessary to have rest and a change, to recover from an attack of nervous prostration. With that end in view he made a visit to his brother Robert, at Oakland, Cal., in 1908, and was delighted with the climatic and other attractions of the coast. In the course of his stay he formed the acquaintance of R. 0. Wilson, manager at the San Francisco offices of the Bayside Lumber Company, which has a mill at Eureka. During the ten years of his connection with E. C. Atkins & Co. he had become quite familiar with sawmill supplies and other details of the lumber business, and his work in the association brought him a wide acquaintance, so that he did not come to the west by any means as a stranger.

 

In December, 1908, Mr. Wilson sent Mr. Neighbor up to Eureka, and the following February he became assistant manager of the Bayside Lumber Company, in which capacity he has charge of the Eureka mills. The San Francisco offices of this concern are in Rooms 613-621 Santa Maria building, at No. 112 Market street, and the sales offices are also in that city. The officers of the company are: Levi Smith, president, of Warren, Pa.; Charles A. Shurtliff, vice president, of San Francisco; R. 0. Wilson, secretary and treasurer, as well as manager. The latter lives at Oakland. The company is engaged in the manufacture of redwood lumber and shingles, and the industry is of such proportions as to be highly important to the prosperity of Eureka, where it is considered one of the stable assets of the city and county. Mr. Neighbor's able administration of its affairs at this point is sufficient comment on his talents and executive ability.

 

From the time he settled at Eureka Mr. Neighbor has demonstrated his sincere interest in the work of raising social and living standards in the community and his efficiency in accomplishing such objects. Un­doubtedly his early home training and influence predisposed him for such service to his fellows, and he has lived faithfully up to the high ideals of generosity and helpfulness to others instilled by his parents. He is chair­man at present of the Humboldt County Progressive Temperance League, which office he has filled for the last three years; is a member of the Eureka Development Association, working for what he considers the best interests of a cleaner, larger and better Eureka; and is a prominent member of the Baptist Church, serving that organization as deacon and member of the board of trustees, and the Sunday school as superintendent. Mr. Neighbor has attempted to labor along broad lines, attacking wrong and vicious principles and breaking down evil institutions, rather than directing his immediate attention to the victims of these conditions entirely. He be­lieves in going to the root of an evil, rather than nipping its buds, and his success in the various undertakings which have been entrusted to him would seem to indicate that he has a grasp of the more effective methods.

 

In 1902 Mr. Neighbor was married to Miss Anna M. Wright, of Mount Pleasant, Ohio, and they have two children, Margaret Annabel and James Edward. They reside at No. 130 West Cedar street, Eureka. Mrs. Neigh­bor is, like her husband, a zealous worker in the Baptist Church, and also a prominent member of the Ladies' Aid Society and vice president of the Women's Missionary Society of the Eureka congregation.

 

MATTHEW CARROLL.—A prominent farmer and stockman in the vicinity of Arcata, Cal., Matthew Carroll has carved out for himself a farm from the forest land, where he now produces big crops on land which, when he first settled there, was mostly timber. He cleared the ground for farming, and still owns valuable timber land there, and has become known in that community as a liberal and public-spirited man, ready to help any project which has for its aim the upbuilding of the county where he has made his home.

 

On January 23, 1854, Mr. Carroll was born in Kingston, Ontario, Can­ada, the son of James, born in County Wicklow, Ireland, who came with his parents to Ontario at the age of five years, where he was educated in the local public schools, being engaged during the winters in logging in the woods, and purchasing property consisting of four hundred acres of raw land, which he cleared of beech and maple and improved for farming purposes. His wife was formerly Mary Rowley, a native of County Kil­dare, Ireland, who as a child removed with her parents to Ontario and is still living upon the old home farm in that province. Of her twelve chil­dren, only two are living, and Matthew Carroll was the second eldest in the family. He grew up on his father's farm, and attended the public schools of the vicinity, and at the age of sixteen years began logging in the woods with his father, driving ox-teams, etc., until over twenty years of age. In May, 1874, he came west to California, settling first at Eureka, in Hum­boldt County, where his knowledge of logging stood him in good stead, he being employed for about three years by Evans & McKay on Salmon Creek, being foreman of their road-builders. When this company failed, Mr. Car­roll entered the employ of James Gannon at Arcata, as foreman and head road-builder, in which capacity he remained for a period of five years. In December, 1881, he made a return trip to his old home, the following January being married to Miss Bridget Whalen, a native of his home town, and daughter of Daniel Patrick Whalen, a pioneer farmer of the place. With his bride Mr. Carroll returned to Arcata in April, 1882, purchasing a small farm near that city, which he operated for three years, then selling it to homestead the present place. He began at once to improve his new property, cutting shingle and stave bolts, shipping the latter to San Fran­cisco and selling the former to the shingle mill run by Harpst, Spring & Co. Having cleared this land, he purchased adjacent property, having now about three hundred seventy acres in all, of which one hundred fifty acres are cleared and under the plow, there still being about two hundred acres which are heavily timbered. Here Mr. Carroll engages in general farming, stock-raising and dairy business, milking a herd of seventeen cows, and besides raising cattle of Durham and Holstein strain, also engaging in the raising of fine horses. He is the owner of the English shire stallion Captain Tom, weighing fifteen hundred pounds, well known as a fine draft horse.

 

For about twelve years Mr. Carroll was a trustee of the Cedar Springs school district, and was one of the builders of the first school house in this vicinity, and continued as clerk and trustee of the school until turning over these offices to his son. In his political preferences he is a member of the Democratic Party. He is the father of eleven children, of whom the five youngest are at home with their parents: Mary, now Mrs. Thomas Dillon, of Eureka; James, who resides in San Francisco; Joseph; who lives in Arcata ; John, who died at the age of sixteen years ; Anna, a bookkeeper for the Humboldt Cooperage Co., Arcata ; ,Daniel, who lives in Montana ; Matthew, Peter, William, Oswald and Catherine.

 

 

JOHN MACINATA was born in Bagolino, Province of Brescia, Italy, May 11, 1881, the fourth in a family of six children born to Charles and Margareta (Bazzani) Macinata. The parents were farmer folk in Brescia, and resided on the home place until they passed away, on the same day in 1912, only four hours apart.

 

John Macinata, who is the only member of the family in the United States, was brought up on the old home farm, and in his native district he received a good education. When his schooling was over he learned the carpenter's trade, which he followed in connection with farming. Having a desire to see California and try the opportunities offered here to indus­trious young men, he came to Eureka, Cal., in April, 1907, and for the first eight months was in the employ of C. E. Sacchi at Bayside, then at the Bucksport dairy and the McKay dairy, Ryan slough, for like periods. After another year spent on a dairy farm at the head of F Street, Eureka, he resolved to engage in the business for himself and in December, 1910, he rented the William Harmon place, where he ran a dairy of eighteen cows until March 22, 1914, when he leased his present place at West End, near Blue Lake. It is splendid bottom land, which gives him ample pas­ture, and upon it he raises an abundance of hay and green feed. His herd of Holsteins is well bred and numbers forty head of milch cows, which he feeds with great care in order to achieve the best results.

 

Mr. Macinata was married in Eureka June 7, 1914, being united with Miss Brachi Ambrosini, born at Bormio, Province of Sondrio, Italy. After finishing her studies in Italy, before coming to California, she spent several years in Graubunden and St. Gallen, Switzerland, where she learned the German language and is a woman of ability, being very much of a helpmate to her husband. Politically he is a Democrat.

 

 

B. JAMES BIASCA was born at Lodrino, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, January 29, 1881, the son of Charles and Ellen (Bernardi) Biasca, both natives of that place. The father was well educated and became a successful dairyman in Humboldt county, whither he came in about 1882, the family joining him later, while he was located on Bear river. In 1905 his health failed and he returned to Ticino, Switzerland. They were the parents of eight children, six of whom are living, James being the oldest. His educa­tional advantages consisted of about eighteen months in Lodrino. schools, at the end of which time, at the age of eight, he came with others of the family to join the father in Humboldt county, Cal. He immediately went to work for others on a dairy ranch to help his father make a livelihood for the family, and when eleven years of age he went to work for the Russ Company on the present place, while his father was foreman, and he has continued on this ranch ever since. He worked for his father after he leased it and since 1905 he has had a lease of the place himself and is operating a dairy of eighty-three cows, and is also engaged in raising cattle and hogs, poultry and turkeys. Central Park ranch, as it is called, is located on Bear River and is well adapted for the purpose to which it is devoted. It is' equipped with a creamery with steam power for the making of butter, which is shipped to the San Francisco market.

 

Since he came to this ranch at the age of eleven years, Mr. Biasca has never lost a day, and by his industry and close application to business has won for himself a competence. Politically he is a Republican.

 

 

JOHN D. AMBROSINI was born at Lodrino, Canton Ticino, Switzer­land, March 25, 1883, the fifth oldest of six children born to Nicola and Elena (Sachi) Ambrosini, who reside on their farm in that country. John D. was brought up as a farmer's son and received his education in the public schools. Having heard reports of better wages and opportunities in Cali­fornia than could be found in his native Ticino, he determined to try his luck in the Golden West. January 21, 1903, he left his native land and arrived in Humboldt county February 10, 1903. He found employment in a dairy at Loleta for two years and then spent three seasons in a dairy on Bear River ridge. Next he worked for Ambrosini Brothers for a year, when, having saved some money, he determined to start in business for himself. In 1908 he leased his present place (known as the Centennial ranch) of two thousand acres, and has since engaged in dairying with suc­cess. He milks eighty-five cows and is manufacturing butter, which he sells to the Elk River Mercantile Company at Scotia. His success is in no small degree due to the assistance of his wife, who was in maidenhood Ida Bernardi, born on Bear River ridge, Humboldt County, the daughter of Moses and Louisa (Sachi) Bernardi, both natives of Lodrino, Switzerland. On coming to the United States they settled in Humboldt County, where they followed dairying, but later they returned with the family to Lodrino. There the father died soon after his arrival. The mother still makes her home in Ticino. Mrs. Ambrosini is now the only immediate member of her family in Humboldt County. She was educated both in Humboldt County and in Lodrino. In 1909 she returned to Humboldt County, where she afterwards married Mr. Ambrosini, the ceremony taking place in Ferndale. To them have been born four children, Dania, Hazel, Susie and Ethel. Politically he espouses the cause of the Republican party.

 

 

ANGELO BONOMI.—Many representative sons of Italy have come to California, among them Angelo Bonomi, who was born in Livemmo, Province of Brescia, Italy, in 1890, and there he received a good education in the public schools. He was reared to the life of a farmer and dairyman and followed that line of work in his native land until he concluded to try his fortune in California. In 1912 he came to Humboldt County and for eighteen months was employed on a dairy at Stone lagoon. After spending two months at the Buhne ranch he leased his present place of two hundred acres near Fields Landing, on South Bay, where he is conducting a dairy of thirty cows.

 

Mr, Bonomi was married in Livemmo, Italy, May 24, 1912, being united with Miss Theressa Toreni, who was also a native of that place, and they have two children, Marie and Eva. Both himself and wife are members of the Catholic church in Eureka.

 

 

PIETRO CANCLINI was born in the town of Piatti, near Vale de Sotto, Province Sondrio, Italy, May 20, 1883, and is the fourth oldest of twelve children born to Christopher and Candida (Canclini) Canclini, also natives of that place, who still make their home there. After completing the public schools, Pietro was apprenticed to the shoemaker's trade under his father, continuing the same until he came to California with the excep­tion of the time he served in the Italian army. It was at the age of twenty that he entered the Sixteenth regiment of artillery, serving three years, when he was honorably discharged as trumpeter. In 1906 he came to Humboldt County. For six months he was employed in the woods at Philbrook and then started in the shoe business in Arcata, running a shoe repair shop on the plaza. He makes a specialty of shoe repairing and has a complete line of machinery for sewing and repairing shoes, the motive power being electricity. From the first his success has been steady and is still increasing.

 

Mr. Canclini was married in Arcata, being united with Miss Isolina Boni, a native of the Province Firenze, Italy, and they have two children, Nelo and Lino. Fraternally he is a member of Iriquois Tribe No. 156, I. 0. R. M., at Arcata. Politically he believes firmly in the principles of the Republican Party.

 

 

AMATO BANDUCCI.—Among the men who have come from far-off sunny Italy, and are making a success in the mercantile line, is Amato Banducci, who was born near Lucca, Italy, July 4, 1878, the son of Paolo and Crelia (Antongiovanni) Banducci, who are still living on their farm near Lucca. Of their four children, Amato is the oldest and the only one residing in California. He received his education in the public schools and remained home assisting his parents until he came to California in 1896. After a six months' stay in Los Angeles he found employment at farming in Santa Barbara. Altogether he continued farming for five years, and of this period thirteen months were spent on the Island of Santa Cruz riding after stock. During his stay on the island he had several interesting hunts for wild hogs that were very numerous on the island and which the owners of the island wished to get rid of.

 

In 1902 Mr. Banducci came to Humboldt County and for three years was employed successively in the following shingle mills, Charles Harpst, Charles Kelston, and the Union shingle mill. In 1905 he started a vege­table and fruit route, traveling by wagon through Arcata and vicinity for a period of two years. At the end of this time, in 1907, he started a grocery store on the plaza, and has continued in business ever since. His trade has grown from the first and he has built up a good, substantial business. His success is due in a large measure to his affable, courteous and genial manner and his close application to business.

 

Mr. Banducci was married in Eureka, being united with Elenor Gilar­ducci, who was also born near Lucca, Italy. To them have been born two children, Fred and Susie. Fraternally he is a member of the Woodmen of the World and of Arcata Aerie No. 1846, F. 0. E. He is a member and hearty supporter of the Arcata Board of Trade and the Arcata Chamber of Commerce. Mr. Banducci is a liberal and enterprising citizen who is always willing to give of his means and best efforts toward the building up of the community commercially, socially and morally.

 

 

J. M. TRISTAO.—Among men who have Ieft their trade to engage in dairying in the Eel River valley is J. M. Tristao, who was born on the Isle of Treseira, one of the Azores, October 18, 1880, the son of J. B. Tristao, who is a bricklayer in his native place. The son, J. M., was educated in the public schools and on the completion of his studies therein, when six­teen years old, was apprenticed under his father as a bricklayer. After­ward he worked at the trade in that country until the spring of 1902, when he came to Pleasanton, Cal. There he was employed on a farm until the fall of that year, when he found his way to San Mateo County, where he was employed on a dairy. In the spring of 1903 he was similarly employed with Charles Denio at Vallejo, continuing with him for one year. Next we find him working on a sheep ranch in Nevada, but a year later he re­turned to Vallejo and rented the creamery on George Street, which he operated for one year. He then traded the creamery business for a dairy ranch at Crockett and ran it for two years.

 

In November, 1910, Mr. Tristao came to Humboldt County and leased a ranch at Arcata. One year later he leased one at West End, Blue Lake, and ran a dairy of thirty cows for two years. In the fall of 1914 he traded it for the present lease, comprising one hundred seventy acres of the Herrick ranch. Here he runs a dairy of fifty cows and is meeting with success, having plenty of bottom land for pasture, besides which he raises hay and green feed. He is a stockholder in the Del Monte Creamery.

 

Fraternally Mr. Tristao was a member of the Eagles and the I. D. E. S. in Vallejo until he moved away. Politically he believes in the principles of the Republican Party.

 

 

EMILLIO BETTIGIEO.—Among the firms operating large dairies successfully in the Eel river valley is Peracca & Bettigieo, of whom Emillio Bettigieo is the junior member. He was born in Calico, Province of Como, Italy, October 18, 1893, the third oldest of a family of eight children born to Angelo and Chisemia (Spini) Bettigieo. The father was a farmer and dairyman at Calico, Italy, until his death, and the mother still makes her home on the old place.

 

Emillio Bettigieo received a good education in the public schools, remaining at home and aiding his parents until he was seventeen years of age. Having heard of the advantages of California to the wage earner and farmer, he concluded to profit by opportunities offered the energetic young man on the Pacific coast. In 1910 he came to Humboldt County and found employment on a dairy at Petrolia, where he continued for three years, then followed ten months of the same kind of work at Loleta. Having saved his money with the hope of engaging in dairying for himself, in October, 1914, he formed a partnership with Emelio Peracca and leased the present place of two hundred sixty acres, and purchased the necessary implements and horses as well as cows to operate a large dairy. Besides milking eighty cows, they are also engaged' in stock-raising. The place is very suitable for dairying, its rich bottom lands enabling the partners to raise plenty of hay and green feed for their dairy herd. Both Mr. Peracca and Mr. Bettigieo are members of the Ferndale Dairymen's Association.

 

 

GAMBONI BROTHERS.—Among the dairymen on the island near Ferndale who are meeting with merited success we find Alfred and Bartol Gamboni, who came hither from Switzerland and fully appreciate the oppor­tunities offered men who are willing to work and apply themselves closely. Their chosen occupation is the dairy industry, in which they are meeting with deserved success. The brothers are natives of Vogorno, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, the eldest brother, Alfred, having been born in 1883. He remained on the home farm until 1903, when he came to California, being employed on a dairy in Marin County until 1908, and then came to Hum­boldt County. He continued in the dairy business until December, 1910, when he formed the present partnership with his brother Bartol. The latter was born in 1887 and received his education and training in the public school of Vogorno. It was on October 23, 1907, that he came to California. Besides being employed on a dairy he was also engaged in driving a milk wagon in San Francisco until July, 1909, when he came to Humboldt County. As has been stated, Alfred and Bartol Gamboni formed a partnership in December, 1910, for the purpose of carrying on a dairy business of their own, and rented their present place of seventy acres on the island, stocking it with a dairy herd. They have been prospered in their undertaking, milk­ing forty cows, to which number they are continually adding, and their business generally is growing steadily.

 

The brothers are enterprising and progressive business men, being well and favorably known, and are liberal, open-hearted and honest in all their dealings.

 

 

EDWARD CHRISTEN was born in Andermatt, Canton Uri, Switzer­land, January 6, 1860, the son of Sebastian and Josepha (Danjot) Christen, also natives of that place. The father was a shoemaker and farmer and also served for many years as the local judge. Both parents died at the old home. To them were born thirteen children, eight of whom grew up and four are still living, Edward being the youngest of all. He was edu­cated in the public schools and remained home assisting his father on the farm until he was twenty-four years of age, with the exception of the time he spent in the army and at the military school, in which he rose to the non-commissioned rank of corporal.

 

In 1884 Mr. Christen came to San Francisco, Cal., and from there came soon afterward to Petrolia, Humboldt county, where he was employed in a dairy for four years. In the meantime he had saved enough money to start in the dairy business, and in partnership with his brother he leased a ranch of one thousand acres in the same vicinity. They ran a dairy of seventy cows and made a specialty of manufacturing and shipping butter. The partnership continued for three years, when Edward Christen bought his brother's interest and continued alone until 1896, when he sold out and came to Pleasant Point, near Waddington, and bought a ranch of sixty-eight acres of bottom land and established a dairy. Since then the river has cut through around him, taking away several ranches and leaving him an island of forty acres, where he has a dairy of about twenty milch cows. Mr. Christen was married in San Francisco to Miss Mary Regli, also a native of Andermatt, Switzerland. She died here in 1913, leaving twelve children, as follows: George, Josephine, Marian, Edward, Rosa, Alvetius, Agnes, John, Joseph, Anton, Clara and Bernard.

 

Mr. Christen is a Republican in politics. He has always been interested in the cause of education and for many years served as clerk of the board of trustees of the Pleasant Point school district.

 

 

BASILIO DUSI was born at Ono Degna, Province of Brescia, Italy, May 26, 1883, the son of Battiste and Lucia (Buttenini) Dusi, who were also natives of Ono Degna and still make their home there. The father was engaged in making charcoal. The parents had six children, all of whom are living, Basilic) being the youngest and the only one in California. He was educated in the public schools of his native place, after which he assisted his father in the burning of charcoal until 1908. Having heard that better wages and greater opportunities generally were offered in California than were possible in his native land he resolved to come to the western coast of America. On March 6, 1908, he arrived in Ferndale, Cal., and until 1911 was employed in different dairies in the vicinity. In November, 1911, having saved enough money to start in dairying for himself, he leased the S. Smith place located on the coast two miles below Centerville. The ranch comprises three hundred acres, one hundred acres being plow land, where he raises hogs and green feed. Here he is successfully engaged in dairying, milking forty-five cows, the products being sold to the Cali­fornia Creameries Company.

 

Mr. Dusi is a well-informed man and is public spirited and enterprising, always ready to do his share towards enhancing the welfare of the community. He is a member of the Catholic Church at Ferndale and politically is a Republican.

 

 

BERNARDINO GENZOLI was born at Lodrino, Canton Ticino, Swit­zerland, in October, 1850, the son of John M. and Badelina (Bernardi) Genzoli, both natives of that place. They were farming people and passed their entire lives there. Of their nine children, seven are living, as follows: Cypriano resides in Ticino ; Bernardino is the subject of this sketch ; Morello is a dairyman and stockman at Capetown; Frederick resides in Algeria, Africa ; Chelestino lives in Eureka; Antone at Capetown; Savina (Mrs. Biasca) lives in Ticino.

 

Bernardino Genzoli was educated in the public schools, and remained on the home farm until 1869, when he made his way to Paris, France, there being apprenticed as a painter and decorator. On the breaking out of the Franco-Prussian war business was at a standstill and he therefore returned to Ticino and resumed his duties on the home farm, assisting his father until 1875. In that year he came to Humboldt county, Cal., where he immediately found work in a dairy on Bear river ridge. With the means and experience gained there during a period of nine years he engaged in the dairy business on his own account. Forming a partnership with his brother Morello, he leased the Harken ranch of eighteen hundred acres near Cape-town and engaged in dairying, milking one hundred twenty-five cows and making butter, which was shipped to San Francisco. After a period of seven years Bernardino Genzoli sold his interest to his brother and leased the Capwell ranch of three hundred acres on Bear River, where he ran a dairy for five years, after which he leased the Greenlaw ranch on Elk river, where he had a herd of sixty milch cows.

 

In 1900 Mr. Genzoli sold his lease and stock and came to Arcata Bot­toms, where he leased the present ranch of sixty-three acres from Redmond Brothers. It is all bottom land and furnishes abundant pasturage and green feed for his dairy of twenty-five milch cows, besides which he is also raising young stock.

 

In Ferndale occurred the marriage of Mr. Genzoli, his wife before her marriage being Lillian Sacchi, also a native of Lodrino, Switzerland, the daughter of Antone Sacchi, a farmer of that place. To Mr. and Mrs. Gen­zoli have been born seven children: Fred, Antone, Amerigo, Frank, Florinda, Bernardino and Esther. For twenty-five years Mr. Genzoli was a member of the Ferndale Lodge of Odd Fellows, but since his removal from that section he has discontinued it. Politically he is a Republican.

 

 

ALESSIO GALLACCI.—Among the worthy citizens of Humboldt county who have come from Italy and are making a success of dairying is Alessio Gallacci, who was born in Bacceno, Novara, Italy, October 2, 1884. His father, Vincenzo Gallacci, was a dairyman, and from him the son, Alessio, learned dairying as it was done in that country. He was educated in the public schools and assisted his parents until he was twenty-one years of age. He had heard much of better wages and greater opportunities in California than could be found in his mother country, so he resolved to cast his lot on the Pacific coast. In April, 1906, he landed in San Francisco and from there came immediately to Humboldt county. Here he found employment in a dairy on Arcata bottoms and followed that line of work until he had saved enough money to start for himself.

 

In 1911 Mr. Gallacci leased his present place of forty acres and has since been engaged in dairying, his herd of milch cows numbering twenty-five. The place is all rich bottom land, which furnishes plenty of hay and green feed, and the owner is recognized as a successful dairyman.

 

Mr. Gallacci was married in Arcata, being united with Miss Jennie Spalletta, a native of Cimalmotto, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, and to them have been born two children, Mary and Evelyn. Politically Mr. Gallacci believes thoroughly in the principles of the Republican Party.

 

 

THOMAS ALBONICO was born at Gravedona, Province of Como, Italy, June 13, 1871. His father was Bartholameo Albonico, a farmer who passed his entire life in Como, Italy. Thomas was reared on, the farm and educated in the public schools. He remained at home assisting his parents until 1898, when he determined to try his luck in California, of which he had heard such good reports. In 1898 we find him working on a dairy in Marin County. In 1902 he came to Humboldt County and after working on a dairy at Blue Lake for four months he found the same kind of em­ployment on Arcata bottoms, where he continued for three years. Next he spent ten months at Freshwater and then returned to Arcata bottoms, where he continued as a dairy hand.

 

In January, 1908, Mr. Albonico had saved enough money to start in the business, leasing a farm of forty-one acres on the bottoms, where he ran a dairy of twenty cows. Two years later he gave the lease up and rented the Lafe Sidel ranch of forty-five acres, where he milked twenty-five cows for three years, and then sold his lease and brought his dairy herd to the John Bulwinkle place, where he is running a successful dairy of twenty cows. He understands dairying and is a man that is well liked and favorably known. He is a stockholder in the United Creameries Company.

 

In Arcata June 6, 1908, occurred the marriage of Mr. Albonico, being united with Freda Schultz, a native daughter of San Francisco. Her father died when she was a year old and her mother married a second time, becoming the wife of John Bulwinkle, and the daughter always went by the name of Freda Bulwinkle. Mr. and Mrs. Albonico have three children: Anna C., Bartholameo and Mary M. Fraternally he is a member of the Woodmen of the World. In national politics he believes in the principles of the Republican Party. With his family he is a member of the Catholic Church in Arcata.

 

JOHN SCURI.—The province of Brescia, Italy, has sent many of her sons to aid in the upbuilding of our new West, and the counties of central California, though less beautiful in climate and scenery than their native home, have offered hospitality and prosperity to many energetic and pro­gressive sons of Italy.

 

Among the young men from that country who have come to seek their fortunes in California, led hither by the reports from those who have preceded them, is John Scuri, who was born in Livemmo, Brescia, Italy, on December 31, 1887, where he grew up on his father's farm, receiving a good education in the public schools of that locality. When he had completed his studies at school, John Scuri was apprenticed to the stone mason's trade, having learned farming to a considerable extent during his boyhood at home. In 1912 he left his native land to come to California, where he was employed in McKay's shingle mill near Eureka as foreman for nearly two years, when he left there and secured employment on a dairy farm near Loleta, in the same county, until November, 1914. At that time, determining to enter the dairy business independently, as so many of his countrymen were doing in the county, he formed a partnership with D. Bareggi, and the two young men rented part of the old Swan ranch at Orick, and here established themselves in the dairy business, where they are meeting with merited success. Their ranch is composed of rich bottom lands, which give fine opportunity for pasturing, and the partners are able to raise thereon abundance of hay and grain and green feed for their herd of fifty milch cows.

 

The partner of Mr. Scuri, Dominica Bareggi, is a native of the same town as himself, where he was born November 17, 1887, and where he learned the dairying trade as a lad and after completing the education furnished by the local public schools, continued working on the home farm until 1912, the same year in which Mr. Scuri came to California, Mr. Bareggi also at that date removing to Humboldt county, Cal., where he was employed at a dairy near Loleta until he formed the partnership with Mr. Scuri in the dairy busi­ness.

 

 

FRANK AMBROSINI.—Born in Lodrino, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, October 2, 1855, Frank Ambrosini was the oldest of a family of seven children, of whom five are at present living. The father, Cipriano, had a farm in Lodrino, which he operated during the summer months, his winters being mostly spent in Paris, where he was employed at the trade of glazier. The mother, Agatha (Martinoli) Ambrosini, was a native of their home town in Switzerland, where she and her husband both died. They brought up their children on the farm, educating them in the public schools, and having com­pleted his education the son Frank assisted his father upon the farm, at the age of twenty years enlisting in the Swiss army for the usual term of service, after which he was honorably discharged. Removing to Paris, he was there apprenticed to the glazier's trade, and after gaining experience in that line of work he continued in that occupation in France for a period of ten years. Having heard and read much of the opportunities offered for success in Cali­fornia, Mr. Ambrosini then decided to cast his fortunes on the Pacific coast, and accordingly in 1885 came to San Francisco, and thence to Eureka, in Humboldt county, Cal., and not finding employment at once in his chosen occupation, he was for five years engaged in working on the dairy ranch of Joseph Russ on Bear River ridge. Desiring to go into that line of business independently, Mr. Ambrosini rented the Bolivia ranch of about eight hun­dred acres, also on Bear River ridge, which for the following fifteen years he operated as a dairy, milking about eighty cows thereon; his next venture being the leasing of the Donnolly ranch of sixty-five acres of bottom land at Port Kenyon, where he conducted a dairy of thirty-five cows for three years. This lease he finally sold out, and in 1908 leased the Forbes place, where he is at present located, which consists of eighty acres of fertile land about a mile north of Port Kenyon, where he grows an abundance of feed for his herd of forty cows, which are full-blooded, and high-grade Jerseys.

 

One of the original stockholders of the Valley Flower Creamery on the Island, Mr. Ambrosini was also for some years a trustee of the Island school district, education being a cause in which he takes a deep interest. A very intelligent and well read man, he speaks French fluently, which he learned while engaged in business in Paris; and since coming to California has made a special study of the English language. Having a retentive memory, his wide reading has made of him a well informed and interesting conversationalist, and as school trustee he exerted his influence to further the cause of education among the school children of his district. To the country of his adoption he is always loyal, being keenly alive to the advantages offered here, and became a citizen of the United States as soon as he had lived in the country the required length of time. Politically, he is a stanch supporter of the principles of the Republican party, and in his business life his energy is no less apparent, for the early days of his dairying experience, when he panned and skimmed the milk, and churned the butter upon his ranch by hand, have been succeeded by the use of gas-engine power and the present prosperous condition of his affairs. Mr. Ambrosini's wife, an active and able helpmeet to her husband, is Victoria, the daughter of Paul Biasca, a farmer of Canton Ticino, Switzerland, where she was born. Her marriage with Mr. Ambrosini took place in Ferndale, Cal., March 16, 1901, and they are the parents of seven children, namely, Delmo, Sidney, Rina, Frank, Jr., Dora, Ivy and Vinni.

 

 

CIPRIANO PIINI.—From Switzerland, which is his native home, Cip­riano Piini, at the age of nineteen years, came to California, where he has since that time continued to make his home and is now well known as a successful dairyman of Humboldt county.

 

The parents of Mr. Piini were Joseph, a farmer on the Ticino River, in Switzerland, eight miles above where it empties into Largo Locarno, and Catherine (Giulieri) Piini, who died on March 8, 1915, the father still resid­ing at the old home. Of their six children, Cipriano, who was born at Cog­nasco, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, on February 17, 1883, is the fourth •oldest, the others being: Mary, who is now Mrs. Genzoli, resides at Loleta ; Albina, now Mrs. Charles C. Giulieri, of Salmon Creek ; Frank, a farmer at Castroville; Charles, who resides in Monterey county ; and Celeste, still residing at the old home in Switzerland. Like the others, Cipriano was brought up on his father's farm and educated in the public schools of the place, remaining at home and assisting his parents until nineteen years of age, when he con­cluded to try his fortune in California. In December, 1902, he came to San Francisco and found employment on a dairy at Nicasia, Marin County; in July of the next year he removed to Humboldt county, where he continued the same line of work for three months at Loleta, and later for eight months at Petrolia, thence going to Salmon Creek, where he followed the same occupation for eighteen months. Mr. Piini was next in the employ of the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia, where he remained for about two years, being employed next by the California Central Creamery Company at the Loleta creamery, and after ten months in this work he was engaged for a couple of years at a dairy in the same vicinity. By this time having saved sufficient money to enable his starting in business independently, in the autumn of the year 1911 Mr. Piini leased the Riley place, consisting of forty acres on Paradise Island in Humboldt county, where he at present is engaged in the dairy business, milking a herd of twenty-three cows and selling the milk to Libby, McNeill and Libby at Loleta. Mr. Piini is meeting with much success in his independent venture, and making for himself a name in his chosen line of work. The estate which he has leased is fertile bottom land, whereon he is enabled to raise all the hay and green feed which his herd requires, and like many others from his native land of Switzerland who have chosen to make their home in this country, he is well satisfied with the change.

 

At Salinas, Cal., Mr. Piini was married to Miss Irene Omicini, also a native of Switzerland, she having been born in Locarno, in the canton of Ticino. In his political views Mr. Piini is a firm believer in the principles of the Republican Party.

 

 

FERDINAND AMBROSINI.—Together with his brother Victor, Ferdinand Ambrosini has been engaged in dairying most of the time since coming to California, and the firm of F. and V. Ambrosini is well and favorably known among the dairymen of Humboldt county, this state, both men being members of the Ferndale Dairymen's Association and the Ferndale Cow Testing Association.

 

A native of Lodrino, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, Ferdinand Ambrosini was born in that distant country November 14, 1873, the son of Gervaso, and grandson of Gregori Ambrosini, the latter having been a farmer and land-owner in Switzerland, as well as a member of the town council and the descendant of an old family in that district. Ferdinand Ambrosini's father was also a farmer and dairyman and member of the town council, of which he was for many years president, or mayor, and both himself and his wife, Maria (Sacchi) Ambrosini died in their home canton. They were the .parents of five children, four of whom are living: Ferdinand and -Victor, now in partnership in California ;Theodorlinda, now the wife of Cipriano Ambrosini of Glenn county, and Severina, the wife of Sylvio Sacchi of Sonoma county. The sons were reared on the home farm, received their education in the local public schools and learned farming and dairying as they were carried on in that country. On February 3, 1892, attracted by the good reports he had heard of the opportunities for young men in Cali­fornia, the son Ferdinand set out for San Francisco, via New York, arriving in Humboldt County, Cal., on the twenty-fifth of the same month. Here he soon went to work on a dairy ranch of the Russ estate on Bear River Ridge, and in 1900 became foreman of the Woodland Echo ranch. In 1903 he and his brother Victor rented this ranch and also the Mayflower ranch of twenty-six hundred acres, where they engaged independently in dairying, milking one hundred seventy cows. All these years Mr. Ambrosini had been engaged in the making of butter, putting it up in squares, cubes and kegs, shipping it from Ferndale to Eureka and San Francisco at the rate of about three thousand pounds a month, and obtaining as high prices as any of the creameries. In the fall of 1913 he and his brother gave up the two ranches, having in 1910 purchased seventy-two acres of the Greis ranch adjoining Ferndale on the northeast, which they rented for dairy purposes until giving up their other ranches in 1913, at which time they engaged in dairying upon the seventy-two acres, adding thereto rented land of thirty-seven acres, so that at present they operate one hundred ten acres of rich bottom land, raising thereon large crops of hay and green feed for their herd of about seventy-five high grade Jersey and Durham milch cows, one of the latter having made the best record for milk in 1914 of thirty-five hundred cows whose record was kept by the association, having produced fifteen thousand, two hundred thirty-two pounds of milk in nine months. The Ambrosini brothers are also engaged in cattle raising, for which purpose they rent the Guthrie ranch of six hundred six acres, located ten miles below Ferndale, on the coast.

 

Politically, Mr. Ambrosini is an upholder of Democratic principles, he was a member of the board of trustees of Bunker Hill school district for two terms, and served one year as clerk of the board; and he is at present a stockholder in the Russ-Williams Banking Company. His marriage took place in Ferndale, Mrs. Ambrosini having been formerly Louisa Biasca, of Lodrino, Switzerland, and they are the parents of seven children: Edna, Severina, Louis, Elsie, Wesley, William and Donald, all of whom are at home with their parents.

 

 

JAMES JOHN CRONIN.—It is wide-awake men like James J. Cronin, men of optimism, ability and pluck, as well as high ideals and the courage of their convictions, that are bringing Humboldt county to the front in the sisterhood of the California counties, making it second to none in the state.

 

Mr. Cronin is a native of Nebraska, born at Bancroft, Cuming County, July 7, 1883. His father was Timothy Cronin, for many years a passenger conductor on the Grand Trunk Railway, while his mother was Margaret Cronin, a native of Canada. Later the father moved to Nebraska, where he took up land near Bancroft. The old Cronin homestead at Bancroft is still in the possession of the family, and is one of the local landmarks. The father died when James John was but two years of age and the mother continued to conduct the place, and there he grew to manhood, attending school and working on the farm. There were four children in the family, this one son and three daughters. They are: Mamie, who was Mrs. Kelly, of Bancroft, Neb., and who died in 1908; Nellie, now Mrs. James Gatzemeyer, of Ban­croft, Neb.; and Alice, now Mrs. James Atkinson, of Scotia, Humboldt county, Cal. The mother is still living, and resides in Canada.

 

Graduating from the public schools, Mr. Cronin entered Business College in Lincoln, Neb., and completing his course he entered the employ of his brother-in-law, M. Kelly, in the general merchandise business at Bancroft, continuing in this position until 1900. He then came to California, locating at Eureka, where he engaged with the H. H. Buhne Hardware Company for five years, this being one of the finest hardware stores on the coast. Follow­ing this he went to Metropolitan, Humboldt County, and conducted the Metropolitan Lumber Company store for a year, and from there went to Scotia and took charge of the mill supplies and hardware stock for the Pacific Lumber Company, as store-keeper and purchasing agent. He re­mained with this company for a period of five years, and then returned to Eureka, and became traveling salesman for the Leutzinger & Lane Com­pany, handling grocery specialties, fruit, etc., traveling out of Eureka for a year, and covering all of Humboldt County. He then traveled for a year for the Eureka Foundry, and in December, 1913, he came to Fort Seward and became associated with the Helmke Mercantile Company, as manager, a position he was by experience well qualified to fill. In 1914 he was appointed post­master at Fort Seward. He took an active part in the commercial life of Fort Seward during the opening of the through line of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad to San Francisco. Resigning his position with the Helmke Mercantile Company as well as his commission as postmaster, in April, 1915, he accepted his present position as manager of the mercantile department of the Eel River Valley Lumber Company at Newburg, and removed to the latter place to take charge of the stores of this company. He is a man of experience in this line and is capable and wide awake to the needs of the business and the demands of the trade. His chief object is to meet the demand with an adequate supply and it is seldom indeed that he fails to do so. He is popular in the county, and is especially well known, having spent several years as a traveling salesman throughout the county, and elsewhere in northern California. He is very enthusiastic over the prospects of this section of the state and is certain that its business and commercial supremacy is an assured fact.

 

However, he never fails to aid any movement toward this desired end, and is untiring in his efforts to enhance the present prosperity of the county.

 

While in the employ of the Buhne Company Mr. Cronin was married, in Eureka, on July 24, 1903, to Miss Tillie Barry, of that city. Mr. and Mrs. Cronin have become the parents of four children, three daughters and one son: Catherine, Dorothy, James John, Jr., and Elizabeth. Both Mr. and Mrs. Cronin have a host of friends throughout the county, who esteem them for their personal worth and their kind and charitable dispositions.

 

 

JOSEPH MOSSI was born in the village of Carena, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, February 10, 1882, the son of James and Anna (Buletti) Mossi, who are engaged in farming and dairying at Carena. They were the parents of twelve children, nine of whom are living, Joseph being the youngest of the family. From a lad he made himself useful on the farm, excepting when he was attending the public schools. After completing his studies in the local school he assisted his parents until 1902, when he came to the United States, a desire he had cherished for some time. His first location was at Cheshire, Mass., where he was employed in factories for four and one-half years, after which he went to New York City, where he was employed in hotels for two an one-half years. In May, 1909, he came to California, and at Santa Cruz spent nine months on a dairy. In April, 1910, he went to Petaluma, there also working on dairies until the spring of 1913. It was in this year that he came to Humboldt County, and immediately found employment with a dairyman. He remained with this employer until November, 1914, when he determined to start in business for himself and leased the present ranch of eighty acres, two miles north of Ferndale, which he devotes to a dairy, having at present twenty-two milch cows, the product being sold to Libby, McNeill & Libby. The ranch lies in the Eel river bottom, the rich land raising ample hay and green feed for his herd.

 

In South Adams, Mass., occurred the marriage of Joseph Mossi and Delfina Sarina, also a native of Ticino, and to them have been born four children, as follows: Albert, Harry, Mabel and Alvina. Mr. Mossi is 'an energetic and ambitious young man and the success he is accomplishing is well merited.

 

 

ANDREW GALLIA.—The proprietor of the Sequoia dairy, Andrew Gallia, is a progressive and enterprising young man. He was born in the Valtropia Valley, Province of Brescia, Italy, December 30, 1883. His father, Antonio Gallia, was a dairy farmer, so young Andrew naturally became famil­iar with the occupation he now follows when he was a young lad. After he had completed the public schools he aided his parents on the home farm until 1903, when he made his way to Ticino, Switzerland, and there he was employed on a dairy in the Alps region. In 1906 he came to California. After spending a short time in Marin County, he hired out to a dairyman at Modesto, where he remained for eighteen months. In 1909 he came to Eureka, being employed for short periods on the Sweasey dairy and the Torkelsen dairy until 1910. In that year he started in the dairy business for himself and the outgrowth is the Sequoia dairy, where he is doing a successful business and has now a large number of customers. His dairy, which comprises two hundred acres of grazing land, which he leases, adjoins Sequoia Park. He has built up a splendid dairy herd and by his close application to business and the high standard of the milk he retails he has met with well deserved success. Mr. Gallia is well liked and has made many friends since his advent in Hum­boldt County.

 

 

JOHN AND ROCCO SCALVINI.—We find among the late corners to Humboldt county enterprising dairymen in John and Rocco Scalvini, natives of Bagnolo, Province of Brescia, Italy, born July 5, 1879, and August 15, 1885, respectively, and sons of John Scalvini, who is represented in the sketch of his two other sons, George and Antone Scalvini. John and Rocco received a good training on the farm in Italy as well as good education in the public schools. In 1904 John came to the United States and located in Humboldt County, where he was employed on dairies in the vicinity of Ferndale for five years. He then returned to Italy, spending seventeen months in his native land, when he again returned to Ferndale.

 

Rocco Scalvini came to Syracuse, N. Y., in 1906, and worked on a railroad and in a soda factory for nine months. In April, 1907, he came to Ferndale, where he was busily employed on a farm and dairy until 1911, when the four brothers, John, Rocco, George and Antone leased the S. Smith ranch of ten hundred acres in the Guthrie district and operated a dairy. One year later John and Rocco purchased the interest of the other brothers and still con­tinue to operate the large ranch and dairy of seventy-five milch cows. The ranch is well adapted to dairying and the Scalvini brothers are meeting with merited success. Politically they believe the principles of the Republican party are for the best interests of the country.

 

  

FRANK L. VANDUSEN.—It is interesting to chronicle the career of a man who has successfully held important positions and filled them ably and well, always being equal to the emergency. Such a man is Frank L. Vandusen, who was born in Glens Falls, Warren County, N. Y., October 29, 1862. His father, James Walter Vandusen, a native of the same place, was descended from an old Knickerbocker family of New York. He was superintendent of a sawmill in Glens Falls and during the Civil war served in a New York regi­ment as a musician until the order to muster out all regimental bands. After the war he removed to Ottawa, Canada, where he was superintendent of the sawmill for the Brunson-Weston Lumber Co. He died in 1883, aged fifty-six years. The mother was Eliza (Crandle) Vandusen, also born in Glens Falls, N. Y. She died in Ottawa in 1912. Her brother, Stephen Crandle, came to California during the gold excitement, crossing the plains with ox teams in 1849. He was afterwards a pioneer rancher near Petaluma, Sonoma County. Of the five children born to Mr. and Mrs. James W. Vandusen, only two are living.

 

Frank L. Vandusen was the second oldest of the children comprising the parental family and he received a good education in the public schools of Ottawa. As a boy he worked around the sawmill of the Brunson-Weston Lumber Co., learning the business and working his way up in different depart­ments of the mill. When his father died he succeeded him as superintendent of the mill, being then twenty years of age, and continued in that capacity until all available timber was used up and the mill closed down. Mr. Vandusen then went across the Ottawa river to Hull, Quebec, entering the employ of the E. B. Eddy Manufacturing Company as mill superintendent and three months later was made assistant superintendent of the plant, continuing for a period of twelve years. In 1909 he accepted a position with the Brunson-Weston people, owners of the Little River Redwood Lumber Company, with a mill at Bulwinkle, Humboldt County, of which he became superintendent in February, 1909. Ever since he has held the position, performing his duties with care and efficiency that years of experience in the lumber industry have made possible. During the six years he has been connected with the mill it has not shut down for repairs and no repairs have ever been made on Sundays. Mr. Vandusen has applied himself closely to his calling and from the time he was twenty, when he was made mill superintendent, began studying mechanical drawing and he has become very proficient, so much so that he makes all his drawings of new and old work, and is thoroughly familiar with every part of the work in hand.

 

Mrs. Vandusen was in maidenhood Florence Graham, a native of Ottawa, of Scotch parents and a lady of good family and refinement who presides over his home with grace and dignity. By his former marriage Mr. Van­dusen has a daughter, Ruby, who is a graduate of Miss Heads' school in Berkeley.

 

Mr. Vandusen was made a Mason in Eddy Lodge No. 41, F. & A. M., at Hull, Quebec, and still holds membership in that lodge, besides which he is a member of Ottawa Lodge No. 224, I. 0. 0. F., of which he is past Grand, and of Geo. B. Encampment, I. 0. 0. F. in Ottawa. He is also a member of the Hoo Hoo's, an organization among lumber men. He has a deep regard for Christianity and is a member of the Christian church, while politically he is a Republican. Mr. Vandusen is intensely interested in the lumber Manu­facturing of Humboldt County and has plans for making a practical use of the waste of the mills that otherwise would go to the slab fire. His experience in the East with E. B. Eddy & Co. demonstrated to him that all the waste can be manufactured into useful articles, such as pails, tubs, washboards, brush-backs, matches, etc., and would create new industries for the county and give employment to many people.

  

 

WILLIAM W. PASS.—A native son of Humboldt county, born in Eureka September 17, 1882, William W. Pass is the son of William Venables and Frances (McConaghy) Pass, natives of Liverpool, England, and York county, New Brunswick, respectively. . When a child the father came to New Brunswick with his parents, William and Martha (Colburn) Pass, and there he grew to manhood, following lumbering until 1875, when he came to Cal­ifornia and followed lumbering until his death. William W. Pass' great grand­mother was the Rev. Mrs. Venables of Liverpool, England, and Mrs. Martha (Colburn) Pass was a sister of the late Andrew Colburn, of St. John, New Brunswick.

 

William W. Pass was reared in Eureka and received his education in the public schools and after completing it he entered the employ of the Vance Lumber Company at Essex, in the cook house. Later he held the same posi­tion at the Newburg Mills, where he remained about five years, then for four and one-half years was with the Occidental Company in the same capacity, afterwards he was for two and one-half years with the Hammond Company.

 

In October, 1911, Mr. Pass came to Bulwinkle, entering the employ of the Little River Redwood Company. He has continued with them as cook ever since and is prominent among the citizens of Eureka.

 

Mr. Pass was married in Eureka in 1904 to Miss Ola May Cartwright, the daughter of J. F. Cartwright, one of the very old settlers of Arcata. Mr. and Mrs. Pass have two children, William and Auda. Fraternally he is a member of .Eureka Lodge No. 8012, M. W. A.

  

 

BERT HUGO TORONI was born at Vogorno, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, March 8, 1885. His father, Battiste, was also a native of Ticino. At the time of the mining excitement in Australia he was one of the gold-seekers and followed mining at Greenfield, Australia, in which he was quite successful. After sixteen years he came to San Francisco and followed gardening near that city for eleven years, when he returned to Ticino, where he was married to Catherina Jacobs, and he settled down to farming near Vogorno. The father is dead; the mother still resides on the old home place. Of their eleven children, Bert is the second youngest, receiving his education in the schools of Vogorno, after which he was apprenticed as a baker, follow­ing that trade for two years and eight months. From a child he had a desire to visit the Pacific coast, a desire that came to him naturally from hearing his father tell of his experiences in foreign lands. He also had a brother Joe F., an aunt, Mrs. Victoria Moranda, in Humboldt County. So in April, 1901, he reached Eureka. He found employment immediately on the Bunker Hill ranch, on Bear River ridge, where he continued for nearly three years, and then on the Mayflower ranch in the same vicinity for four years, when, having practiced economy, he was in a position to start dairying on his own account. Leasing the Clausen ranch near Waddington for two years, and then a ranch on Paradise Island, which he ran for seven months and sold out, in 1913 he leased a part of the Herrick place of two hundred twenty acres at Loleta, where he milked sixty cows. Selling his lease at a good profit in 1914, he purchased twenty acres on Cock Robin Island, which he devotes exclusively to dairying, owning a splendid herd of fifteen milch cows. The soil is rich bot­tom land and he raises large crops of hay and green feed. In Ferndale, December 8, 1908, Mr. Toroni was married, being united with Amelia Nellie Mary Genzoli, a native daughter of Capetown, Humboldt County, the daughter of Maurilo and Rosina (Minnetta) Genzoli, natives of Ticino, Switzerland. The father was one of the first Swiss settlers of Humboldt county, where he is one among the most prominent and prosperous dairymen in the county, now operating a large dairy at Capetown ; he also owns a ranch at Newman, Cal., and another at Willows, and is well and favorably known. Mrs. Toroni is the oldest of four living children born to Mr. and Mrs. Genzoli. She was educated in the public schools at Capetown and is the mother of three children: Rosa, Clara and Margaret. Politically Mr. Toroni is a firm believer that the principles set forth by the Republican Party are for the best interest of the whole country. Personally, Mr. Toroni is a very pleasant and agreeable man, and he is well liked by all who know him.

  

 

SECUNDO CRIVELLI.—Secundo Crivelli was born at Toricella, near Logarno, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, July 6, 1884. His father Giuseppe Crivelli, was a bricklayer and was foreman on the construction of buildings for many years in Paris, until his marriage to Carolina Mayistretti, after which he engaged in farming and dairying in Ticino, where he raised his family. They are now retired and make their home with their son, Secundo, on Elk River. They were the parents of eight children, as follows : Silvio resides at Loleta ; John, of Alton ; Antone lives in Yuba county ; Secundo, of whom we write ; Charles J., a dairyman near Loleta ; Olympia, Mrs. Fasoletti, lives near Grizzly Bluff ; Teresa, Mrs. Fasoletti, lives in Switzerland ; Rosa, Mrs. Rezzonico, also of Grizzly Bluff.

 

Secundo Crivelli received a good education in the public schools until twelve years of age, when he was apprenticed at the bricklayer's trade in Paris, and after completing the trade he followed it in France and afterwards in Switzerland until November, 1905, when he came to California, persuaded by the good reports he had heard that he could better his condition here. He came to Petaluma and was employed o. n the Lakeville ranch. In 1907 he came to Eureka and was employed on a dairy at Loleta, then for a time on. Salmon Creek, when he returned to Loleta and was employed on the dairy of Antone Rava for eighteen months. Having saved enough money to start in business, he formed a partnership with his brother, Charles J., and leased a part of the Herrick ranch at Loleta and there operated a dairy of eighty cows. A year later he sold his interest to his brother and .came to Elk River. In November, 1911, he leased the James Nellison place of about one hundred sixty acres, which he devotes to dairying; a year later he rented an additional twenty-one acres adjoining for two years. However, at .present he runs the Nellison ranch where he has a dairy of twenty-four cows. The place is rich bottom land where he has plenty of pasture and also raises ample feed for his herd.

 

In Eureka occurred the marriage of Mr. Crivelli and Mrs. Amelia (Trippi) Christanini, a native of Lucca, Italy, and to them have been born two children: Simeon and Lorenz. By her former marriage Mrs. Crivelli had one child, Joseph. In his political views Mr. Crivelli espouses the principles of the Republican Party.

  

 

VALENTINE FRANCIS HARRIS.—The superintendent of Sequoia Park, V. F. Harris, is well and favorably known in Eureka for his great inter­est in the improvement of the park. He was born in Auckland, New Zealand, February 14, 1849, the son of William Harris, born in England, where he married Miss Leone Conley and they removed to New Zealand, and in 1852 brought their family to San Francisco, when V. F. was three years of age. He received his education in the public schools of California, after which he followed mining and ranching, coming to Humboldt county in September, 1871, and November 25, 1881, locating in Eureka where he has since resided, being variously employed until June 14, 1904, when he was appointed superin­tendent of Sequoia Park, and has held this position ever since, except two years he was out on account of the change of administration, after which he was reappointed, August 7, 1907, and the consensus of opinion is that he has filled the position satisfactorily and well, and indeed he gives all of his time to looking after the Park and seeing that it is well kept.

 

The Park was purchased from Bartten Glatt in 1894 by the city of Eureka and work was begun on its improvement, June 14, 1904, and under Mr. Harris' superintendence it has been transformed from an old log claim to a beautiful park. The fifty acres are laid out with beautiful roads and walks and an artificial lake has been constructed. Mammoth Sequoias that have fallen he has converted into bridges and others are made into stairways, giving a splendid rustic effect. There is a children's playground, band stand and picnic grounds, in different parts of the park, arranged with seats and tables, as well as furnaces to aid in preparing the lunches. The zoo is a most inter­esting feature, containing deer, elk, etc., the whole .giving a most pleasing effect.

 

He was married, on Table Bluff, to Mary Griffin, who was born in Shasta County, and they have one child, Mary, Mrs. Murphy, of Eureka.

  

 

ZACHARIAS LEONARDI.—Among the men who have come to Hum­boldt county from Sunny Italy we find Zacharias Leonardi, who was born near Monte Crestese, near Domodosola, Province of Novara Piermotte, Italy, May 30, 1884. His father Angel Leonardi was quite an extensive farmer until his demise. After completing the public schools, he continued on the home farm at Monte Crestese helping his father until May, 1912, when he came to Humboldt County, California, being in the employ of his brother James Leonardi on Eel River Island until he determined to engage in dairying on his own account. In November, 1913, he leased the present place of 40 acres from L. Petersen which he devotes to a dairy of twenty-two cows. The place is bottom land, enabling him to raise ample feed for his herd. The marriage of Mr. Leonardi and Marie Daoro occurred in Ferndale, and to them have been born two children, Marie and Racp.ele.

 

GERVAISO AND ANGELICA BIASCA.—The West Point dairy ranch is at present operated by Gervaiso and Angelica Biasca, brother and sister, and they are meeting with deserved success. They were born in Prosilo, near Lodrino, Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Their parents were Gervaiso and Man­sueta (Fogliani) Biasca, farmer folk on the Ticino River, who are still living on their farm near Prosilo. They were the parents of seven children as fol­lows : Theodora, died at thirty-six years; Louigina, the wife of Ferdinand Ambrosini, residing at Ferndale ; Mansueta, Mrs. Charles Berti, of Cape-town ; Angelica and Gervaiso, of this review ; Mary and Louis, residing with their parents in Ticino. The children all received a good education in the local public schools. Angelica came to Humboldt County in 1909, remaining with her sister Mrs. Ambrosini until she engaged in business with her brother Gervaiso, who came to Humboldt county in 1912, and was employed on the Woodland Echo ranch for Ferdinand Ambrosini. In 1914 with his sister Angelica, he leased the West Point ranch, where they are meeting with deserved success in dairying, having a herd of sixty-five milch cows. By the aid of a gas engine, they separate the cream and make butter, which is made into cubes and squares and shipped to San Francisco. In addition to dairy­ing they also raise cattle and hogs. West Point is a large ranch located on the Pacific Ocean near Capetown. The Biascas are members of the Catholic Church at Ferndale.

 

JOSEPH BONOMINI.—A man of much energy and perseverance is Joseph Bonomini, a dairyman on Mad river, across from Blue Lake. He was born at Livemmo, province of Brescia, Italy, June 22, 1879, being the third oldest of four children born to Giuseppe and Fiori (Ramboldini) Bonomini. His father was a farmer and dairyman and Joseph learned butter and cheese-making, meantime receiving a good education in the public schools of his old home. From reports received he was desirous of trying his fortunes in California, wages and opportunities being greater here than in his mother country, so in February, 1904, he came to California and very soon afterward located in Humboldt county, His funds were very much depleted and he immediately sought work, which he obtained on the Sweasey dairy, near Eureka. He was a steady, industrious young man and remained there for a period of five years. Next he worked one season for John Ballatti at Loleta, when he concluded to engage in dairying as an occupation. With that end in view he rented about three hundred ten acres of the Herrick place at Loleta, afterwards taking in his two brothers as partners, where they operated a dairy of from eighty-five to one hundred cows. While thus engaged, he with five other ranchers, bought the creamery in their locality. Mr. Bonomini was its secretary and afterward its president.

 

In 1913-14 the dyke broke and the flood came so quickly that it caught some of his dairy herd and he lost twenty-six cows. In 1914 he sold his lease and came to West End, in the vicinity of Blue Lake, and leased his present place, which he devotes to a dairy of thirty cows. This place is rich bottom land, where he has ample pasture and raises sufficient green feed for his herd.

 

Mr. Bonomini's first marriage occurred in Italy, he being there united with Angela Turrizanuni, who died in her native Italy, leaving one child, Angela Mary. He was married again, in Eureka, to Mary Pillottia, a native of Mura, Brescia, Italy, and they leave two children: Fiori and Joseph. Fraternally he is a member of Loleta Lodge No. 56, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and politically he is a Democrat.

  

 

PETER FASOLETTI.—Peter Fasoletti is a native of Bellenzona, Ticino, Switzerland, born in 1864: He was raised a farmer lad and received a good education in the local schools, after which he apprenticed and learned the machinist trade. He spent fifteen years as a machinist in the railroad shops at Bellenzona, after which he was employed at his trade in the railroad shops in Setti, France, afterwards returning to Switzerland. In 1912 he brought his family to Humboldt County. He was employed on a dairy in Elk River and afterwards at Loleta until November, 1914. He then started in dairying for himself, leasing the present place of 56 acres at Grizzly Bluffs, being rich bottom land, this producing ample feed for his dairy herd of twenty-four cows. Mr. Fasoletti was married in Bellenzona, being united with Miss Olympia Crivelli, also a native of Ticino and a sister of Charles J. and Secundo Crivelli, a dairyman in Humboldt County. To Mr. and Mrs. Fasoletti have been born two children, Leonardo and Americo.

  

 

SILVIO DOMENIGHINI.—The Alps region in Switzerland has sent many substantial settlers to California, who have won success in the various lines of business they have chosen. Among these we find Silvio Domenighini, who is engaged in dairying near Fortuna. He was born in Vogorno, Canton Ticino, September 26, 1877. His father Bartol owned a farm at Vogorno which he operated until his death. By his union with Severina Anselmi, who still resides on the old home place, he had seven children, as follows : Olivia, Mrs. Gambonini, and Angelina, Mrs. Cordo., reside in Ticino; Silvio, of whom we write.; Salvatori, Charles and Bartol, reside in Coos county, Oregon, and William lives near Ferndale.

 

Silvio received a good education in the schools of his native place, after which he continued to assist 'his parents until the age of twenty, when he enlisted in the Swiss army, serving •the required time, when he was honorably discharged, after which he concluded to come to California to better his con­dition, and in January, 1899, he arrived in San Francisco. The first seven months were spent in a dairy in Marin county, and in August of 1899 he came to Humboldt county. He was employed for eighteen months in the dairy of J6e Moranda at Loleta, after which he followed the same line of work in Salmon Creek and Ferndale, when he drifted into Coos county, Oregon, where lie spent two years, after which he returned to Loleta and leased a dairy ranch of forty acres from Bartol Moranda, having a herd of twenty cows and con­tinuing there for a period of five years. In November, 1913, he leased the pres­ent place of forty-five acres, just south of Fortuna, devoted to dairying. This place is fertile bottom land on which he raises large crops of feed for his twenty-six milch cows and is making a decided success.

 

In Ferndale, September 23, 1911, occurred the marriage of Mr. Domen­ighini with Nancy Gamboni, also a native of Vogorno, and they have two children, Silvio Fred and Severina Emma. Politically he espouses the prin­ciples of the Republican Party. 

 

 

CLAUS NISSEN RASMUSSEN.—The Elk River Creamery is in charge of a very energetic and capable young man, Claus N. Rasmussen, who is well versed and experienced in the minute details of the business. He was born near Tondern, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, Sept. 5, 1888, the second oldest of a family of six children born to Rasmus and Martha (Christiansen) Ras­mussen. He received his education in the public schools of that vicinity. When fifteen he determined to come to Humboldt county, Cal., where he had an uncle Anton Rasmussen engaged in dairying. Arriving in 1903 he was in his uncle's employ for eighteen months and then worked for others in the same vicinity until 1909, when he entered the employ of the California Central Creameries, being for the first few months at the Crown Creamery, located on Eel River Island, and before the close of the year was placed in charge of the Elk River Creamery, a position he has held ever since, performing his duties satisfactorily to his employers as well as his patrons. This creamery is the receiving station for milk for Elk River and vicinity, the separated cream being sent to the main plant in Eureka. This plant also manufactures casein and full cream cheese, using about five thousand pounds of milk a day for making cheese.

 

Mr. Rasmussen was married in Ferndale, being united with Miss Annie Elliers, who was also a native of Tondern and they have one child, Edith. Mr. and Mrs. Rasmussen were both reared in the Lutheran faith, and they still adhere to that religion.

 

 

RUDOLPH DENNIS AMBROSINI, a leading dairyman of Capetown, was born at Prosito. near Lodrino, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, June 20, 1877. His father, Dennis Ambrosini, after spending many summers in Paris, France, working at his trade, settled on his farm on the Ticino River where he died in 1886. The mother was Celesta Biasca who still resides on the old home farm. Of their five children, four grew to maturity : Rudolph, of this review ; Max, who spent about twelve years in Humboldt county, but now resides in Ticino ; Guttard is in the employ of our subject ; James is a merchant in Ferndale.

 

Rudolph Ambrosini received a good education and from a lad learned dairying as it was done in the Alps region. Having heard good reports of wages and opportunities for young men in California, he concluded to try to better his condition and when seventeen left his home and kindred, arriving in Eureka, Humboldt county, Feb. 5, 1896. After working for a short time on a dairy on Cannibal Island, he worked for about six years on different ranches near Ferndale, when he became foreman on the Mayflower ranch, a position he held for two years. His ambition was to have a dairy of his own, and having saved some money, in 1903 he leased the Mountain View ranch of fourteen hundred acres and for eight years devoted his time to dairying, milk­ing an average of eighty-five cows. On the expiration of his lease he obtained a lease of the Frank Peters ranch at Capetown. This is one of the most val­uable dairy ranches on the coast, comprising four hundred fourteen acres on Bear river. He has a splendid dairy comprising Guernseys and Holsteins, sixty-five cows in all ; he also raises cattle. With the aid of a steam engine, he runs his separator and manufactures butter which is put up in squares for family trade and sold in Ferndale and Eureka, while the surplus is shipped to San Francisco. The marriage of Mr. Ambrosini occurred in Ferndale where he was united with Carrie Mead, a native of Kansas. Her father, Alfred Mead moved from Kansas to Oregon, afterwards coming to Humboldt County, now residing in Bridgeville. To them have been born five children: Ernest, Dennis, Irene, Alma and Roland. For the past four years Mr. Am­brosini has been a member of the board of school trustees for Capetown dis­trict and is clerk of the board. Politically he believes the principles of the Republican party are for the best interests of the whole country.

 

ALBERT LUNDBERG.—The son of Judge F. A. Lundberg, a prominent attorney and judge in Stockholm, Sweden, Albert Lundberg, now a trusted employee of the Elk River Mill and Lumber Company of Falk, Cal., with which firm he has been connected for thirty years, was born in Westrejot­land, Sweden, on June 19, 1856, and grew up in the city of Stockholm, where he was educated in the public schools and academy. After the completion of his education, Mr. Lundberg started in the grocery business in that city, continuing in that line of business until the year 1884, at which time he sold his business, the next year coming to California, where he located at Eureka, in Humboldt county, with his wife and daughter, in which county he has made his home ever since. His first employment on coming to California was with the Janes Creek Mill, where he continued for a period of three years. Removing to Falk, in the same county, he was next in the employ of the Elk River Mill and Lumber Company, where he has since remained con­tinuously. This mill was built about the year 1886, and since 1888 Mr. Lund­berg has been employed there, beginning work as the operator of a planer, and two years later being made foreman of the yards, which position he has held ever since. For six years Mr. Lundberg held the office of trustee of the Jones Prairie school district, and throughout that time was also clerk of the school board, one of his greatest interests being the cause of education, as well as the advancement and upbuilding of the town and county where he has made his home. In his religious associations he is a Lutheran, while his polit­ical connections are with the Republican party.

 

Mr. Lundberg has been twice married, his first marriage having taken place in Stockholm, uniting him with Miss Selma Gathlin, a native of the same vicinity, who died in Falk, Cal., leaving one daughter, Mrs. Julia Swenson, a resident of Portland, Ore. The second marriage of Mr. Lundberg occurred in Eureka, the bride being Miss Louisa Knudsen, who was born in Bergen, Norway, and came to Oakland, where she became a graduate nurse, her brother, Captain L. J. Knudsen, having also made his home in California, where he is a prominent master mariner in San Francisco.

  

 

GEORGE F. MELLER.—A native son of Humboldt county, and one coming of a fine old family, is George F. Meller, who was born at Salmon Creek, April 30, 1872, the son of Henry S. Meller, born at Nazareth, Pa., who crossed the plains to California in an ox-team train in 1850. A butcher by trade, he established himself in that business in Sacramento, but was burned out in the great fire in that city. He was married in Sacramento to Margaret Jamison, a native of the state of Iowa, who had come across the plains with her parents in 1850, and is now living at Oakland, Cal., at the age of eighty-two years, her husband having died in 1889. After being burned out in Sac­ramento, Henry S. Meller and his family removed to southern Oregon, where he operated a saw mill and also engaged in other business until about the year 1868, when he came to Humboldt county and settled at Table Bluff, later locating on Salmon Creek, where he was engaged in farming, stock-raising and butchering, running a butcher wagon throughout that part of the county. Of his family of eight children, five were sons and three daughters. His son George F., was sixth in order of birth, and grew up on the farm at Sal­mon Creek, receiving his education in the local public schools, after which he was engaged in work upon the ranch until his father's death. He then entered the employ of the Milford Land and Lumber Company on Salmon Creek, where he remained for four years, then working for a year in the woods on the Freshwater. In 1895 he went to Usal, in Mendocino County, where he was in the employ of the Usal Lumber Company for two years, during this time learning the filing of saws. Next he went to Greenwood, where for a year he was filer in the mill of the L. E. White Lumber Company, returning thereafter to Humboldt County, where he took the position of head filer for the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia, continuing there for a period of eight years. Thence he removed to Bayside, during the erecting of a mill there, remaining in that work for a period of three months, after which he spent four months as filer at Lamoine, Shasta county, holding a similar posi­tion at Metropolitan mill for six months. In February, 1907, he accepted his present position as head filer at the Falk Mill for the Elk River Mill and Lum­ber Company, where he is rendering active and efficient service.

 

The political interests of Mr. Meller are with the Republican party, while his fraternal connections are with the Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E., his wife being a member and past president of the Ladies' Circle of the Grand Army of the Republic at Eureka. Mr. Meller was married at Rockport, Men­docino County, to Effie Albert, born in Yuba County, where she grew up and was educated, and they are the parents of one daughter, Margaret Meller, a pupil in the Eureka High School. Mrs. Meller's father, James W. Albert, served in the Civil war and followed mining in the Sierra region.

 

MARTIN F. MOZZINI.—The proprietor of the Excelsior Dairy in Humboldt County, Cal., is Martin F. Mozzini, a splendid young business man, who, from childhood, has been acquainted with ranching, dairying and the stock business, having assisted his mother, Mrs. Antoinetta Mozzini, in those lines at her Loleta ranch before engaging in business for himself.

 

Born at Santa Cruz, Cal., January 10, 1892, Mr. Mozzini is a true native son of California, though of foreign ancestry, and his life thus far has been spent in ranching and dairying pursuits in this western state. At four years of age he removed with his mother to Humboldt County, where he has since resided, and here received his early education in the public schools of Loleta, completing this instruction with a course at the Eureka Business College, where he was graduated on April 29, 1909. For a time he assisted in the management of his mother's business at Loleta, also being employed at the Euhne dairy, and after this practical experience he determined to go into business independently. Accordingly, in September, 1914, he bought out the Excelsior Dairy and leased his present ranch at Elk River Corners, which comprises one hundred thirty acres of bottom land, whereon he operates a large dairy, milking a herd of eighty cows. His dairy is sanitary and kept up in the best modern fashion, the cows being carefully fed and cared for, and on his fertile land he raises ample hay and green feed for his stock. The product of his dairy he sells at both wholesale and retail in the city of Eureka, a small auto truck being used for the delivery of the milk, which simplifies the busi­ness for himself and increases the convenience and promptness with which his patrons are served. Aside from his dairy, Mr. Mozzini is also engaged in stock-raising to a considerable extent, and has purchased stock in various portions of Humboldt County, where he is well and favorably known as an upright business man, successful in all his undertakings. In his political affil­iations, Mr. Mozzini is a believer in the principles of the Republican Party, and, like many others of California's native sons, is an .ardent protectionist. His fraternal connections are with the Fraternal Brotherhood and the Knights of Columbus of the city of Eureka, where he is also a member of the Eureka Parlor, Native Sons of the Golden West.

  

 

MRS. TERESA YERMINI.—An enterprising woman, of much energy and native ability, Mrs. Teresa Yermini of Eureka, Cal., has met with success in her business undertakings and is the proud mother of a family of talented children.

 

Born in Camorino, in Bellinzona, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, Mrs. Yer­mini was the daughter of Martin Mozzini, a native of that place and a promi­nent farmer and dairyman, his wife having been Martha Mozzini, both having died in their native country. Mrs. Yermini received a good education in the local public schools, and in the year 1886 came to California, her brother Stephen then residing at San Luis Obispo. •this state, and at that place ,she was married, on November 17, 1887, to John Yermini, a native of the same place as herself, and the son of Casper Yermini, a well-to-do farmer and also for many years the mayor of Camorino. John Yermini had been educated in the public schools at his home, and in 1879 had come to California, locating in Humboldt County, where he followed dairying. After his marriage he brought his bride to Ferndale, where he operated a dairy of sixty-seven milch cows on a fine ranch. In the early days the milk was panned, the cream skimmed by hand, but later a separator was used, the churning done by horse power, and the butter shipped to Eureka and San Francisco markets. Mr Yermini was one of the original stockholders and builders of the old Eel Rimer Creamery in the vicinity of Waddington, this being the second creamery built in Humboldt county. Afterwards he conducted a dairy of sixty cows at Fortuna for thirteen years. Making several trips back to his old home in Switzerland, Mr. Yermini, on the death of his father, fell heir to the old farm in Camorino and located on it, assuming the duties of his illustrious, parent who was deceased. The wife and children of Mr. Yermini, however, preferred to remain in Humboldt County, this having been the birthplace of all the children, and accordingly they returned to California, where the edu­cation of the children was continued and the mother established herself suc­cessfully in business. In 1911, Mrs. Yermini leased her present place, the Zanone ranch on the Elk river, comprising seventy acres of rich bottom land which yields an abundance of crops of hay and green feed for the herd of thirty cows of the Jersey and Holstein breeds, Mrs. Yermini being also engaged in stock-raising here and making a specialty of growing potatoes for the local market. In her political preferences she is a stanch Republican, like many others from her native country who have settled in this state, being a strong protectionist. She holds an enviable position in the respect and admi­ration of all who know her, because of her many fine qualities, her integrity, and kind and generous impulses.

 

Mr. and Mrs. Yermini are the parents of six children, Teresa M., a graduate of the Eureka Business College ; Marina Laura, a graduate of the Fortuna high school and the San Jose State Normal School, and now teaching in her home county ; Ida, M., a graduate of the Nazareth Academy, and stenographer for the Eureka Merchants' Association ; Ernest P. and Milio B., both of whom assist their mother on the ranch ; 'and Cora Judith, who is attending the Eureka high school.

 

LOUIS B. MOSCHETTI.—Although born in Italy, where the rest of his family continue to make their home, Louis B. Moschetti has become a resident of the state of California, where he is making for himself a fine record in the dairy business near the city of Eureka, in Humboldt county, a Section of the state which can boast of many active and efficient sons of Switzerland and Northern Italy who have come here to better their fortunes.

 

Born in Teglio, Sondrio, in Lombardia, Italy, August 3, 1891, the son of Bartol, a farmer and dairyman of that place who died on February 26, 1914, and Kathrina Betinelli, who still resides at the old home in Teglio, Louis B. Moschetti is the youngest of a family of seven children, and grew up as a farmer's boy in that part of Italy, receiving his education in the local public schools. Until sixteen years of age, he remained at home, helping his parents on the farm, but, concluding to try his fortunes and better his condition if possible in the new land of California, he came to the United States in 1907, where he secured employment on a farm in Yuba county, Cal., and later in the same line of work in Sutter county. In the year 1911 Mr. Moschetti re­moved to Humboldt County, securing employment on a dairy at Loleta. Three years later, in September, 1914, in partnership with M. F. Mozzini, he leased the Hinch place at Elk River Corners, but two- months later the partnership was dissolved, Mr. Moschetti selling out his interest. He then leased the Jack Shanahan ranch, which consists of eighty-three acres located on Elk River, where he now operates a large dairy, comprising a herd of thirty cows, the ranch being well adapted to the purpose and enabling him to raise plenty of hay and green feed for his herd.

 

The marriage of Mr. Moschetti took place in Eureka, on February 26, 1914, uniting him with Miss Martina Mozzini, who was born in Canton Ticino, Switzerland, the daughter of Antoinetta Mozzini, a prominent woman of Humboldt County where she is well known in the dairy business. Mrs. Moschetti grew up in Humboldt County, is a graduate of the Eureka Business College, and is in every way a capable helpmeet to her husband. They are the parents of one son, Eugene Louis. In his political views Mr. Moschetti is an upholder of the principles of the Republican Party.

 

 

WALTER HILTON PINKHAM.—Now that the opening of the Panama Canal is practically an accomplished fact, and the ship that sails from New York or other Atlantic ports, will find herself within the Golden Gate in a fraction of the time that was formerly required to make the journey from our greatest Eastern seaport to the greatest Western gateway, the men who took this same route half a century ago are recalling memories of their trip "across the Isthmus", when that stage of the journey was especially tedious and fraught with many dangers. There are many of the pioneers of an early day, nevertheless, who chose this route rather than face the danger and hard­ship of the trip across the Indian infested prairies, and to these the completion of this greatest undertaking of the age, assumes a peculiar interest. One such pioneer is Walter Hilton Pinkham, well known citizen of Humboldt County, where he has resided for many years, and in which he has extensive property interests.

 

Born at Lexington, Somerset County, Me., April 24, 1849, the childhood and early youth of Mr. Pinkham were passed in the little village in Maine, where he received his early education, attending the public schools until he was" sixteen. His father was Wright Hale Pinkham, a native of Brunswick, Me., who was for the greater part of his life engaged in the peaceful art of farming. At one time he owned and operated a saw mill in the Maine woods, and for a number of years he worked in the woods in winter, tilling his farm in the summer time. After leaving school the son assisted his father on the farm for a number of years, but letters continually received from two older brothers, giving flattering accounts of the opportunities offered for young men to rise in almost any chosen occupation, filled Walter with a growing desire to seek his own fortune in the golden West, and as soon as he was able to secure the consent of his parents, he joined his brothers in California. As said before, he made the journey by way of the Isthmus, landing in San Fran­cisco in 1867, from which he went into San Mateo county, where his brothers were located, and secured work in Pescadero, teaming. He remained in this vicinity for a number of years, operating his own teams and meeting with appreciable business success. He was constantly on the outlook, however, for opportunities to better his condition, and on January 8, 1873, he removed his family to Humboldt county, where he went to work in the lumber camps, teaming and logging for various lumber companies for four years.' He was next associated with the Hooper Lumber Company, at Trinidad, where he was also employed in logging and teaming, remaining for five years. While with this company he was sent to Trinidad in 1882, and the following year, he entered the employ of Jim Kirk and Issac Minor, logging on Mad' river. Again in 1884 he worked at teaming for J. M. Gannon.

 

The roving nature of this employment did not please Mr. Pinkham and in 1885 he gave up such work and located in Trinidad, where he opened a hotel, which he conducted for many years. In 1902 he sold his interest in the hotel, retaining the saloon business, which he conducted separately. He still owns this business, but has retired from active participation in its manage­ment. Mr. Pinkham has been particularly successful as a hotel proprietor, and has secured possession of some valuable real estate, among which may be mentioned several timber claims in the mountains.

 

Mr. Pinkham has been twice married, the first wife being Miss Martha Knowles, a native of Maine, their marriage taking place November 26, 1872. Three children were born of this union, two sons, George and Melvin, both deaceased, and a daughter Grace, Mrs. B. P. McConnaha, of Trinidad. The second marriage occurred June 26, 1902, in Trinidad, when Miss Mary Stewart, a native of New Brunswick, was the bride. One child has been born of this marriage, a son, Wright Hale Pinkham, named for his paternal grandfather.

 

For over thirty years Mr. Pinkham has been a resident of Trinidad, and for nearly fifty years a resident of California. He is a man of sterling worth, a member of the old school, and a type of the early pioneer, which is fast passing from the scene of action. He is exceedingly proud of his young son, and is preparing to live life all over again in the fortunes of his heir.

 

FRANK EUGENE FALOR.—California may well be proud to claim as one of her sons a man of as fine attributes as Frank Eugene Falor, who at the time of his death had been for twenty-five years a trusted and esteemed foreman of the Elk River Mill Company in charge of the Bucksport wharf and lumber yard of the firm. The Falors were pioneers of Alliance, Cal., and Frank Eugene was brought up on the old Falor farm above Alliance, having been born in Hoopa, in the same county, April 26, 1861, and was a brother of A. A. Ialor, well known in Alliance. The education of Mr. Falor was received in the public schools in the vicinity, after which he entered the employ of a lum­ber company and remained in that business until the time of his death. From 1887 he was associated with the Elk River Mill Company as foreman of their Bucksport wharf and lumber yard. Mr. Falor was a man of integrity and uprightness devoting his entire time to his business, to the exclusion of all other interests, and enjoyed the esteem and trust of all who knew him. His death occurred January 17, 1913.

 

In his political preferences Mr. Falor was a Republican, and his fraternal associations included the Eastern Star, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks and the Humboldt Lodge of Masons No. 79. By his marriage in Bucksport, on January 23, 1890, he was united with Miss Nina E. 'Cave, a native of Arcata, Cal., where her father, Richard Cave, a pioneer from Iowa, who had crossed the plains with ox-teams in 1849, had cleared and improved a ranch, after some time spent in mining in this state. The parents of Miss Cave had been married in Arcata, her mother having been Caroline Dodge, a native of Iowa, who had come with her parents to Arcata where they died at the home which they had made and improved. Miss Cave, the next to the oldest in their family of seven children, received her education in the pub­lic schools of Arcata, where she was later married to Mr. Falor, and is at present a member of the Presbyterian Church and the Arcata Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star. She became the mother of three children, Richard Irwin, Frank Eugene and Mae Falor, and since her husband's death has con­tinued to make her home in Bucksport.

 

 

 

DANIEL WALTER McGOWAN.—Of Irish descent, Mr. McGowan was born in the state of Washington, near Seattle, October 25, 1863, and is the son of Terence McGowan, a native of Ireland, having been born there about the year 1818. On coming to America, he first located in Portland, Maine, where he engaged in the tailoring business, and from there he came to the Pacific coast, settling in the state of Washington, where the city of Seattle now stands. Here he enlisted in the army and became the company tailor, but on being transferred to San Francisco he retired from the army and moved to Humboldt county, where he followed the tailoring trade until the time of his death, passing away at Arcata. He married Ann Rigney also a native of Ireland, who came to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama and located with her husband in Arcata where she passed away December 10, 1904. Daniel McGowan received his education in the public schools of San Fran­cisco but in 1870 the family moved to Arcata and here his education was com­pleted, his teacher being Mrs. Todd. Leaving school, he first became em­ployed by W. H. Murphy on his cattle ranch, driving, and later he entered the butcher shop of A. Chapman in whose employ he remained eight months, but on the nineteenth of October, 1880, he entered the shop of J. C. Bull, Jr.,' and there he has remained ever since, rising from a helper to the active man­agement of the business. During his thirty-three years of service with Mr. Bull he has served in every branch of the business and at the present time he has full charge of all affairs. There were only a few people in the vicinity of the store when it first opened and it is now doing a large and flourishing bus­iness, being the only butcher shop in Arcata. His rise was entirely due to his own ability, trustworthiness and hard work and the model shop stands as a monument to his industry. He is the only man in the vicinity who has been employed for the length of time that he has, thirty-three years, and he is justly proud of his fine record. He has always taken an active part in all political matters, serving as City Trustee on the Republican ticket, and he is also a member of the Blue Lodge, F. & A. M., F. 0. E. of Arcata, and Mrs. McGowan is a member of 0. E. S. He was married in San Francisco, November 3, 1904, to Louise McClough, a native of England. He has always been an industrious, hard-working man and is admired and respected by the entire community.

 

WILLIAM NELSON SPEEGLE.—Remarkably well fitted both by instinct and training, for the newspaper profession, William Nelson Speegle is the president, editor and general manager of the Standard Publishing Company, publishers of the Humboldt Standard. Yet, a man endowed with native attainments as Mr. Speegle is, cannot well escape the calls of other activities, and so it comes that his name is linked closely with many of the leading activities of Eureka, his home city.

 

Born in Monterey County, December 29, 1871, the son of M. M. Speegle and wife,' California pioneers, William N. Speegle was educated in the public schools of Salinas and of Santa Rosa. On leaving high school he immediately found his way into a newspaper office and he has never yet found a desire to leave it. He first became a printer's apprentice on the Santa Rosa Repub­lican, but after learning the mechanical end of the newspaper business he showed talents for other departments of the work and soon found himself in the "front office."

 

In August, 1893, he came to Eureka to enter the employ of the Humboldt Standard and has been with that paper, in every executive capacity, until the present time when he is at its head. Conservative, intelligent and far-seeing in his business methods and dealings, to Mr. Speegle goes a large measure of the credit for building up in Eureka a newspaper of the high class which has been reached by the Humboldt Standard.

 

But, as said before, his personal qualities have caused a heavy demand to be made upon him in lines of civic, social and fraternal activities. . He was one of the charter members of Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. O. E., and has held every office in his lodge. He was one of the first to suggest the building of a lodge hall by the Eureka Elks, and the beautiful Elks' Club is the result. He was a member of the Elks Building Association at the time the hall was erected and still retains his membership and is prominent in its work. Mr. Speegle is also a Mason, being a member of Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M.; of Humboldt Chapter No. 53 ; Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T., and a member of Oakland Consistory of Scottish Rite Masons, and of Islam Temple of the Mystic Shrine. He is also a Native Son and a member of Humboldt Parlor No. 14.

 

In 1911 Mr. Speegle's work in the community was recognized when his appointment as postmaster at Eureka by President Taft was received with expressions of deep satisfaction throughout the city. Although he has long worked for the interest of the community, this is the only public office he has held with the exception of a brief term of service as a deputy county clerk. Mr. Speegle has always devoted his efforts to furthering the interests of others and it is not in his nature to seek personal reward. An attainment which has done much to bring the name of William Speegle into prominence is a naturally wonderful and well trained tenor voice, with which he often pleases Eureka audiences, being generous in giving his time and ability towards the pleasure of the community.

 

His wife was formerly Miss Cora A. Thompson, a daughter of one of Eureka's most prominent families.

 

 

LOT M. BROWN.—One of the enterprising and progressive residents of Humboldt county is Lot M. Brown, who for nearly forty years has made his home on the Pacific coast. Born in Winslow, Me., December 22, 1852, he was the son of Samuel W., also born in that town, and grandson of Dr. Ezekiel Brown, also a native of the state of Maine, who served as surgeon in the Revolutionary war and was a physician at Brown's Corners, in the town of Benton, Me., dying in the year 1844. His son, Samuel W., the father of Lot M. Brown, served in the War of 1812, and was engaged in farming at Winslow, Me., during the greater part of his lifetime. The mother of Lot M. was Abigail Crosby, of Maine, daughter of Jesse Crosby, a farmer of that state, and she died at Winslow, having been the mother of nine children, three of whom are at present living: Mrs. J. M. Burrill, of Eureka; Lot M. Brown, and Mrs. Tozier, of Waterville, Me.

 

Brought up at Winslow, Lot M. Brown received his education in the local public schools, and at the age of thirteen starting out to make his own way in the world. His first employment was upon neighboring farms, until the age of sixteen years, when he went to work on the river and in the woods; on the former as a river driver, and in the woods driving bull teams. He also spent some time in Pennsylvania in the same work, and was likewise em­ployed in driving on the Merrimac and Connecticut rivers. It was in 1876 that Mr. Brown came to the Pacific coast, locating first at Tacoma, Wash., where he was in the employ of Ezra Meeker in the construction of the North­ern Pacific Railroad for a year, going thence to Vancouver, B. C., where he drove ox teams for the hauling of logs in the woods. In 1879 he became proprietor of the Dayton Hotel at Vancouver, where he continued until 1881, in which year he sold his interests there and came to Eureka, Cal., which has been the principal place of his business ever since. Here he purchased the liquor business of Mr. Dabey in the Bay Hotel, on the present site of the Bank of Eureka, and continued it until 1888, when he sold out and built the Alton Hotel at Alton Junction, in Humboldt county, which hotel he con­tinued to run until the year 1892, at which time he sold out his interests at Alton and returned to Eureka. Soon afterwards he went into partnership with C. L. Pardee, the two men becoming proprietors of the Vance Hotel, which arrangement continued until 1897, when Mr. Brown sold out to become proprietor of the Union Hotel at Healdsburg, Sonoma County. Abandoning this in 1900, he spent some time at Verdi, Nev., running a hotel, returning to Eureka in 1902, where he opened his present establishment, where his enter­prise and popularity have caused it to be known always as Lot's Place. With his son-in-law, F. G. Hinds, he built the Sequoia Tavern at the entrance to Sequoia Park, Eureka, which is a beautiful and popular establishment, built upon a block of ground adjoining the giant redwood trees, and has in con­nection with it a ball room, ice cream parlor and refreshment room.

 

In his political views Mr. Brown is a stanch Republican, and in fraternal circles he is known as a. member of the Knights of Pythias and the Loyal Order of Moose, while his interest in the progress of the city is shown by his membership in the Eureka Development Association. His marriage with Miss Annie M. McDonald, a native of Calais, Me., was solemnized in Eureka, and they have one child living, namely, Ruby, now the wife of Frank G. Hinds, an accomplished musician, who plays the clarinet and is president of the Musicians' Union in Eureka. Mr. Brown is the happy grandfather of four children, Charles E., Nina, Archie and Tot Hinds.

 

JOSEPH CRIPPEN ALBEE.—California is always proud to remember the brave pioneers by whose efforts in the early days of the settlement of the country this western land of ours has come to its present prosperous con­dition—pioneers whose courage was not dampened by the hard and dangerous journey across the plains, by the struggle for existence in a new land, nor by the depredations of hostile Indian tribes. None holds a higher. place among the early settlers of Humboldt county, Cal., than the father of Joseph Crippen Albee, Joseph Porter Albee, who like his wife, Calthea (Putnam) Albee, was a native of Huron county, Ohio, she having been descended from the same family as Israel Putnam, and members of her family having taken part in the Revolutionary war. The parents of Joseph Crippen Albee were married in Ohio and removed to northern Illinois, where they carried on the occupation of farming. In 1849, at the time of the discovery of gold in Californiar the father crossed the plains with ox teams, and became one of the first settlers in 'Weaverville; Cal., where he followed mining, his wife and three daughters joining him in California, coming westward via the Isthmus of Panama in 1850. In the autumn of 1852 Mr. Albee with the family re­moved to Humboldt County, making the journey on horseback over the mountains, accompanied by pack mules and a few cattle, and in this new section made his home at Table Bluff until 1856, when the family moved to Redwood Creek, where he engaged in stock raising. He also conducted a hotel on the pack trail between Arcata and the Klamath 'mines, and later, when the Indians went on the war path, the government sent soldiers to guard the house, the family staying there until 1862, when the soldiers were removed. After that Mr. Crippen moved his family to Arcata, he himself going back and forth to his ranch, feeling no fear personally of the Indians, whom he had always treated with the utmost kindness, but during one of his trips to the ranch, in the fall of 1862, while plowing near the house he was shot by Indians in ambush and killed. After his death his wife con­tinued to reside for a time at Arcata, later removing to Eureka, where she remained until the time of her death in 1905 at the age of ninety years.

 

It will thus be seen that Joseph Crippen Albee, now a well-known resident of the vicinity of Blocksburg, Cal., comes of truly pioneer ancestry on his father's side and patriotic forbears of Revolutionary fame on his mother's side of the family, he himself being a native son of California, where his birth occurred in Humboldt county, at the old Albee ranch at the junction of North Fork and Redwood Creek, on February 19, 1858. One of a family of eight children who lived to grow up, he found it necessary, at the time of his father's sudden death, to assist his mother financially in the care of her large family, and accordingly, having completed his education in the public schools of Eureka and Arcata, he early secured employment on the ranch of W. S. Robinson at Bridgeville, Cal. The seven brothers and sisters of Mr. Crippen were : Mrs. Annie Monroe Chisholm, of Eureka ; Mrs. W. S. Robinson, of the same city ; Mrs. D. E. Baker, of Petaluma, Cal.; D. P. Albee, of Rock Creek, Idaho ; L. H. Albee, of Eureka ; George B. Albee, city superin­tendent of schools of Eureka ; and Mrs. Mary Parry, who died in San Fran­cisco. With two of his brothers, Joseph Crippen Albee started in the sheep industry at the age of twenty-two years, he having at that time located a homestead on the Little Van Dusen river, the venture prospering financially until the hard winter of 1889 to 1890, when all the stock perished. Mr. Albee, however, started over again with C. T. Schreiner, of Ferndale, this time in the cattle business, the partnership having been carried on continuously since that time, Mr. Albee having the management of the cattle raising. He is now the owner of four hundred eighty acres at his home ranch, where he has made all necessary improvements for the betterment of the place, besides owning and leasing with his partner over five thousand acres and taking out a forest permit, the cattle on their estate being entirely of the Durham strain. As the locality about the Little Van Dusen is becoming popular for trout fishing and as a summer resort since deer are plentiful there, Mr. Albee and his wife have of late years conducted a hotel during the summer months, which has already attained a great measure of popularity and is well filled during the vacation season, the hotel being reached by trail from Fort Seward and Blocksburg.

 

The marriage of Mr. Albee occurred in Eureka, on June 3, 1907, his bride being Miss Mary A. Dickinson, a native of Liverpool, England, who has proved herself a woman of rare business and executive ability and a splendid helpmeet to her husband in all his undertakings. They are the parents of two sons, Joseph Porter and Jack Neville Dickinson. In her religious associa­tions Mrs. Albee is a member of the Episcopal Church, while the political affiliations of her husband are with the Progressive party.

 

 

 

FREDERICK JOSHUA PRESTON was born in Arcata, Cal., October 2, 1865. His father, John C. Preston, born near Cincinnati, Ohio, came to California with his two brothers, Miller and William, in 1849, crossing the plains with ox teams in company with Joseph Childs. He mined on the Trinity River until 1850, then came to Uniontown, now Arcata, Humboldt county. The brothers took up claims and engaged in stock raising. Miller Preston, who was a tanner, built and operated a tannery for many years until he retired, having become very wealthy. After three years William returned • to Illinois. John C. Preston was a successful farmer and became well-to-do. He died in 1885. His wife was Sarah J. Lindsay, a native of Iowa, and also crossed the plains in 1849, coming with her parents to Weaverville, and in 1853 she came to Uniontown, where she was married. After she was widowed she married Miller Preston. His death occurred in Arcata. She now resides in Blue Lake. Of her first marriage were born twelve children, all living, as follows : Catherine, Mrs. Hough, of Washington; Sarah, Mrs. J. R. Graham, living near Korbel ; John F., a rancher at Blue Lake; Frederick J.; Elizabeth, Mrs. Marsh, of Korbel ; Martha, Mrs. Green, of Del Norte county ; Eva, Mrs. Brown, of Arcata ; Hannah, Mrs. Gault, of Eureka; Plonnie, Mrs. Taylor, and Maple, Mrs. Harrison, living in San Mateo county ; Charles and William, living in Arcata.

 

Frederick J. Preston received a good education in the Arcata schools. After his father died he continued to help his mother on the farm until twenty-three years old, when he entered- the employ of the Z. Russ Co., on Bear River Ridge, riding the range, and became foreman, a position he filled for them on different ranches. In 1898 he started for the Alaska gold fields, going in over the Chilcoot trail, then down the lakes and river to Dawson, remaining about one year. When the Cape Nome excitement came he im­mediately followed the rush and mined on the beach until it froze up, when he returned to Humboldt County, having spent two years in the frozen north. After his return he engaged as a dealer in cattle and hogs, and a few years later began sheep growing, of which industry he has made a decided success. He now leases the Dublin Heights and Mountain View ranches, on which he runs sheep, keeping about two thousand head.

 

Mr. Preston was married in Eureka to Miss Grace Briscoe, a native of Nebraska, and they have two children, Maple and Elvan. Fraternally he is a member of Blue Lodge No. 347, as well as the Rebekahs. Politically he is a stanch Republican.

 

WILLIAM HENRY BOWDEN.—The vice-president and manager of the Shelter Cove Wharf and Warehouse Company, W. H. Bowden, is one of the most enterprising and leading men of southern Humboldt county. He was born.at Lincoln, Me., September 24, 1871, the son of William Henry and Carrie (Philbrick) Bowden, also natives of Maine. The father was a farmer and died in 1877. The mother is now making her home in San Luis Obispo, Cal., and her five children all reside in the state. They are as follows: Charles Collier, of San Luis Obispo ; John W., farmer and oil operator at Garberville ; William Henry, of whom we write ; Della, living in San Francisco ; and Belle, in Los Angeles.

 

William Bowden's childhood was spent on the sterile New England farm, receiving a good education in the public schools. When sixteen years of age he came to California with his mother. His brother, John W., had come to San Luis Obispo some years previous and they joined him at that place. During the first three years William was employed on a ranch, then came to San Francisco, where for three years he was employed on the San Pablo avenue car line and afterward for a like period on the Market street line. In 1897 he started north in the rush to the gold fields of Klondyke. He prospected in the vicinity of Skagway and Wrangle Narrows, but found nothing, and as he was not justified in staying there he returned to San Francisco in 1898 and was again with the Market street railway until 1900. In that year he again made a trip to the frozen north, going to Nome City, Alaska, where he was engaged in mining on the beach for one year. At the end of this time he returned to San Francisco, being employed in the Union Iron Works as a ship riveter for three years. In 1904 he came to Garberville, Humboldt County, and engaged in the general merchandise business until 1908, when he sold out and purchased an interest in the Shelter Cove Wharf and Warehouse Company, becoming vice-president and manager. He makes his home in Shelter Cove and devotes all of his time to the advancement of the company's interests. The wharf was built more than thirty years ago. The present company incorporated and purchased it in 1902. The wharf is eight hundred sixty feet long and large steamers dock alongside. Mr. Bowden superintends the repairs of the wharf, the building of warehouses and other buildings. The company has a pile driver and runs a blacksmith shop, also a bark mill run by a steam engine, where tanbark is ground and shipped to foreign countries. A private wagon road has been constructed four and one-half miles to connect with the county road. Shelter Cove is the shipping point for southern Humboldt and northern Mendocino counties and is the best harbor between Eureka and San Francisco, and the second best harbor in the county. The company also owns and operates the Shelter Cove Hotel.

 

Mr. Bowden is public spirited and enterprising and is always ready to help worthy enterprises. Being interested in aiding the developing of the oil field in Southern Humboldt, he was one of the organizers and a director in the Briceland Oil Company. In San Francisco occurred the marriage of Mr. Bowden and Margaret Gildea, who was a native of Ireland. Being an energetic woman and possessing much business ability, she aids her husband materially in his manifold duties. Politically Mr. Bowden is a strong pro­tectionist and Republican.

 

 

 

LEE EDWIN EVANS was born near Fairfield, Jefferson County, Iowa, October 30, 1879, the son of Benjamin and Rosanna Catherine (McLeary) Evans, who still. reside on their farm in Jefferson county, Iowa. The father served as a soldier for four years in the Nineteenth Iowa Volunteer Infantry. Of their thirteen children, ten of whom are living, Lee Edwin is the fifth youngest. One other member of the family living in California is Rawley W., who is foreman of the What Cheer ranch for the Z. Russ Co.

 

Lee Edwin Evans was brought up on the farm in Iowa and was educated in the public schools. After completing the local schools he continued to assist his parents until he was seventeen years of age, when he began for himself, working out on farms in the neighborhood until 1900, when he made his way to North Dakota. Near Minot he located a homestead, but left it and engaged in ranching in the same vicinity until 1906, then removed to Wyoming. There he found employment on the C. B. & Q. R. R., at bridge building for one year, after which he entered the employ of the Big Horn Timber Company as a flume builder, continuing with them for four and one-half years. During the second year he was made foreman of flume building and filled the duties of his position with ability and dispatch. His next position was with the Acme Coal Company at Acme, Wyoming, where he began at the bottom and learned the blacksmith trade, working as such until he came to California in March, 1913, desiring to follow ranching and stock raising. He obtained employment with the Z. Russ Co., and a month later was made foreman of the Bunker Hill ranch of about twelve hundred acres located six and one-half miles from Ferndale and is devoted to sheep raising. He has also been given charge of the Mountain Glenn ranch of twelve hundred acres adjoining Bunker Hill, which is devoted to raising cattle.

 

Mr. Evans is a young man of exemplary habits and by his close applica­tion and native ability is proving a valuable man in the position which he occupies.

 

 

 

BENJAMIN A. SNODGRASS.—Among the men who are making a success of cattle raising in Humboldt county is Benjamin A. Snodgrass, a native of Henry County, Mo., born February 7, 1872. His father, George W. Snodgrass, was also a native of Missouri, where he was a farmer. In 1879 he removed to Dixie Valley, in what is now Canyon County, Idaho, where he has since followed farming. The mother of Benjamin was Laura Sherman, also a native of Missouri, now deceased., Of their four children Benjamin A. Snodgrass was the second oldest. Up to the age of fifteen years he attended the public schools, then started out to make his own living, being employed on cattle ranches, riding the range in eastern Oregon and western Idaho. For three years he was on the Mammon cattle ranch and two years on the Burnett cattle ranch in Idaho, and became an expert rider and cattle roper. In 1892 he came to Humboldt County, and for the first year was employed on the What Cheer ranch for Z. Russ & Co., on Bear River Ridge, then about two and one-half years on the Mazeppa ranch as headquarters. Later he was in the employ of Ira Russ on Mad River for about three years, and during this time spent three winters attending the Eureka Business College, where he was graduated May 20, 1898. After his graduation he came to Rainbow Ridge ranch as foreman for the same man, and remained with him for three years, still later being foreman for Joseph Russ at the Ocean House ranch for seven years. The experience and knowledge gained during past years created an ambition to engage in cattle growing on his own account, so he rented two thousand acres of the Rockliff ranches on the Mattole and north fork of the Mattole and began the business of which he has since made a success. He bought two herds of stock cattle in Trinity County, four hundred forty-nine head, driving them to the Mattole, and after selling one hundred thirty of them he turned the remainder on the ranges. In 1911 he gave up the Rockliff ranches and leased the Taylor Peak ranch of about thirty-two hundred acres, five miles from Petrolia, at the head of the north fork of the Mattole, where he keeps on an average three hundred fifty head, besides which he is engaged as a cattle dealer and meeting with deserved success. His brand is the letter M. In connection with his own business, since 1911 he has also been superintendent of Z. Russ & Sons' Mattole ranches, including about five thousand acres devoted to cattle raising, about eight hundred head being kept on these ranches.

 

Mr. Snodgrass was married in Hydesville to Miss Lillie E. Feenaty, a native of Trinity County, the daughter of Henry Feenaty, an old settler of the county now living retired in Hydesville. Mr. and Mrs. Snodgrass have one child, Grace C. Fraternally he is a member of Ferndale Lodge No. 220, I. 0. 0. F., and of Myrtle Encampment at Ferndale, while with his wife he is a member of the Rebekahs. Politically he is a Democrat. As stated above, on coming to Humboldt county Mr. Snodgrass had the reputation of being one of the best riders in the county and at fairs and races gave exhibitions of horsemanship and riding. He rode some horses that were outlaws and considered unconquerable, and at one time rode a wild bull on the Ferndale grounds. Personally he is a very pleasant and affable man, and like the great west where he was reared is big hearted and liberal and has hosts of friends who esteem him for his kind and generous ways.

 

LUTHER WILLARD SIBLEY.—A prominent and enterprising rancher and the present postmaster at Iaqua, Luther W. Sibley is a native of Michigan, born near Dewitt, Clinton county, April 27, 1875, the son of Levi W. and Alzina (Carr) Sibley, natives of Plattsburg, N. Y. The father served in the Civil war as a member of Company A, Ninety-sixth New York Volun­teer Infantry, and was seriously wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg, and was also wounded in another battle. After a service of three years and eleven months he was honorably discharged, after which he came to Michigan, where, in Ingham county, he was married to Alzina Carr, the Carr family being very old settlers of the county. He became a well-to-do farmer and with his wife resides on his place near Dewitt.

 

Of their seven children Luther, the third oldest, received his education in the public schools and the Lansing high school, after which he entered the Michigan Agricultural College at Lansing, where he completed a special course. He then engaged in the creamery business, operating a creamery at Dewitt for ten and one-half years. In the meantime he started a lumber yard which he conducted the last five years of his residence in Michigan.

 

In 1906 Mr. Sibley made his first trip to the Pacific coast, and from Port­land, Ore., came to Humboldt county. He liked the country, and after making three trips within a year concluded to locate here, a change which he hoped would benefit his wife's health. Disposing of his interests in Michigan he located here permanently in 1907. Purchasing the old Frame ranch of eleven hundred forty acres at Iaqua, twenty-eight. miles east of Eureka, he has since followed farming and stock raising, meeting with good success. He raises an abundance of hay and grain and operates a thresher run by a gas engine, threshing not only his own grain, but that of others as well. He also specializes in dairying, milking about twenty-five cows. The ranch is located on Booths run and is also well watered by other streams and springs and is well wooded with fir and tan oak, about one hundred fifty acres of the ranch being under cultivation. Aside from the ranch he also owns some redwood and fir timber. In 1909 he secured the reestablishment of the postoffice at Iaqua and was appointed postmaster, and has had the postoffice at his place ever since.

 

In Dewitt, Mich., occurred the marriage of Mr. Sibley and Florence Pennell, a native of that place. She died here in 1910, leaving one child, Luther Willard, Jr. Mr. Sibley was school trustee of Iaqua district one term and was also clerk of the board. Fraternally he is a Mason, being a member of Dewitt Lodge in his native place in Michigan, while politically he is a Progressive.

 

JOHN H. GIFT.—Of old Quaker stock and an old settler of Humboldt county, having crossed the plains with his parents in 1864, John H. Gift, a prominent cattle grower of Iaqua, was born in Fontanelle, Adair county, Iowa, March 24, 1858. His father, Isaac Gift, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., where he was reared, later removing to Tiffin, Ohio, where he married Evelyn Overmier, a native of Ohio. Her father, Solomon Overmier, was also a Penn­sylvanian and a Quaker, who crossed the plains to California in 1846. He kept a hotel in Sacramento in which he met with success, afterwards returning to Ohio. His second trip to California was in 1864, he being the head of the train. He lived many years in Humboldt County, but died in Oregon. Isaac Gift removed from Ohio to Adair county, Iowa, where he became possessor of a beautiful farm on Nodaway bottoms. On May 12, 1864, with his family he started for the west, crossing the plains with ox teams and wagons. Two hundred miles west of the Missouri river, while crossing the Platte River, the party got a wetting, and the Gifts and some other members stopped to dry their clothes. Still others of the party, however, went on without stopping. When the Gifts and Overmiers arrived near Fort Laramie they were told of the massacre of their late companions and were shown forty new graves. The Gift team arrived in Fort Laramie July 4 and then pressed on toward Green river. There they were surrounded by Indians and all of the little train would no doubt have been massacred but for the wisdom of Grandfather Overmier, who had had experience and under­stood the Indian nature. He had a long-stemmed pipe with a big bowl which he smoked from behind the wagon wheels, blowing smoke to the four winds. The Indian chief, after much hesitation, finally came down, threw away his arrows and implements of war and took a whiff of the Quaker's pipe, then gave a loud whoop and all of the bucks mounted their ponies, swam the Green river and left the train in peace. The party continued on to Salt Lake City, where they traded their oxen for a span of mules and started for California. They did not succeed in crossing the desert before one of the mules laid down and 'died. Isaac Gift was a large, strong man, one who would not give up, so he arranged a rope and pulled against the remaining mule, carrying the neckyoke for forty-eight hours, while the boys and others rolled on the wheels until their shoulders bled, the drops falling on their bare feet; their shoes had given out and they could not replace them. To add to their suffer­ing, they ran out of water and their tongues became parched; finally the remaining mule gave out. In the midst of their distress a man rode up from behind and kindly loaned them his mule, and with the fresh animal they arrived at Sand Springs, Nev., with tongues parched and protruding. Fortunately there were soldiers stationed at the place who kept them from drink­ing water and also eating to excess, so all the members of the party were saved. They then made their way on to Virginia City, Nev., where Isaac Gift, being a millwright and carpenter by trade, found employment in the Golden Curry mill at $10 per day. The family remained in that city until the fall of 1865, when they came with a freighting outfit (sixteen-mule team with three big wagons, i. e., the two trailing the first one through the Sierras, by way of Hangtown, or Placerville, to Sacramento, where they boarded the boat Chrisopolis for San Francisco, and then on the steamer Del Norte to Eureka, arriving October 12, 1865. The first three years the family spent in Eureka, until in 1868 they moved to Iaqua, where the elder Gift homesteaded one hundred sixty acres near a large, cool spring. After building his house he followed stock raising until he died in 1881. His wife continued to reside on the place until her death in 1903. Their family consisted of seven children, and of them we mention the following : Albert died in Eureka in 1914; Allen lives in Eureka ; Joseph in Iaqua ; Robert in Hoquiam, Wash.; John H. is the subject of this sketch ; Sarah L., Mrs. Russell, died in Hydesville ; George L. is also a resident of Iaqua.

 

John H. Gift was a boy of five years when he crossed the plains with his parents, and on account of the harrowing Indian escapades and their narrow escape on the desert the trip was indelibly impressed on his memory. The members of the party walked nearly two thousand miles, most of it barefooted, and the lasting impressions will never be erased from Mr. Gift's memory. Since 1865 he has made his home in-Humboldt county. 'He went to public school in Virginia City, Nev., Eureka and the Iaqua district. When twelve years old he began riding the range and driving cattle, also followed packing, cooking and teaming not only here, but in the Sacramento valley. He homesteaded eighty acres of land near Iaqua and began stock raising and improving the place, meantime making trips to the Sacramento valley, where he worked at teaming to earn money to improve his ranch. His stock in­creased and he did well and was thus enabled to buy land adjoining. For some years he was in partnership with his brother George, but a few years ago they divided their holdings and dissolved partnership. He now owns eleven hundred sixty acres of land. The John H. Gift ranch is well watered by streams and numerous springs and is well wooded, having quite a large tract of redwood and also other varieties, such as pine, oak and madrone. The place is devoted to cattle growing and he has about one hundred eighty head of the Short Horn Durham breed. Of late he also specializes in dairying, milking about twenty-eight cows in the season and manufacturing butter for the Eureka and San Francisco markets. He also raises large quantities of hay and grain, having threshed as. much as four thousand bushels of oats a year.

 

The marriage of Mr. Gift occurred in Eureka, where he was united with Miss Anna C. Jewett, a native of Fredericton, New Brunswick, and they have three children, George, Harry and Lloyd. Mrs. Gift was an educator and is a woman of much ability, and for ten years taught school in, Humboldt County. She is now serving as trustee of Iaqua school district, a position her husband also held for many years, he being clerk of the board for a time. Fraternally he is a member of Fortuna Lodge No. 221, I. 0. 0. F., in Eureka, and of Mount Zion Encampment, I. 0. 0. F. Politically he is a Republican. He served acceptably as road overseer of fifty-four miles of roads and trails in his district for five years.

 

 

 MRS. MARY BARRY.—One of the old-time settlers on Kneeland Prairie is Mrs. Mary Barry, who was born in the city of Cork, Ireland, the daughter of Timothy and Bridget (Hassett) Mullen. She grew up in that city and was married to Edward Barry. They came to Philadelphia, Pa., in 1865, and a few years later came to California, locating at Ross' Landing, near San Rafael, Marin County, where they followed dairying. About 1875 they located in Humboldt County, where they purchased one hundred twenty acres on Kneeland Prairie and began improving the land and also carried on stock raising. Mrs. Barry has been a successful farmer and stock raiser, having added to the original acres and now owns two ranches adjoining, comprising six hundred forty acres, which are now operated by her son-in-law and daugh­ter, Mr. and Mrs. Cosgrove, who besides being engaged in cattle growing also run a small dairy with considerable success.

 

Of the children born to Mr. and Mrs. Barry, Timothy J., a farmer on Kneeland Prairie, married Ella Fink and they have one child, Alice L.; Phillip F., employed with the Hammond Lumber Company in Eureka, married Sadie Pierson ; Sadie is the wife of Charles Quigg, train dispatcher at Eureka, and they have three children, Thomas, Charles and Graham ; Mary is the wife of Thomas Cosgrove, who, as stated above, manages the ranches for Mrs. Barry, and they have one son, William Thomas.

 

Mrs. Barry is a pleasant woman with generous impulses and is always ready to lend a helping hand to those who have been less fortunate.

 

 

RAE FELT, M. D.—A representative member of the Felt family, and one of the most honored native sons of Humboldt county, Dr. Rae Felt is adding glory to the name of his father made famous in almost half a century of medical practice and business activity here. His position in the profession has always been among its most trusted members, and deservedly, and within recent years he has increased his reputation by his unselfish work in the interest of the Sequoia hospital at Eureka, of which he was the founder. He is now acting as president of the board and as chief surgeon of the institution, which is the most completely equipped establishment of the kind in Cali­fornia north of San Francisco. Dr. Felt's father, the late Theodore Dwight Felt, M. D., has full mention elsewhere in this work.

 

Rae Pelt was born May 19, 1869, at Hydesville, and his early life was spent there and at other locations in the county—Felt's Springs, Rohnerville and Fortuna.. His education was begun in the district schools, but he had the advantage of very superior home training which he has found of in­estimable value. During the time the family lived at Fortuna he assisted his mother in the drug store which she conducted for several years at that place, and thus his preparation for his life work began very early. He finished his public school work at Eureka, graduating before he was eighteen years old, at which time he was granted a teacher's certificate. He taught school for some time, and then devoted himself to the study of medicine, entering the medical department of the University of California, from which he was graduated, receiving his degree of M. D. in November, 1890. The next year he spent very profitably in the United States Marine hospital at San Fran­cisco, as surgical assistant, and was then appointed to the United States revenue marine service and assigned as surgeon to the steamer Richard Rush, which was ordered to the Behring Sea and coast of Alaska to protect the seal industry. After a year in that position he returned to Eureka to commence practice, becoming associated with his father, who moved to Eureka in 1891, and they worked together until the father's death, in 1898. His modern training and apparent fitness for the profession supplemented his father's experience and resource, and they established a practice which the younger man has continued very successfully, proving a worthy successor to his father. In both general practice and surgery there is a wide demand for his services, his name having become well known in all parts of Humboldt County, where he has performed many successful operations and taken part in numerous consultations, his fellow physicians according his opinions the utmost respect. He has not only endeavored to make a success of his own work, but has labored zealously to uphold the most approved professional standards in the community. His own conscientious work, in his private practice and in his connection with the Sequoia Hospital and Sanitarium, shows his personal ideas on such matters. He was appointed the first chief surgeon on the Eel River and Eureka Railroad, which position he held until it was transferred to the hospital department of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad, and since then has filled his present position of division surgeon.

 

Dr. Felt took a leading part in the organization of the Humboldt County Medical Society, has served as president of that body, and is also a member in high standing of the California State Medical Society and the American Medical Association, the Pacific Association of Railway Surgeons and also a member of the American Association of Railway Surgeons. Socially he has numerous connections, belonging to Humboldt Parlor No. 14, N. S. G. W. ; Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M. (master in 1904) ; Humboldt Chapter No. 52, R. A. M.; Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T., which he served as treasurer for several years, from May, 1902; Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., of San Francisco; the Order of the Eastern Star; and Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E., of which he was a charter member. He also holds membership in the Humboldt Club, and in the chamber of commerce at Eureka, and he was one of the principal organizers of the Gentlemen's Driving Club ; though deeply interested in the success of the latter he declined the presidency because of his numerous other responsibilities, feeling that he could not do justice to its duties. His interest therein is only natural, for he inherits his father's love for fine horses, and was at one time especially devoted to the breeding and raising of standard horses on his stock ranch at Capetown on the Bear river. He has a number of fine horses, among which are Telltale Perlo and Edith Light. The former Comes from stock which his father raised, and her great-great-great-granddam Jude was the animal on which the elder Dr. Felt swam the Eel River on many occasions.

 

Besides the ranch just mentioned Dr. Felt owns a dairy ranch of two hundred twenty-five acres at Freshwater, six miles from Eureka, which he supervises personally, hiring competent help for the actual labor. "The Maples," as his ranch is called, was so named on account of the beautiful natural maple grove at his summer home. He has lately improved the ranch with large barns, which are the most modern and sanitary in the county, having metal stanchions, concrete floor and large windows for admitting plenty of sunlight. Recently Dr. Felt brought from the east a carload of full-blooded registered Jersey cattle of the Island type, and now has a herd of about one hundred head, one of the finest registered herds of Island bred Jerseys in the state. The Maples is located about six miles north of Eureka on the Arcata road and is watered by the stream called Freshwater. In connection with the ranch large quantities of alfalfa are raised, as well as clover, rye, grass, carrots and beets, and grains.

 

Dr. Felt has been taking part in politics since he attained his majority, an ardent Republican like his father before him. He has been a delegate to political conventions since eligible, and in 1902 acted as chairman of the Republican county convention. His work in the party, as in everything else which attracts his interest, has been well directed, and has been appre­ciated by his coworkers and his fellow citizens generally, who trust him to look after their welfare as he would after his private concerns. There are few activities in the locality with which he has not been associated, in an influential capacity, and many of the best movements in the city owe their success to his cooperation.

 

On December 18, 1892, Dr. Felt was married to Miss Anna A. Smith, a native of Alameda County, Cal., the daughter of a pioneer family.

 

 

 

JOHN W. HAMILTON.—Humboldt County has had many instances of the opportunities which her early settlers enjoyed, as shown by the good fortune which has attended those who, coming here with no resources except their courage and strength, have acquired wealth and position. When land was cheap, simply because it was in an undeveloped region and there were no means at hand of marketing its produce, its potential value could not be counted as in these days of modern commerce, and the pioneers who then acquired large holdings did so with little or no expenditure. If they were farsighted enough to retain them, their fortunes were established. But that the opportunities were not exhausted with the passing of the old order is shown in the records of such men as John W. Hamilton, of Garberville, Hum­boldt county, whose success has been substantial enough, and so honorably gained, as to be creditable .under any circumstances. He came to the county in 1896, for a year's stay in search of health, and was not only satisfied in that respect, but he has prospered so well in his business undertakings that he has remained here ever since.

 

A Kentuckian by birth, Mr. Hamilton is the eldest of three children born to Hance and Mary (Richardson) Hamilton, both also natives of Kentucky. The father was a farmer, living and dying in Meade County, that state. The mother came to Humboldt county, Cal., in 1909, arriving December 19, and died here in 1910. The two other children born to them are : James W., who continues to reside on the old home property in Meade county, Ky.; and a daughter, Mattie, who came to California with her mother, and is now the wife of Ernest R. Linser, a rancher of this county, on the east branch of the south fork of the Eel River.

 

John W. Hamilton was born August 31, 1873, at Brandenburg, Meade bounty, Ky., and grew up on the home farm. Though he is interested therein as one of his father's heirs he has not yet taken his share. He finished his studies with a course in the state college at Lexington, and lived in his native state until 1896, when he came to California for his health, suffering from malarial fever. At San Francisco he met Ezra Reed, a friend of his father, and in April came up to Humboldt county with the Reed brothers and Lem Dale (all business men of Garberville), making the trip by way of Ukiah, overland. They arrived at Garberville, April 19, and Mr. Hamilton went to work as a clerk for the Reed brothers, in whose employ he continued four years. By this time he had become familiar with local conditions, and in company with C. W. Conger, who was from Long Creek, Ore., he bought out the Reeds' store, Conger & Hamilton doing an extensive general mer­cantile business there for the next four years. In 1904 Mr. Hamilton pur­chased his partner's share therein, and carried on the business as sole pro­prietor until the year 1911, when he sold to the Garberville Mercantile Com­pany, of which he has since been a stockholder. He has been secretary of the company from the time of its incorporation. This is an important local enterprise, but Mr. Hamilton has been obliged to make it secondary to his responsibilities, assisting in the management of the Woods ranch, now giving the greater part of his time to its operation.

 

The Western Live Stock Company, which is incorporated under the laws of the state of California, is a Humboldt county concern, all its officers being of this county, viz.: William G. Dauphiny, of Ferndale, president ; John W. Hamilton, of Garberville, vice-president; and George T. Toobey, of Eureka, secretary and treasurer. This company owns the Woods ranch, which contains about twelve thousand acres, devoted to the raising of cattle, horses, hogs, sheep and fruit on an extensive scale. It lies a mile and a quarter south of Garberville, on the south fork of the Eel River.

 

In addition to his other interests Mr. Hamilton owns about one thousand acres of timber lands, containing redwood, pine and tanbark lumber of great value, which he will exploit as convenient or conserve if necessary. He is also interested in two stage lines in the county, one from Garberville to Dyer-vine, the other from Garberville to Thorn, both owned and operated by the Garberville Mercantile Company in connection with the store business. All in all, there are few young men more directly associated with typical activi­ties of this region than he.

 

In 1906 Mr. Hamilton was married to Miss Stella F. Toobey, a native daughter of Humboldt county, born at Rohnerville, and the daughter of George J. and Louisa (Hart) Toobey, born in England and Fond du Lac, Wis:, respectively, who were early settlers of Humboldt county. Mrs. Hamil­ton is a young woman of pleasing personality, and is a devoted helpmeet to her husband.

 

 

 

PETER DELANEY.—A native of Canada but a resident of Humboldt county since 1884, Peter Delaney, sole proprietor of the business conducted under the name of Delaney & Young, wholesale dealers in wines, liquors and mineral waters, is one of the progressive, prosperous and highly esteemed citizens of Eureka today. In his business he makes a specialty of purity in his liquors, and of maintaining an especially sanitary condition in his bottling works, store rooms, warehouses and sales rooms. He is also engaged extensively in the manufacture of soda water, for which he finds a ready market throughout Humboldt County. In his various industries he has met with much success and has accumulated an appreciable wealth, which is largely invested in real estate in and near Eureka, and at present he is the owner of much valuable property in this vicinity.

 

Mr. Delaney was born June 29, 1863, near Seaforth, Ontario, Canada, where he grew to manhood and received his education. Upon coming to Eureka in April, 1884, he worked for a time in the lumber woods, and then engaged in the wholesale liquor business in Eureka. He conducted the establishment alone until 1903, when he took in C. W. Young as a partner. Mr. Young, however, died three years later, and since that time Mr. Delaney has continued to conduct the business under the old firm name of Delaney & Young. He handles only the choicest wines, liquors and beers, and has been complimented by the pure food inspector for the splendid sanitary con­ditions which he maintains. He employs seventeen men, with four teams of horses, and has two large warehouses to accommodate his large stock.

 

The marriage of Mr. Delaney took place in Eureka, uniting him with Miss Catherine McGaraghan, the daughter of Michael McGaraghan, a pioneer drayman of Eureka, and one of its most respected citizens. They have one daughter, Helen. Both Mr. and Mrs. Delaney have many friends in Eureka, where they are popular in their social circle. Ten years ago Mr. Delaney erected a commodious residence on Hillsdale Street, where the family now makes their home.

 

During his long residence in Eureka Mr. Delaney has been at all times interested in all that makes for the general welfare of the city. He is pro­gressive and constructive in his ideas and has done much for the upbuilding and improvement of the community and for its general development. He has an abiding faith in the splendid future of Humboldt county and of Eureka and vicinity in particular, and is one of the most enthusiastic boosters that the thriving little city possesses. He is a member of several of the best known of the local fraternal orders, and also of various political and social clubs and societies, and is one of the influential men in local civic affairs.

 

 

 

LAWRENCE FRANCIS PUTER.—The alluring call of distant cities. and the possible recognition of professional ability by centers of influence and progress had no weight with Mr. Puter when put in the balance with the associations of a lifetime and the claims of his own native county. Accord­ingly we find him at the head of his profession in Eureka, warmly espousing any movement, professional or otherwise, for the benefit of Humboldt county, where he was born November 3, 1867, and where his parents, Patrick F. and Margaret (Hoar) Puter, natives of Ireland, were pioneers of that now long-past period of early American occupancy. Although his earliest recollections are of a farm, where the family carried on a serious struggle for a livelihood, in an earlier day his father had engaged in mining and had wielded the pick­axe and shovel, belonging by right of such work to the interesting group of men connected with the first important development of California. There were three children in the family, of whom the eldest, Stephen A. D., is now a resident of Berkeley; the youngest is Mrs. Lucy Sawyer, of Eureka.

 

In attending the State Normal School until his graduation with a high standing, it had not been the intention of Lawrence F. Puter to enter upon teaching as a life-work; rather, he wished to secure for himself an education so thorough and broad as to make a firm foundation for the activities of a useful career. The trend of his ambition showed in his matriculation as a student in the law department of the University of Michigan. With char­acteristic perseverance he continued his law studies until 1891, when he was graduated with the degree of LL. D. Later he was admitted to practice in all the courts, including the United States Supreme Court, and since taking his first case he has remained at Eureka, where his comprehensive pro­fessional knowledge has brought him to a place at the front of that interesting group of lawyers making their headquarters in the county seat. The chair­manship of the county Democratic central committee, a position that he filled for eighteen years, indicates not only the nature of his political views, but also his prominence as a local leader in the party. In fraternities, no less than in politics, he has become a local factor of power, being past exalted ruler of Eureka Lodge of Elks and past president of the Native Sons of the Golden West, also a well-known figure in assemblies of the Eagles and a prominent member of all branches of the Odd Fellows. As a presiding officer, whether in fraternal gatherings or in exciting assemblies of politicians or in more routine-filled meetings of the general public, he has been most efficient, combining leadership with fellowship which eliminates antagonism and secures cooperation. In the capacity of private citizen he has quietly but firmly favored all movements for the permanent upbuilding of Eureka and Humboldt county, and whatever progress city and county shall make in future years it will be due to the cooperation and leadership of such men as Mr. Puter.

 

WILLIAM OLMSTEAD.—Eureka, the county seat, has been the home of William T. Olmstead for the last thirty-five years, and he lived else­where in Humboldt county for over twenty years previous. Having come to California in the year 1850, with the idea of making his fortune in the mines, he has had all the typical pioneer experiences of miner, cattle man and business man, in turn, and when the country had emerged from primitive conditions was one of the foremost to take up the work of development. He has shown his faith in the local situation by investing heavily in real estate in Eureka, and has exerted himself to assist the town in striving to establish attractive commercial and residential conditions. Many of the wise measures taken in the early days were adopted through his influence, which has always been used unselfishly to further the best interests of his fellow citizens.

 

Barnwell Olmstead, the father of William T. Olmstead, was a native of New York State, where he grew to manhood and married. His wife, whose maiden name was Lovina Thorp, was born in Vermont. They were an industrious couple, and ambitious, as one illustration will show. In his youth he had no advantages, and had to begin work early. So much assistance was required of the boy that he could not attend school even in the winter months, as was customary at the time, when children could be of material service during the busy seasons. At the time of his marriage he could neither read nor write, but his wife, who was fairly well educated, grounded him in the elementary branches, and he was able to enjoy reading and keep informed on current events the rest of his life. For some time after their marriage he and his wife made their home in New York State, adding to the acreage of their farm as prosperity made such progress possible. In 1835 the family moved to Michigan, and some time afterwards Mr. Olmstead purchased a small farm in Macomb County. He and his wife passed the remainder of their lives in that state, she dying in the spring of 1855, and his death occurring in 1862. Both were members of the Baptist Church. In politics he was originally a Whig, later a Republican. In spite of the hardships and deprivations of his youth he had a moderately successful career, and reared his family of ten children in comfort.

 

William T. Olmstead was the third child in his parents' family. Born August 30, 1829, in Cayuga county, N. Y., he was in his seventh year when the family removed to Michigan, where he was reared, remaining there until he attained his majority. The year 1850 he set out to cross the plains with three of his boyhood friends, starting April 3. They had horses, and made good progress until they ran short of provisions, which obliged them to work for funds to proceed. They stopped at Salt Lake City, and found work in a harvest field, Mr. Olmstead finding quarters with a man to whom he had been given letters of introduction. As soon as possible the young men con­tinued their journey, arriving at Hangtown (now Placerville), Cal., August 30. By this time Mr. Olmstead's capital had been reduced to $16, and the tools he found necessary if he wanted to begin mining, with supplies, cost him $75, a spade costing $8 and other things being proportionately high. It was not long, however, before he had more than squared himself, the $75 being earned in four days. Mining proved all he had hoped for. In the fall he went to the Middle fork of the American river, near Greenwood valley, and in December started for the Gold Bluff region, near .Trinidad, Humboldt County, going by boat. The vessel in which he made this trip was wrecked three days after her arrival at Trinidad. Subsequently Mr. Olmstead carried on mining operations around Junction City, Canyon Creek and Weaverville, at which latter point he spent the winter. He was saving his money, and when he had about $2000 he went into the butchering business, buying most of his cattle in the Sacramento valley, where he had his headquarters. In April, 1852, he went up to Oregon and purchased one hundred twelve head of cattle in the vicinity of Albany, driving them to Weaverville, where he slaughtered them ; though he paid as high as $100 a head for his cattle and $16 a head for sheep, the investment was very profitable. Having accumu­lated considerable means, Mr. Olmstead decided to take a trip east, returning by way of Panama, and he spent the winter in Michigan and Ohio, looking for likely cattle investments, but without success. In April, 1853, he went to Illinois for that purpose, with $7000, and in company with William and A. C. Freeland he bought four hundred fifty head, with which he started across the plains, via Salt Lake City. He reached the Sacramento valley in Novem­ber, 1853, and locating near Tehama grazed his cattle there for a couple of years, remaining until it was apparent that section was not beneficial to the health of his family. Then, in 1856, he moved his cattle to the Bear river, in Humboldt county, and settled with his family at Hydesville (twenty-five miles from Eureka), this county. In the meantime he had started a meat market as an adjunct to the cattle business, at Eureka, spending part of his time there and part at Hydesville, and also traveling considerably, buying and selling cattle. For a time he was somewhat incapacitated by injuries he received defending his property against the depredations of the Indians, and when he was able to ride about again he opened a grocery and commission business at Eureka, which he carried on for four years. Later he. returned to Hydesville, in 1880, however, moving to Eureka and establishing his home there permanently. During the next seven years he drove sheep for the market and also had a sheep business of his own, keeping about three thou­sand, and supplying mutton to the local markets. In these years of pros­perous dealings he had acquired an immense ranch, comprising sixty-eight hundred acres, which he sold in 1899 to engage in the more convenient busi­ness of operating in city real estate at Eureka. His purchases there, and the development of his properties, have had a material effect on all such activities in the city. Among the numerous holdings of value in his name are the Olmstead building, a quarter block on Sixth and C streets, and a butcher shop at the corner of Fifth and J streets.

 

So much for Mr. Olmstead's personal business interests. Naturally his self-evident efficiency has made him a welcome candidate for official honors, which he has accepted reluctantly, however, preferring to aid his town and fellow citizens with advice on important matters rather than in an executive capacity. But responsibilities have been thrust upon him from time to time, and he has always measured up to their demands. While he was still on crutches after his memorable experiences with the Indians (mentioned be­low) he ran for the office of sheriff of Humboldt county, as an independent, but failed of election by only one vote. 'When the affairs of the city of Eureka were being placed upon a permanent basis he manifested sincere interest in their proper adjustment, serving a term in the city council, and helped to put through a number of measures highly important to the well-being of the municipality and its residents. He surveyed the town and put it on its present grade, established twelve-foot sidewalks, and constructed the first stone sewers. He has been an enthusiastic member of the Humboldt County Pioneers' Society, attending its meetings regularly and promoting its objects with his customary zeal for whatever enlists his interest. Few of its members have had more exciting adventures, yet with all his activities Mr. Olmstead has kept his health and faculties unimpaired in advanced age.

 

One of Mr. Olmstead's dangerous experiences happened in Humboldt County, while he was in camp on the Mad River. The Indians surprised him and his three companions, killing one of them, and Mr. Olmstead received two wounds in his right thigh. Though he was so badly wounded his two remaining companions left him to save their own lives, and with five Indians in pursuit he managed to reach the brush, getting behind a rock and firing as they approached. He had only a small revolver, but he managed to kill one of the red men, and the others took to the brush to follow him at a distance. When night came on he crawled to a canyon and hid until rescued the next day by four white men who had news of his plight from the two men who had escaped. The Indians afterward told that he was a good shot and "heap mad," so they were afraid to attack him at close range. One of the rifle balls is still in his right thigh, crippling him permanently. He also lost considerable money on this occasion. Other experiences, before and after, taught him to distrust the savages. ;In 1852, while he was out for cattle in Weaverville, Mr. Anderson was killed by the Indians. In 1854, while he was camping near Tehama, the mules and cattle near Dyer's ranch, on the east side of the Sacramento River, were stolen by the Indians. It was then that Mr. Olmstead, as captain, led eight men against that band of thieving Indians, following them to near Red Bluff, and twenty-one dead Indians resulted. On this trip Mr. Olmstead had a very narrow escape. In 1856, when he was on Bear River, a man who was stopping at his cattle ranch, was shot in cold blood. Mr. Olmstead's record in all the relations of life has been creditable. Beginning with no special advantages of education or fortune, he has prospered beyond his early dreams, and no citizen of his community is more honored.

 

Mr. Olmstead was married, April 5, 1854, to Miss Lucinda Garrison, who was born near Three Rivers, Mich., and crossed the plains in the same train with Mr. Olmstead, who was acting as captain of the party. They had a long and happy married life. Three children were born to them: Alice is the widow of J. W. S. Perry, of Los Angeles; Adelaide is the second daughter; William E. is a miner, operating on Trinity River, this county. Mrs. Olmstead, who died in 1902, was an earnest member of the Christian Church.

WILLIAM H. WALLACE, M. D.—Association with the beginnings of professional advance in Eureka indicates the prestige and prominence of Dr. Wallace, as well as his early connection with the town as a citizen and physician. The Humboldt general hospital, that stood on the corner of Seventeenth and H streets, was established by him three years after he came-to the city, and long afterward he became one of the founders of Sequoia hospital, with the active management of which he since has been connected. Additional prestige comes to him through the fact that he aided in founding the first county medical society, also in the founding of the Humboldt Club, of which he has been a director from the start and was the third member to be honored with the presidency. He also served two years (1893-94) as county physician. His public efforts and private benefactions have given prominence to his name throughout all of Northern California.

The lineage of the Wallace family is traced to Scotland. Tradition has it that certain of the name fled from Scotland during the religious persecutions and sought refuge in the North of Ireland, where several of the following generations remained. During the latter part of the eighteenth century James Wallace sailed from Ireland to Canada and settled in Nova Scotia. Still later he removed to New Brunswick and in that province occurred the birth in 1805 of William Wallace, who for forty-four years held the office of collector of customs at Hillsborough, entering upon its duties about seventeen years prior to the confederation of the provinces in 1865 and continuing to serve until his death in 1892 at the age of eighty-seven. In marriage he was united with Jane Steeves (whose family name originally was spelled Steiff), a woman of exceptional strength of character and depth of religious belief. Her death occurred when she was seventy-two years old. Of her six children Dr. William H. Wallace was the only one to settle in the United States. Mary married Rev. William E. Corey, now deceased ; Martha died at the age of fifty-four ; James died in Australia at the age of twenty-one ; Kate is also deceased ; and Emma still remains in New Brunswick.

Born at Hillsborough, Albert county, New Brunswick, May 2, 1852, primarily educated in the grammar schools of St. John, a student in the scientific department of Harvard University from 1872 to 1876, and then of the medical department of the University of New York, Dr. Wallace received his degree February 19, 1878, and then embarked in practice in his native town. With the exception of a year in Boston he continued in Hillsborough until 1883, the date of his arrival in Eureka, Cal., where since he has followed his profession with encouraging success. For a time he practiced with Dr. Reuben Gross and next had Dr. F. A. Lewitt as a partner, but since 1888 he has been alone, until his eldest son recently became his partner in practice. While professional enterprises have taken his time to a very large extent, he also has had considerable business experience and has invested from time to time in redwood timber, the latest of these investments having been made in 1910, when he bought a ranch in Redwood valley, Mendocino county ; this he improved and in a few years sold at a fair profit. 'Before leaving New Brunswick he was made a Mason in Howard Lodge No. 39, F. & A. M., at • Hillsborough. Since coming west he has identified himself with Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. Dr. Wallace was brought up in the Baptist church, but since coming to Eureka he has attended the Episcopal church.

The marriage of Dr. Wallace, October 1, 1879, united him with Marietta C. Tufts, a native of Arlington, Mass., and a daughter of Ephraim and Susan (Scott) Tufts. Finely educated in Boston and in Europe, Mrs. Wallace is a distinct accession to. the most select social circles and her beautiful home is the center of many hospitable functions. The four children of the family are Carl Tufts, Muriel Steeves, William Lloyd and Romayne. The eldest son, a graduate of the medical department of McGill University, at Montreal, Canada, is now county health officer of Humboldt county and on the staff of Sequoia Hospital, and is regarded as one of the rising young professional men of Eureka.
 

JAMES McDONALD.—The stories of pioneer life in California are always of interest to the later dwellers in this state who are accustomed to pleasant cities and handsome residences where, but a couple of decades ago, dense forests flourished or fields of wild flowers were to be seen, and the lives of the pioneers themselves, who have helped to build this yet new and rapidly growing country are well worth remembering.

Few men have a better claim to pioneer descent than has James McDonald, of Orick, Cal., himself a native son of the state, son of a California pioneer and grandson of an emigrant from Scotland who became one of the early settlers .of the state of New York. Grandfather McDonald and his wife, who came from Scotland, settled in St. Lawrence county, N. Y., and in. that county their son Thomas was born, who came to California in 1849, at the time of the discovery of gold, later becoming the father of James McDonald, who has always resided in this state. It is interesting to read of the modes of travel to California in the early days of the American settlement of our West, the journey across the plains being made in long, trains of ox wagons which took months for the trip, while the journey by water was hardly less tedious, it being either by way of Cape Horn or the Isthmus of Panama, which latter had to be crossed by mules in the earliest days, the route being continued by inconvenient boats up the coast of California to San Francisco. Yet the number of people was surprising which the discovery of gold attracted to this new part of our country, despite the inconveniences and even dangers of travel in those days. Thomas McDonald, the father of James, made the journey by way of the Isthmus of Panama, and arriving in California in 1849, for many years followed mining in Tuolumne, Calaveras and Trinity counties, in 1855 removing to Humboldt county, where he followed the same pursuit at Gold Bluff. Later he located a claim on the Big Lagoon, where, upon his farm of three hundred twenty acres, he followed farming and the raising of sheep and cattle until the time of his death. His wife was formerly Catherine Maurey, a native of Gold Bluff, and of their seven children, six of whom are now living, James is the third oldest and was born at Big Lagoon, June 7, 1867, where he was brought up on his father's farm and received his education in the public schools. At the age of fifteen years, James McDonald started out for himself in the world, working first in a saw mill and later logging in the woods about Humboldt bay, until 1905, when he gave up working in the woods and commenced dairying independently at the town of Orick, after a short time removing to Del Norte county, where he continued the same occupation for a period of six years. Returning to Orick, he carried on dairying there as formerly, applying himself closely to the business and thereby making a success of it, he being an energetic and indefatigable worker. Having rented a part of the Cornelius Thompson ranch, he is engaged in raising stock, as well as in the milking of thirty cows, which number he is constantly increasing, the cream from his dairy being sent to the Central Creamery Company at Eureka. In his political interests Mr. McDonald is a supporter of the principles of the Republican party, and while living in Del Norte county his interest in educational affairs was evidenced by his membership on the board of school trustees.

The marriage of Mr. McDonald took place in Blue Lake, his wife being Laura (Shaffer) McDonald, who was born at Big Lagoon, the daughter of John Shaffer, a native of Germany and a pioneer of Humboldt county, and his wife Anna (Charles) Shaffer, who was born in Humboldt county. Mr. and Mrs. McDonald are the parents of six children, namely, James, Lillian, Irma, Evan, Tessie and Thomas.
 

FRANK L. HUFFORD.—One of the old-time settlers in the vicinity of Orick, Cal., Frank L. Hufford has made for himself a reputation there as an enterprising business man, and liberal and active in the furthering of any project for the betterment of the community where he resides. Mr. Hufford is truly a native son of California, having been born in Contra Costa county, this state, November 24, 1866, the son of David Hufford, a native of the state of Ohio, and grandson of David Hufford, a pioneer of this state who came from Ohio across the plains in 1852, and made his home in Butte county, where his death occurred. The father of Mr. Hufford was a cooper by trade, who made the journey to California in 1849, three years earlier than his father, and followed mining in the Sierras, in which occupation he attained a good measure of success. Later he bought land and improved a farm in Contra Costa county, where he was the owner of about seven hundred acres of property whereon he raised wheat and grapes. In 1877 he removed to Humboldt county, locating for one year at Gold Bluff, near where the town of Orick is now, going thence to Trinidad; in the same county, where he bought twenty acres of land, selling the same after four years and locating at Arcata, where he became the owner of sixty acres, which property likewise he sold, removing to Alliance and thence again to Arcata, where he died at the age of seventy-seven years. In 1888 he made butter kegs for Griffin & Swan at Gold Bluff (now Orick), for the shipping of their butter to the San Francisco market.

Of the five children by David Hufford's first marriage, his son Frank was the fourth in age, his mother dying when he was only three years old, his brothers and sisters being: Walter, an attorney-at-law, who now lives in Oregon ; Lydia, now Mrs. Sweem, of Stockton, Cal.; Rosa, now Mrs. Ferril ; and George, who resides at Bridgeville, Cal. By the father's second marriage, there were four other children. Frank L. Hufford grew up on his father's farm. He was deprived of school advantages, but by self-study and observation he has become a well-informed man, possessed of noteworthy business acumen. At the age of eleven years he moved with his family to Humboldt county, where he assisted his father in his work, also being employed on a dairy in Orick for five years and working in the woods for four years. In 1897 Mr. Hufford started to work independently, renting a ranch from Peter Hansen where he conducted a dairy for three years. His wife received from her father's estate eighty acres of wild land, at the mouth of Redwood creek, two miles from Orick, which Mr. Hufford improved. He also took up a homestead of one hundred sixty acres within one-fourth miles, to which he added by a purchase, thirty-eight acres more, thus becoming the owner of two hundred seventy acres in all, upon which he engaged in the dairy business and the raising of stock. Mr. Hufford was likewise employed for six or seven years in hauling freight from Bald Hills to Arcata with a six-horse team, and he has been for the past eighteen years overseer of roads in District No. 5, which comprised the country for fifteen miles around Orick, also being school trustee of the same town for a period of time, in all amounting to sixteen years. In his political interests he is a member of the Republican party. Mr. Hufford's first marriage was to Miss Ella Montgomery, a native of Humboldt county, who died leaving him two children: Floyd, of Bridgeville, this county, and Mrs. Josephine Gallon, of Clinton, Mo.

The second marriage of. Mr. Hufford, to Miss Myr Griffin, took place at Eureka, June 18, 1892. Like himself, his wife is a native of California, having been born at the mouth of Redwood creek, near the present town of Orick, her father, George Griffin, having been a native of Pennsylvania, who came to this state as a pioneer. After being engaged in gold mining at Gold Bluff for a time Mr. Griffin took up land on Redwood creek, where he also followed mining, later engaging in the dairy business upon his ranch, and afterwards taking Robert Swan into partnership, living here until his death occurred ; and here his daughter, later Mrs. Hufford, was brought up. Mr. and Mrs. Hufford became the parents of seven children : Ida ; Blanche, wife of John Francis, a farmer living near the mouth of Redwood creek ; Vina, Walter, Leslie, Elmer and Kenneth, all of whom, with the exception of Mrs. Francis, make their home with their parents in Orick. Mr. Hufford has built a five-thousand-foot sawmill on his property, where he engages in the manufacture of lumber, and also runs a blacksmith shop on the place. He. also engaged in mining near Gold Bluff, where he owns one hundred fifty acres, with an ocean front of three-fourths mile, and is extracting gold from the black sand on the beach. By his business enterprises and public-spirited acts Mr. Hufford has won a high place in the esteem of all who know him. He attributes no small degree of his success to his wife, who by her aid and encouragement has been an able helpmeet in his different enterprises.
 

GEORGE E. WRIGLEY.—Since the year 1884 George E. Wrigley has made his home in Humboldt county, Cal., having been prominently identified with the advancement of this part of the state and well acquainted with the various events which have taken place in the progress of its history since that date. Having retired now from active business life, Mr. Wrigley is known as a fine old man, full of energy and enterprise, who has improved a fifteen acre ranch in this county, whereon he has the best apple orchard in the vicinity, besides being a successful raiser of berries. His wife, who has all along been a faithful and efficient helpmeet to her husband; is a good business woman, as well as being liberal and hospitable, and Mr. and Mrs. Wrigley hold an enviable place in the good will and esteem of all who know them.

Of English ancestry, Mr. Wrigley is the son of George Wrigley, a native of Cheshire, England, who came to New Brunswick in 1852, with a party of English colonists, and, being a contractor, was engaged in the construction of different portions of the first railroad built in New Brunswick. His wife, Mary Hewitt, was born in that province, although her parents had come from Belfast, Ireland, both Mr. and Mrs. Wrigley now being deceased. Of their six children, five are now living, George E. being the third oldest, and another son, James, having also come to California, where he settled in Humboldt county in 1886, and was for eighteen years superintendent of the Bucksport and Elk River Railroad, until the time of his death. George E. Wrigley, also well known in Humboldt county, Cal., was born near St. Stephen, Charlotte county, N. B., September 11, 1858, and grew up on his father's farm, receiving his education in the public schools, and at the age of sixteen years was. apprenticed to the blacksmith's trade, which he followed until 1884, the time of his removal to California, when he entered the employ of N. H. Falk on the Elk River in Humboldt county, in the Elk River Mill and Lumber Company, following the trade of blacksmith at the company's plant at Falk. The mill, built in 1884, was burned in 1900, and a new one erected, Mr. Wrigley being instrumental as blacksmith in the erection of both mills, as well as acting as head blacksmith in charge of his department until March 20, 1906, when he was taken seriously ill, losing the use of his hands and feet for the. time being, and was unable to continue his work, though at the close of the summer he was able to get around, but since that time has retired from business life, confining his attention to the management of his ranch. Mr. Wrigley is school trustee for the Jones Prairie district, a member, of the Congregational Church, and of the Republican party in politics, and was made a Mason in the Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., at Eureka. During his long residence in Humboldt county, he has seen some exciting times ; and was in Eureka on the night when the Chinese killed Kendall, which caused a riot, and after a public meeting at Centennial Hall, the settlers rounded up the Chinese and locked up a number of them on account of other shootings which had taken place. On account of the unreliability of the Chinese, it was decided unwise to give them a trial, and all were ordered to be at the wharf at a certain hour, when they were transported from the county, since which time there have been no more of their race in the locality. This occurred on February 1, 1885, about four hundred of these undesirable residents having been deported at that time.

At the present time, since retiring from business, Mr. Wrigley is attending to the cultivation of his fruit orchard, whereon he raises many varieties of apples, such as Duchess, Wealthy, Red Astrachan, Gravenstein, King and Greenings, his fruit having received two blue ribbon prizes at the Watsonville exhibition of apples. The marriage of Mr. Wrigley took place in his native town of St. Stephen, N. B., uniting him with Miss Mary Esther Glew, who was born at that place, her father 'having been John Glew, a native of Yorkshire, England, who came to New Brunswick, where he engaged in railroad construction; the mother being Mary (Thompson) Glew, who was born in New Brunswick of Scotch and English parentage. Mr. and Mrs. Wrigley were the parents of nine children, of whom the eldest, Ella Bernice, now the wife of Jess Barnes, of Falk, was born at St. Stephen; the eight younger children having been born in California; Winfield James, now secretary and treasurer of the Elk River Mill and Lumber Company at Falk, and represented elsewhere in this book; Mary Esther, now Mrs. Russell of Eureka; George Edward, D. D. S., of Dixon; Henry F., a law student at San Francisco; Pearl, a graduate of the Eureka business college; Ruth ; Theodore R.; and Irving Edwin.
 

HIRAM LAMBERT RICKS.—It means much to say that Hiram Lambert Ricks is a typical representative of his name. In Eureka that name stands for high citizenship, strong character, forceful intellect and personal qualities above criticism. Mr. Ricks is a son of the late Casper S. Ricks, whose life work and efforts in behalf of Eureka and Humboldt county generally, are detailed elsewhere in this volume. His father's high reputation naturally gave him an enviable' position in social and business circles to start with, but he has maintained it by his own achievements, and has not failed to make good in the rather large responsibility of living up to the traditions of honored ancestors. Mr. Ricks was born at Eureka July 29, 1859, at the corner of Second and F streets, and has passed all his life there. He had good educational advantages, but his business career began early, for when he was but seventeen years old he was given charge of the building of the Ricks water-works, which his father installed at Eureka in the year 1877. The work required mechanical as well as executive ability, and the youth showed a surprising amount of both. The supply of water, at the time of the construction of the plant, was four hundred and fifty gallons .every twenty-four hours, and was obtained from a large surface well and four artesian wells, three Knowles pumps being used. Hiram L. Ricks continued to superintend its operation until he sold his interest, in 1903, and during that time the facilities were greatly enlarged to meet the increasing demands of the community. He had purchased a half interest in the water-works when a young man and become superintendent, and under his progressive policy Eureka has been given as fine service as any town could wish. His active mind sought opportunities for improving the plant constantly, and as a result he made many changes to conform with modern scientific ideas. In 1889.he obtained patents on tank and filter, and installed same. The nine miles of piping originally laid were extended until sixteen miles of main pipe were in use, and the capacity was increased to one and a half million gallons every twenty-four hours. The pumping was done directly from the Elk river into the mains.

In 1895, on account of the serious illness of his brother, Casper S. Ricks, Mr. Ricks took charge of his father's large estate, which under their wise management had grown and increased in value, and his intelligent insight of its numerous details, and careful administration of the affairs of magnitude, have won him the unbounded respect of his business associates who have had the opportunity of observing his judgment and promptness to act when necessary. The care of the estate has been his principal occupation for the last twenty years.

Like his father, Mr. Ricks has given the community the benefit of his talents and his advanced ideas on municipal affairs, and his fellow citizens have shown their appreciation in the most substantial manner. He has been an active member of the fire department from early manhood, having been engineer of engine No. 1 since 1878, during part of the time donating his salary ($15 a month) therefor to the fire company. He served under Governor Budd as a member of the board • of harbor commissioners, an office of great importance, as the prosperity of Eureka and Humboldt county depends largely upon its advantages of location on Humboldt bay. In 1906 and 1907 he held the office of mayor, in which he gave a model administration, gaining in favor with each demonstration of his public spirit in his efficient discharge of the high duties entrusted to him. He has long been a prominent member of the chamber of commerce, in which he has held the office of vice-president.

Numerous and notable as have been Mr. Rick's accomplishments, probably nothing to which he has given his time and thought has benefited as large a number of people as has the Northwestern Pacific Railroad. It was while he was filling the office of mayor that he began agitating the railroad project. From the start he met with opposition from citizens less optimistic, who declared the project could not be worked out. His optimism, however, remained unchanged, and he determined to take immediate steps to get the work under way. In March, 1909, he went to San Diego to see E. H. Harriman, and so well did he put the case and the value of the railroad to Eureka that Mr. Harriman was won over. On Mr. Ricks' return to Eureka a call was issued for a public meeting in the city hall and at that meeting the Humboldt Railroad Promotion Committee was formed. After four months' hard work the committee produced the report, showing the gross earnings from the Humboldt extension of the Northwestern Pacific to be $2,179,000 for the first year after completion. The following members of the executive committee, H. L. Ricks, F. W. Georgeson, L. F. Puter and E. H. Brooks, secretary, went to San Francisco and laid the matter before Captain A. H. Payson, president of the Northwestern Pacific, and A. H. Palmer, the general manager. The plans were favorably received and were recommended for consideration with President Ripley of the Santa Fe. The illness and death of Mr. Harriman followed, and it was feared that the consummation of the extension of the road would be delayed, but a telegram from Mr. Payson assured the citizens that construction on the Eureka connection had been authorized and an appropriation made to cover the cost of line south to Dyerville, and north to Covelo bridge over the Eel river. The road was built and complete connection made in October, 1914. The completion of the road was followed by ceremonies in which the" driving of the golden spike on October 23, 1914, was an important feature. Mr. Ricks was chairman of the celebration committee, and it is safe to say that no one who witnessed the ceremonies understood and appreciated their significance any more fully than did he.

Politically Mr. Ricks is a Democrat. His likable personality has made many warm friends for him, and he is strongly appreciative of the loyal support they have given him when he has made a stand on matters of vital interest to the community. Fraternally he holds membership in Humboldt Lodge, No. 77, I. 0. 0. F., of which he is a past grand ; and is also a member of Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. His other social connections are with the State Pioneers' Association, the Humboldt County Pioneers' Society, and Humboldt Parlor No. 14, N. S. G. W., which he helped to organize, in 1883, serving as its first president.

On November 18, 1884, Mr. Ricks was married, at Blue Lake, Cal., to Miss Matilda J. Puter, daughter. of Patrick Francis Puter, who came to California in 1849. She died in 1904, leaving four children : Adaline Amelia Fouts, Mrs. W. M. Murphy of Pasadena ; Hazel Margaret, wife of Captain Harry Emerson, serving in the War Department ; Hiram Lambert, Jr., who graduated from the University of California with the degree of A. B., J. D., and is now practising law in Eureka ; and Carson Stinemets, deputy collector of internal revenue at Eureka. The eldest daughter is highly gifted as a musician, and has had the best possible training, having studied two years at the Conservatory of the University of the Pacific, in San Jose, from which institution she was graduated in May, 1903. On March 27th of that year she gave a piano recital in the Victory theatre at San Jose, under the auspices of her teacher, Professor Douillet, dean of the conservatory, and her brilliant rendition of several difficult numbers won the unqualified approval of the .large audience and the highest compliments of the press.

The second marriage of Mr. Ricks occurred June, 1913, nine years after the death of his first wife, uniting him with Miss Mary A. Bell, a native of Trinidad, Humboldt county, Cal. She is a woman of splendid qualifications, being a graduate of Cornell University, and was very prominent in educational work in Eureka and Humboldt county, at the time of her marriage being principal of the Eureka high school.
 

WINFIELD J. WRIGLEY.—Prominent in the lumber trade in Humboldt county, Cal., Winfield J. Wrigley, a native son of that part of the state, is well known as the efficient secretary and treasurer of the Elk River Mill and Lumber Company in that county. Born on Elk river, August 25, 1885,

Mr. Wrigley is the son of George E. and Mary Esther (Glew) Wrigley, both natives of St. Stephen, N. B., Canada, well known pioneer settlers in this part of the state. Of the family of nine children, Winfield J. is the second oldest, and grew up at the Wrigley home on the Arcata road near Ryan slough in Humboldt county, receiving his education in the public schools of the vicinity and in the Eureka Business College, where he was graduated in October of the year 1902. His first employment in business lines began two days after his graduation, when he became assistant bookkeeper for the Elk River Mill and Lumber Company at Falk, later becoming head bookkeeper, and in May, 1908, being elected to the positions of secretary and treasurer of the firm, an honor to which he had risen by honesty of purpose and close application to business, an office which he has filled faithfully and with distinction ever since. 

The marriage of Mr. Wrigley took place in Eureka, uniting him with Miss Grace Shaw, who was also born on Elk river, and was the child of pioneer parents, her father having been John D. Shaw, one of the old settlers of the region, and a prominent rancher there, his death occurring in Eureka, in 1906. Mr. and Mrs. Wrigley are the parents of two children: James Merced and Grace Dorothy. In his political views Mr. Wrigley is a Republican, while his fraternal associations are with the Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E., the Fortuna Lodge No. 221, I. 0. 0. F., at Eureka, the Mount Zion Encampment of the same at Eureka, and the Eureka Parlor No. 14, N. S. G. W. The state of California is proud to number among her residents the sons of the old settlers of her counties, which have been cleared and brought to fruition by the endeavor and energy of many old-timers such as the parents of both Mr. and Mrs. Wrigley, who put all personal comfort and convenience aside in their effort to bring the new land to a state of cultivation and prosperity.
 

WILLIAM BOYES.—A prosperous farmer and dairyman on Prairie creek, seven miles north of Orick, in Humboldt county, Cal., William Boyes was born near Montreal, P. Q., the son of George B. and Mary (Lytle) Boyes, both of whom, now deceased, were natives of England. William Boyes is one of ten children, three of whom are now residents of California: William; George, a farmer, who resides on Boynton Prairie, ten miles from Arcata; and Mrs. Jane Aldrich, a resident of Glendale, in Los Angeles county. Another son, Silas, resides in Salem, Mass.

The second son in this large family, William Boyes, grew up on his father's farm, receiving his education in the public schools, and remained at home until the year 1880, when he came to Mendocino county, Cal., where he found employment at the town of Albion, and also for a year at Little River, where he worked in the woods. In November, 1884, he removed to Blue Lake, Humboldt county, where he purchased a ranch across the river, cleared and improved the land and carried on farming for twenty years, but after the river flooded his property and washed most of it away he came to Prairie creek in 1906, where he is at present located, bought his ranch here of three hundred twenty acres and engaged in the dairy business and farming, also keeping a hotel which is well known to traveling men throughout Northern California and is called by them Elk Tavern, on account of a tame elk which Mr. Boyes kept and brought up from a calf. Elk Tavern ranch, as the place is still called, was originally homesteaded by Andy Harris. The ranch, although surrounded by beautiful tall redwoods, is a natural open prairie, the stream (Prairie creek) taking its name from that fact. The estate is very beautiful and a delight to the eye as one emerges from the redwoods into the opening, where one hundred sixty acres is bottom land and is under cultivation, and where Mr. Boyes has built his dairy, equipped with gas-engine power for the separation of the milk. Water is piped from a mountain stream to his pleasant residence. His dairy herd consists of Jersey and Durham cows, of which he milks about twenty-five. Aside from being a successful farmer and dairyman, as well as the proprietor of a hotel well spoken of for its good food and other comforts, Mr. Boyes is also prominent as road overseer of District No. 5 in his county and takes pride in keeping the road in good shape, and is an active supporter of the Republican party in politics.

The marriage of Mr. Boyes took place in Ukiah, Cal., on November 30, 1884, uniting him with Miss Emma Huse, a native of Forest Hill, Placer county, Cal., and a daughter of Charles J. and Kisiah Catherine (Finney) Huse, both of whom were connected with pioneer days in California. The father of Mrs. Boyes, who was born in Bangor, Me., in 1846, came to California by way of Cape Horn, and was married in Coloma, Eldorado county. He was engaged in mining in Placer county, and after attaining success in his business died in that county. The mother was a native of Missouri, who crossed the plains to California with her parents in 1857 with ox-teams and wagons. Her father,. John Finney, was one of the pioneers of this state. Mrs. K-C Huse (as she is known) is a resident of Essex, Cal. She brought her family of four children to Ukiah, Cal., in 1876, three of whom are now living : Mrs. Grace Crawford, of Essex, Humboldt county ; Charles, of Washington, D. C.; and Mrs. William Boyes, who is the mother of two children, Charles Arthur, who assists his father on the ranch, and Amy Ethel Boyes, now the wife of Walter Gillis of Samoa, Humboldt county.
 

EVERT ADDISON PORTER.—An enterprising and liberal young man, and one well liked in the California town where he makes his home, Evert Addison Porter was born at Santa Ana, Cal., April 15, 1879, the son of Addison and Achsa (Spees) Porter, who came from Wisconsin to California, the father having been a native of New York state. Addison Porter opened a blacksmith shop in Santa Ana, later in Willits, Mendocino county, Cal., and thirty years ago embarked in the same occupation at Alliance, Humboldt county, where he died eighteen years ago. He was the father of seven children, of whom Evert Addison was the third oldest, and since his death the mother has continued to reside at Korbel.

Evert Addison Porter grew up at the town of Alliance, receiving his education in the Janes school district, being employed thereafter on farms and in the woods near by for the Hammond Lumber Company until 1903, at which time he turned his attention to the blacksmith's trade, which was followed by his father, starting in business as an apprentice in Arcata, with Philip Matthews of that city, where he remained for four years. Later Mr. Porter opened a shop at McKinleyville, which also he ran for a period of four years, in 1911 removing to Alliance, since which time he has been employed in that place in the blacksmith's trade, doing general blacksmith work and wagon making, and making a specialty of horse shoeing, still owning the blacksmith shop which he built at McKinleyville, also the residence which he erected there, the finest in the place. In McKinleyville, also, his marriage took place, uniting him with Miss Mabel E. Mager, who was born near Arcata, the daughter of Joseph Mager, a pioneer settler of the place. In his political interests Mr. Porter is a member of the Progressive party, while his fraternal associations are with the Woodmen of the World at Arcata.
 

JOHN P. SILVA.—A native of the Azores Islands, where he was born on February 25, 1855, in the city of Topo, St. George, John P. Silva is the son of Joseph F., a farmer and native of that place, and Mary (San Jose) Silva, both of whom died at their old home. Of the family of nine children, John P. was the youngest, and grew up like other farmers' boys of the locality, receiving his education in the local public schools. At the age of eighteen years he left home, coming to the United States in 1873, and stopping first at New Bedford, Mass., later securing employment in the brickyards of Taunton, Mass., and also on a farm near there, and in cotton factories in New Bedford. After five years spent in these varied employments, Mr. Silva returned to St. George for a visit to his home, remaining there a year, and meanwhile, in May, 1880, marrying Miss Henrietta C. Machado, who was born in the city of Calheta, St. George, the daughter of Antone and Firmina (Olivera) Machado, natives of that place. The bride's father had been a sailor from boyhood, having sailed all over the world and risen to the rank of master in the whaling industry. During the gold excitement in California, as master of a vessel he brought the first lumber from New England around Cape Horn to San Francisco, with which the first wooden house in that city was built, and after coming to California he gave up his ship and engaged in mining, in which he was quite successful, returning afterward to his home at St. George. He made trips thereafter to New Bedford on his vessel with his wife and little daughter, who later became Mrs. Silva, and after living in the Massachusetts town, returned to his old .home on account of poor health, and died there six months later. His wife remained with her daughter, Mrs. Silva, and accompanied her to California, where she spent her last days, her death taking place in Arcata, in 1911, she being then seventy-four years old. Mrs. Silva has an older brother, Joseph Machado, of New Bedford, who is captain of his own vessel, as was his father.

Soon after their marriage in New Bedford, Mr. and Mrs. Silva removed to California, where Mr. Silva for a year followed mining on Cherokee Flats, then coming to Humboldt county in 1881, finding employment there on farms and dairies. By the year 1887 he had saved enough money to permit of his starting in business for himself, and he accordingly leased a ranch of eight hundred acres on Bear river ridge, where he conducted a dairy of sixty cows, panning the milk and skimming by hand, the churning being done by horse power. The butter was taken to Scotia and sold to the Pacific Lumber Company's stores. After continuing in this business for a year, Mr. Silva sold the business and leased a dairy at Rio Dell, consisting of forty cows, selling his milk and butter at Scotia. A year later he removed to Walker's point, where he ran a dairy for a year, at the end of that time removing to Lake Prairie, where he operated a dairy of thirty-five cows and raised cattle and hogs. While living at this place Mrs. Silva with her mother and child returned to her home in the Azores in order to sell their property there and locate permanently in California, and during her absence Mr. Silva leased a dairy ranch at Bald Mountain of eleven hundred acres, remaining there a year. He was also interested in the building of a creamery at Bayside, of which for three years he acted as first manager. His present place, consisting of twenty-two acres at Arcata, was then purchased, where he built a creamery, operating Ihe same for three years before selling it and purchasing the Rosson ranch of twelve hundred acres at Bald Mountain, where for seven years he engaged in stock-raising and dairy farming, then renting the place, which has since been leased for a dairy and stock ranch. Mr. Silva now makes his home at Arcata, where, with Mr. Olivera, he has a small dairy, likewise leasing the Walker point ranch of two hundred acres, where the partners conduct a dairy consisting of fifty cows. At his Arcata ranch Mr. Silva has a fine residence, as well as commodious barns in connection with his dairy industry. He is the father of ten children, of whom only three are at present living, namely : Helena, now Mrs. McKinzie, of Arcata; Firmina and Leo, who are at home with their parents ; the elder seven children who are deceased being by name as follows : Mary, who died at the age of sixteen years ; Henry, who died at three months ; Antonio, who died at seven months ; Manuel, who died at two years ; Henry, who died at six years of age ; Arthur, who died at four years ; and Joseph, who died at three years. Mr. Silva is a Republican in politics, and in fraternal circles a member of the I. D. E. S. at Arcata ; his wife being a member of the S. P. R. S. I., Consul Azores No. 97, at Arcata, of which she is ex-president. A cultured and refined woman, Mrs. Silva is also an able and practical helpmeet to her husband, who by his enterprising and progressive spirit has made for himself a name that is highly respected in the community where he resides.
 

HARRY CLAUD JEANS.—The earliest recollections of Harry C. Jeans are of the home farm in Pike county, Mo., where he was born June 24, 1876, the son of Newton and Margaret (Watts) Jeans, natives of Kentucky and Missouri, respectively. While still a young man Newton Jeans left home to try his fortune elsewhere, going to the vicinity of Clarksville, Pike county, Mo., where he engaged in farming. In that state he met and later married Margaret Watts, and there also were born their six children. John H. is a stockman at Ruth, Trinity county; H. Watts is a farmer in Idaho ; Elizabeth, Mrs. Beauchamp, resides in Santa Rosa ; William has not been heard from for many years ; Arthur H. is a stockman at Ruth ; and Henry C. is the subject of this sketch. The mother of these children died in 1884, the father still continuing to make his home in Missouri until after' his sons came to California, when he too came west. His last years were passed in San Jose, where he died at the age of seventy-two.

Harry C. Jeans passed his boyhood on the home farm, receiving his preliminary education in the near-by schools and completing his studies at the Paynesville Institute. In 1898, at the age of twenty-two, he came to California to join his elder brothers, who had preceded him and were engaged in the cattle business in the vicinity of Ruth, Trinity county.

He continued in partnership with his brothers until 1910, when he sold his interest in the company to his brother J. H. and leased from his uncle, John H. Watts, the property on which he now resides. John H. Watts was a pioneer of Humboldt county, having settled on this property nearly fifty years ago and becoming known as an extensive cattle and sheep raiser. He died in May, 1912. Upon the death of his uncle, H. C. Jeans came into possession of the home ranch of thirty-eight hundred seventy-four acres and also one-third interest in seventeen hundred and sixty acres adjoining the ranch on the east in Trinity county. All of the ranch is used for stock raising. More recently he has purchased an eighty-acre homestead adjoining on the north, making the ranch fifty-seven hundred and fourteen acres in extent. The Watts ranch is east of the main overland county road about six miles south of Blocksburg and lies between the Little Dobbins and Big Dobbins creeks, extending east into Trinity county. It is also watered by numerous other streams and springs, and is well adapted to raising hay and grain, to which he devotes a portion of the land. However, he makes a specialty of raising Hereford cattle, usually having about five hundred head, besides which he raises hogs of Poland China strain. Disaster befell Mr. Jeans on July 5, 1914, when his property was destroyed by fire, but he, immediately rebuilt about one hundred yards from the old site. Water has been piped to the house and the property is up to date in every respect. Although Mr. Jeans has made many improvements on the Watts property since it came into his possession, it still bears strong evidence of its natural wildness in the forests of white, black and tan oak, madrone and fir.

In Fortuna on August 29, 1902, Mr. Jeans was married to Miss Dora Ethyl Haydon, who was born in Covelo, Mendocino county, the daughter of Thomas Preston and Eugenia (Carner) Haydon, born in Missouri and Potter Valley, Cal., respectively. Mr. Haydon was first a stock raiser in Mendocino county and later in Trinity county. He is deceased and Mrs. Haydon now has a ranch on the middle fork of Eel river. She is a very energetic and ambitious woman, of rare worth and integrity and much business ability, and is making a success of ranching and the stock business. She is very hospitable and is always ready to help those who have been less fortunate.

Mr. and Mrs. Jeans have five children, Myrtle, Homer, Clara, Roy and Allen. Mr. Jeans is a man of sterling worth and his wife proves herself a great help to the success of his active and industrious life. In his political views Mr. Jeans is allied with the Republican party. Always interested in the cause of education, he is a trustee of Dobbins School District. The family are interested in the activities of the Christian Church.
 

FRED STOUDER.—On both sides of the family Mr. Stouder is a descendant of Swiss ancestors, although he himself is a native of New York City. His father, Frederick Stouder, was boi-n in Canton Berne, Switzerland, and during young manhood emigrated to the United States, landing in New York City, where he was married and where the birth of his son occurred. When he was about one year old, in 1857, the parents removed to Illinois, settling in Champaign county, and continued there until transferring their citizenship to California. This they did in 1876, when they came to Humboldt county and took up farming. Subsequently the father went to Oregon, settling in Waldport, Lincoln county; and it was there that he passed away. His wife, who in maidenhood was Margaret Hoffner, was also a native of Canton Berne, Switzerland. She met with a tragic death, the carriage in which she was riding in going from Korbel to Arcata being struck by a train at the McCloskey railroad crossing.

The parental family comprised four children, of whom three are living, and the eldest is Fred Stouder, whose birth occurred August 9, 1856. As has been stated, when he was about one year old the family removed from New York to Illinois, where he was reared on a farm and attended the public schools. He was about twenty years of age when removal was made to California, and for two years he stayed at home, assisting his father in the care of the farm, located near Arcata. He was twenty-two years old when he struck out for himself, at first working in a sawmill, and about a year later taking a position as fireman on the Arcata & Mad River Railroad. Some idea of the work connected with this position may be realized when it is stated that cord wood was used for fuel, thus necessitating constant attention. It was after a continuous and faithful service of three years in this capacity that he was promoted to engineer with the same road, being placed in charge of  a run out of Arcata, which he continued for fourteen years. At the end of this time he accepted the position of engineer with the Eastern Redwood Lumber Company, in their interests running a locomotive out of Freshwater for three and one-half years. Following this he entered the employ of the Eel River Railroad Company, having charge of the construction train out of Eureka for about four months. In the meantime, about 1902, he had established his son in business in Arcata, opening a garage which was well equipped to handle a general automobile and motorcycle repair business. In 1908 Mr. Stouder retired from railroading altogether and joined his son in the care of the business, ultimately, however, becoming the sole proprietor. The garage is advantageously located on G street, Arcata, where in addition to doing repairing and handling the supplies usual to such an establishment, Mr. Stouder is agent for the Mitchell automobile and also the various makes of motorcycles and bicycles, besides handling a general line of sporting goods. In addition to maintaining the garage, since 1911 he has run an automobile stage line in the city, besides a line between Eureka and Korbel, touching at Arcata and Blue Lake and intermediate points, in all a distance of twenty-four miles. For this purpose he has two seven-passenger cars and one five-passenger car, and his son also runs two cars for passenger service, one on the same route traversed by his father and the other between Carlotta and Eureka. By cooperation father and son have so arranged their trips that the schedule is now about a car an hour, an arrangement that is decidedly convenient for passengers, who show their appreciation by a liberal patronage.

In Arcata Mr. Stouder was united in marriage with Miss Lizzie Denny, a native of this city and the daughter of James F. Denny, a '49er in the state and a pioneer settler of Arcata. Three children were born of this marriage, as follows: Charles, already mentioned as engaged in the auto stage business; Frances, Mrs. Bagley, of Portland, Ore..; and Willeta, at home with her parents. While Mr. Stouder is not a seeker after public office he is nevertheless deeply interested in the welfare of his home city, and for two terms he served as sheriff of the county, also being elected chief of the fire department, having been a member of the department for seventeen years. Though at present he is not actively engaged in railroad work, he retains his membership in the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers at Eureka, and was the first president of Redwood Lodge, B. of L. E., in that city. He also belongs to the Woodmen of the World at Arcata (of which he was banker for six years), the Loyal Order of Moose in Eureka, and the Eagles in Arcata, and in political life is an ardent Republican. In June, 1914, Mr. Stouder suffered the loss of his wife, who was an earnest member of the Presbyterian Church, a devoted wife and mother and a friend in every sense of the word to all who knew her.
 

FRED M. GIULIERI.—Though a native of Switzerland, Fred M. Giulieri has, since the year 1905, been a resident of the state of California, where his father also, in early times, spent fourteen years in Marin and Sonoma counties previous to his marriage in his native land to Barbara Bravo. After his marriage, Peter Giulieri engaged in farming, his death occurring in Switzerland, where his wife still lives on the old home farm. Of their six children, Fred M. is the oldest, and was born near Locarno, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, on May 4, 1885, received a good education in the public schools and learned farming and dairying in his native canton. He and his sister Severina, now the wife of Henry Bravo, of Metropolitan, are the only members of the family now living in California, Mr. Giulieri having made his home here since the age of nineteen years, attracted hither by the good reports he had heard of the country and a strong desire he felt to come to the Pacific coast. The month of February, 1905, found him in Eureka, Cal., and he soon secured employment on the dairy ranch of Mrs. Mozzini at Loleta, where he remained for nearly two years. For the next three years he was engaged in work upon a dairy ranch at Beatrice, in 1910 entering into a partnership with C. Pifferini, the partners buying out two dairies and leasing the two ranches near Grizzly Bluff, Humboldt county. Having now one hundred and forty acres under lease, they engaged in dairying, conducting a dairy of seventy milch cows for a period of five years, in December, 1914, dissolving the partnership and selling one dairy and lease. Mr. Giulieri at that time purchased his partner's interest, and now conducts a dairy independently on a. fifty-five acre lease of bottom land at Grizzly Bluff, where he also raises hay and green feed for his herd of thirty cows, and is making a success of the business. An educated and well-informed young man, enterprising in his business affairs and liberal and industrious, he has won for himself success and a high place in the esteem of all with whom he is associated. In his political interests Mr. Giulieri is a member of the Republican party, in his fraternal associations holding membership in the Druids' lodge in Ferndale.
 

ATTILIO BIASCA.—A successful young dairyman of Ferndale, Cal., Attilio Biasca at the age of twenty left his home in Switzerland and came to. California, where his brother Henry had preceded him three years earlier. Born in Lodrino, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, a place which has sent many of her sons to be instrumental in the development of California lands, Attilio Biasca was one of three sons, the date of his birth being October 2, 1884. The father, Peter, conducted a farm in the Alps district, where his family was reared, and where he and his wife, Amelia (Gamusci) Biasca, and youngest son, William, now reside; a glazier by trade, he spent many months of the year occupied in that business in Paris, France. When the son Attilio had completed his education in the local public schools and had learned farming and dairying as it is done in that part of Switzerland, he served a short time in the infantry, until honorably discharged, after which he followed his brother Henry to California, arriving in Humboldt county April, 1905. For a time thereafter he was in the employ of Ambrosini Brothers on the Mayflower and Woodland Echo ranches, and later worked at other dairies on Bear river ridge and in the Eel river valley. Having saved his money, in 1908, in partnership with his brother Henry, he leased the Smith and Williams ranch and in the following year the- Zoutard place of over one hundred acres, where he has conducted a dairy ever since, having in 1912 bought out his brother's interest in the business. On the fertile soil of these lands he raises hay, clover and alfalfa for his herd of sixty cows, as well as green feed such as corn and beets, while on a ranch which he rents, consisting of two hundred acres on Bear river ridge, he is engaged in raising young cattle.

In his political preferences, Mr. Biasca is an upholder of the Republican party, while his interest in the dairy business has led him to be a stockholder in the Valley Flower Creamery Company from its organization. His marriage took place in Ferndale, in December, 1912, his wife, formerly Miss Victorina Minetta, being a native of the same Swiss town as himself, and they are the parents of two children, William Peter and Amelia Victorina Biasca.
 

NIELS THOGERSEN.—Among the younger business men of Eureka of the self-made type, one of the most successful is Niels Thogersen, proprietor of the Excelsior Dairy, who not only deals in milk but operates the farm from which his customers are supplied. For the last sixteen years this business has occupied the principal share of his attention, yet in that time he has acquired other interests even more valuable and extensive, and his executive and financial ability have been demonstrated in a number of important transactions. Coming to this country alone, and starting without influence or aid of any kind, he has made his way to prosperity by the most commendable methods, gaining the respect of the most substantial element among his fellow citizens. He is a Dane, born June 4, 1874, near Esbjerg. His father, Clemen Thogersen, who is now deceased, was a landowner. His mother, Kjisten Marie (Nielsen), survives. They had two children, Thoger and Niels.

Mr. Thogersen was reared and educated in Denmark, being allowed such advantages as the public schools afforded. He was brought up to farm work, including dairying, so it was quite natural that when he came to this country he sought employment in the same line. He had some friends at Ferndale, Humboldt county, Cal., to which place he came when seventeen years old, having arrived at Field's Landing, this county, April 9, 1891. He was employed at dairying, farming and teaming for the first seven years following his arrival here, and sixteen years ago rented the farm two miles south of Bucksport, where he has ever since carried on dairying, building up a very large business. Buying stock and two wagons, he added to his herd as his profits enabled him to do so and custom increased, until he now has over eighty excellent cows, with a ready market for the product. His city barns are at Pine and Grant street, Eureka, from which point he conducts his deliveries, having two wagons to supply the retail and one for the wholesale trade. The property which he continues to rent, two miles south of Bucksport, comprises one hundred and thirty acres of the old Hinch estate, at Elk River Corners. His own holdings, all purchased since he began business for himself, consist of two hundred twenty acres southeast of Field's Landing which is leased for dairy purposes, and a five hundred acre ranch near Benicia, Solano county, which he has reclaimed by building a dyke. This latter tract, which is also devoted to dairying, is being seeded to alfalfa as rapidly as possible. Besides these holdings he also owns an interest in a valuable gold mine in Trinity county, Cal., and some Eureka city property, a residence at Pine and Grant streets and another at Pacific and Union streets. He has also become interested in transportation and is a stockholder in the McCormick Steamship Company of San Francisco, engaged in lumber and passenger traffic between San Diego and Portland. With his stock and other business equipment this is an excellent showing for sixteen years of application, and represents. much hard labor, good judgment, sound management and the most satisfactory service to his patrons. Mr. Thogersen conducts his dairying operations along modern lines, and produces a high grade of milk, for which he finds a steady demand. Tall, strong and active, with an energetic nature and- pleasant personality, he has worked his way into the confidence and respect of all who know him, and fully deserves the high measure of esteem he enjoys.

In Oakland in 1903 Mr. Thogersen married Miss Hildah Carlson, of Eureka, Humboldt county, who has been his faithful helpmate in all his undertakings. Mr. and Mrs. Thogersen were reared in the faith of the Lutheran Church. Mr. Thogersen is a charter member of the Danish Brotherhood No. 95 at Ferndale. He did not find time to visit his old home until the spring of 1903, when he made the trip to Europe to see his mother and brother, also visiting other European countries besides Denmark.
 

ROBERT WILKINSON ROBARTS.—For almost forty years a resident of Humboldt county, and throughout that entire time actively engaged in enterprises that tended to develop and build up the country, opening up new enterprises and strengthening opportunities in established fields of endeavor, the record of the accomplishments of Robert Wilkinson Robarts, lately deceased, is so closely interwoven with the life history of Humboldt county and the city of Ferndale that neither could be correctly written without much being said about the other.

Mr. Robarts was a native of England, having been born in the county of Kent, May 30, 1860, and was at an early age entered in a private school, according to the custom of the country, remaining there until he was fifteen. An elder brother, James T., who for some time had been seeking his fortunes in Canada and the United States, returned home for a visit, and his accounts of the wonderful lands beyond the sea so enthralled the lad that he also secured permission to go to the western continent, accompanying his brother on his return. The brothers came directly to Humboldt county, Cal., where the elder was already well known, and Robert secured employment on a ranch at Bear river, then owned by Richard Johnson and still known as the Johnson place. The chief occupation on the ranch was dairying, and there young Robarts remained for two years, mastering many of the details of the business. He then returned to Ferndale and went into the butcher business with G. M. Brice as partner, for several years following this line with success, but later selling his interests and engaging in the livery business with the same partner. After a few years Mr. Robarts disposed of his interests in this enterprise also, and entered upon a successful career as a buyer and seller of stock and hides throughout the Eel river valley, during this period meeting practically every man in the valley and forming many warm friendships which lasted throughout his lifetime, as well as establishing for himself an enviable business reputation and also making an appreciable fortune by his efforts. His interest in farming had never waned, however, and eventually he purchased a farm and for a number of years devoted himself to its management, in addition to his farming interests engaging in buying stock. This last is, perhaps, the industry which has felt the greatest influence from the activities of Mr. Robarts and the one which he was most actively instrumental in developing, he being the first man to ship cattle from the valley, his first shipment of fifty-one head being carried on the steamer Pomona. He was also actively interested in the breeding of blooded livestock. The race track at Ferndale was built on his ranch, but this ranch has since been sold. He was also heavily interested in Port Kenyon, when it was a popular shipping port. Dairy farming was one of the hobbies of this energetic man, and until the time of his death he was intimately connected with this enterprise in the Eel river valley and was engaged in buying and selling butter. Whether or not he was born with the fabled silver spoon in his mouth is not definitely known, but it may be safely inferred, for every enterprise to which Mr. Robarts put his hand met with astonishing success. He was a man to whom the supervision of large undertakings meant merely careful attention to many small details, and it was doubtless to this characteristic, coupled with wisdom, sagacity and much foresight, that he owed his great success There might be added to this also a knowledge of men and a deep insight into the workings of the human mind, with a natural inclination on his part always to play fair.

The marriage of Mr. Robarts took place in Ferndale on January 14, 1880, uniting him with Miss Amelia Grace Francis, who was born in that city, the daughter of Francis and Grace (Roberts) Francis, natives, respectively, of Glamorganshire, Wales, and Cornwall, England. Coming to Galena, Ill., when young people, they were married there. The grandfather, Captain Henry Roberts, was a sailing master and ran a vessel across the Atlantic in early days. On coming to Galena, he, with his sons, engaged in the butcher business, with meat markets in Lead City. The family was well acquainted with Capt. Ulysses S. Grant, afterwards president of the United States, who was then a tanner in Galena and bought hides of the Roberts family, the acquaintance being resumed in Humboldt county by Mr. arid Mrs. Francis when Captain Grant was stationed at Fort Humboldt. Francis Francis was engaged in lead mining near Galena until 1850, when he joined the rush to the gold mines in California. Leaving his wife and little daughter in Galena, he crossed the plains with ox-teams, making a six months' trip, and 'on his arrival on the west coast worked in the mines and also built the Snow Mountain ditch at Nevada City, Cal., which brought water to the camp for mining purposes. In 1852 his wife joined him, coming via the Isthmus of Panama. They came to Humboldt county in 1858, locating first at Uniontown, now Arcata, but within a month came to what is now Ferndale and purchased one hundred sixty acres from a Mr. Shaw, this being the original town site of Ferndale. Mr. Francis first sold the land in acres and half acres, and cut up and sold smaller tracts, not realizing it would be a town later, and he started the water works at Ferndale, which his family still owns. Here his death occurred, his wife still living, at the age of eighty-seven years. The water system has been incorporated as the Francis Land and Water Company, which is owned by his children. Of the eleven children of Mr. Francis, four are living, his daughter Clara, now Mrs. G. M. Brice, having been the first child born in Ferndale, and his youngest daughter being now the wife of Robert Wilkinson Robarts, and reared and educated in Ferndale.

Mr. and Mrs. Robarts were the parents of five children now living, namely : Grace M., the wife of R. S. Feenaty ; Blanch A., now Mrs. John D. Shaw, the mother of one daughter, Grace Gwendolen Shaw ; Keith Douglas ; James Floyd; and Lucile Marguerite, the latter all of Ferndale. In Ferndale Mr. Robarts was acknowledged as a man of power and influence, where for many years he was actively associated with every movement for the betterment and upbuilding of the community. A prominent member of the Odd Fellows, he was exceedingly popular in that order, and both in Ferndale and throughout the valley possessed a host of friends. He died November 24, 1914, perishing in the wreck of the ill-fated steamer Hanalei at Duxbury Reef, Cal., his body being recovered and brought to Ferndale, where interment took place November 27, 1914.
 

W. EHREISER.—The proprietors of Hotel Trinidad, in the town of that name in Humboldt county, Cal., are Mr. and Mrs. W. Ehreiser, who though natives of foreign lands, have known this part of California well since the early days of its settlement, Mr. Ehreiser having come to this county in 1884, and Hilda Peterson, who was later to become his wife, having moved here four years later.

The native land of Mr. Ehreiser is Germany, he having been born in 1859 at Baden, where he grew up on his father's farm, at the age of twenty-one years removing to the United States and securing employment at Little Rock, Ark. Removing to Arcata, Humboldt county, Cal., in 1884, until the year 1898 he was employed at the Union Hotel and at different lumber companies as cook. His marriage occurred in Arcata in 1892, uniting him with Miss Hilda Charlotta Peterson, who was born at Mariastad, Skaane, Sweden, in which country her father was a farmer and large land-owner. The education of Mrs. Ehreiser was received in the schools of her native town, and in 1884 she came to the United States, living first in Connecticut and later for two years in New Jersey. The year 1888 saw her removal west to California, where she lived at Arcata until 1898, when she and her husband settled at their ranch a mile above Trinidad, an estate consisting of forty-five acres. This they improved, erecting buildings and a comfortable residence, and engaged there in farming and stock raising until leasing the place in order to go into the hotel business. In 1913 they entered into their new line of business in Trinidad as proprietors of Hotel Trinidad, the principal hotel between Arcata and Crescent City, and here they have earned for themselves a high reputation in their chosen profession as well as by their active interest in the upbuilding of the town and the giving of their time and means to all worthy objects connected therewith.

Besides the responsibilities connected with the hotel business, both Mr. Ehreiser and his wife are well known for their participation in the municipal affairs of Trinidad, where he serves as city marshal and his wife has been elected to the city Board of Trustees, both being known as noble and upright citizens standing for high morals. In fraternal circles also Mr. Ehreiser is well known, being a member of the North Star Lodge, K. P., and a Past Commander as well as a member of the Anniversary Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., his wife having at one time been connected with the Rebekahs at Arcata. Of their two sons, Harold, who is a graduate of the Eureka Business College, is a clerk in the Eureka postoffice, while the younger son, Albert, is in the employ of the Union Iron Works in San Francisco.
 

EDWARD WILHELM OLSON.—An enterprising and successful dairyman of Field's Landing, Humboldt county, Cal., Edward Wilhelm Olson is a native of Spjutstorp, near Malmo, Skaane, Sweden, where his birth occurred on October 21, 1871, his father dying when the lad was nine years of age. Edward Wilhelm grew up "on the farm, and received his education in the public schools of his native land, at the age of sixteen years removing to the United States, where he secured employment for three years at a dairy in Holyoke, Mass. Leaving that state, he next went to Pennsylvania, where he engaged in the carpenter's trade at the town of Brookston, following the same occupation for a year also at Jamestown, N. Y. Going to South Bend, Ind., Mr. Olson was for four months associated with the Oliver Plow Works of that place, whence he moved to Attica, Ind., finding employment there on a farm for a couple of years and in a livery stable for a year. While living in Attica he was married to Miss Anna Nylen, also a native of Sweden, born at Mj6lby, Ostrejotland, and they became the parents of seven children, namely : Alma, who is a graduate of the high school at Eureka, class of 1915 ; Herman, who is at present assisting his father in the dairy business ; Harold, Margaret, Dorothy, Eddie and Clarence, the children all residing at home. After his marriage in Attica, Ind., Mr. Olson continued ranching for five years, after which he carried on farming independently upon a rented ranch until the year 1903, when he removed to Humboldt county, Cal., locating first in the city of Eureka, where his wife's uncle, G. A. Waldner, had made his home. In a short time, however, Mr. Olson leased the Miller ranch of eighty acres near Field's Landing, where he engaged in dairying with a fine herd consisting of twenty cows. Leaving this place, however, in November, 1910, he at that time leased his present place, which comprises about one hundred and ninety acres, where he conducts a dairy of forty cows of the Guernsey and Jersey breeds. Aside from the business responsibilities of his dairy ranch, Mr.

Olson is a stockholder in the Eclipse Creamery, of which he has for two years been manager, and fraternally is known as a member of the Modern Woodmen of America, the Eagles and the Hoopa Tribe of Red Men, all in the city of Eureka, while his political interests are with the Republican party
.

GEORGE FLECKENSTEIN.—A country lad, born in Dubuque county. Iowa, November 26, 1867, reared on a farm, where he was early taught the responsibility of labor, George Fleckenstein first came to California in 1886, when with his mother and other members of his family he joined his father in Humboldt county, where he had previously journeyed to establish a home, Since that distant time he has resided for the most part in Humboldt county, with only a brief excursion into Napa county, where he was engaged in business for a few years. Throughout the county he is well and favorably known, having made for himself a reputation for business integrity, industry and honorable achievement which will endure long after the man himself has passed to his fathers, for it is closely inwoven with the history of this section of the state, and so will not perish.

When Mr. Fleckenstein was but two years of age his father removed with his family from Dubuque county, Iowa, to Warren county in the same state, there continuing his occupation of farming. For a few years the son attended the public schools of the district, but at an early age went to work as an assistant to his father in the blacksmith shop which the elder Fleckenstein had opened on the farm, facing the highway. Here he remained for a number of years, thoroughly mastering every detail of the trade, and when, in 1885, his father determined to come to California, hoping thereby to better the family fortunes, the eighteen-year-old lad was left in charge of the blacksmith shop and the farm. Arriving in California, the elder Fleckenstein spent a year in Los Angeles county, but not finding there the conditions which satisfied him he later came into Humboldt county, locating in Eureka. The following year he sent for his- family, who, disposing of the Iowa interests, arrived in Eureka February 23, 1886.

On his arrival in California young George Fleckenstein made his first independent start, cutting loose from the fireside, and facing life for himself. He first found employment in a sawmill on Salmon creek, but after a short time the mill closed and he went to Bayside, where he was a blacksmith for Flannagan-Brosson Co., continuing with them until 1892. In that year he purchased property at McKinleyville, which is now known as the Fleckenstein place, and is the home of the family. Here he opened a blacksmith shop on his property, fronting the highway, and conducted it with much success. In 1896, being interested in land in Napa county, he removed with his family to that county, locating five miles north of Vallejo, where he acted as manager for the Knight Land Company, remaining for two years.

The call of home is strong in the hearts of such men as this, however, and at the end of two years Mr. Fleckenstein returned to his home place at McKinleyville and has resided there since. He again opened his blacksmith shop on the farm, and has continued to follow this trade with success and profit. He is also greatly interested in the breeding of fine live  stock, and is the owner of one of the fastest trotting horses in the county, this particular horse being his greatest pride.

On September 13, 1892, Mr. Fleckenstein was married to Miss Anna Whalen, the marriage taking place in Eureka, then the home of the bride. Mrs. Fleckenstein .is a native of Kansas City, Mo., born July 3, 1870. She came to California with her father, Joseph Whalen, when a child and settled in Humboldt county, where her father is well known as a mechanical engineer. She is the mother of two children, a son, Allen, and a daughter, Anna, both popular in their circle and well known in Humboldt county.

Mr. Fleckenstein is interested very keenly in politics and is closely associated with the local affairs concerning the welfare of his party, which is Democratic. He is considered one of the stanch members of the farming class in Humboldt county, and has accumulated property of much value, which he has handsomely improved and which is a great credit to the community.
 

WILLARD J. RILEY.—As proprietor of the Bridgeville Hotel, Willard J. Riley has made many warm friends in this part of the state, and is also well known to the traveling public all over the northern part of the state as a genial and obliging host, whose first thought is for the care and comfort of his guests, and whose pleasant manner and warm-hearted kindness add materially to the popularity of his house. Both Mr. and Mrs. Riley are well known in Bridgeville, where they have resided for a number of years, and also in Eureka, where they made their home until Mr. Riley's ill health obliged them to make a change, and they came to Bridgeville at that time.

Mr. Riley was born in Buchanan, Berrien county, Mich., June 27, 1856. At an early age he was obliged to leave school and go to work, his first employment being in a factory where broom handles were manufactured. When he was fourteen years of age his parents removed to Indiana, and when he was twenty-one they moved to Rooks county, Kansas. where they homesteaded. There young Willard Riley was married, April 10, 1885, to Miss Florence A. Faulkner, who has since that time been his constant companion and helpmeet. She is the descendant of Edmund Faulkner, who came from King Charles county, Southampton, England, in 1745 and located at Salem, Mass. There he was married to Dorothy Robinson, February 4, 1747, and by her had several sons, one of whom was Col. Francis Faulkner, the .great-great-grandfather of Mrs. Riley. Colonel Faulkner helped to gather the militia for the battle of Lexington and fought in that famous engagement. Later he fought under General Washington, and after the war became a prominent and influential business man, and built the first woolen mill at Acton, Mass. The father of Mrs. Riley was John M. Faulkner, born in Mason county, Ill., where he was a prominent merchant and also an influential member of the Masons and of the Odd Fellows. Her mother was Nancy Beagle, born in St. Louis, Mo. Mrs. Riley was born at Bedford, Iowa, and later removed to Lincoln, Neb., she being a graduate of the State Normal School at Peru, Neb. She obtained her first teacher's certificate when she was but sixteen years of age and was a very clever and efficient teacher, being engaged in educational work in Nebraska and Kansas. She was the eldest of four daughters• and was a close companion of her father, who was postmaster, merchant and justice of the peace at Olive Branch, Lancaster county, Neb., to which place he gave the name. After a time the family removed to Kansas, owing to the ill health of the father, and at Roscoe, Graham county, that state, he engaged in general merchandising and farming. In all these enterprises Mrs. Riley was his close associate and assistant, and early developed a remarkable business ability, which is one of the strong traits of all the Faulkners.

Mr. and Mrs. Riley became the parents of three children, two daughters and a son,. the latter, Floyd W., the youngest born, dying in infancy. Of the daughters, the elder, Myrtle, is now the wife of F. J. Stransky, telegraph operator at Cisco, Cal., and Ada resides with her parents. Mrs. Riley and her daughters are members of the Rebekahs at Blue Lake. Both Mr. and Mrs. Riley take a great interest in local affairs, standing firmly on the side of progress and general public improvement. Mr. Riley is a Republican, but has never taken an active part in politics save in connection with local questions of importance.

[After the above was prepared Mr. Riley died in Eureka, June 16, 1915, his death being mourned by his family and a host of warm friends.]
 

JOHN VANCE.—For many years the business activities of Eureka and vicinity were to a large extent dominated by the strong personality and influence of the late John Vance. A man of marked individuality, force of will and self-reliant powers, he was a shrewd, keen observer, and had a rare faculty for rightly reading and judging men and their motives, being seldom deceived in his estimate of persons. Just and honorable in his transactions, he was also very decided in his opinions, and would fight opposition most relentlessly. He was not a follower of any fad, fashion or personage, in his social, business and political relations depending upon the dictates of his conscience, and relying upon his own judgment and forethought. He was born October 1, 1819, in Nova Scotia, and died in January, 1892, in Eureka, while he was serving his second term as mayor of the city. He was the ninth child in order of birth of a family of ten children, one of whom died in infancy, the others being. as follows : Mary, Alexander, George, Isabel, Jane, Charlotte, Catherine, John and Thomas. Four of these children came to the Pacific coast, George, Charlotte, John and Thomas.

George Vance was for a number of years a prominent business man of Humboldt county, but afterwards moved to San Francisco, where his death occurred. He was the father of John M. Vance, whose sketch may be found elsewhere in this work. Charlotte Vance married a Mr. Benson, and settled in British Columbia, where she spent the remainder of her life. Thomas Vance located in Eureka, where he and his family reside.

John Vance attended first the common schools in Nova Scotia, afterwards completing his early education at the evening sessions of the Mechanics' Institute, at St. John, New Brunswick. At the age of sixteen he began learning the trade of a carpenter and shipbuilder, serving an apprenticeship of four years with his father. Going then 'to Roxbury, Mass., he was there successfully employed as a contractor and builder for ten years.. Following the tide of immigration to the western coast in 1849, he took passage on the steamer Ohio, which was confiscated at Havana. The passengers subsequently proceeded on the Georgia to the Isthmus, which they crossed on foot, afterwards taking the steamer Panama, which arrived in San Francisco in the early part of 1850.

Resuming his trade, Mr. Vance remained in that city about a year, and then went to Foster's bar, on the Yuba river, where he tried his luck at mining. In February, 1852, with a party of enterprising pioneers, Mr. Vance located on Humboldt bay, and from that time until his death was actively identified with the development and advancement of this section of the county, being a prime mover in the establishment of industrial enterprises of all kinds. As a carpenter and millwright he assisted in converting the steamer Santa Clara into a sawmill, and a short time later came near losing his life from injuries received in the wreck of the Mexican, near the site of the present lighthouse. Soon after his recovery, forming a partnership with Capt. E. Tomlinson under the name of John Vance & Co., he purchased the general store of Pickard & Long and embarked in the mercantile business. That he realized even in those pioneer days the value of judicious advertising may be shown from a clipping taken from the first issue of the Humboldt Times, on September 2, 1854, namely:
 

JOHN VANCE & CO.
Front Street
.
Have on hand an assortment of groceries and provisions, such as flour, pork, beef, lard, butter, hams, codfish, sugar, coffee, beans, whisky, brandy, buckwheat flour, tobacco, starch, soap, candles, potatoes, window glass, farming utensils, crockery, nails, hardware, etc., which they offer for sale at the lowest prices. J. V. & Co. are daily expecting a large and complete assortment of goods suitable to this market.

JOHN VANCE & E TOMLINSON

Mr. Vance subsequently turned his attention to lumbering, buying the mill at the foot of G street, which had been built by Ridgeway & Flanders, who were not successful in operating it. The partner of Mr. Vance, Mr. Garwood of San Francisco, was lost on the steamer Merrimac, and he continued his milling and logging business alone. The manufacture of lumber, however, was not a profitable enterprise for many years, the prices being so low that many companies failed. With persistency of purpose, Mr. Vance retained his interests, wisely investing his money in timber tracts, eventually becoming the owner of thousands of acres of the finest standing redwoods to be found in the county. In. the midst of this tract, in 1875, Mr. Vance erected a sawmill on Mad river, the plant having a capacity of about forty thousand feet per day, and for a number of years produced some of the most choice clear redwood lumber on the coast. He also owned and operated a mill in Eureka, carrying on a very remunerative business in this line for many years.

For the transportation of the products of his two mills, Mr. Vance had four vessels built, the Uncle John, Oceania Vance, Lizzie Vance, and the Sparrow, which carried lumber to the principal coast markets. Through his energy redwood *as exported to foreign markets, his lumber trade with Tahiti, Australia, South America, Central America and the Hawaiian Islands having been extensive. In 1872 he erected the Vance Hotel, a large and handsome block, which has ever since been the leading hotel of the city.

One of the original stockholders of the Eel River & Eureka Railroad, Mr. Vance served as its first president, and was again made president of the company in 1887. He wisely encouraged, and generously supported, all beneficial projects, and contributed liberally to public and private charities.

Prominent and active in the management of public affairs, he was the Whig candidate for county treasurer in 1854, his nomination for the office being announced in the first copy of the Humboldt Times, towards the establishment of which he lent such financial assistance that the paper became a success. Although Mr. Vance received one hundred six out of the one hundred sixty-eight votes cast in Eureka, he was defeated, the county being a Democratic stronghold. From the time of the formation of the Republican party, he was one of its most loyal adherents. In 1880 he strongly advocated the election of George C. Perkins, and as a delegate to the Republican convention in 1890 cordially supported Colonel Markham, whom he entertained in a sumptuous manner at the time of his memorable visit to Humboldt county.

In 1888 Mr. Vance was elected mayor of Eureka, receiving a handsome majority, and served with such marked ability that he was reelected to the same position in 1890 for a term of two years. Before the expiration of the term, however, he was called from his earthly labors. Under his wise administration many improvements were made in the city, streets being graveled, the sewer system extended, an additional number of lights provided, the city-limits extended, and its prosperity in every way greatly enhanced.

In Roxbury, Mass., Mr. Vance married Sarah A. Corbett, by whom he had three sons, one of whom died in childhood. The others are Edgar H. Vance, born February 8, 1844, in Massachusetts, and now residing in Oakland, Cal.; and Silas Albert Vance, who was born May 11, 1846, in Massachusetts and died in Los Angeles.
 

CLYDE A. BROWN.—A type of the rising young business men who are rapidly taking over the reins of affairs in all departments of life, educational, commercial and governmental, Clyde A. Brown is one of the prominent young men of affairs in Ferndale, where he has elected to erect his roof tree and rear his family, making for himself a place in the life of his community which will be worthy and acceptable. He is a native of Humboldt county, having been born near Ferndale, on his father's ranch, November 24, 1885. His boyhood days were passed on the ranch, and later he attended school at Grizzly Bluff. After a time, and while he was still a lad, his parents removed to the island, and he attended the Grant school there, graduating from the grammar grades. Following this he spent a year attending the Ferndale business college, where he was graduated in 1904, when he was nineteen years of age.

Returning to Ferndale, he accepted a position in the Johnson Brothers General Merchandise Store, where he remained for three years, from there going to work for W. H. Robarts in his grocery store. After a short period of employment here, he purchased the business from Mr. Robarts, in partnership with Joseph Hansen, and has since then been engaged in its conduct. The partnership has proven to be a profitable one, the business has grown and they now have one of the best grocery houses in the city.

Mr. Brown has always been progressive and is actively interested in all public questions that affect Ferndale. Though still under thirty, he has created a place for himself in his home city which might well be the envy of much older men. On
June 10, 1908, he was married to Miss Katie Elizabeth Ammer, a native of Humboldt county, born on the Eel river April 30, 1889. They have two charming children, little Bernice and Marian, who are the delight of their father's heart.
In addition to his business prominence, Mr. Brown is an influential member of several fraternal and social orders, prominent among which are the Woodmen of the World and the Native Sons of the Golden West.
 

SILVIO COMISTO.—Silvio Comisto, wholesale and retail liquor dealer of Ferndale, is a man who is exceptionally well liked by his fellow townsmen, both "wets" and "drys." Mr. Comisto is a man of sterling worth of character, honest, fearless and fair in all his business dealings. He has been a resident of Ferndale for nearly thirty-five years and during that entire time has been in the liquor business with his present partner, Philip Calanchini, he being the junior partner of the firm of Calanchini & Comisto.

Mr. Comisto is a native of Switzerland, born in Canton Ticino, September 1, 1861. When he was but thirteen years of age he conceived a great desire to come to California, where an elder brother, James, was already located, he living at that time in Sonoma county. Young Silvio Comisto made the long journey alone from his native land, and for a time he remained in Sonoma county, near his brother, working out on various dairy ranches by the month. Later on he came into Humboldt county, and in 1882 located in Ferndale, engaging in the liquor business.

The marriage of Mr. Comisto took place in 1903, uniting him to Mrs. James Comisto, the widow of his brother, then deceased. She is the daughter of John Clark, a pioneer of Sonoma county. There are no children of this union, but Mrs. Comisto has two daughters by her previous marriage, the younger of whom, Hazel, is still living at home. The elder daughter, Ruby, is now married to F. E. Kelley, a civil engineer, and is residing in Scotia.

In addition to his interest in the liquor business, in which he makes a specialty of fine table wines and all high class fancy drinks; Mr. Comisto is greatly interested in the dairy business, as is also his partner, Mr. Calanchini. Both men have heavy investments in this line of industry and give much time and thought to the development of this business.

In addition to his popularity as a business man and a worthy citizen, Mr. Comisto is well known in fraternal circles, being a prominent member of the Masons and also of the Odd Fellows, and takes an active part in the affairs of each. Mr. Comisto has never taken any active part in politics from a partisan standpoint, but is deeply interested in whatever he believes to be for the welfare of the town and its ultimate progress. He is interested in education, libraries, and such similar improvements, and is one of the strongest supporters of the good roads movement and of all general permanent improvements, and for many years has been a director of the Ferndale Fair Association. He has the greatest faith•in the future of Ferndale and vicinity and is heavily interested in property in the town and also in acreage in the surrounding country.
 

ROLLIN DURAN BOYNTON.—Another of the native sons of California, and one' who is closely identified with early history in Humboldt county, although not the scene of his nativity, is Rollin Duran Boynton, who, was born in Santa Clara, Santa Clara county, January 28, 1857. The early years of his life were, however, passed in Humboldt county on the home farm of three hundred twenty acres, on Eel River island, where he still resides and which property still belongs to the Boynton estate. He also owns other valuable real estate, and has been extremely successful in his farming and dairying ventures. He has always been a man of public spirit and keenly appreciative of all movements that served to uplift mankind, as well as being a kind friend, a good neighbor, and a worthy citizen.

Mr. Boynton is the son of Franklin Zouinglos and Emily Ann (Kennison) Boynton, the former a native of Vermont, and the latter having been born near St. Louis, Mo. Mr. Boynton Sr., when yet a young man, removed to Massachusetts, where he remained until 1850, when he came to seek his fortune on the Pacific coast, making the long trip around the Horn and landing at San Francisco. He at once went to work in the mines, locating and developing claims for several years and meeting with much success. Ill health compelled him to forego this line of occupation and he took up a Spanish grant and engaged in farming for three years, but did not find his former success in the new venture. It was in 1858 that he came into the Eel river valley and located on Eel River island where his family has since lived. A brother, R. C. M. Boynton, had made the trip some few weeks before and his glowing accounts of the splendid government land open for location proved the necessary magnet. The journey was made by water from San Francisco to Eureka, from there to Myers Landing and thence across Table Bluff ; then by boat up the Salt river to the island of promise. Both brothers located tracts of one hundred sixty acres each. The land was heavily timbered with spruce, alder brush, salmon berries arid trees of different varieties, and the labor of clearing it and putting it in condition for cultivation was no small undertaking. At first the brothers engaged in stock-raising, dairying, making both butter and cheese, which was sold to the soldiers then stationed at Fort Humboldt. At this time there were only two other families located on the island, and the supply of food products for the market was at the minimum. Soon, therefore, they added potatoes to their crops, and raised beef for the market. The farms proved to be very productive and the profits therefrom were large, and he afterwards purchased his brother's one hundred sixty acres, making him three hundred twenty acres. Mr. Boynton continued to reside on his farm until the time of his death, which occurred in February, 1908, although for a number of years he had not been actively engaged in business. His wife, who like himself had come to California in an early day, crossing the plains with an uncle, T. J. Finch, in 1854, had preceded him by thirty years, having passed away in 1878. On her arrival in California her people had located in San Jose, and there she resided until her marriage with Mr.. Boynton.

Rollin Duran Boynton first attended school that was on the Walker place in what was known as Fern cottage, Centerville. Later he attended. school on. the Island and in Ferndale until he was twenty years of age. While attending school he had always assisted his father on the farm during vacations and on the completion of his education he assisted in the care of the home place for a number of years. Later he went to work in the mines on Trinity river at Weaverville, where he remained for two years, meeting with scant success. Returning to Humboldt county in 1875, he again worked for his father on the farm, and in 1880, together with another brother, took entire charge of the home place. At that time the land was chiefly devoted to grain raising, but in 1885 they took up dairying and have met with marked success, continuing in this line down to the present time.

On February 27, 1890, Mr. Boynton was married to Miss Minnie Hansen, a native of Davenport, Iowa, born September 9, 1861. She is the daughter of August J. and Annie (Garkan) Hansen, born in Germany. They were in New Orleans, La., one year, thence to Davenport, Ia. Mr. Hansen was a blacksmith and farmer till 1875, when they brought their family to Ferndale, engaging in farming on Eel River island until their death. Mrs. Boynton was raised and educated here. Mr. and Mrs. Boynton have two children : Elizabeth N., and Rollin Z., both of whom are well and favorably known among the younger generation in their community. Mr. Boynton is prominent in all local affairs of moment, and is classed as one of the most successful and thoroughly substantial men of the valley. His business has prospered and he is recognized as an important factor in the commercial life of his section. Politically he is a Republican of the old school, and his party affiliation is strong. He has always taken an active part in the governmental affairs of his county and of the state, and has several times served his party as district delegate to the state conventions. In this Mr. Boynton but follows in the footsteps of his pioneer father, who like himself was a Republican and an ardent party man. Both men have always been interested in fraternal orders, the father being a prominent member of the Masons and Odd Fellows, while the son adds to these the Knights of Pythias.
 

WILLIAM ALBERT BROWN.—In this latter day, when wise men are crying "back to the soil," and young men and young women are crowding into the cities; with their dust and dirt, their rush and fever and vice, there to spend their strength and energy in the unequal struggle for place and position, and ending all too often with scarcely enough to keep body and soul together, and with much that might have made life sweet crushed and broken and beaten out of them—it might be well if they would all make a study of the history of the farmer boys of Humboldt county (and other counties as well) and learn from them just what a man may make of his life and opportunities when he remains on the "soil," instead of having to go back to it. The California pioneers who came to the coast in an early day acquired farms, reared their families and educated them close to the heart of nature, gave to their sons and daughters a heritage that the children of a later generation are all too often missing, and the child of the pioneer showed the possession of these qualities in the life that he led, and which he is still leading.

Well known among the pioneers of this class, and a native of Humboldt county, is William Albert Brown, born in the Eel river valley, March 11, 1859, on his father's farm. Mr. Brown has followed farming all his life, and has accumulated a handsome patrimony from the fruits of his industry. He has been successful, and is one of the most prosperous and reliable men of his community, a citizen of ability and worth, with an undisputed place in the hearts of his friends and neighbors and in his section of the great commonwealth of California. He is the son of Thomas and Sarah (Dean) Brown, natives of Tennessee and South Carolina, respectively. In about 1848 the elder Brown came to California across the plains with ox-teams, and soon afterward he settled in Humboldt county on a ranch near Grizzly Bluff, where he lived until the time of his death, May, 1906.

It was in this region that the son passed the barefoot days of his boyhood, working on the farm when he was not in school, and becoming well versed in the lore of field and wood. He attended the district school at Grizzly Bluff until he was eighteen years of age, when, having completed the course offered there, he went to work for his father on the ranch. After a few years thus spent, he determined to start out for himself, and accordingly rented a ranch near Centerville and engaged in farming. He later branched out into the dairying business, which he made very profitable. He remained here for two years, then renting a property at Grizzly Bluff and continued his career as a farmer there. When at the end of two years his lease on this farm expired, he gave up ranching for himself for a few years, and became foreman for Z. Russ and Sons on an extensive property at Bear Ridge. Their interests were largely general farming and dairying, and the young foreman proved so adept in the successful conduct of their interests that he remained with them for six years.

Independent enterprises, however, proved again to be-the strongest inclination of young Mr. Brown, and he returned to the Eel river valley, locating on Eel River island, where he rented a ranch of eighty acres and engaged again in farming and dairying for himself. After this property was improved and in proper condition, he rented an additional tract of forty acres, and for twelve years he followed his chosen occupation here. He has always been greatly interested in the breeding of blooded stock, stoutly maintaining that pure strains are the best investment and the most profitable. He has been especially interested in mulch cows and on this property maintained a herd of sixty -head of graded Jerseys.
Three years ago (1912) Mr. Brown retired from active business, and is now living in
Ferndale, enjoying the just reward of his years of industry. He has erected a handsome new home, and surrounded himself with modern comforts, where he resides with his wife and children, who like himself, are natives of Humboldt county.

Mr. Brown was married in Ferndale, November 9, 1882, being united with Miss Mary' E. Morgan, who was born at Cape Mendocino, Humboldt county, the daughter of Andrew J. and Emily (Pole) Morgan, born in Virginia and Tennessee, respectively. The father came to California in 1852, across the plains, and was married in Sacramento, his wife having come via the Isthmus. In 1862 they came to Cape Mendocino, Humboldt county, where they were engaged in stock-raising. In 1865 he located on Eel River island, where he followed farming till they retired to Eureka, about 1904, where they spent their last days. Mr. and Mrs. Brown have two children: Clyde, a merchant in Ferndale; Muriel resides with her parents.

Mr. Brown is a stanch Republican, and is interested in both local and national questions. He is well posted on all issues, and takes an active part in questions of civic improvement, always on the side of progress and betterment. During his lifetime many changes have taken place in Humboldt county, not the least of these being the upbuilding of the city where he now makes his home. When he first came to the Eel river valley the river itself was a mere trickle of water, only about fifteen feet wide ; there were no wagon roads, and the mountain trails, over which all provisions and supplies had to be packed on horse or mule back, were rugged and dangerous. That he has been a factor in the upbuilding of his community, adding to its resources and aiding in making the life of its citizens fuller of golden opportunities and the joy of living, is a matter of much satisfaction to this pioneer of the Golden West.
 

MARTIN' HAUGH.—A native of Ireland, but a true pioneer of Humboldt county, having come to California and located first in Arcata in 1870, Martin Haugh is' today one of the respected and prosperous retired farmers of the county, a man who has wrested from the soil a goodly fortune, and who' is now enjoying the fruits of his toil in'peace and rest. He is the owner of several handsome properties in Humboldt county, mostly in the vicinity of Arcata, of which his son now acts as manager.

Mr. Haugh was born in County Clare, Ireland, in January, 1847. His. early life was spent on his father's farm and in attendance at the national schools. He remained with his father on the farm until he was twenty-one when he decided to come to America where the opportunities were greater for an ambitious young man. He landed in New York but remained there only a short time, soon coming to Humboldt county, Cal., where he had a brother and a sister living at Arcata. He secured employment in a saw mill at Trinidad where he worked for Smith & Daugherty for a number of years,. until their mill closed down. After this he returned to Arcata and took up farming. He rented land for a time, later purchasing his first farm from Nicholas Heffron, a tract of forty acres, only a small portion of which was cleared and under cultivation. For the first five years he farmed, the land not being in condition for dairying, but during the past thirteen years he has made a specialty of dairying. Twelve years ago he purchased an additional tract of eight acres about three-quarters of a mile northwest of Alliance, of partly improved land, and moved his family there, making this their permanent home place where they reside at present. Mr. Haugh's son, William Haugh, has charge of the ranch of forty acres and also manages his father's other interests, the elder Mr. Haugh having now retired from active' business life. In addition to the farm there is a timber claim of one hundred sixty acres located near the Big Lagoon on Redwood creek which Mr. Haugh' has held for more than twenty-five years.

Aside from his business interests Mr. Haugh has been an active factor in the affairs of his community for many years. He is a Democrat in politics and has taken a keen interest in the affairs of his party, having been close in its councils and confidences, and serving in various capacities of trust. He has been for several years a member of the Democratic county central committee and is well versed in all questions of the day. He is also a prominent member of the Catholic church at Arcata and of the Knights of Columbus.

The marriage of Mr. Haugh took place in Arcata, February 23, 1884, uniting him with Sarah Heffron, a native of the province of Quebec, Canada, born January 4, 1860. When she was but a year old her parents came to Humboldt county and she has since resided here. They made the long journey from Quebec by way of the Isthmus and located first below Bayside, in 1861. Mrs. Haugh lived at home with her parents until the time of her marriage. She has borne her husband five children, one son and four daughters. These are Mary J., William, Margaret, Alice and Grace, all well known in Humboldt county, where they have been born and educated, and where they have grown to manhood and womanhood.

Mr. Haugh is the descendant of an old Irish family, his father, Martin Haugh, having been born in Ireland and followed the occupation of farming during the greater part of his life. Both his parents died before he came to America.

The father of Mrs. Haugh, Nicholas Heffron, was also born in County Clare. He moved to Canada with his parents when he was six years of, age and when grown engaged in farming there. He came to California in 1861, locating in Humboldt county, below Bayside, but soon located on Arcata bottoms, where he engaged in farming, following this occupation practically all his life. He was in Humboldt county at the time of the serious Indian trouble but escaped without annoyance. The mother of Mrs. Haugh was Ellen English, a native of Canada. She lived at home with her parents up to the time of her marriage to Mr. Heffron, and both passed away several years ago.
 

EARL W. HILL, M. D.—Truly a native son of California, since he was born in this state on February 6, 1888, and has devoted most of his professional service to California, Dr. Hill is making for himself a record in his chosen career of which his state may well be proud. Born in Eureka, Cal., the eldest of eight children, he is the son of Uriah W. Hill, a native of Rolling Dam, New Brunswick, and Lucia (Coggins) Hill, of Minnesota, who came to California almost thirty years ago, where the father, after his experience in the lumber business in Minnesota, was employed in various sawmills and is now a millwright in the Dolbeer-Carson Mill at Eureka. In that city the son received his early education in the grammar and high schools, graduating from the latter in the class of 1909, whereupon he took a four years' course at Hahnemann Medical College of the Pacific, in San Francisco, graduating in 1913 with the degree of M. D. For five months Dr. Hill served as house physician at the Livermore Sanitarium, Alameda county, after which he was for four months an interne at the Alameda County Hospital at San Leandro, then entering the United States Civil Service as surgeon -in the Reclamation Service in Washington and Montana, a position which he filled for a period of eight months. Returning to Humboldt county, Cal., in January, 1915, he located at Alton, where he engaged in the practice of medicine and surgery, building up for himself a wide practice in that locality and meeting with the success which his careful training, practical experience and natural ability have won for him.

The marriage of Dr. Hill with Miss Goldie Hart, a native of the state of Wisconsin, was solemnized at Eureka, in December, 1914, and in the following month they made their home in the city of Alton, Cal.
 

FERDINANDO M. TONINI.—One of the old settlers in Humboldt county, a fine man in:,every respect and well liked by all with whom he is associated, Ferdinando M. Tonini has made for himself a name among the successful dairymen in the section of California where he has made his home. Born in Cavergno, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, November 20, 1859, he was the youngest of five children born to Celestino and Helena (Inselmini) Tonini, both natives of that place. The father, as a young man, went to Holland, where he spent a few years, but returned to his native land, where, after his marriage, he engaged in farming, both he and his wife being now deceased. After completing his education in the local public schools, the son Ferdinando assisted his parents on the home farm until he was past twenty-two years of age, being then fired with a desire to try his fortunes in America.

It was in the year 1882 that Mr. Tonini came to California, then a new and only partially settled country compared to its present flourishing condition, and after spending two years in Marin county, this state, Mr. Tonini came to Humboldt county in 1884, where he has since continued to make his home. For two years he worked on a dairy ranch at Rio Dell, after which he determined to engage in the business independently. Accordingly he leased a seven-hundred-acre ranch at Petrolia, in partnership with William Spaletta, where they milked a herd of seventy-five cows and manufactured butter, the churning being done by horse power, the product being shipped to San Francisco in squares or kegs, butter at one time being sold as low as eleven cents a pound. At the end of five years the business was sold out and the partnership dissolved, Mr. Tonini continuing, however, in the same line of business in the employ of others, in order to save for another start. His marriage took place in Ferndale, Cal., uniting him with Miss Mary Spaletta, also a native of Ticino, and Mr. Tonini then started in business independently once more, leasing three hundred acres of land near Rio Dell, where he conducted a dairy of forty-five cows for the space of six years. After this, he removed to Arcata Bottoms, renting a forty-acre ranch there, where he ran a dairy of twenty-five cows until the year 1913, at that time selling out and purchasing his present ranch of forty-eight acres on the Mad river, near the Mad river bridge, three miles north of Arcata. Here Mr. Tonini has a splendid farm, located on rich bottom land, whereon he is enabled to raise alfalfa, green feed for his herd, and potatoes, and owns a splendid herd of twenty milch cows. One of the original stockholders of the United Creameries Company, an institution that is doing much towards making dairying a success around Arcata, Mr. Tonini is well known in his chosen line of work where he holds a high place, both for his thorough understanding of the business and his efficient methods of work. He is also well known as a stanch Republican in his political interests. Mr. and Mrs. Tonini are the parents of five children, Lena, Candina, Eugenia, Ferdinand and William, who, though born in California, recall in their musical names the foreign land which was the birthplace of both their parents.
 

LOUIS H. OLSEN.—From various foreign lands people have come to make their home in California, attracted hither by reports of the fertile soil and the opportunities for energetic young men in this new country, and America is always glad to welcome to her shores industrious and ambitious sons of other lands who bring with them the qualities of perseverance and enterprise to apply to their work in their adopted home.

Among the prominent business men of Loleta, in Humboldt county, Cal., must be mentioned Louis H. Olsen, who is making a success of the lumber industry there, and is well and favorably known throughout the Eel river valley. Born in Flekkefjord, Norway, on January 9, 1871, he was the son of a farmer of that country and was educated in the local public schools. One of his brothers left home for California, and five years later, instigated by his example, Louis Olsen in 1889 likewise came to America, going first to, Eureka, Cal., and for about four years was employed with the Eel River Valley Lumber Company at Newburg, Cal., in the lumber yards of the company. For the three years following, Mr. Olsen was engaged in the lumber yards of the Pacific Lumber Company at Alton, Cal., and when they opened their yards in Loleta was put in charge of the same, continuing the management until
December 1, 1910, when he bought the yards and stock and continued the business under the name of the Loleta Lumber Yards. The industry has grown with the town and the surrounding country, and has been an important factor in the upbuilding and prosperity of the place, Mr. Olsen holding a high place in the esteem of all with whom he is associated. He also represents various fire insurance companies, among them being the Hartford of Connecticut, the Home of New York, the Commercial Union of London, the Western Assurance of Toronto, the Aetna of Hartford and others, besides automobile and accident insurance companies.

In Alton, Cal., Mr. Olsen was married to Miss Virginia Olive Robertson, a native of Missouri, and they are the parents of two children, Lenwood Vernon, who is a bookkeeper for the Elk River Lumber Company at Falk, and Thelma Irene. To show his faith and optimism in the value of Humboldt county real estate and investments, Mr. Olsen has purchased property in Loleta, on which he has built three residences, and which he still owns. In 1903, with his wife and children, he made a trip back to his old home in Norway, visiting his parents who were then living, though both have since died ; and though pleased to see his childhood home and old friends once more, Mr. Olsen, after comparing conditions there with those in the New World, was satisfied to return to his adopted home in California, where he has been enabled to make such a success in life.

In his religious preferences, Mr. Olsen is associated with the Lutheran Church, while politically he is a member of the Progressive party. The fraternal associations with which he is connected are numerous, he having been made a Mason in Ferndale Lodge No. 193, F. & A. M., and a member of the Ferndale Chapter No. 78, Royal Arch Masons ; he is also Past Grand in the Loleta Lodge No. 56, I. 0. 0. F., and has been prominent in the Woodmen of the World, being the present clerk of White Clover Camp No. 398 of Loleta, W. 0. W., of which he is past head camp delegate ; in the order of the Knights of Pythias he is past chancellor of Springville Lodge No. 150 of Fortuna, and is also a member of the Sons of Norway in Eureka, and with his wife a member of the Rebekahs. The interest which Mr. Olsen takes in the advancement and welfare of the town of Loleta, where he makes his home, is shown by the fact that he is a member and ex-secretary of the Loleta Board of Trade.
 

JOSEPH C. RAMOS.—One of the successful dairymen of Humboldt county, who has come from foreign lands to make his home in California, is Joseph C. Ramos, a liberal and enterprising man who is making a success of his venture in a new land. Born in Isle Flores, Azores, September 24, 1879, he was the son of Antone, a farmer and dairyman of that place, and Annie Ramos, who died in 1913, the father also being now deceased. Of the family of eleven children, six are now living, Joseph C. being the second youngest. He grew up on his father's farm, receiving his education in the local public schools, remaining at home until he had reached the age of twenty years, when he removed to California, whither his brother Frank had come in 1893. In September, 1899, Joseph Ramos arrived in Humboldt county, and for three years was in the employ of Will Turner at the mouth of the Mad river, at the end of that time determining to go into business for himself. Accordingly he rented the ranch from Mr. Turner, an estate which covered an area of two hundred and eighty acres of bottom land, where for eighteen months Mr. Ramos conducted a dairy of seventy-eight cows. Then leasing the place to his brother Frank, he leased the Clark ranch of one hundred and twenty acres at Alliance, for nine years operating a dairy there comprising a herd of fifty cows. During this time, in partnership with his brother he also leased the Rosso ranch of John P. Silva at Bald Mountain, a place of eleven hundred and forty acres, where he ran a dairy of sixty cows and raised stock, after two years selling his interest to his brother. Also while on the Clark place, he bought his present property in 1913, the fine old Menefee place of thirty acres adjoining Alliance on the south side. One month later his house was burned, and he continued to live at the Clark ranch until 1914, in the meantime building his new residence on the place, a twelve-room modern dwelling, commodious and attractive, as well as erecting large barns for his stock, which comprises twenty cows of the Holstein breed, for which he is enabled to raise on his ranch plenty of hay as well as green feed.

In his political preferences Mr. Ramos is allied with the Republican party, while his fraternal associations are with the Woodmen of the World. His marriage took place in Flores, Azores Islands, on October 18, 1898, uniting him with Miss Annie Noia, a native of that place, and they are the parents of three children: Antonio, Mary and Annie.
 

HUMBOLDT STANDARD—Dating from an humble beginning, the Humboldt Standard has built for itself a place not merely confined to the limits of Humboldt county, but with all of northwestern California for its field and having all of northern California in its sphere of influence. Its growth has been steady and healthy—there has been nothing of the mushroom about it—and it is now standing upon a firm foundation made up of a strong, clean and fair editorial and news policy and a businesslike management.

The Humboldt Standard was first published from a little room on the second story of a building on First street near E street, which is still standing. R. V. Chadd, a printer-editor, was its founder. Under his ownership it continued for several years and then passed into the hands of William Ayres, who moved the office to the corner of Second and E streets. From the ownership of Mr. Ayres it passed into the hands of F. P. Thompson, who immediately turned the paper into a semi-weekly with Seth Millington, afterwards superior judge of Glenn county, as its editor, and F. A. Cutler, now attorney for the board of regents of the University of California, one of several employees.

As a semi-weekly, the paper was published until after 1888, when J. F. Thompson purchased a half and later the entire interest in the paper. Shortly after he came into control Mr. Thompson made the Humboldt Standard a daily paper and from that time its real development as a powerful publication dates.

One step after another has advanced the Standard, but what gave it its first real impetus was the unerring hand of J. F. Thompson. Writer of virulent editorials which soon commanded wide attention, an astute business man, kind-hearted and highly respected and progressive withal, Mr. Thompson is the real father of the Standard of today.

Mr. Thompson continued in active control of the paper until failing health caused his retirement from active service, when Major H. W. Patton became a partner in the business together with Will N. Speegle, who, prior to that time, had been an employee and who is now its editor and general manager. Major Patton was succeeded in his interest by George K. Coleman and he, in turn, by George H. Burchard, who disposed of his interests a few years ago. Mr. Speegle always retained an ownership in the paper and his is now the guiding hand.

Since Mr. Speegle took complete charge many more improvements have been made. The old presses have been discarded for a modern Duplex equipment, while the mechanical department of the paper has been brought up to a high standard of efficiency. The Standard, under the ownership of J. F. Thompson, has the credit for bringing the first Merganthaler linotype into northwestern California.

Mr. Speegle is essentially a newspaper man and newspaper builder along conservative lines, and step by step, he has continued the work of J. F. Thompson in making the Standard the paper it is today. Its news policy is contained in its entirety in the words, "all the news that's fit to print." It deals fairly and courageously with every problem and is now recognized as the type of newspaper of which America will never have too many.
 

DALY BROTHERS.—Throughout the length and breadth of Humboldt county the name of Daly and the Arcade at Eureka are associated with efficiency in mercantile enterprises and a large list of satisfied customers. It would indeed be difficult to find an establishment along the north coast of California that stands for a higher quality of service than the Arcade and certainly there is none with a more courteous group of clerks or a more varied stock of goods including everything needed in the modern city home or the isolated frontier ranch. Hitherto it has been difficult to achieve success in mercantile enterprises in this northwestern coast country, but the proprietors of the Arcade have solved all difficulties and forged their way to the front in a manner gratifying to their friends and beneficial .to the city. Various elements have entered into their growing prosperity, but perhaps none has been more important than their care and skill in buying. From the first they have realized that to succeed they must buy at prices that would enable them to sell at very reasonable figures. To aid in buying they made the acquaintance of manufacturers and bought direct where they could secure the desired articles at lowest prices. A further aid was the establishing of an eastern agency with the firm of Jay & Co., of New York City, and still another vital factor in the buying business has been the semi-annual visits of the proprietors to the eastern markets.

The founding of the Arcade dates back to the year 1895, when Cornelius Dennis Daly decided there was an opportunity for mercantile enterprises in Eureka. This decision was not hastily made, but was the result of investigation and careful thought. In 1895 his brother, John F., a business man of Grass Valley, joined him and together they rented a small building on F street next to the First National Bank. Their first efforts were on a very small scale, but such was their energy and such their intelligent supervision that in five years they were able to move to their present location on F street. Here again they made a modest start, renting two stores, or about one-fourth of their present quarters. The rapid development of the business caused them to increase their space until they finally acquired the ground floor and half of the upper floor of a half-block, stocked with modern goods that would do credit to a metropolitan center. Recently the store was remodeled at an expense of $12,000, making it one of the most up-to-date buildings in this section of the state. While the custom of buying direct has laid the foundation of this great business, another secret of its advance is the square dealing of the proprietors, who have carried the highest principles of personal integrity into their business and have never allowed a customer to leave their establishment dissatisfied. In 1906 another brother, Patrick M. Daly, became associated with the business, to which he gives all of his time, and has been an active factor in promoting the interests of the firm.
 

CORNELIUS DENNIS DALY.—Among the men who have been instrumental in bringing Humboldt county to the forefront and prominently identified in its upbuilding, is Cornelius D. Daly, well known not only in the county but throughout the state as one of its most enterprising and successful business men, and one who is always ready and willing to give of his time and means for civic improvement and betterment. He is a native of Charleville, County Cork, Ireland, born November 27, 1863, the son of Dennis and Catherine (Walsh) Daly, also natives of that county. The Daly family comes of old and honored stock, members of the family for generations having been among the most prominent business men of that section, and it was therefore a natural trend of mind that caused Mr. Daly to take up mercantile pursuits as a life work. Throughout life, his father was successfully engaged in mercantile affairs in Charleville and held a prominent and enviable position financially and socially.

Of the sixteen children born to Dennis and Catherine Daly, Cornelius D. was the fourth oldest. His first experience in mercantile life was in his father's store in Charleville, where he spent several years. He then entered the employ of Pim Bros., Ltd., Dublin, Ireland, the most prominent dry goods merchants in that city, with whom he remained until 1886. In that year he came to California, locating in San Francisco, where for a time he was with the firm of O'Connor, Moffatt & Co.

Desirous of starting in the mercantile business for himself, Mr. Daly began looking about for a location, and with that end in view he worked in some of the smaller cities and towns in California. It was while still on this search that he came to Eureka in 1892 to work for the old firm of Crocker Bros. After working there a couple of years he saw an opportunity to start an independent business in Eureka, so in 1895 with his brother John F. he established the nucleus of the present large business, starting in a small one-story building on F street next to the First National Bank. In a few years the business had outgrown these quarters and was the occasion of removal in 1900 to the present location at F and Fourth streets. At first a fifty-foot frontage answered the needs of the business and when this proved too small the proprietors secured fifty feet more and later took in the whole half block frontage, until it .is now recognized as the largest establishment of the kind in Eureka.

In 1898 Mr. Daly made his first trip back to his old home and during his visit there became acquainted with the lady who afterwards became his wife, the marriage being solemnized in New York City, July 20, 1900. Before her marriage Mrs. Daly was Miss Annie Murphy, a daughter of the late John Murphy, who was also prominent in mercantile life in Charleville, where Mrs. Daly was born. She received her education on the continent, in one of the large convents in Belgium, and it was while she was on a visit to her home that she met Mr. Daly. They have five children : John, Charles, Catherine, Cornelius and Maura. Mr. Daly's fraternal associations are with Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E., and the Knights of Columbus, besides which he is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, the Eureka Development Association, and in fact is active in all things that tend toward the upbuilding of Eureka. The family are active members of St. Bernard's Catholic Church.

In the summer of 1913 Mr. Daly and his wife returned to their native land and enjoyed a delightful visit at their old home, besides having the advantages of a somewhat extended European tour that gave Mr. Daly ample opportunity to renew acquaintance with and make a study of mercantile enterprises in the Old World.
 

FRANK HENRY BERTSCH.—A native of Ohio, Frank H. Bertsch was born in Columbus, Franklin county, April 6, 1866, and in 1874 he moved with his parents to Del Norte county, Cal., where the father, Joseph A. Bertsch, engaged in farming near Crescent City. Until he was fifteen years of age, Frank H. Bertsch was a pupil in the public schools of the county, after which he joined forces with his father in the care and management of the home ranch. In 1888 with his brothers he built and operated a shingle mill on Smith river, but the venture did not prove very successful and after six years it was given up. Frank H. Bertsch then moved to Humboldt county, in May, 1892, finding employment with the Vance Milling Company at their mill in Samoa, where he had charge of all pile driving operations. Later he moved to Fortuna and again engaged in lumbering, being employed in the woods for J. L. Morrell. In the spring of 1894 he moved to Loleta and engaged in contracting and building for himself, following the business for three years, or until 1897, when he bought a livery business and also engaged in buying and selling cattle, horses and hogs, he being the only man in the vicinity at the time who was engaged in this business. In 1909 he sold his livery business to devote his attention more exclusively to farming and dairying, purchasing his first ranch in the vicinity of Loleta. Today he is the owner of two dairy ranches in the valley and also two stock ranches, one at Dyerville and the other at South Bay, the latter of which he operates himself as a dairy and stock ranch, his dairy comprising seventy head of milch cows. In 1902 Mr. Bertsch built the water works in Loleta and in 1906 he entered into partnership with W. Parrott in the operation of the city water plant. When Mr. Bertsch first came to Loleta there was only one store in the town and now it is a thriving, industrious little city.

Mr. Bertsch was married in Crescent City, Cal., May 14, 1891, being united with Miss Alida Brown, who was born in Canada and who came to California with her parents. Mr. and Mrs. Bertsch have one child living, Clarence, who is attending the Eureka Business College. Mr. Bertsch is a member of the Odd Fellows, Woodmen of the World, and is president of the Loleta board of trade, and has also been constable for four terms. In politics he is an ardent Democrat and has always taken an active part in all affairs of the party. Since taking up his residence in Humboldt county he has entered heartily into all movements that have for their object the good of the community, and he is regarded as an enterprising and prosperous citizen, indeed one of the most prominent men in the district.
 

EUGENE BIONDINI.—Well known among the dairymen of Humboldt county, Eugene Biondini is a young man of high ideals, honesty and integrity of purpose, who has come from his native Switzerland to make a home for himself in California. His father, Louis, came to this western state about the year 1890, and for ten years carried on the occupation of dairying in Plumas county, after a four years' visit to his native home returning for another period of ten years of dairying in California. The parents of Eugene Biondini are both natives of the village of Leggia, Canton Grisons or Graubunden, Switzerland, where the father is a farmer and dairyman, the mother's maiden name having been Lucia Ceresa. Both parents are now living in their native canton in Switzerland.

Born in the same little town as his parents, on March 19, 1888, Eugene Biondini was the second oldest child in a family of four, and the only one now residing in the United States. Brought up on his father's farm, he received his education in the local public schools, at the age of fourteen years leaving home for California, in 1902 joining his father, who was then in Plumas county, and remaining with him a year. Thence the son removed to Lassen county, in the same state, where for three years he was employed upon dairies, from there going to Washoe City, Nev., and engaging in farm work for a short time. In the fall of 1906 he came to Humboldt county, finding employment on a dairy near Grizzly Bluff, attending night schools for a while in the city of Ferndale, and continuing his work on dairies until the year 1910, when he had saved enough money to enable him to start in business independently. Accordingly, in 1910, he leased the Alexander Christen place and two years later the John Colvin ranch, thus coming into the use of eighty acres in all, whereon he successfully conducted a dairy of fifty cows. Disposing of his lease in the autumn of 1913, he removed to Arcata, where he rented the Stone ranch consisting of two hundred and forty acres of land, where he has fine pastures and raises hay, clover, corn, carrots, etc., for his herd, which comprises full-blooded and high grade Frisian Holstein cattle, milking about one hundred and fifteen cows and ranking among the large dairymen in the county.

The marriage of Mr. Biondini took place in Ferndale,
January 5, 1914, uniting him with Miss Lillian Ambrosini, who was born in Ferndale, and is the daughter of Martin Ambrosini, one of the oldest Swiss-American citizens of Humboldt county. Politically Mr. Biondini is allied with the Republican party, while his fraternal associations are with the Ferndale branch of the Druids.
 

ANTONIO BETTAZZA was born in Savallo, Province of Brescia, Italy, May 21, 1888, the son of John B. and Dominica (Dozzina) Bettazza, both natives of that place. The father was in the employ of a lumber company and died when Antonio was two years of age. The mother is still living on the old home. The parents had three children, as follows : Angelina resides in her native place ; Antonio is the subject of this sketch ; and Mary remains with her mother.

Antonio Bettazza was reared in Savallo and received a good education in the public schools of his native place. From countrymen returning from California he obtained good reports as to wages and opportunities, so it was not surprising that April of 1907 found him in San Francisco. After spending eleven months on a dairy ranch in San Mateo county he came to Humboldt county, where he found employment with Charles E. Sacchi, a dairyman near Arcata, for one year, then worked for William Spalletti for over two years. Later he worked one year at Sweasey's dairy ranch on Ryan slough. During all these years he had in mind the dairy which he hoped to own some day, and saved his earnings accordingly. In partnership with Faustino Maskini he rented the Nixon ranch, in 1911, and from his former employer, Mr. Spalletti, purchased the dairy herd and has continued dairying ever since. It is a splendid place of one hundred and sixty acres, rich bottom land, where is raised an abundance of feed. Besides milking sixty cows, the proprietors also engage in stock raising. Politically Mr. Bettazza is a Republican.

Faustino Maskini was born in Leverano, Italy, July 13, 1885, coming to California in April, 1906. In the fall of 1907 he came to Humboldt county and was employed at the Sweasey dairy until 1911, when he became a partner. of Mr. Bettazza, and they have met with success in the dairy industry.
 

FRANCISCO RIBEIRO was born on the Isle of Tucer, one of the Azores, November 14, 1880. His father was Juse Ribeiro, a farmer, and Francisco was the oldest of his five children. He was educated in the public schools and remained at home until the fall of 1904, when he emigrated to California, coming directly to Arcata, Humboldt county, regarding which place he had received most excellent reports while at home. He found employment in a dairy at Blue Lake, where he remained nearly three years and then worked on a dairy farm near Arcata until he started in business for himself. After the death of his father, his mother, brothers and sisters joined him at Arcata.

By November, 1910, Frank Ribeiro had saved enough money to begin the dairy business independently and so leased the Mel P. Roberts ranch adjoining Arcata, a place of two hundred and thirty acres of rich bottom land, where he raises large quantities of hay, corn and green feed and is quite extensively engaged in dairying, milking ninety cows and also raising cattle. He has made a success of the business and can be very proud of what he has accomplished in the industry. Fraternally he is a member of the Woodmen of the World at Arcata, as well as the I. D. E. S.
 

GEORGE AND ANTONIO SCALVINI.—Among the sons of Italy who are making a success of dairying in Humboldt county are George and Antonio Scalvini, who were born in Baglino, Province of Brescia, Italy, April 25, 1882, and August 17, 1883, respectively. They are the sons of John and Lucia Scalvini, who were farming people in Baglino, but who are now make ing their home with their children in Humboldt county. They were the parents of eleven children, as follows : John, George, Antonio, Rocco, Giutono, Catherina, Lucia, Dominica, Marie, Pietro, and Paul, all of whom now live in Humboldt county. The Scalvini boys were reared on the farm in Baglino and received a good education in the public schools. In 1908 Antonio came to Humboldt county, George coming in 1909, after which they worked on dairy farms in the vicinity of Ferndale until 1911, when four brothers, John, George, Antonio and Rocco, leased the Simon Smith ranch of one thousand acres three miles south of Centerville, and engaged in dairying, milking seventy-five cows. In 1913 George and Antonio sold their interest to the other two brothers and the two as partners then leased the Mrs. Bragdon's place of one hundred and sixty acres, as well as two hundred acres for range adjoining the place. Here they have established themselves in dairying, milking forty cows. They are also engaged in raising cattle and are making a success of their undertaking. Both are energetic, hard working young men and cannot fail in the enterprise they have undertaken. Politically they believe in the principles of the Republican party.
 

ALBERT DUSI is a native of Ono Degna, Province of Brescia, Italy, born October 20, 1884. There he grew up on his father's farm and attended the public schools of the town. At the age of nineteen years he went- to France, when he worked for a year. In 1905 he came to Allegheny, Pa., where for a time he was employed in the coal mines, but the work did not suit him, so in September of 1907 he came to Humboldt county, Cal., and found employment on a dairy near Ferndale. His accumulations of four years enabled him to begin dairying for himself. For two years he ran a dairy on the S. Smith place in the hills, then in November, 1913, he leased the present place of eighty acres, where he is milking sixty cows. The place is rich bottom land, which gives him an opportunity to raise ample hay and green feed for his herd. He is a stockholder in the Capital Creamery and is a liberal and enterprising man, always willing to aid any enterprise that has for its aim the betterment of the community and its citizens. Politically he is a Republican.
 

ANTONE RAVA.—Among the citizens who have come from sunny Italy and made a success of the dairy business in Humboldt county is Antone Rava, who was born near Cremona, Lombardy, Italy, January 17, 1874. Chent Rava, his father, was a farmer, so Antone was raised on the farm and he attended the local schools. From a lad he had listened to the tales from returning countrymen of the wonderful natural resources and opportunities in the United States, and he became anxious to try his luck. However, no opportunity arose until .he was nineteen years. In April, 1893, he came to Pittsburg, Pa., but did not like it there, so in November of the same year he came on to Sonoma county, Cal. Near Forestville he went to work on a dairy farm, continuing to work there and near Bodega and in San Francisco for seven years. In the spring of 1900 he came to Ferndale, Humboldt county, where he became foreman for Joseph Russ on the Mazeppa ranch, a position he filled for seven years. Having determined to engage in the dairy business for himself, in 1908 he leased his present dairy ranch of one hundred and sixty acres from Mr. McCloskey three miles from Loleta, since which time he has made a specialty of the dairy business, milking eighty cows. The herd is made up of well selected, full-blooded and high-grade Jerseys. Years of experience have enabled him to become proficient in the business, and he personally looks after all the details of the dairy and farm.

Mr. Rava was married in Eureka, being united with Miss Auratia Ballati, also a native of Lombardo. To Mr. and Mrs. Rava two children have been born, Walter Antone and Donald. Fraternally Mr. Rava is a member of Loleta Lodge No. 56, I. 0. 0. F.
 

RAFAEL LANINI.—Switzerland has sent many of her sons to California, where they have been instrumental in building up different enterprises in the state. Among those who have made a success of the dairy business is Rafael Lanini, who was born at Frasco, near Lacarno, Canton Ticino, September 13, 1859, the son of Fadale Lanini, a farmer at Frasco. There Rafael was reared, attending the public schools of the vicinity until he was nine years of age, when he found his way to Torino, Italy. There he began earning his own livelihood, working his way and attending night school, also.

In December, 1879, Mr. Lanini came to San Francisco and a few days later to Ferndale, Humboldt county, where he soon found employment on Bear River ridge on Nat Hurlbutt's dairy ranch. After remaining there ten months, he worked two years for Jesse Walker at Petrolia, also two years for Charles Cook, three years for James Jacomini and two years for James H. Goff, all of Petrolia. He then went to Capetown, where he leased a ranch and ran a dairy for five years, and then came to Ferndale, where he leased the John Swain ranch and ran a dairy -for three years. For four years he engaged in dairying on a ranch on Little Cock Robin island, which was washed away. In November, 1902, he leased the present place of one hundred thirty-one acres from James J. McCloskey, where he has a dairy of fifty cows. He took an active part in the management and work of the ranch himself and by his close application and perseverance has made a success and acquired a competency. He has followed the dairy business steadily since 1879. Mr. Lanini owns forty acres on Elk river about three miles from Eureka, where he is building a bungalow and improving the land for a dairy ranch. Here he will reside with his family, although he will still run the McCloskey place.

Mr. Lanini was married in Petrolia, October 13, 1885, being united with Miss Nancy May Eby, a native of Rohnerville, and the daughter of David D. and Mary (Harrow) Eby, born in Illinois and Missouri, respectively. Mr. Eby crossed the plains to California in pioneer days and in about 1861 came to Humboldt county and is now farming on Price creek.

To. Mr. and Mrs. Lanini have been born seven daughters : Ada, Mrs. Athanasion in Eureka ; Ethel, Mrs. Aston, residing in San Francisco ; Mamie, Mrs. McClelland, of Eureka ; Hazel, Mrs. Speridiani, of Loleta ; Angie, Mrs. Delzompo, of San Francisco ; Severena and Doloras. Mr. Lanini is school trustee of Eel River District and is much interested in the cause of education. He is a Republican.
 

MARTIN PEDRAllINI was born near Campo, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, October 8, 1875. His father, Charles Pedrazzini, was for some years a miner in Australia and then a painter in Paris, spending his winters in Campo, where his family resided. Martin, the youngest of four children, was reared in Campo, where he received his education in the public schools. Having heard such favorable reports of greater opportunities for young men in California, he resolved to migrate and try his fortune in the Golden West. At the age of fifteen he came alone to San Francisco, where he arrived a stranger in a strange land. From January, 1891, until July of the same year he was employed on a dairy ranch in Marin county and at the end of that period he came to Ferndale, Humboldt county, where for two years he worked on a dairy, then three years on Henry Van Dusen's place at Singleys. Having saved some money he determined to engage in dairying for himself. Although only twenty-one years of age he had had much experience, which had developed his powers of observation and self-reliance and enabled him to forge ahead on his own account. He launched out by renting a part of his present ranch, afterward purchasing cows from the owner, Mr. Davidson. Afterwards he rented the adjoining place from the same man and is now operating one hundred and eighty acres of good bottom land, his place being located three miles from Loleta. He has a herd of one hundred much cows, the care of which takes all of his time.

In Ferndale occurred the marriage of Mr. Pedrazzini and Corinna Filippini, also a native of Ticino, and to them have been born four children, Anna, Charles, Albert, and Ruby. Politically he is a Republican.
 

JOHN EDWARD LIND, principal keeper of the Humboldt light station on Table Bluff, was born in Stockholm, Sweden, May 28, 1858. His father, Carl Lind, who was a warrant officer in the Swedish navy, died in 1871. John E. received his education in the public schools of Stockholm prior to the age of twelve years, for at that age he began work in the machine shop at the navy yard, and also went to school there. At the age of thirteen he went to sea, for the most part in the coasting trade. In 1876 he came to Chicago, Ill., remaining until 1877, when he went to New York City and there shipped on the sailer Carrolton around Cape Horn to San Francisco, arriving in April, 1878, after a voyage, of about six months. As early as 1879 he came to Eureka. He then continued the coasting trade on the Pacific until 1887. In that year he entered the light house service as a rigger at the building of the St. George light station, helping to put in the engines and machinery until it was completed. In the year 1889 he made a trip to Sweden on a six months' visit to his old home. In 1892 he became third assistant keeper at St. George light house. Afterwards he was advanced to second assistant keeper, continuing there in the two capacities for eight and one-half years. He then became first assistant keeper at Arguella light station in Santa Barbara county for five months, then was appointed principal keeper at Pigeon Point, San Mateo county, where he remained for nine years. He was then- transferred to Honolulu as principal keeper at Makkapuu light station, remaining about four months, then as principal keeper of Ano Nuevo (New Year's) light station, San Mateo county, remaining for three years. In October, 1913, he was appointed principal keeper of Humboldt light station on Table Bluff, where he has remained ever since, filling the duties with ability and fidelity.

Mr. Lind was married in Crescent City, Cal., March 11, 1899, being united with Miss Theresa McNamara, a native of that place and the daughter of Nicholas McNamara, a pioneer of Del Norte county. Of this union there are three children, John Edward Jr., Theresa, and Adlade. Fraternally he was for some years a member of the Knights of Pythias and Independent Order of Foresters, but on account of his isolated position he withdrew. Both he and his wife are Catholics in religious belief.
 

NAPOLEON GONDOLA.—The sons of sunny Italy have contributed in no small degree to the upbuilding of the dairy industry in Humboldt county, and among them is Napoleon Gondola, who was born at Consilio Romo, Province of Como, Lombardi, Italy, April 26, 1882, and is the son of Francisco and Julia (Crancki) Gondola, also natives of Como. The father is a farmer, owning a farm about a half a mile from Lago di Como. The mother, who died many years ago, had fourteen children, of whom eight are living, Napoleon being the oldest. His boyhood was spent on . the farm, during which time he attended the local schools, and after his school days were over he gave his whole time to assisting his father on the farm, continuing this until he was twenty-four years of age. Having become interested in California in the meantime, he came hither in 1907, locating in Humboldt county, where he found employment with Martin Pedrazzini, a dairyman at Loleta, and where he was steadily employed for about eight years, only quitting his employ to engage in business for himself.

In April, 1915, Mr. Gondola purchased the dairy and lease of the Fraser place on Cannibal Island, comprising ninety-six acres of bottom land which yields an abundance of pasture, hay and green feed for his dairy of forty milch cows. He is a very industrious and energetic man and by his years of experience and perseverance is making a success of his chosen life work.
 

MARK CHARLES CRIVELLI was born near Lugarno, Ticino, Switzerland, January 1, 1886, the son of Giuseppe and Kate (Magistretti) Crivelli, farmers at Lugarno until they came to Humboldt county, Cal., where they are spending their last days with their children. Of their eight children Charles is the second youngest, and was brought up on the farm in Switzerland, where he received a good education in the public schools. During his boyhood he learned dairying as it is done in Ticino. At the age of seventeen, in 1903, he concluded to come to California. For three years he worked on a dairy near Petaluma, Sonoma county, and in 1906 he came to Loleta, Humboldt county, finding employment on the dairy ranch of John Larsen at Beatrice. Afterwards he worked on other ranches until October 1, 1908, when he leased the present place of two hundred and twenty acres near Loleta and has since then made a specialty of the dairy business, milking eighty cows. He has made a success of the business by close application and diligent work and is recognized as a man well informed in his line. With five others he owns the Belmont Creamery, of which he is manager.

In Eureka occurred the marriage of Mr. Crivelli with Miss Dalide Ballati, born near Como, Italy, the daughter of Joseph Ballati, who spent some years in California and then returned to Italy, where he now resides..

Mr. and Mrs. Crivelli have three children : Josephine, Curtis, and Catherine. Mr. Crivelli is a Republican in his political views.
 

HENRY GRANDY.—A young man who has traveled much over California and has had considerable experience in other parts of the state is Henry Grandy, a dairyman at Grizzly Bluff. He was born at Menzonio, Ticino, Switzerland, March 19, 1880. His father, Antone Grandy, was a merchant, postmaster and telegraph operator until he died in 1903. His mother, Mary Canepa, is still living. Of her nine children Henry is the sixth in order of birth, and received a good education in the public schools of his native place. His older brother, Albino, was living at Point Reyes, Sonoma county, so when Henry was fifteen years of age he came to California and joined his brother at Point Reyes. He also had a brother-in-law, Louis Grandy, who was a dairyman there and he worked for him for three years. Afterward he removed to Riverside, where he worked in a dairy for two years and during this time attended night school for over one year. The time and effort thus expended after the day's work have had their reward, for the knowledge thus gained has been of great assistance to him in later years. Subsequently Mr. Grandy engaged in business for himself, operating the Swiss-Jersey dairy with a retail milk route in Riverside for four years, then he ran a dairy at Arlington for eight years.

From Riverside Mr. Grandy went to Tulare county as foreman of a large dairy of one hundred twenty-five cows, a position he filled for three years, when he came to Humboldt county. In September, 1913, he leased the present place of thirty acres near Grizzly Bluff, which is devoted to a dairy of eighteen cows. He is very handy with tools and is a good carpenter and blacksmith as well as a farmer and dairyman.

Mr. Grandy was married at Santa Rosa, being united with Miss Diva H. Camasy, she too being a native of Menzonio, Switzerland. Mr. and Mrs. Grandy have three children as follows : Floyd, Olga, and baby. Fraternally Mr. Grandy is a member of the Woodmen of the World, the Odd Fellows, and the Independent Order of Foresters, all in Riverside. Mr. Grandy is a well read and well informed man, and speaks several languages, besides Swiss and English, speaking French and Spanish.
 

EDWARD ALEXANDER ZEHNDNER.—One of the most enterprising young men of Humboldt county is Edward Alexander Zehndner, who was born in this county September 11, 1879, the scion of one of the most prominent pioneer families of the county. Young Zehndner received his early educational and business training in the public schools of Arcata and Eureka, graduating from Eureka Business College in 1901. Anxious to acquire more of an education, he decided to attend the University of California, where he accordingly took a year's course. But his father, who owned a large dairy ranch, found the duties of the place too much for him to attend to alone, so sent for his son, who therefore returned from college and entered into the dairying and farming business. Under his father's supervision he met with much success in this occupation, but in 1906 determined to engage in some other line of work. His brother had retired from the office of depot master at Arcata, and Edward Zehndner was offered the station, which he accepted, holding the position of manager of the depot for twenty months, after which he returned to the home place to assume active management of the ranch. The Zehndner ranch is one of the show places of Dows Prairie, being considered one of the finest of its kind in the district. Mr. Zehndner continued to live on the home place, which he endeavored to make a monument to his ability as a farmer, clearing sixty acres of the land that he found peculiarly adapted to farming, and also going extensively into stock raising. When eucalyptus trees were first mentioned as being fine wood for furniture making, Mr. Zehndner was one of the first to become interested in the matter, setting 'out a grove of fifty acres, and along with other enterprising men who foresaw the possibilities of this industry has made a commendable success of his eucalyptus trees in the face of bitter opposition.

An ardent Progressive Republican, Mr. Zehndner enters actively into all matters pertaining to the advancement of the county. Fraternally he is a member of the Arcata Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., and in his religious associations is a stanch member of the Presbyterian Church. On October 10, 1910, he was married to Miss Grace Whittier, also a native of Humboldt county, she having been born in Ferndale, June 5, 1893. Of the union of these two pioneer. families there is one daughter, Evelyn Adeline Zehndner, born August 29, 1913. The county may well be proud of Mr. Zehndner, for he has done much good work in the community. Always taking an active part in any matter for the advancement of the district where he resides, and being prominently identified with affairs of public interest in the locality, he is a worthy member of one of the pioneer families of Humboldt county.
 

THORWALD and WILLIAM H. FREDRICKSON.—Among the early settlers of Iaqua, Humboldt county, is the Fredrickson family. The elder Fredrickson, James P., was born on the Island of Bornholm, Denmark, August 15, 1828. He went to sea when a lad and followed that occupation for many years, from Denmark sailing into many foreign ports. Three years were spent in seal fishing in the Arctic ocean off the coast of Greenland and Spitzbergen. At the time of the excitement caused by the discovery of gold in California he came around Cape Horn on a sailer as man before the mast and on his arrival in San Francisco he left the ship and started for the mines, which he followed for some time, being reasonably successful, after which he returned to Denmark.

However, his taste for adventure and exploring was not satisfied; so he started on a journey to Australia, where after following prospecting and mining in that wilderness he went to New Zealand, and from there to California. In 1866 he arrived in Humboldt county, and for a few years he lived in Eureka, farming and lumbering.

In October, 1870, James P. Fredrickson located in the Iaqua district, purchasing three hundred twenty acres of school land, and began the nucleus of a large and successful ranching experience. He also homesteaded one hundred sixty acres. He built a house and made needed improvements. He also ran a dairy of twenty-five to thirty cows, panning, skimming and churning by hand, the butter being hauled to Eureka and shipped to San Francisco. He purchased land adjoining until his ranch comprised seven hundred sixty acres at the time of his death in 1901.

James P. Fredrickson was married while living. in Australia, in April, 1865, his wife being Amelia Negus, who was a native of Essex county, England. She died in Eureka, leaving five children, as follows : Mary, the wife of John Johnson, of Iaqua ; Thorwald, of Iaqua ; Victoria A., Mrs. M. F. Shook, who died at Iaqua ; William H., a partner of Thorwald ; and Henrietta A., who resides in Eureka.

Thorwald and William H. Fredrickson, who are engaged in farming and stock raising on their ranch at Iaqua, are both native sons of Humboldt county, Thorwald having been born in Eureka, June 13, 1868, and William H. at Iaqua May 27, 1877. They received their education in the local schools, Thorwald's education being supplemented with a course at the Eureka Business College, where he was graduated in 1890. Subsequently he followed clerking and also logging for a time. After the death of the father the brothers began stock raising in partnership and have continued together ever since, an arrangement that has been carried on in peace and harmony, the brothers having entire confidence in each other.

In 1903 they purchased their present ranch of one thousand acres on the Iaqua road, where they make their home, besides operating two hundred sixty acres of the old home ranch, the whole being devoted to raising hay, grain and cattle, in which they have been successful and are building up a splendid herd of beef cattle. They also engage in threshing, operating a power threshing machine during the season. The improvements have been made with an outlook to permanency, having substantial residence and barns, and the ranch is well watered, and taken as a whole is splendidly adapted for the purpose to which it is devoted.

Thorwald Fredrickson married Irene Erwin, a native of Petrolia, and they have two children, Lois and Ruth. For five years he was a member of the board of trustees of Iaqua district and was clerk of the board, while William H. is now serving his second term in the same position. Fraternally both brothers are members of Humboldt Lodge No. 77, I. 0. 0. F., as well as Thelma Lodge of Rebekahs, in Eureka, being active in the philanthropies of the order, besides being liberal and charitable in public movements for the upbuilding of the community and the betterment of its citizens. Politically they are stanch Republicans.
 

JOHN C. BRICELAND was born in Virginia about 1838 and died at Briceland, Cal., in 1901, aged sixty-three years. As a boy he came with his parents to Amsterdam, Ohio, where he remained until the age of seventeen, when he joined the rush to the gold fields of California, crossing the plains with ox teams. For a time he followed mining and then was employed on ranches in the Sacramento valley. At times his wages were very small, for conditions even in those days were not always good. On account of suffering from chills and fever he came to Humboldt county, where he was an early settler on Elk ridge and where he engaged in stock raising, making a specialty of raising horses, his herd at one time numbering five hundred head. These he drove into different parts of California and Oregon and sold. From Elk ridge he removed to Upper Mattole and later located at Ross' defeat, near what is now Ettersburg, where he owned a farm and raised cattle. • This place he sold and about 1889 he purchased the old Collier place, the present site of Briceland. Before this a Hebrew by the name of Jim Filer had a little store here. Mr. Briceland bought him out and continued the mercantile business, enlarging the store and running it for three years, when he sold the store building and goods. All these years he engaged in farming and stock raising as well as butchering. He built the Briceland Hotel and the town was named for him. He became the owner of fourteen hundred acres of land, portions of which he sold from time to time, and he now has about seven hundred acres. His last years were devoted to stock raising. He died on his ranch. He was a prominent and active Democrat and for many years was member of • the board of school trustees. By his first wife, a native daughter of California, he had three children, as follows : Lucy, Mrs. Jack Wood, of Briceland ; and Lizzie and George, both deceased. His second marriage was to Fannie White, also born in California, who died March 3, 1912. She was the mother of nine children, seven of whom grew up, as follows : William, who died when seventeen years old ; Maude, who died at fourteen ; Laura, Mrs. Fearrien, who died here ; Mary, who died at thirteen years ; and Walter, John and Carl, all of Briceland.

Walter Briceland, who now leases and operates the old Briceland ranch, was born at Briceland December 12, 1887. He was brought up on the home farm, attending the public schools in the vicinity, and ultimately learned the stock business thoroughly. He remained on the home farm until his father died, when he was employed on other ranches and in the bark woods. In 1913 he leased the Briceland ranch of over six hundred acres, which he is now operating, being engaged in raising cattle. The old Briceland ranch comprises nearly seven hundred acres located on Redwood creek, and on account of being well watered is an excellent stock ranch.

Walter Briceland was married March 3, 1914, the ceremony being performed in Briceland, where he was united with Cora Milburn, a native of Fortuna, the daughter of Frank and Eva Gray Milburn, old settlers of Humboldt county.
 

WILLIAM M. GRAHAM has been a resident of Humboldt county since 1880 and has been connected with the lumber industry all this time, the last twelve years as foreman for the Northern Redwood Lumber Company. He was born on the St. John river at Magaguadavic, York county, New Brunswick, June 14, 1860, the son of James Graham, who was a farmer there until his death.

Mr. Graham was reared on the farm and educated in the public schools. When fourteen years of age he worked as cook in the woods of New Brunswick for two years, then worked tending sled during winters and on the farm summers. In 1878 he arrived in Minneapolis, Minn. There he followed tending sled and driving on the upper Mississippi river until 1880, when he came to Humboldt county, Cal. Two of his brothers, Frank and Alexander, had come to California, and their reports were so favorable that he determined to join them. On his arrival he went to work for his brother Alexander in the woods at Freshwater, continuing with him for two years, then was in the employ of his brother Frank at Bayside as chain tender during summers and chopper in winters ; later became foreman. Since then he has continued in the employ of his brother Frank or in the employ of companies it which he is interested. For the past twelve years he has been woods foreman for the Northern Redwood Lumber Company, and his many years' experience qualifies him for the position. He makes his home in Eureka. At one time he owned the property at the corner of Huntoon and C streets, which he sold to Mr. Ward in November, 1913. He now resides on A street, near Hawthorn.

William M. Graham was married in Eureka to Mrs. Frances E. (McConaghy) Pass, born at Prince William, York county, New Brunswick. Fraternally he is a member of Anniversary Lodge No. 85, I. 0. 0. F., at Arcata, also a member of the Odd Fellows Veteran Association in Eureka, a member of the Woodmen of the World in Eureka, and Mrs. Graham is a member of the Women of Woodcraft.
 

ELVIZIO REZZONICO was born at Torricella, Tavarni, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, October 16, 1886, the son of Giuseppe and Margerita (Frigeri). The father, who was in the employ of a railroad company as foreman, died in 1908. The mother is still living. Elvizio, after completing the public schools, entered the employ of the railroad company under his father and continued in that occupation until he came to California. He was married in Ticino September 21, 1907, being united with Miss Rose Crivelli, also a native of Torricella. On June 1, 1910, Mr. Rezzonico came to Humboldt county, where for four months he was in the employ of the railroad at Bayside, then for his brother-in-law, Charles Crivelli, at Loleta, for four months, and afterwards worked for Charles E. Sacchi, a dairyman at Arcata, for eighteen months. His wife and little daughter joined him in 1912. In September, 1913, he leased his present place of thirty acres of bottom land which he devotes to dairying, milking sixteen cows, nearly all Jerseys, and is meeting with deserved success. To Mr. and Mrs. Rezzonico have been born three children, Modesta, Joseph and Lidio. Mr. Rezzonico is ambitious and appreciates the opportunities to be had in California. Politically he believes in the principles of the Republican party.
 

LOUIS BARLOGGI was born at Lauertetz, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, January 26, 1881, the son of Michael and Rosa (Martini) Barloggi, who reside on their farm on the Valverzsca river. Of their twelve children, nine of whom are living, Louis, the oldest, received his education in the public schools. From a lad he learned farming and dairying as it is done in his native country. However, he had become interested in the Pacific coast country and deter-- mined to try his fortune where opportunities were more favorable than in his native land. Leaving home in December, 1903, he arrived in Solano county, Cal., in January, 1904. He found employment on a dairy farm in the Suisun basin, and continued at that occupation until 1909, when he came to Humboldt county and for four months was employed in the Pacific Lumber Company's sawmill at Scotia. He then came to Capetown, where he worked for James Biasca for a period of two years, after which he leased the Myrtle Grove dairy ranch of six hundred acres on the coast at Capetown, owned by Harry Blum of Ferndale. Here he engaged in dairying on his own account and is making a success of the enterprise. He is milking fifty cows in his dairy and is using a steam engine to do the separating and churning, the product being shipped to the San Francisco market.

Mr. Barloggi is an industrious and energetic young man, who attends strictly to his work, and by his close application is making a success of dairying.

JAMES W. TIMMONS.—A representative of an old and prominent family in Humboldt county and himself well and favorably known, James W. Timmons is a native son of the county, born in Eureka December 8, 1857. His father, M. Timmons, was a native of Ireland and came when a young man to Boston, Mass., where he worked his way from the bottom to foreman of a lumber yard. While in Boston he married Hester Callahan. Leaving Boston in 1850 he and his wife came to California, first locating in San Francisco, where Mr. Timmons entered the employ of Ryan & Duff, lumber men in that city, working his way up until he was made foreman of the yard. It was in 1852 that he made his first trip to Humboldt county, but subsequently he returned to San Francisco and resumed his old position with Ryan & Duff. In 1856, with his family, he located in Eureka and for a short time was foreman for Ryan & Duff, after which he became associated with Dolbeer-Carson Lumber Company as foreman of the yards, a position he filled for many years. About fifteen years before he died he returned, residing at his home on Fourth and M streets until his demise in 1903. His widow still resides at the old home, looking after the property Mr. Timmons left her.

Of the seven children born to this union James W. Timmons is the second oldest and was reared and educated in the public schools of his native place. After completing the schools he entered the employ of McKay & Co. at the Occidental Mill as tally man, continuing there for a period of three years. Next we find him at Kibesillah, or Newport, Mendocino county,, at Hunter & Stewart's Mill as tally man and later as planerman for two years, when he moved to Cleone, the same county, and became mill foreman for the Little Valley Lumber Company, continuing there for a year. He then spent a year in San Francisco as tally man, thence going to Puget Sound. After spending four months there he returned to Humboldt county and entered the employ of John Vance, continuing with him off and on for many years. Then for a period of seventeen years he was with Flanagan & Brosson, now the Bayside Mill, where he became mill foreman, a position he filled acceptably and well, using the years of experience in the lumber industry to advantage. After this he was with the Hammond Lumber 'Company at Samoa until 1909, when he came to Bulwinkle as yard foreman for the Little River Redwood Company, having continued uninterruptedly in the position ever since.

With his wife and daughter, Neva, Mr.. Timmons makes his home at his residence, 236 Long street, Eureka. Mrs. Timmons was in maidenhood Ida Davis, a native of Ohio, and they were married in Eureka. Fraternally Mr. Timmons is a member of Eureka Aerie No. 130, F. 0. E., and Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. Mr. Timmons is well and favorably known throughout Humboldt county, is well read, and having a retentive memory is an interesting conversationalist. He has a host of friends who admire him for his integrity and worth.
 

FREDERICK JOHN MOORE is a native son of Humboldt county, born in Arcata October 25, 1886, the son of John Addison and Hattie C. (Sheets) Moore, natives of Pennsylvania and Ohio, respectively. They were married in the latter state and about 1879 emigrated to Humboldt county,. Cal. The father was engaged in farming in the Maple creek section at one time, and afterward followed the woods with E. B. Jackson. He was elected and served as supervisor of District No. 3, Humboldt county, after which he again followed lumbering and timber cruising for a time, or until he engaged in the real estate business, which he is following at the present time in Eureka.

Of the marriage of John A. and Hattie C. Moore five children were born, Fred J. being the third oldest. He received his education in the schools of Blue Lake, and then for eighteen months he was a clerk in J. C. Worthington's store in the same town. He continued in the latter position until September 7, 1903, when he entered the employ of the Northern Redwood Lumber Company at Korbel as postal clerk, then as train dispatcher, later became assistant bookkeeper in the office and assistant shipping clerk in the lumber office. Afterward he was promoted to head shipping clerk in charge of the lumber department, which position he has held since 1906.

Mr. Moore was married at Blue Lake October 25, 1909, being united with Miss Bertha Fulmor, a native of Michigan, and they have three sons, Frederick John, Jr. ; Francis Lee, and Herbert Louis. Fraternally Mr. Moore was made a Mason in Arcata Lodge No. 106, F. & A. M., and with his wife is a member of the Order of the Eastern Star. Mrs. Moore is also a member of the Rebekahs. Mr. Moore is also a member of, Court Korbel No. 8022, A. 0. F., at Blue Lake, of which he is past chief ranger, and also a member of the Hoo Hoos, a lumber organization. Mr. and Mrs. Moore attend the Presbyterian Church at Blue Lake, he being a member of the board of trustees. In his political principles he is a stanch Republican.
 

EMIL B. ECKART, head filer at the Bulwinkle mill for the Little River Redwood Company, was born near Nordhausen, Province of Saxony, Germany, June 9, 1884, son of Lorenz and Anna (Faulbier) Eckart. The father was a farmer and merchant and man of affairs until his death. The mother is still living at the old home. Emil was raised on the farm, where he learned to work faithfully and well. He was educated in public schools. When his schooling was completed he worked for the government in the bookkeeping and civil engineering departments for three years. He then concluded to try his fortune in America and in the fall of 1900 we find him in Milwaukee, Wis., where he was in the employ of his uncle, Mike Seeboth, in a foundry for two years. From there he went to Battle Creek, Mich., in the employ of the Grand Trunk Railway as a machinist and later as a fireman. After eighteen months he returned to Milwaukee, where he spent three years with the Milwaukee Street Car Company, working his way from the bottom to assistant engineer of the system. Hearing good reports from the Pacific coast he resigned his position in the spring of 1907 and made his way to Humboldt county, Cal. He worked in the Eureka Boiler Works for a short time and the same summer came to Bulwinkle, where he entered the employ of the Little River Redwood Company as engineer of the old mill for fourteen months and afterward as engineer of the new mill. In 1911 he entered the filing room as assistant filer and in February, 1914, he was made head filer, a position he has filled satisfactorily and well ever since.

Mr. Eckart was married in Oakland, Cal., September 11, 1913, to Miss Annie Wiirre, born in Helsingfors, Finland. He owns a residence on Buhne and California streets, Eureka, where he makes his home.

FRED YANCY AYER was born in Bodega, Sonoma County, Cal., June 22, 1882. His father, John Ayer, a carpenter by trade, was born in the province of Quebec, Canada. He came from Boston, Mass., to San Francisco, via the Isthmus of Panama, in 1854. He engaged in dairying at Bodega, Sonoma County, and later followed the carpenter's trade. He was married at Bodega to Vesta Nichols, a native of Tennessee. In 1895 they removed to San Jose and in 1898 to Blue Lake. He followed his trade of carpenter until he died, in 1907, at the age of sixty-eight years. The mother now resides in Berkeley

 

Of the five children in the parental family our subject is the third oldest. He was educated in the public schools and early in life began to make his own way. His first work was in San Jose, where he was employed as a messenger boy, besides which he sold papers. In 1898 he came to Blue Lake and worked at the carpenter's trade with his father, then in shingle mills as shingle weaver, here and in Samoa for three years. He gave this up to take a business course and entered the Eureka Business College, from which he graduated in 1906. After a short time with the Hammond Lumber Company he came to Korbel and since October of that year has been in the employ of the Northern Redwood Lumber Company. He first acted as train dispatcher for the Arcata and Mad River Railroad about four and one-half years, then was in the office of the lumber company as lumber shipping clerk. Promotion came to him in April, 1915, when he was made foreman of the Riverside mill for the Northern Redwood Lumber Company at River­side, on the north fork of the Mad river.

 

Mr. Ayer was married at Dow's Prairie to Miss Eva Elizabeth Lee, born in Nicolaus, Sutter county, Cal., the daughter of Walter C. Lee, who came to California across the plains from Illinois with ox teams in an early day. Mr. and Mrs. Ayer have two children, Sidney Lee and Evelyn Ethel.

 

 

GEORGE SAMS.—One of the old-timers connected with the lumber industry in Humboldt county is George Sams, who was born in Warren county, twenty-one miles east of Des Moines, Iowa, October 7, 1862. He was the son of George and Hannah C. (Edwards) Sams, farmers in Iowa. During the Civil war the father served in an Iowa regiment, and during his enlistment received serious injuries from which he died in St. Louis, Mo. The mother was married a second time to John Wright, and in 1872 they all came to Humboldt county, Cal., where the mother died.

 

George Sams, the only child of his mother's first marriage, spent the first ten years of his life in Iowa, when he accompanied his mother and stepfather to Rohnerville, Cal. Here he lived on a farm and received a good education in the public schools. He then worked as a shingle packer until he made enough money to take a course. at Heald's Business College, San Francisco, graduating therefrom in 1883. On his return to Humboldt county he went back to the shingle mill at Fortuna as a packer for a year and then followed, the same line of work for a year at Scotia. In partnership with the Rowley brothers he built a shingle mill near Fortuna, but a year later sold his interest in the mill and returned to the employ of the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia, continuing for a period of twelve years in the shingle mill as a sawyer. Subsequently he became an expert filer. In 1900 he came to the Riverside mill under H. W. Jackson and has continued with the same people ever since as filer. However, in 1907 he was transferred to the Korbel plant of the Northern Redwood Lumber Company and since that time has had charge of filing the resaws and shingle saws, to which he devotes his entire time, filling the position with entire satisfaction.

 

Mr. Sams was married in Fortuna, being united with Miss Hattie M. Rowley, born in Colorado. She died in 1893, leaving four children: Myrtle, Mrs. Henry Burg, of Fortuna ; Nellie, Mrs. William Florent, of Portland, Ore.; William, who is serving in the 'United States army, being stationed in the Philippines ; and Frances, a graduate of the San Jose state normal and formerly a teacher. She is now Mrs. William Brown, of Trinidad. Fraternally Mr. Sams is a member of Blue Lake Lodge No. 347, I. 0. 0. F., of which he is past grand and past district deputy; is a member of Mad River Lodge No. 185, K. of P., at Blue Lake, of which he is past chancellor.

 

 

ALEXANDER ROSS SUTHERLAND, holding the position of head filer for the Northern Redwood Lumber Company at Korbel, was born at West River, Pictou County, Nova Scotia, March 7, 1869, the son of William and Isabella (Ross) Sutherland, also natives of Pictou county, of Scotch parents on both sides. The father being a farmer, Alexander was reared on the home farm and educated in the public schools. He remained with his parents, aiding with the duties of the farm until he was twenty-one, when he came to the Pacific coast in 1890 and at Port Blakeley he entered the machine shop of the Renton & Holmes Lumber Company and there learned the machinist's trade. In 1893 he came to Greenwood, Cal., as machinist with the L. E. White Lumber Company, and continued with them for seven years and during which time he learned filing. He then came to Usal, Mendo­cino county, in March of 1900,. securing the position of head filer for the Usal Lumber Company. However, six weeks later he was offered the position of head filer at the Riverside mill of the Northern Redwood Lumber Company, under H. W. Jackson, and he has continued with the management ever since. After seven years at the Riverside mill he was transferred to the Korbel mill as head filer,, a position he has filled ever since. Mr. Sutherland was married at Greenwood, being united with Miss Lottie Main, a native daughter born at Noyo, Mendocino County, and two children have been born of the union, Ross and Stella. For six years Mr. Sutherland served as trustee of the North Fork school district and was clerk of the board for five years of the time. He was deeply interested in having good schools, and it was. during this time that the new school house was built in Korbel. Fraternally he is a member of Blue. Lake Lodge No. 347, I. 0. 0. F., of which he is past grand and past district deputy, and with his wife is a member of the Rebekahs. He is a member of Mad River Lodge, K. P., of which he is past chancellor. Politically he espouses the principles of the Republican party..

 

HENRY BRAVO, who is engaged in dairying at Metropolitan, was born in Cugnasco, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, May 20, 1879, the son of Bartol and Josephine (Pellisconi) Bravo, farmers. The mother died in March, 1910, and the father is still in business in Switzerland. Of their six children four are living, Henry being the third oldest. He received a good education in. the public schools and learned farming from a lad. He continued helping his father until he was twenty-one years of age. His brother Paul, who had come to California in 1893 and was residing in Humboldt county, sent back good reports to the old home of better opportunities in the west and the younger brother determined to try his fortune on the Pacific coast. In March, 1900, he arrived in Eureka, Cal. He was employed on a dairy at Loleta for one year, then was engaged in the same line near Ferndale for three years. Later he worked for the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia a year and next was with the Metropolitan Lumber Company another year. After working one year on a farm at Rio Dell he concluded to start in dairying for himself, and for the purpose rented his present place of one hundred acres at Metro­politan in 1906. Here he has followed dairying ever since. He has built up a herd of high grade Jerseys and is milking forty-five cows. In connection he is also engaged in raising hogs, breeding the Ohio Improved Chester White, of which he turns off about fifty head a year. The ranch is all rich bottom land, growing not only good pasturage, but on it he raises ample hay and green feed for his cattle and hogs. He has reason to be pleased with his success in California and he has established a record in the vicinity for being industrious, persevering and energetic, and also for being honest and upright in all his dealings.

 

Mr. Bravo was married at Ferndale December 22, 1910, being united with Severina Giulieri, also born in Cugnasco, Switzerland, and they have three children, as follows : Rena,. Rose and Fred. Politically he believes in the principles of the Republican Party.

 

 

ZACCHEUS MAHLON HARRIS.—The millwright at the Bulwinkle plant of the Little River Redwood Company was born at Frankfort, Mower county, Minn., April 18, 1875, the son of Frank and Amelia (Story) Harris, born in New York and Wisconsin, respectively. The father was a soldier in Twelfth Iowa Volunteer Infantry in the Civil war and was wounded while in the service. After the war he removed to Mower county, Minn., where he was a farmer. In 1877 he brought his family to Napa county, Cal., where they are now engaged in farming. Zach, as he is familiarly called, was two years of age when he came with the family to California. He received a good education, after which he assisted his parents on the farm until he was eighteen years old. He then worked at the carpenter's trade in Napa county about two years. In. 1895 he came to the redwoods in Humboldt county, where he found employment with the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia as a millwright and during the years he was with them he helped build the old mills and the new mills also. He was away for a while, during which time he was a millwright in San Francisco and in Solano county. He then returned to Scotia, resuming his old place, and continued there until 1910, when he removed to Samoa in the employ of the Hammond Lumber Com­pany as millwright. Resigning , the latter position he became foreman of construction work for the government on the South Jetty, Humboldt Bay, a position which he filled for about one year.

 

In 1912 Mr. Harris, came to Bulwinkle as millwright and since then has performed the duties connected with the position in an able manner. He is successful in his line of work and has a good record with the different com­panies he has served. He was married in Napa to Miss Ida Raddlefinger, a native daughter of Arcata, the daughter of Samuel Raddlefinger, a prominent pioneer of Humboldt county and a man well posted on the history of the early days. Mr. and Mrs. Harris have two children, Mahlon and Delpha. Fraternally he is a member of Napa Lodge No. 18, I. 0. 0. F., also a member of the Knights of the Maccabees, at Napa. He is interested in the cause of education and is serving as a member of the board of trustees of Little River school district, being president of the board.

 

 

JOHN P. ANDERSON.—Since 1877 Mr. Anderson has been a resident of Humboldt county, coming here from Warren county, Pa. He was born on the Island of Bornholm, Denmark, February 6, 1852, the son of John and Caroline (Lund) Anderson, farming people there. Reared on the farm in Denmark, he received a good education in the public schools. When six­teen years of age he began earning his own livelihood by working on neigh­borhood farms. In the spring of 1870 he came to the United States and located in Warren county, Pa., where he was employed in a tannery for three years, and later was engaged in railroad construction work. His brother, James P., had already come to Humboldt county, and through him John became interested in the west and decided to join his brother. In March, 1877, he came to San Francisco and then on the old steamer Humboldt came to Eureka. He immediately went to work for his brother on the Angels ranch, continuing with him until 1886, when he bought the old Rich ranch on Canyon creek, his present place. This lies about five miles above Korbel, and is devoted principally to raising sheep, usually running three hundred to four hundred head.

 

Mr. Anderson was married in Arcata to Miss Minnie Gent, who was born in Germany and came to New York when six years old, and since she was twelve years old she has been a resident of Humboldt county. Mr. and Mrs. Anderson have eight children: Jessie, Mrs. Lane, of Salem, Ore.; Fred, Ernest, John, Arthur, Wesley, Walter and Elenor, and all make their home in Humboldt county except Mrs. Lane. Mr. Anderson has been school trustee of North Fork school district three terms. He is a member of Blue Lake Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., and with his wife is a member of Rebekahs in Blue Lake. In politics he espouses the cause of the Republican Party and has served on the grand jury.

 

WILLIAM S. FALK.—The name of Falk is so closely identified with sawmilling in Humboldt county that it goes naturally along with any account of that industry. William S. Falk, now head filer at the mills of the Bayside Lumber Company of Eureka, might be expected to show considerable adapta­bility for his work, his father, Elijah H. Falk, the present mayor of Eureka, having the reputation of being the most skilful millwright in California. (A sketch of the latter will be found on another page in this history.)

 

Of the six children born to his parents William S. Falk is the oldest, and was born April 9, 1868, at Mount Cory, Ohio, and came with his parents to California in 1878. Being very young when the family settled at Eureka, he received all his education here, in the public schools. He has spent practically all his life at his present line of work. He commenced to work when fifteen years old in the filing room of the Elk River Mill and Lumber Company, subsequently was filer for two years with the Moore & Smith Lumber Com­pany at Sanger, Cal., and then for ten years held a similar position at Fair­haven, with the Bendixson Shipbuilding Company. For the last seven years he has been with the Bayside Lumber Company, beginning to work for that concern shortly after the completion of its mill at Eureka, where there are two band saws, each about sixty-five feet long and weighing about two hun­dred pounds. Great skill is required to keep these valuable instruments in perfect working order, as they must be. As a saw wears most on one side it has to be hammered carefully to be kept true and running straight on the large pulleys. When a saw breaks it is repaired by splicing, which when expertly done restores it to its original efficiency, just as strong as ever. Mr. Falk understands all this nicety and has the skill and judgment required for such particular work, his work at filing, hammering and splicing being unexcelled. As an all-around capable mechanic he is trusted completely with this all-important part of the work at the mill, for which his experience and natural ability well qualify, him.

 

Mr. Falk married Edith McDade, and resides with his wife and two daughters (Daisy and Nellie) in Eureka. He is a highly esteemed citizen of the place where he has lived all but the first few years of his life, and is considered a worthy member of a family whose representatives have all been an honor to the community.

 

 

 

 

 

CLARK MILTON WYNN.—Another of the prosperous farmers of Humboldt county is Clark Milton Wynn, a native of Ohio but for many years a resident of California and a loyal supporter and admirer of the Golden State. He has met with much success in his undertakings and is known on Dow's Prairie, where he resides, and in Arcata as one of the substantial and altogether dependable men of the county.

 

Mr. Wynn was born. at Big Prairie, Wayne county, Ohio, October 3, 1874. In 1883 he came with his parents to Humboldt county, locating on Eel river. Here he attended school on Cannibal island until fifteen years of age, when he assisted his father on the farm. Later he started out for him­self, first working on the neighboring ranches. In 1894 he moved to Arcata and went to work for M. P. Roberts on his dairy ranch, and later was em­ployed for two years on the ranch of Frank Deuel, where dairying was the chief occupation. At this time he was employed by Jacob Zehndner, remain­ing with him until 1900 and working on his dairy ranch. In 1900 he secured employment with the Vance' Company, and later the Hammond Lumber Company, building railroads, and continued at various occupations until 1909, when he entered into partnership with his brother Thomas and leased his father's home place on Dow's Prairie. This property numbers one hundred fifty acres and is especially well adapted for dairying. The brothers at once improved the place and engaged in dairying, and are at present carrying on this occupation and meeting with good success. They also follow general farming in connection with their dairying interests.

 

Aside from his business enterprise, Mr. Wynn is well and favorably known. In politics he is a Republican, but has never been actively interested in local politics. He is also a member of the local lodge of Eagles.

 

The brother with whom Mr. Wynn is in partnership is Thomas Boden Wynn, born in Humboldt county, March 18, 1887. He attended the public schools of Arcata and later of Alliance for two years, at the age of eighteen commencing work for himself, in which he has been very successful. The first sixteen months he was with Pete Hansen on his dairy ranch, and for a number of years thereafter was employed on the various ranches of the neighborhood, becoming an expert dairyman. In 1909 he came to the home place with his brother, which they have since operated. In politics he is also a Republican.

 

The father of these two prosperous young farmers is William B. Wynn, a native of Ohio, born in Wayne County, October 8, 1845. He came to California, where his father had preceded him by several years, and together they engaged in farming, after a year, however, going into the dairy busi­ness, for himself, purchasing seventeen acres of improved land on Eel river and leasing ninety-seven acres adjoining. He was very successful and for a number of years remained on this property, in 1893 selling his Eel river ranch and moving to Arcata bottom, where he purchased fifty-seven acres of improved land and again engaged in dairying. In 1903 he sold this property and bought the ranch on Dow's Prairie where his sons are at present engaged in dairying and farming. Mr. Wynn, Sr., has at present retired from active business and resides in Arcata, where he has many warm friends and acquaintances.

 

The mother of Clark Milton and Thomas Boden Wynn was Camilla Jane Boden, a native of Wayne county, Ohio, who died in Arcata about the year 1900 and was the mother of three children, namely : Clark Milton, Andrew Clifford and Thomas Boden. The former and latter are partners and Andrew C. resides in Wisconsin.

 

The grandfather of Clark Milton and Thomas Boden Wynn, and the father of William B. Wynn, was Jesse Wynn, a native of Pennsylvania. He crossed the plains in 1849, leaving his family in the east. For a time he was located at Marysville, in 1855 coming to Humboldt county, where he carried on farming until the time of his death, in 1888.

 

 

 

GEORGE PINKERTON.—One of the old-time loggers and lumbermen, a resident of Humboldt county since April, 1876, George Pinkerton was born in Lynnfield, Charlotte county, New Brunswick, December 13, 1853. His father, James Pinkerton, was born in the North of Ireland, coming when a lad with his parents to New Brunswick, where he became a farmer and where he married Margaret Mitchell, also born in New Brunswick. After the father died the mother and children finally came to California.

 

George Pinkerton, the oldest of their ten children, was reared on the farm in New Brunswick, where he was educated in the public schools. From a boy he learned logging and river driving on the St. Croix and its branches. In 1875 he came to the Pacific coast and on Puget sound spent one year in the lumber woods. In April, 1876, he came to Humboldt county, Cal. His first employment was with Mr. Connick on Ryan slough chopping in the woods. Two years later he did team tending for him and others. Following this he worked for Alexander. Graham on Freshwater and also for Mr. Vance. He engaged in the manufacture of shingles and shakes on the Freshwater above where the postoffice is now located, operating a mill with two shingle machines and one shake machine, the product being taken by rail to the bay and thence on lighters. He also engaged in logging for eighteen months, on Elk river for the Holmes Eureka Lumber Company. Afterwards he was superintendent of the woods, getting out timber for the Little River Lumber Company at Bullwinkle, when the mill was building and also building their railroad. After this he quit the lumber industry to look after his farming and ranching interests. As early as 1883 he purchased a ranch at Brainerds Point on the Arcata road, seven miles from Eureka. It was stump brush and marsh land. He cleared and improved it and reclaimed the marsh land by ditching and dyking it and developed the ranch of two hun­dred seventy acres into a dairy farm with rich bottom land which he now leases for that purpose, having built suitable buildings. Among them are two large modern barns specially planned for the care of the large dairy herd on the place. He also owns thirteen hundred acres on Mad river, where he raises cattle, .the ranch being well improved for the purpose. Many years ago he purchased the hotel at Freshwater Postoffice in the Garfield district which he rented for many years and which was called Hotel Pinkerton. For the 'last two years he and his wife have made their home there.

 

The marriage of Mr. Pinkerton occurred in Eureka, February 22, 1899, being united with Mrs. Eda Climena (Trafton) Getchell, who was born near his native place in New Brunswick. Her father, John Trafton, was a lum­berman and spent his last days in Humboldt county. Mrs. Pinkerton came to Eureka in the fall of 1875 and here she afterwards married Sergeant Getchell, who died in this county. By her first union she had six children, five living, as follows : Harry, of Bayside ; Eda, Mrs. Cole, of Freshwater ; Jennie, Mrs. Adams, who lives at Freshwater Corners ; Effie, Mrs. Thompson, of Eureka ; and Ellsworth, of Bayside. Mr. Pinkerton is well liked and highly respected, being a man of excellent business acumen and has acquired a competency.

 

GEORGE WILLIAM COOPER.—Stock raising and general farming have been the chief industries which Mr. Cooper has followed throughout his active career, but with these he has combined several lines of activity, which have rounded out his business life and been the means of bringing him success. A native son of California, born March 4, 1861, in Hydesville, Hum­boldt county, at Cooper mill, which is about two and a half miles northeast of the town, he made that vicinity the environment of his entire life and as he grew, imbibed the enthusiasm of his fellow citizens in the development of his community and the welfare of its citizens.

 

George William Cooper is the son of George Dalrymple Cooper, born in Prince Edward Island, Canada, one of the sons of Capt. William Cooper, who arrived in San Francisco on July 1, 1850, having made the journey around Cape Horn in his own vessel, the Packet, in company with his wife, six sons, three daughters, a son-in-law and daughter-in-law and a two-year-old child, bringing with them building material, furniture, implements, seed and two years' provisions, intending to take up government land on some navigable stream in California, but on account of the Spanish grants gave up the idea. In San Francisco some of the party fell ill and died, and one of the sons left that city in February or March of the year 1851, coming to Humboldt County, where his good reports soon brought the others and they engaged in farming near Hydesville. There in the Eel river country during the Indian warfare of the year 1852 there were only twenty-three white settlers and several hun­dred Indians. Of the five Cooper brothers (John W., George D., Adolphus, David and William), Adolphus and David were killed by the Indians in 1852 and George D. in 1861; William died from exposure while bringing cattle from Sacramento valley to Humboldt county in 1853 ; and John W. lived to old age and died at Arcata in April, 1906. The Cooper brothers built a grist and a sawmill on Yager creek and made the first flour and manufactured the first lumber produced south of Eureka. George D. Cooper owned one hun­dred sixty acres along this creek, and it was while operating one of their mills at this place that he and a Mr. Tinkle were attacked by the Indians-on July 23, 1861. Mr. Tinkle, though wounded; made his escape, and Mr. Cooper was killed by two bullet wounds. His wife, formerly Elenore Caroline De Lasaux, a native of Canterbury, England, who had come to Humboldt county with her brothers in the early '50s, where she was married to Mr. Cooper, at the news of his death took her three months' old son, George William, in her arms and fled to John W. Cooper's residence, a mile distant. Her second marriage occurred in Canyon City, Ore., where she had resided for some years, and in a short time she came with her second husband, H. S. Case, to Hum­boldt County, where they made their home near Rohnerville, afterwards re­turning to the old John W. Cooper place, where her death took place some time later.

 

The only child of George D. and Elenore Caroline Cooper was George William Cooper, the subject of this sketch, whose father met his sudden death at his mill at the hands of the Indians. He was reared on the farm, attending the public schools at Hydesville. When he became of age he began farming independently on one hundred sixty acres which he owned on Yager creek, improving the tract and also hauling grain to Hookton on South Bay for a time. Having added dairying to his general farming operations, Mr. Cooper for twelve years continued successfully at Yager creek, his dairy­ing business interesting him in the Hydesville creamery. In 1897 he leased the property and moved to his present place at Alton. With H. A. Dinsmore in 1903 he began operating a stock ranch at Bridgeville, which was chiefly range and adapted for stock-raising, the ranch being known as the old Simon Brown place, now the property of Cooper and Dinsmore, who are both, also interested in operating a barley mill at Alton.

 

On October 15, 1884, Mr. Cooper was married at Alton to Clara Emma Dinsmore, who was born at that place, the daughter of John Owen and Margaret J. (Davis) Dinsmore, the mother's death having occurred August 21, 1907, while on a visit at Marysville. The Dinsmore family to which Mrs. Cooper belongs has figured conspicuously in the early history of the county, and its members have been representative citizens in their several localities, her father, John Owen Dinsmore, having enjoyed a wide acquain­tance in the vicinity and held the esteem and affection of all who knew him. Born in Maine in the year 1816, Mr. Dinsmore grew up on the farm and when a young man started out in the lumber business, which he followed until 1846, at that time removing to Texas, where he taught school for several years. Returning to his home state, he left there a second time when the discovery of gold in California brought so many strangers to this state. But Mr. Dinsmore was not yet ready to settle in the far west, and spent several years in farming in Illinois, where he met and married his wife, after which, in 1859, he came once more to California, located in Humboldt county, and returned east once more only to bring his wife and children to the state of his choice. Here he cultivated and improved land in Humboldt county, and also owned valuable timber land, and by the sale of his extensive property was able to leave his family in very comfortable circumstances. It will thus . be seen that by the marriage of Mr. Dinsmore's daughter with George William Cooper there were united two of the prominent pioneer families of this part of the state of California, families whom Humboldt county is proud to re­member. The two children born to Mr. and Mrs. Cooper are namely : Zina, the wife of Dallas N. Gould, and mother of two children, Dallas Cooper and Clinton Leslie Gould ; and Inez, attending the San Jose State Normal School. The father is an active member of the Hydesville Lodge No. 250, I. 0. 0. F., also of the Veteran Odd Fellows. He aids all movements having for their purpose the betterment of general conditions, and is an active, public-spirited citizen in the best sense of the word.

 

FRED A. DINSMORE.—The family of Fred A. Dinsmore can be traced back for two generations in Humboldt county, Cal., where he is well known as a successful farmer and dairyman. One of the first settlers of the Eel River Valley in Humboldt county was his grandfather, John Owen Dins­more, who was born in Maine, in 1816, where he was engaged in the lumber business until 1846, at which time he took up school teaching in Texas. Returning after a few years to his home state, he remained there until the discovery of gold in California called him west once more, this time to the Pacific coast, where he was fairly successful until the death of his partner, when he left the state, buying and settling on a farm in Illinois, where he married Margaret J. Davis, a native of Indiana, whose life from infancy had been spent in Illinois. In 1859, leaving his wife and three children in Illinois, John 0. Dinsmore came west once more to California, and devoted his attention to raising cattle in Iaqua, Humboldt county, from which location Indian thefts caused him to remove nearer the coast, where he stayed until 1860, when he sold his cattle and went east, returning with his family to California and locating in Humboldt county, where he spent the rest of his life. A brief sketch of the life of John 0. Dinsmore is given in this book in connection with that of George William Cooper. He was the father of eight children, of whom William Dinsmore, who became one of the foremost ranchmen in the county, was the father of Fred A., the subject of this sketch.

 

It was at the early age of four years that William Dinsmore came across the plains from Illinois with his parents, who settled in Humboldt county. He received his education in the public schools and at the age of twenty-one married Anne Rolley, of English parentage, and at the time of his death, in June, 1904, left five children living with their mother at their beautiful home near Alton. William Dinsmore had purchased one hun­dred and sixty acres situated half way between Alton and Metro­politan, which place he improved, engaging in farming, stock raising and dairying. In 1893 he set out an apple orchard of thirty acres, the largest of its kind in Humboldt County. He became one of the most favorably known men and had the reputation of being the squarest man in the county. The children of William Dinsmore are as follows : Albert, who is now a dentist residing at Ferndale ; Fred Andrea, born at Rio Dell, Cal., April 18, 1880, who since his father's death runs the farm at Alton ; George E., a cornmission merchant at Seattle, Wash.; Elsie J., who resides with her mother at Alton ; and Mabel, who married Dr. Starr, a dentist at Reno, Nev.

 

Of this family, the second son, Fred A. Dinsmore, has become a pros­perous farmer in Humboldt county, where he grew up, receiving his early education in the McDiarmidt district, and supplementing it with a com­mercial course at Craddock's Business College, Eureka, where he was grad­uated in 1905. That autumn he took charge of the home ranch for his mother, which he leased in 1909, carrying on dairying and farming there up to the present time. He is extensively engaged in raising apples, principally Green­ings and Bellefleurs, which he ships to the San Francisco market, having shipped as many as twelve thousand five hundred boxes in a season. On his ranch he has a herd of sixty milch cows, mostly Jerseys. The wife of Mr. Dinsmore was formerly Miss Christine Quist, a native of Thiard, Idaho, to whom he was married in Eureka on January 9, 1909, and they have three children, Myrtle S., Wallace A. and Ralph 0. Mr. and Mrs. Dinsmore dispense old-time hospitality at their home in Alton, and are members of the Eastern Star, Mr. Dinsmore being fraternally connected also with the Eel River Lodge, F. & A. M., at Fortuna; the Ferndale Chapter No. 78, R. A. M. ; the Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T. ; and the Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., San Francisco. His religious affiliations are with the Christian Church at Fortuna, and politically he is a member of the Republican central committee of Humboldt County.

 

 

SAINT LEAGY GOBLE.—One of the early settlers in the Eel river valley is Mr. Goble, who first located in the valley in the fall of 1870. He was born in Henry county, Ill., February 11, 1853, and is the son of Ephraim Goble, also a native of Illinois, having been born on the Little Wabash, and engaged in farming in Henry. County for a number of years, when, in 1866, he removed to Brown county, Kans., where he farmed until 1869. At that time, determining to better his condition by removing to Oregon, he crossed the plains with horses and mules by way of Ogden, Utah, and up through Idaho, across the Snake river, then past Mt. Hood into Oregon, where he remained for a year. Conditions there he found were not to his liking, and having a brother Abraham with him who had been in Humboldt county, Cal., they decided to come to Eureka. Coming by wagon to Crescent City, they continued their journey with pack mules by trail down the coast, finally arriving at Eureka. As there was no wagon road they had shipped their wagons from Crescent City and they had to be sent by boat to San Fran­cisco and thence back to Eureka. Locating on Humboldt Hill on South Bay, Mr. Goble bought a farm there, but in January, 1872, came to Eel River Island, where for a time he rented land, and then purchased forty acres of land across the road from his present place. The property being in an unimproved state and covered with a heavy growth of brush and timber, Mr. Goble commenced the clearing of the land and the building of the new home for his family, and here he engaged in dairying and farming until the time of his death in 1884. He was a very industrious and successful man, and the many affairs of the ranch were left in the capable hands of his son, Saint Leagy Goble, who took active charge of the home place in 1891, later purchasing the present tract, consisting of thirty-seven acres of unimproved land, and on it he has built his residence and made every modern improvement possible, and has engaged successfully in farming and dairying. He owns two hundred and forty acres on Williams creek, where he runs his young stock, and also makes two hundred and fifty cords of wood a year, which is hauled to Ferndale, and has likewise for a number of years been in the teaming and hauling business, in which he has been very successful.

 

On February 21, 1891, Mr. Goble was married in Eureka to Miss Winifred M. Miller, who was born in Council Grove, Morris County, Kan., the daugh­ter of J. W. and Mercy A. (Harlow) Miller, who were natives respectively of Indiana and Maine. Her father served in the Civil war in the Sixty-third In­diana Regiment, after which he was a farmer in Kansas until 1874, coming to California afterwards and locating near Ferndale, where he bought a ranch and engaged in farming. He is now holding a position in the Mare Island Navy Yard. The daughter, now Mrs. Goble, was reared and educated in Humboldt county, and is now the mother of four children, namely, Ray El­bert, Irma May, Ross Arden and Chester C. Mr. and Mrs. Goble are mem­bers of the Rebekahs, in which she is past Noble Grand, Mr. Goble likewise holding membership in the Ferndale Lodge No. 220, I. 0. 0. F., and Encamp­ment. For several years he was trustee of the school district, at present being a trustee of the high school. At one time he was interested in various creameries, but has only retained his interest in the Excelsior Creamery. A prosperous, progressive man, Mr. Goble's success is due entirely to his own painstaking efforts and unceasing labor.

 

JASPER N. DAVIES, A. B.—The oldest teacher now in active school work in Humboldt county, the principal of the Winship Intermediate school and a prominent educator and citizen of Eureka, Jasper N. Davies is a native son of California, born in Old Sonoma, August 29, 1856. His father, Rev. Solomon Wesley Davies, was born on Hominy creek, near Asheville, N. C., coming of an old Virginia family of Welsh descent, and was a minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church South. He was a pioneer of California, coming hither in 1852, and was a member of the first Conference held in the state. He continued active in the ministry until a few years' before his death in Santa Rosa, where he was accidentally killed by a train in 1884. He was married in Sacramento in July, 1855, to Mary E. McClenny, a native of Missouri, who crossed the plains with her parents in an oxteam train. Her father, R. T. McClenny, had crossed the plains to California in 1849 to the gold fields and returned on the plains to meet his family half way in 1854, piloting them through to California, where Mrs. Davis was married in 1855. She died in St. Helena in 1905.

 

They had a family of six children, of whom Jasper N. was the eldest. Being a Methodist minister's son he was reared in the different places on the circuit in Central California, receiving a good education in the public school and at Alexander Academy at Healdsburg. Later he entered Pacific Methodist College at Santa Rosa, where he was graduated in 1877 with the degree of A. B. While in college he worked during vacations on farms or taught school, thus helping to defray his expenses. After graduating he taught in Sonoma and. Mendocino counties until 1879 and then came to Humboldt county. He taught the Janes school near Arcata and later became principal of the school. In 1883 he gave up teaching for the time being to become bookkeeper for A. Brizard in Arcata. In 1885 he was appointed postmaster of Arcata under Cleveland. It was then a fourth-class office, but in 1887 it was made a third-class office and he was then appointed by Cleveland to the same position, serving four years or until 1891, when he retired from the office on account of change of administration.

 

In 1891 Mr. Davies resumed teaching, becoming principal of the Janes school, a position which he resigned seven years afterward in order to devote his attention to the improvement of his homestead, located near Orick. While there he taught the Orick and afterwards the Stone Lagoon School until 1900, when he obtained the principalship of the Hydesville schools, holding it until January, 1903. In that year he came to Eureka as principal of the Washington school, holding this position from its opening for five and one-half years, after which he became principal of the Lafayette school for two years. He was then transferred to be principal of the Lincoln school when it was opened and held it for five years. In the fall of 1915, on the establishment of the first intermediate school in Humboldt county, and among the first in the state, he was chosen its principal, a position he is now filling admirably.

 

Mr. Davies was married in Arcata, June 16, 1885, being united with Mrs. Catherine (Lothian) Hanna. She is a native daughter of Arcata and her father, Peter Lothian, was the first sheriff of the county and a very prominent man. They have three children. Jasper Alexander, a graduate of West Point in 1910, spent four years in the Philippines as a member of the Thirteenth United States Infantry and is now second lieutenant of the Seven­teenth United States Infantry stationed at Eagle Pass, Texas. The other two, Mary Annette, and Wesley L., make their home with their parents. By her first marriage Mrs. Davies had three daughters : Olive E., a trained nurse ; Clarissa S., Mrs. L. P. Dorais, and Catherine L., Mrs. Rudolph. All are living in Eureka except Mrs. Rudolph, who resides in Marshfield, Ore. At different times Mr. Davies has been a member of the county board of education, in 1884 and 1897. While in Arcata he was a member of the board of trustees for three years and was also president of the board during this time. He was made a Mason in Arcata Lodge No. 106 in 1881 and is senior past-master, serving in 1884-86-89. He is a member of Humboldt Chapter No. 52, R. A. M., which he served three years as high priest and is also a member of Oakland Lodge of Perfection No. 2, as A. A. S. R. He is very prominent in the fire department, being secretary and a member of California Hose Company No. 5 from the time of its organization in 1904. He is secretary of the Eureka Volunteer fire department and of the Eureka fire police. In national principles he has always been a Democrat, while in the line of his profession he is a member of the Teachers' Club and has also been a member of the National Educational Association.

 

OREL BRAY FRENCH.—The automobile business of Ferndale has been vastly improved since the advent of Mr. French, and the county roads have been made very convenient and safe for the traveler through the sign posts and danger warnings that he has installed along the main traveled roads, a thing no one had attempted before he undertook the work. Mr. French is a Yankee of sturdy, thrifty stock, and was born in Solon, Somerset county, Me., on January 23, 1872, the son of Oliver B. and Elenor (Black) French, both natives of Maine. The father was a harness maker and saddler in Solon, where he died, and the mother now makes her home with her son, Orel B. His parental grandfather, Rev. Luther P. French, served as chaplain of the First Maine Volunteer Infantry in the Civil war, and was a minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church and for many years presiding elder in the East Maine Conference. Orel B., the descendant .of this worthy ancestor, was graduated from the elementary schools of his home state, then entering the high school and later the Somerset Academy and the University of Maine at Orono, where he remained a year and a half, taking the mechanical en­gineer's course to perfect himself in the profession he had chosen as his life's work. He then moved to Boston, Mass., where he obtained employment in the shops of the Eyelet Tool Company, remaining with that company two years, then securing employment with the National Machine Tool Company in South Boston, a position which he held for a year and a half. He next became connected with the Navy Yard at Charlestown for six months, but left there for East Liverpool, Ohio, where he opened and had charge of a garage, in 1908 removing to San Francisco, Cal. Here he was again engaged in the automobile machine business, having charge of the White Company's shops until 1913, when he came to Ferndale, Humboldt County, and opened a fine garage. He erected his own building, a small one at first, but as the business increased he enlarged the shop until now he has one of the finest in the county, built of corrugated iron and cement, 76x100 feet in dimensions, and located on Ocean Avenue. Here he has installed modern, up-to-date ma­chinery run by an electric motor, and has a vulcanizing department in con-nection with the garage, as well as doing storage battery recharging. To him has fallen the honor of having made the county roads convenient and safe for travelers, he having installed his signs at all important crossings, as well as signals at all the most dangerous points along the main road. He has met with unusual success since coming to California, and is a trust­worthy, industrious man and a thorough mechanic, his success being due to his own unaided and unceasing labors. Mr. French was married in San Francisco to Miss Elizabeth McKenna, a native daughter of California, she having been born at Cloverdale, Sonoma County.

 

PETER E. PETERSEN.—The population of California is cosmopolitan in its nature, and through Humboldt county in particular will be found great numbers of families of foreign birth. Among the German people of that vicinity Peter E. Petersen has been a leading citizen. He was born near Apenrade, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, June 7, 1874, where he attended school and assisted on the home farm until coming to California on January 7, 1892. He came direct to Humboldt County, and his first employment was for his uncle, T. 0. Petersen, who lived on Eel River Island, and it was on this ranch that he gained his first experience in dairying. His parents were Andrew E. and Maud (Eskeldsen) Petersen, farmers near Apenrade, and they sold their place in Germany, joining their son in California in 1894. In that year Mr. Petersen rented a ranch on Coffee creek, where he engaged in dairying that year. His father then purchased this same ranch, which consisted of seventy acres of partially improved land, and father and son engaged in business together. At first most of their time was consumed in clearing the land, and for six years, or until 1900, they successfully carried on dairying and the work of attending the ranch, at which place the parents still reside. Mr. Petersen was married in 1900 and moved over on the Eel River Island, where he rented eighty acres of land from S. Fulmor, and for two years followed dairying and farming at the new location. From there he removed to Bear River Ridge, renting the Nat Hurlbutt ranch of two thousand acres and entering into stock raising. Later he purchased the Doc Stevens ranch on Bear river, and followed farming and dairying there, the place consisting of four hundred forty acres of grazing land, which for six years he devoted successfully to dairying. At the end of that time he leased it to other parties as a dairy and returned to Ferndale, accepting a position with the Central Creameries Company, in charge of the boilers in their Fern­dale plant. After eighteen months Mr. Petersen purchased his brother's lease of J. A. Shaw's ranch at Centerville in 1910 and moved onto this property, where he has operated a dairy ever since. The ranch comprises one hundred sixty acres of land on which he has a dairy of seventy-five cows of the Holstein breed. For some years he was president of the Ferndale Creamery and since the spring of 1915 has acted as its manager. Five years to the day after coming to the United States he received his citizenship papers and is indeed a model and worthy citizen.

 

The marriage of Mr. Petersen on January 18, 1900, united him with Sophia 0. Quist, a native of Helsingfors, Finland, the daughter of Jacob and Sophia (Berglin) Quist. Her father was a descendant of the Kronhj elm family, one of the oldest and most prominent among the nobility of Sweden and Finland. He was an officer in the government employ for many years, and spent his last days in Humboldt County with Mrs. Petersen, who was educated in the high school of her native city, where her mother's death took place. The daughter came to California in 1891, locating with relatives in San Francisco, and afterwards entered the St. Helena Hospital Training School for Nurses, from which she was graduated May 29, 1898, following her profession thereafter in San Francisco until her marriage with Mr. Petersen. Of their union there are six children, namely : Harold E., Eleanor C., Helen H., Kermit Dale, Rosemary and Vesta A., all fine, sturdy children. Mr. Petersen is a member of the Ferndale Dairymen's Association and the Ferndale Cow Testing Association, and is a very successful farmer and one of the most prominent men in the Eel River Valley.

 

 

REV. J. J. GLEESON.—A man of splendid attainments, enthusiastic and conscientious in his work, Rev. J. J. Gleeson, the pastor of the Church of the Assumption at Ferndale, Humboldt county, brings to his work at that place the efficiency gained by careful preparation, exhaustive study and re­search coupled with many years' experience in pastoral work.

 

Born in County Tipperary, Ireland, in the year 1864, Father Gleeson received his preliminary education in the national schools of that country, when about fifteen years of age entering the Diocesan College at Ennis, County Clare, Ireland, where he made his classics, and in the fall of 1885 becoming a student at All Hallows College, Dublin, where he completed the study of philosophy and theology. At Maynooth College he received his subdeaconship and deaconship from Archbishop Walsh of Dublin, and on June 24, 1890, was ordained priest by Bishop Brownrigg, Bishop of Ossory, for the diocese of Sacramento, Cal. In September of that year Father Gleeson came to Sacramento, becoming assistant to Rev. Thomas Grace, at that time pastor of the Cathedral and now Bishop of Sacramento. In the autumn of the following year Father Gleeson became assistant to Rev. Matthew Cole­man at Marysville, remaining there until the fall of 1892, when he was placed in charge of the parish of San Andreas, which comprised the whole of Cala­veras county, missions being located in different parts of the county, several chapels also being built by him during his three years' occupancy. The date of his first service in this parish was on the last Sunday of October, 1892, his last service there being on the last Sunday of September, 1895, in which month he became pastor at Jackson, his services at that place commencing on the last Sunday in September, 1895, and ending on the last Sunday in September, 1912. He was also chaplain at the state reform school at Ione and the Preston School of Industry for a period of seventeen years. In October, 1912, he was appointed and assumed the duties of pastor of the Church of the Assumption at Ferndale, where he is at present located, and since that time he has labored faithfully and well at that place, bringing into use his years of experience which render him so helpful to his parishioners, being in charge likewise of St. Patrick's Church at Petrolia. The congrega­tion of St. Mary's or the Church of the Assumption was first attended by priests from St. Bernard's Church at Eureka until 1878, at which time Father Lawrence Kennedy became its first resident pastor, continuing to officiate in that capacity until the year 1892, during which time he completed the first church which stood on the present site, and about the year 1883 erected the parsonage. In 1892 Father Kennedy was succeeded by Father Kirley, and a year later came Father Nugent as pastor, the present church, erected on the site of the old one, being built by him. The original building was moved to the rear, and is still the property of the church, having been re­modeled to suit the purposes of a school, the Sisters of St. Joseph of Eureka opening a school and academy there in the fall of 1915. The pastorate of Father Nugent, which covered a period of three years, was followed by that of Father Kiely, who remained there as pastor for fourteen or fifteen years, until the coming of Father Gleeson, whose faithful service and eminent fitness for the position have endeared him to the hearts of all with whom he is associated.

 

LAURENCE C. MORGAN.—One of the leading citizens of the thriving little city of Fortuna, as well as one of the best known and most generally popular men in the Eel River valley, is Laurence C. Morgan, proprietor and general manager of the L. C. Morgan Company, general merchandise store, with which organization he has been variously connected for the past fifteen years. Mr. Morgan is thoroughly familiar with every detail of his business, having practically grown up with this house, and his genial, kindly nature, coupled with his keen business judgment and his wide grasp of affairs, makes him a favorite with friend and patron, as well as with his employes and business associates.

 

Born in Elmira, Solano county, Cal., July 8, 1878, this progressive young merchant removed to Fortuna with his parents when he was still a lad, and has grown to manhood amid the scenes where he is now recognized as a man of large affairs. He attended the public schools, graduating from the high school, and afterwards took a course in a business college in Eureka, graduat­ing in 1899. Immediately after the completion of his business course he entered the employ of Newell & McIntyre in their general merchandise busi­ness at Fortuna as delivery man. Since that time the climb has been swift and Steady, until from the very bottom of the ladder this enterprising young man has now reached the topmost rung, and at present owns the controlling interest in the business where he was once a humble employe. • For almost a year he was on the wagon, and was then given a clerkship inside. Here again his work was so satisfactory that he was very soon promoted to a position of greater responsibility, and in 1902 was made manager of the store, which was still known as the Newell & McIntyre General Merchandise Company. This arrangement continued until 1906, when Newell & McIntyre retired from the firm and engaged in other lines of business. At that time Mr. Morgan, together with J. F. Benton, now of Arcata, bought out the Newell & McIntyre interests in the company, and operated the store together for the succeeding three years.' In 1909, however, Mr. Benton withdrew, and his interests were taken over by L. C. Morgan, his partner, B. F. Morgan, J. H. Smith and W. P. McIntyre, and Mr. Morgan was again in sole charge of the management of the enterprise. Another change in the firm occurred in 1912, when Mr. McIntyre retired and a new member was taken in the person of W. A. Bush. At this time the firm name was changed to the L. C. Morgan Company.

 

With the growth of the business the firm had branched out, and a branch store was opened at Shively for a period of three years. In 1913 it was decided to close this branch and concentrate on the main house in Fortuna, and since that time the floor space of the store has been enlarged to three times its former size, the stock has been greatly increased, and in every department there have been additions and changes for the better. At present this is the largest general merchandise store in the Eel river valley and stands as a monument to the ability, industry and general application of practically one man, Laurence C. Morgan, who has been the manager for some twelve years or more.

 

Recognized as one of the leading and most progressive citizens in the community, Mr. Morgan stands four-square for civic betterment and social welfare. Politically he is a Progressive Republican, and has been active in the affairs of his party for a number of years, being counted as one of their most substantial men. In social and fraternal affairs in Fortuna Mr. Morgan also is prominent and popular. He is an influential member of the Native Sons, and a prominent member of the Christian Church, where he at present is superintendent of the Sunday school, and is actively associated with all church work. In the business affairs of his little city the position of Mr. Morgan cannot be overestimated. He is reckoned as one of the strongest members of the board of trade, and there is no question for the welfare of Fortuna in which he does not lead ; and equally well defined is his opposition to all laxity in social or moral matters pertaining to the municipality. His business record is clean and praiseworthy and his friends and admirers are legion.

 

One of the most delightful homes in. Fortuna is that of Mr. Morgan and his family. His wife was Miss Edith G. Newell, a native of Eureka, born December 4, 1880. They were married in Fortuna, October 18, 1902, and have two charming little daughters, Lucile, aged nine years, and Fay, a child of seven.

 

JOHN CANDIDO ROLANDELLI.—The second oldest in a family of five boys and two girls, John Candido Rolandelli is a native of Italy, having been born near the city of Genoa on April 3, 1876, the son of David, a farmer and horticulturist, also a native of that place, and Catherina (Lavagnino) Rolandelli, also born in that district, both of the parents now living. John Candido was brought up on his father's farm, assisting in the work there until the year 1900, and receiving his education in the local public schools, after which he came to the United States to see if he could better his prospects financially in California, where many of his countrymen had won success in their chosen lines of occupation.

 

In March, 1900, Mr. Rolandelli arrived in San Francisco, in May of that year going to Eureka, Cal., on the steamer Pomona, and secured employment in the woods near Trinidad, for a period of about three years. The following three years were spent in the employ of the Hammond Lumber Company, and in November, 1905, Mr. Rolandelli started in the fishing business, in which he has successfully continued ever since, fishing with nets, his catch being principally halibut and crab. He is the owner of a fine power launch, twenty-five feet in length, as well as of a number of smaller boats. Meeting with success in his business, he has been enabled to buy lots and has built a flat at No. 34 Vine street, Eureka, where he makes his home. His marriage occurred in San Francisco, uniting him with Miss Mary Boicelli, also a native of the country about Genoa, and they are the parents of two children, namely, Catherine and Louis. In his political preferences Mr. Rolandelli, like many others of his countrymen who have made their home in this part of Cali­fornia, is an upholder of the principles of the Republican party, and like them also is loyal to the country of his adoption.

 

CHARLES TOWNSHEND NORTON.—A man who has attained notable success in the lumber industry in Humboldt county, Cal., is Charles Townshend Norton, a native of Canada, who since the year 1875 has made his home in this county, by his industry and practical ingenuity materially aiding in the advancement of the district along the lines comprised in his chosen occupation.

 

Born at Annandale, Grand River, Prince Edward Island, Canada, Mr. Norton was the son of William and Flora (Townshend) Norton of that province, the father being a native of England, the mother of Scotland. William Norton, who was born in Monmouth, England, where he was a barrister-at-law, as was his father before him, came to Annandale, Prince Edward Island, in the days of the settlement of the Grand River country, and there took up a tract of land, as well as practicing law, acting as customs officer and postmaster and judge, and being known as a prominent and in­fluential man until the time of his death. His wife, Flora Townshend, was born at Annandale, Scotland, and came to Prince Edward Island with her parents, who were among the early settlers of Annandale, the place taking its name from the original home of its colonists, and there Flora Townshend Norton still resides. Charles Townshend Norton was the youngest of their seven children, and was born March 6, 1858, educated in the local public schools, and removed to Humboldt county, Cal., in 1875. His first employ­ment here was as trainman for the Vance Company, he soon being put in charge of the logging train of the company, in the early days when wooden rails were used, made of scantlings from the laurel or pepperwood tree, which, though wearing well, were improved by strap iron nailed to the wooden rails, and later still the T iron rails being laid. Mr. Norton continued in the employ of the Vance Company for a period of seven years, for a small part of this time being with the Jolly Giant Mill, the principal owner of which was N. H. Falk. Next Mr. Norton removed to Trinidad, where he became engineer in charge of the train for the Hooper Lumber Company, a position which he held for five years, coming then to the Elk River Mill and Lumber Company at Falk, where for three years he was the efficient engineer on the logging train. At the close of that period he was with the Bucksport & Elk River Railroad as master mechanic and engineer of the road for nine years, with headquarters at Jones Prairie, in 1907 returning to the Elk River Mill and Lumber Company as superintendent of the railroad, which position he has continued to fill ably and satisfactorily ever since, having now been forty years in the same line of work in Humboldt county. Throughout his career Mr. Norton has had good success, there never having been an accident upon the road during his management. Perhaps that for which he is most noted is the invention and carrying out of a plan for the unloading of logs from the cars by the simple method of the engine's shoving the cars so that the logs strike a pepperwood boom set at an angle of forty-five degrees, which turns them into a shute and thence into the water, this device, which proves Mr. Norton to be very much of a genius along inventive lines, having later been copied by several other mills with great satisfaction.

 

In his political preferences Mr. Norton upholds the principles of the Republican Party, while fraternally he is a member of the Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. He was married in Trinidad, Cal., to Miss Catherine Nichols, a native of Humboldt county, and they are the parents of three children, namely : Arthur, who is employed by the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia ; William, an engineer working under his father ; and Clarence, who is in the machine shop of the Little. River Lumber Company.

 

JACKSON SAWYER.—The pioneer history of Humboldt county con­tains no name of greater interest than that of Jackson Sawyer, of Table Bluff, near Loleta, who came to California in 1852 and has enjoyed a varied and unique experience in many ways. He is now almost ninety years of age, and lives on his ranch, located exactly on the top of Table Bluff, and a mile and a half away from Loleta. Mr. Sawyer is still active and mentally alert, but his principal occupation is reading, his favorite book being the Bible. He came to California from Pennsylvania, and after following mining for a while was variously occupied, until he came to Humboldt County, Cal., in August, 1852, when he worked in Eureka for a time, then took several claims, but did not keep them. Later he bought a squatter's right to his present property on Table Bluff, on which he secured a clear title from the govern­ment. He now owns one hundred sixty acres of improved land, which is well improved and very valuable. His experiences with the Indians and also with wild animals in an early day read like a romance, and are full of hair-raising adventures. The bears were accustomed to raiding his garden and his pig pens were their especial delight. The Indians never gave him serious trouble, save that. they were natural thieves and beggars. Mr. Sawyer is most highly respected and well liked' by all who know him. He is well informed through his reading and keeps in close touch with the affairs of the community and the state.

 

A native of Montour County, Pa., born December 25, 1824, Jackson Sawyer is of English and Dutch descent. His parents both died when he was but eighteen months old and he was adopted into the family of Joseph Kerr, a farmer of Montour County, where he was reared and educated, remain­ing in his family until he was twenty-one years of age. He then went to Danville, Pa., where he found employment in the rolling mills, first as stock taker, and later receiving various promotions, due to his ability and attention to business, and to his strictly temperate habits. The discovery of gold in California prompted him to seek the new gold fields of California, and accord­ingly he made the long journey westward by way of the Isthmus of Panama, arriving at San Francisco in April, 1852. From there he went into Shasta county, where he engaged in mining on Clear creek, but not meeting with the desired success, came to Humboldt county in the fall of that year, locating at Eureka, where he found employment in lumber and sawmills. For a time he was employed by Jim. Ryan in his lumber mill, and later -worked . on the Vance farm. Subsequently he lived at Hookton, where he had dreams of building up a commercial center, making the nucleus a wharf that he proposed building, but was unable to secure the necessary rights from the government and so gave up this project. The location of certain land at the top of Table Bluff pleased him and he bought out the squatter's rights of Capt. Edward Sanger, and later paid the government the prescribed $1.25 per acre for the land. His patent for this is signed by Abraham Lincoln as president of the United States, and has never been out of Mr. Sawyer's name or possession.

 

The marriage of Mr. Sawyer bears the breath of romance, his bride, Miss Hannah Carter, being a former classmate, with whom he had entered into a wager to exchange letters on a date a year hence, shortly before, leaving for California. These letters led to a correspondence, which in turn resulted in their betrothal, and the coming of the bride to California under the protection of the widowed mother of Mr. Sawyer, and their marriage in Eureka, and the establishment .of their home on the ranch in Humboldt county. Mrs. Sawyer was a descendant of Scotch ancestry, her mother, Mrs. Rachael (Cameron) Carter, being a native of Scotland, while her father, James Carter, was born in Philadelphia, of English parents. Her marriage with Mr. Sawyer took place November 18, 1857, and her death occurred in 1897, she being then sixty-nine years of age. She bore her husband five children, of whom four are now living, William, Mrs. Rachael Ellery, Wilma and Annie. Mr. Sawyer is a member of the Presbyterian Church at Eureka.

 

[ Since the above was written Mr. Sawyer has passed away.]

 

 

SANTI GIUNTOLI.—The proprietor of the Star Hotel in Blue Lake, Santi Giuntoli, was born in Torricckio Pescia, province of Lucca, Toscano, Italy, September 14, 1880; he was the son of Pelegro and Amida Giuntoli, who were farmers in Italy. They were the parents of thirteen children, seven of whom are living, Santi being the second oldest. As a lad he was raised on the farm and educated in the public schools, remaining at home and assisting on the farm until twenty-one years of age. In October, 1901, he started for California, arriving November 5, 1901, and May 2, 1902, he came to Humboldt County, and after working three months for the Hammond Company he rented a small ranch at Sunnyside, remaining one year, when he located at Bayside, where he engaged in raising vegetables. In 1907 he located in Blue Lake and started a fruit store and ran a vegetable and fruit wagon between Korbel and Arcata, and also to Trinidad, continuing for four years. In 1911 he began the hotel business as proprietor of the Star Hotel, and he has become widely known for the excellence of his table, and the hotel is a popular place for dinners and parties. He learned cooking from his mother, and he is well and favorably known for the splendid meals he serves. He attributes his success in no small degree to his wife, who is also one of the finest cooks in the county. He was married in Eureka, being united with Miss Mary Mattucci, born in Lucca, Italy, the daughter of Carlo and Chiarra Mattucci, who came to Humboldt county ; the father died on his ranch on Dow's Prairie, while the mother still lives there. Mrs. Giuntoli came to Humboldt county when eleven years of age and received her education in the public schools. Fraternally Mr. Giuntoli is a member of the Ancient Order of Foresters.

 

CHARLES LOWREY was born at Freestone, Sonoma County, Septem­ber 16, 1865. His father, William H. Lowrey, was born in Tennessee, the son of J. D. Lowrey, who served in the Black Hawk Indian war and after­wards in the Mexican war with the rank of lieutenant. William H. Lowrey was married in Missouri to Elvira Hobbs, born in Illinois. They both trace their lineage back to Virginia. In 1852 they crossed the plains with ox teams to California. For a short time he followed mining and then located at Free­stone, Sonoma county, where he owned a farm, afterward locating near Yorkville, Mendocino County, where he engaged in stock raising until he retired to Santa Rosa, where he died, aged seventy-eight, in 1898, his wife's demise occurring the same year. Of their nine children, seven of whom are living, Charles is the youngest and was brought up in Sonoma and Mendocino counties, receiving his education in the public schools. At the age of sixteen he began working on ranches and followed sheep shearing during the season. He also was engaged in freighting and teaming to Cloverdale and later in the same line on the coast at Gualala. In 1895 he came to Ferndale and for eight years hauled freight, teaming between Ferndale and Alton, after which he followed the same business at Garberville and Briceland, also driving stage for J. W. Hamilton between Garberville and Kinney. He ran the Briceland Hotel for one year and then did butchering for Fred Fearrien for two seasons.

 

On September 24, 1910, he was married, being united with Mrs. Nettie Grace (Cookson) McKee, born in Calais, Maine, a daughter of Bill Charles Cookson, a shipbuilder ; his wife was Desia Smith, born in Charlotte county, New Brunswick ; both Mr. "and Mrs. Cookson passed their last days in California. Mrs. Lowrey is the second youngest of their four children and the only one living; she lived in New Brunswick until ten years of age, and in June, 1880, came to Garberville, where she completed the public schools. Her first marriage was to Don Alonzo McKee, born at Sacketts Harbor, N. Y., where he was well educated, attending college in that state, after which he came west and was in Chicago at the time of the Civil war; he enlisted in the Chicago Board of Trade Battery of Light Artillery, serving the last year of the war, when he was honorably discharged. He then drifted west to Montana, afterward coming to Humboldt county, Cal., and followed the occupation of teaming and stock raising. He homesteaded one hundred sixty acres at Thorn and afterward added to it until he had four hundred forty acres on which he engaged in raising cattle. The place was originally called White Thorn, because the white thorn bush grew in such abundance. He died June 28, 1907, aged sixty-four years ; he was a member of the G. A. R. and a stanch Republican. He was a school trustee and was clerk of the board. He was a man of splendid traits, liberal and enterprising ; he was a very courageous man and was much admired by all who knew him. Since his death Mrs. McKee continued to operate the ranch until her marriage to Mr. Lowrey. They now engage in raising cattle and goats, and are raising the finest grades of Angora goats, having a flock of about one hundred thirty.

 

By her first marriage Mrs. Lowrey had five children : Alonzo Grant, a mail carrier to Shelter Cove; Harold, a farmer near Orick; Grace M., Mrs. Gowan, of Potter Valley ; Vernon C.; and Helen Gould.

 

In 1913 Mrs. Lowrey was appointed postmaster at Thorn, while Mr. Lowrey is assistant postmaster, the office being kept at their house. Mrs. Lowrey is trustee of White Thorn school district, and for the past eight years has been clerk of the board. Mr. Lowrey by his former marriage had two children, Shirley and Hildred.

 

 

ANDREW J. CATHEY was born twelve miles south of Warrensburg, Johnson county, Missouri, July 7, 1856. His father, John Albert Cathey, was born near Sedalia, Pettis county, Mo., February 13, 1835, but was raised in Johnson county, Mo., where he became a farmer. He was first married there, in 1854, to Miss Margaret Amelia Weaver, a native of North Carolina. In 1860, with his wife and two children, he crossed the plains with ox teams, leaving Missouri May 1, 1860; he arrived in California August 12 of the same year, and located his family at Yorkville, Mendocino County. He followed mining, and while thus employed his wife died, in 1863. After this he worked at carpentering in Anderson valley. His second marriage occurred near Christine, in Anderson valley, April 18, 1875, to Dulcina Nunn, who was born in Webster County, Mo., and came to California with her parents when one year old, in 1857, settling in Anderson valley. After they were married Mr. Cathey started a blacksmith shop at Christine, which he ran until 1885, when the family came to Humboldt county, locating on a farm on the Eel river for two years ; then at Fortuna for a period of five years, after which they moved onto a stock ranch at Bear Buttes, on the South Fork, where the father was engaged in stock raising for five years, since which time they have retired and are living with their sons near Briceland. John Albert Cathey had three children by his first marriage: Andrew J., the subject of this sketch; Charles L., of San Francisco ; and William R., who resides in South Dakota. Of his second marriage there were four children : David, mentioned below ; Robert L., of Trinity Center ; Isabella, Mrs. Wright, of Briceland; and Stella M., Mrs. Arthur, who died in 1913, aged thirty years.

 

Andrew J. was raised in Anderson valley, Mendocino county, where he was educated in the public schools. He followed teaming, farming and stock raising. In 1885 he came to Humboldt county, where he followed the woods for some years. In 1895 he located the present homestead of one hundred sixty acres on Telegraph ridge, three miles south of Ettersburg; he bought eighty acres adjoining and with two hundred forty acres that his parents own he has a ranch of four hundred eighty acres which is devoted to raising grain and hay, cattle and Angora goats. During all these years Mr. Cathey has followed teaming, principally for the Wagner Leather Company's plant at Briceland, and also has done considerable teaming to Needle Rock.

 

Mr. Cathey is a generous, big-hearted man, who has always stood ready to help those who have been less fortunate, and he is a man who is much esteemed and admired for his integrity and worth.

 

David Cathey was born at Christine, Mendocino county, in 1876, in 1885 coming to Humboldt county with the family. His schooling was obtained at Fortuna. For many years he worked in the redwoods for Mont­gomery, at Korbel ; for the Pacific Lumber Company at Metropolitan, then again back to the Pacific Lumber Company as head chopper until he gave up the woods to take up farming, which he has followed on the home place since 1911. He married Miss Sadie Guptle, who was born at Port Kenyon, and who died at Shively, leaving three children : Andrew A., Archie E. and Myrtle M. David Cathey is a member of the board of trustees of Wilder school district, and fraternally is a member of Eureka Lodge No. 363, L. O. O. M.

 

 

ANDREW P. H. FRANZEN.—An enterprising citizen and a successful dairyman on the Freshwater, Andrew P. H. Franzen was born at Tondern, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, January 27, 1873, the son of Frederick and Catherina E. (Paulsen) Franzen. His father was a drover and engaged as a stock dealer in that country. He served in the German army during the Franco-Prussian war, and both parents are living. Of their family of twelve children six are living, Andrew being the second oldest. He was reared on the farm and educated in the public schools, after which he worked for two years for a market gardener there. Later he learned the stock business under his father, after which he began buying stock on his own account, but soon concluded to come to California. In 1903 he came west and was employed on the Meek estate at Haywards, where he was in charge of their stable for about two years. Then, in 1905, he came to Humboldt County. Here he worked as gardener for the Pacific Lumber Company at Shively, then for the Scotia Hotel, after which he bought five acres at Scotia. This he sold soon afterward to the Pacific Lumber Company and leased their dairy ranch of one hundred sixty acres at Scotia, where he milked forty cows and sold the milk at retail in. Scotia. After- five years there he came to Freshwater in September, 1914, and leased one hundred ninety-four acres of the Pacific Lumber Company's lands on Freshwater, which he devotes to dairying. It is mostly bottom land, which gives him ample pasturage -and enables him to raise plenty of hay and green feed for his dairy herd. He is milking forty cows of the Durham breed.

 

Mr. Franzen was married on the Island of Fohr, Germany, in 1895, to Miss Jennie Petersen, a native of that place, and they have seven children : Margaret, Catherine, Freda, Carl, Alice, Hilda and Mildred. Fraternally he is a member of Weeot Tribe No. 147, I. 0. R. M., at Scotia ; also of the Knights of Pythias of that place. In his political views he favors the prin­ciples advanced by the Republican Party.

 

 

JULES ALPHONSF LAMBERT.—An old settler of Humboldt county, having been a resident here since 1874, Jules Alphonse Lambert is now engaged in dairying and fruit raising on the Freshwater. He was born near Vesoul, Department of Haute-Saone, France, October 22, 1848, son of Mathieu and Theresa (Pignet) Lambert, who were farmer folk there and owned a considerable estate. Mr. Lambert was reared on the farm and educated in the local schools, assisting his parents in operating the farm until he entered the French army in 1870, at the breaking out of the Franco-Prussian war. He enlisted in the Ninth Artillery and served until after the close of the war, when he was honorably discharged. He then operated the home farm with a brother until 1872. In that year he came to the United States, locating in Richardson County, Neb., where he remained until 1874. It was in that year that he came to Humboldt County. For two summers he was employed in the woods, then engaged in making split shakes from stumpage which he bought, disposing of the shakes in Eureka.

 

In 1876 Mr. Lambert returned to his native home in France, remaining there for four years. He was married in Fiance in May, 1878, to Miss Irma Pigrenet, born at Vesoul, France, the daughter of Jean and Pauline (Harley) Pigrenet, the former being a blacksmith there.

 

Mr. Lambert was engaged in the manufacture of lumber, wood, ties and charcoal, and a dealer in the same. In October, 1880, with his family, he returned to Humboldt county, where he resumed his old business of making shakes, having settled on Ryan slough. In 1887 he purchased his present place of one hundred sixty acres on Freshwater, eight miles east of Eureka. It was stump land when he purchased it, but he has since cleared and im­proved it and built a residence and other improvements. Ever since he has engaged in dairying and farming, raising potatoes, sweet corn and vegetables, also raising fruit, apples, grapes and berries.

 

Mr. and Mrs. Lambert have two. children : Alice, the wife of Walter Renfroe and the mother of three children (Irma, Camille and Alice), and Charles, assisting his father on the farm. Politically he espouses the prin­ciples of the Democratic party and with his family is a member of St. Bernard's Church in Eureka.

 

FRANK and CHARLES ALLARD.—Representatives of an old pioneer family and native sons of Humboldt county, Frank and Charles Allard were born, respectively, in Kneeland Prairie December 28, 1877, and Eureka October 7, 1879, sons of Richard and Ellen (Goble) Allard. Dick Allard, as the father was familiarly called, was born in New Hampshire. Attracted by the discovery of gold he came around Cape Horn in a sailing vessel and landed in San Francisco in 1852. The first year was spent in mining in the Sierras, after which he came to the mines on Klamath River in Humboldt County in 1853. Afterward he followed logging on Elk river and also Ryan slough for a number of years, and during this time made a couple of trips back to his old home. However, he was married on Elk River in 1871, his wife having crossed the plains in the early '60s with her parents. Sub­sequently she made the trip back to Illinois, recrossing the plains with ox teams. She is still living, making her home with her two sons. The father gave his time and efforts to dairying until his death,, which occurred January 14, 1898. They had six children, as follows: Laura E., Mrs. Squires, of Freshwater ; Clara M., Mrs. Ferguson, residing in Denver, Colo.; Frank and Charles, the two partners of whom we write ; Annie M. and Hazel, both living at home.

 

The Allard brothers were reared on the ranch at Freshwater, receiving their education in the public schools and learning farming and dairying. After their father's death they continued with their mother until she sold the ranch, after which they purchased a part of the Spear place further up the stream and there made their home.

 

For some years Frank Allard worked at teaming and also drove stage to Eureka until he discontinued to give his attention to raising vegetables and fruit in partnership with his brother Charles. They operate twenty acres of bottom and bench land, making a specialty of raising berries and vegetables, and run a wagon to Eureka six days a week. In the raising of berries they grow principally strawberries, raspberries and loganberries.

 

Fraternally Frank Allard is a member of Fortuna Lodge No. 221, I. 0. 0. F., in Eureka, and also of Mount Zion Encampment of Odd Fellows, and both brothers are members of Eureka Aerie No. 130, F. 0. E. Politically they espouse the principles of the Republican party.

 

FRED G. HINCKLEY.—A resident of Humboldt county since 1877, Fred G. Hinckley was born in Elizabethtown, Essex county, N. Y., April 17, 1866, being the second oldest of six children born to Rodolphus and Lucy (Wells) Hinckley, also New Yorkers. The elder Hinckley served in a New York regiment during the Civil war. After the war he followed farming in Essex county until 1870, when he removed to Knox county, East Tennessee, and followed farming until 1877. At that time he brought his family to Humboldt county, Cal., locating at Yager, where he followed ranching. His wife died some eight or ten years ago, since which time he has lived retired.

 

Fred Hinckley was a lad of eleven years when he came to Humboldt county with his parents. He attended the local schools and assisted his father on the home ranch until he was twenty-two years of age, when he started for himself. For ten years without interruption he worked for L. S. Hurlbutt on his cattle ranch and then for three years for Nat Hurlbutt on the stock ranch. This brought it up to 1901, when he determined to engage in cattle growing as his chosen life work. Leasing the Nat Hurlbutt ranch on Mad river he started stock raising and a few years later, in partnership with his brother Rodolph, purchased the thirty-six hundred acre ranch from Nat Hurlbutt, and they have owned and operated it ever since. The ranch is well situated for cattle growing, being located just below Low Gap on Mad river. In the meantime the brothers acquired holdings of about three thousand acres at Yager and on the Grizzly range, among them the Becker ranch near Yager, where six years ago Fred Hinckley removed to make his headquarters and from which point he directs the affairs of the various ranches, while the brother Rodolph still makes the Nat Hurlbutt ranch his quarters.

 

Fred G. Hinckley was married in Los Angeles, being united with Miss Mattie Frame, the daughter of M. C. Frame, an old settler of Iaqua and post­master there until his death. In his political views Mr. Hinckley believes in the principles of the Republican Party.

 

 

DANIEL J. EAST.—A resident of California since 1861, and of Humboldt county since 1865, Daniel J. East was born near Ballorat, Australia, September 28, 1857, the oldest of nine children born to John R. and Sarah (Sweeney) East, natives of England and Ireland respectively. They were married in Australia, where John East was first a miner and later a farmer. In 1860 he came to San Francisco and the family joined him in 1861. He engaged in the wood business in Marin county. In 1865 he came to Humboldt county and homesteaded one hundred sixty acres near where Carlotta now is. The Indian war and troubles came on and after two raids of the Indians he moved his family to Hydesville. Five years later he moved to Rohnerville. One year after that he bought a farm on Eel River, where he remained until he died. The mother died in Eureka. From eight years of age Dan East was raised in Humboldt County and received his education in the public schools at Hydesville and Rohnerville, as well as the old college at Rohnerville. He remained home until twenty-one years of age, then went to the gold mines in Trinity County, where he operated placer mines for three years, after which he returned to his old home. The next three years were spent working in the redwoods there. With his brother Ed he farmed for two years, when they bought the old ferry across Eel River at Alton. The ferry was started in early days by Mr. Barnett. Dan East and his brother Ed ran it for twenty-seven or twenty-eight years, They built five different ferry boats on the river during this time. Ed sold his interest to another brother, Louis E. East, and the old ferry is known all over the county as East's ferry. Mean­time, in 1908 Dan bought the old Humphrey Sevastes place on the middle Yager, thirty-eight miles east of Eureka, known as Thousand Acre Field. Here he owns six hundred fifty-seven acres on the main road, which he devotes to stock raising and farming, principally stock. He continued to operate the ferry until early in 1915, when he sold it. He is principally engaged in cattle growing, his brand being D E.

 

Daniel J. East married in Eureka, July 3, 1893, being united with Miss Luella Hendricks, born in Healdsburg, Cal., daughter of Joseph and Lodrina (Gilbert) Hendricks, born in Missouri and California, respectively. They were engaged in stock raising in Sonoma county. In 1881 they moved to Humboldt County and engaged in farming in the Eel River Valley. He died near Fortuna. The mother now resides in Scotia. Fraternally Mr. East is a member of Eel River Lodge at Rohnerville, also the Encampment at Hydes­ville, and also is a member of the Ancient Order of Foresters in Fortuna. He has always been a stanch Republican in politics.

 

JASPER N. TURNER.—The Bull creek district of Humboldt county is one of the best known fruit raising sections of the state, the apples from that section being the finest of all that California produces, having taken the prize at the San Francisco Apple Show in the fall of 1914. Among the successful orchardists of this part of the county may be mentioned Jasper Turner, who owns a handsome place of two hundred thirty-two acres on Bull creek, which was the old Turner homestead, and belonged to his father since an early day. He has some ten acres in orchard, having both apples and prunes, but favoring the former, and his apples are among the finest raised in this locality. Mr. Turner is personally very highly regarded in his home community, where he has spent most of his thirty-five years, and where he now takes a promi­nent part in the affairs of the community. He is a Progressive Republican and takes an active interest in the political affairs of his section as well as of the county. He is broadminded and his grasp of a situation is fair and comprehensive. He has rendered valuable service to the party in various capacities, and is also serving the public at this time as a member of the local board of school trustees. In this interest in educational matters Mr. Turner is following in the footsteps of his father, who gave the land, an acre and a half, on which the local district school stands, and in many ways aided in the cause of establishing the local district on a firm foundation, until today it ranks as one of the best district schools in the entire county.

 

Mr. Turner was born in Humboldt County, Cal., in 1879, and was reared and educated within its confines. He attended the local schools and later assisted with the care of the farm, he being the youngest son in the family, and so remained to care for his father in his declining years. His father was Noah Hatton Turner, commonly known as N. H. Turner, a native of Missouri, born in Marion county, in 1835. He came to California in 1852, crossing the plains in the famous prairie schooners, and located first in Sonoma county, where he met and married Miss Mary Ross, who died when Jasper was ten years of age. The parents came up to Bull creek in 1875, and purchased the present place when it was public school land, the original tract containing two hundred forty acres. Of this an acre and a half were given for school purposes and several acres were sold, leaving the present amount two hundred thirty-two acres. Several years before his death the father became paralyzed, and he willed this property to the present owner in consideration of the care which was given him during his illness, the payment of doctor bills, and other expenses, and the raising of a mort­gaged indebtedness which it carried.' Mr. Turner is now engaged in diversi­fied farming, orcharding and stock raising, and is meeting with the greatest of success. He has forty head of stock, eight or ten horses and colts, and about a hundred hogs, on an average.

 

Mr. Turner is the youngest son in a family of ten children, there being two sisters younger than himself. The members of the family are all well and favorably known in Humboldt County, where they spent their youth, although they are scattered at this time. They are : Kate, the widow of John Myers, residing at Dyerville, and the mother of eight children; Jesse, residing at Gold Beach, Curry county, Ore., where he is engaged in stock raising; Nellie, who became the wife of Charles Bulger, of Fortuna, and died leaving one child ; Ezra, a stockman of Gold Beach, Curry county, Ore.; Annie, now the wife of Robert Kelly, a dairy farmer of Rio Dell, there being four children in their family ; William, a dairy rancher at Shirley, Humboldt county ; Ida, now the wife of A. B. Lewis, a rancher of the Bull creek district, with a family of six children ; Jasper N., the subject of this sketch ; Lenora, now the wife of Louis Forley, of Santa Clara, and the mother of four children ; and Leona, the wife of George Martin, an employe of the Newburg Mills at Fortuna, and the mother of three children. The last two mentioned are twins.

 

At Scotia, in 1898, Jasper Turner was married to Miss Agnes Rann, a native of Oregon. They have three children, Ila, Donald and Leonora.

 

 

JOHN C. BULL, JR.—Humboldt County has her share and more of able men, captains of industry and finance who have found it well worth their while to put their energies into local enterprise's, and none more deserving of note than John C. Bull, Jr., whose achievements have a definite place in the story of her development. Shipping has always played a large part in the prosperity of this part of the coast, and harbor facilities are as 'important as natural advantages of location. Mr. Bull's contribution therefore will have a permanent value, for it was he who built the jetty to the Humboldt harbor, a work with which every sailor who makes this port, and every other person interested in the success of Eureka as a maritime city, is familiar ; and for a number of years he has been at the head of the H. D. Bendixsen Shipbuild­ing Company, which has the reputation of producing some of the largest and finest steam and sailing vessels built along the coast. Nor has his ambition kept within the bounds of these interests, extensive as they have been. Other business undertakings, public utilities, official duties, fraternal associations, and more of the integral parts which unite to constitute the complete life of the community have been included in his busy career, well rounded by his contact with all the phases of local activity.

 

Mr. Bull is a native of Boston, Mass., in which city his parents, Capt. John C. and Melissa (Chapman) Bull, were reared. The father was a sailor for many years, shipping when a small boy on a whaling vessel, as so many New Englanders of his generation did. He rose to be a captain, and in 1845-46 had command of the bark Olga, in the Pacific coast trade, carrying hides and tallow to California and Mexican ports. About the time of the rush for gold he had an experience quite typical of the times, his crew desert­ing in a body in the bay of San Francisco. Moreover, he was unable to recruit enough new hands to man the ship, being obliged to abandon her. Returning to Boston he did not remain there long, bringing his family out with him around the Horn to San Francisco, where they arrived in May, 1850. After a few years' residence in San Francisco he came up the coast to Eureka, Humboldt county, and in 1856 settled at Arcata (then Union Town), this county, where he remained until his death, which occurred when he was eighty-three years old. He had kept hotel at Arcata until shortly before that event. He devoted all his attention to his private affairs, taking no part in public matters beyond the casting of his vote, with which he supported the Republican Party. His wife died when fifty-six years old. Their two children, born before they came to this state, were John C. and Amanda, the latter now the widow of W. F. Hustin.

 

John C. Bull, Jr., was born in April, 1840, and was in his eleventh year when the family made the memorable trip around the Horn. While yet a boy he commenced to learn the trade of plumber and coppersmith, remain­ing in San Francisco to complete his apprenticeship when the family re­moved to Eureka. In 1856 he joined them at Arcata, but after a few months returned to San Francisco to continue his education, attending the college at that city for a couple of years. He then gave his time to the cultivation of a ranch near Arcata, also conducting a meat market, and was thus occu­pied until 1892. Meantime he was on the lookout for opportunities, and. though he had been' carrying on his affairs modestly he had acquired con­siderable business experience and judgment, as his subsequent operations well prove. Thus it was that he came to take the government contract for the construction of the jetty to the Humboldt harbor, a work of great magnitude and one requiring executive qualities and intimate knowledge of local conditions possessed by few. The contract was for two million dollars, and the jetty was seven years in building, a statement which will be more easily under­stood when it is known that one million, three hundred twenty thousand tons of rock alone were required. So conscientiously and scientifically did he perform this task that it is considered one of the most substantial pieces of harbor work along the coast, and its success has been a most appreciable factor of the popularity of Eureka as a shipping point. Humboldt bay is being more favorably looked upon from year to year by those having mari­time interests, and there is every evidence that the outlook is better now than it ever has been, so that the expenditures which have been made in the improvement of its harbor will be more than repaid as time proves their value.

 

After the completion of the jetty Mr. Bull put considerable capital into the shipbuilding industry, purchasing the shipyard in which he has ever since had such large interests. He is president of the H. D. Bendixsen Ship­building Company, which employs a large number of skilled workmen, and which has acquired and maintained a leading position among concerns of its kind. It would be the exception to find a capitalist of public spirit in Humboldt county who has not at one time or another had some transactions in redwood timber, and Mr. Bull is no exception. He was vice-president of the Redwood Land and Investment Company, and had a quarter interest in the Bayside Mill and Lumber Company ; was one of the incorporators of the Bank of Arcata, and has served as one of the directors of that institution; and was owner of the Eureka Street Railway Company, of which he has been president. His cooperation in the establishment and conduct of all these was heartily welcomed and considered invaluable, for the influence of his support alone was sufficient to insure their being well received in the com­munity. Moreover, his shrewd judgment and ability to carry out large enterprises instilled confidence in everything with which he was connected, inviting the good will which is the spirit of success. Other projects not directly connected with his private affairs, yet conducive to the general well­being, have received as generous a share of his attention. He has been a prominent member of the chamber of commerce and served as one of the board of directors, arid he has been one of the directors of the Humboldt county fair..

 

A stanch Republican in political matters, Mr. Bull has enjoyed party activities, has served a number of years as chairman of the Republican county central committee, and although he has never sought public position for himself has been influential in assisting the candidates of his party and is well known among officials. He served one term as sheriff, in 1875-76.

 

Mr. Bull has joined various fraternal bodies, holding membership in Arcata Lodge, F. & A. M. ; Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T.; Arcata Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., of which he is a past grand; Eureka Lodge, K. P.; and a charter member of the Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E.

 

Mr. Bull was married when but nineteen years old to Miss Mary Hunt, a native of Baltimore, Md., who died in the west when forty-four years old. She left a family of five children.

 

 

HUGH B. STEWART has been engaged in educational work during his entire life, choosing it as his life work while a student in the high school, and since that time all his activities have been carried on with that end in view, his aim being to acquire the latest methods for the instruction of pupils in the public schools. A native son of Humboldt county, Hugh B. Stewart was born in Eureka, March 21, 1878, the son of E. J. and Caroline S. (Dresser) Stewart, natives respectively of Quebec and Maine. The father came to Humboldt county in the early '70s. He followed the lumber industry principally as tallyman in the old Jones mill and afterwards in the Vance mill. He died in 1881, when his son Hugh was only three years of age. His widow some years afterwards was married to T. J. Alverson, and after this mar­riage she continued to make her home in Eureka until shortly before her demise, having gone to San Francisco on account of her health, and there she died, March 21, 1891. Of her first marriage were born three children : J. D., a resident of Walnut Creek, Cal. ; Hugh B., of this review ; and E. J., Jr., tallyman for Dolbeer-Carson Lumber Company, in Eureka. The three chil­dren born of the second union are : Edward R., residing in Haywards, Cal.; Ruth, Mrs. J. A. Cummings, of Eureka ; and Caroline, Mrs. Robert Wilson, of Centralia, Wash.

 

Hugh B. Stewart, who was reared in Eureka, was orphaned at thirteen years of age, after which he lived with his maternal grandmother. When he had finished his studies in the grammar schools he entered the Eureka High School, from which he was graduated in 1897. Obtaining a teacher's certifi­cate, he immediately began his career as teacher in the Bull Creek district, after which he taught in the Glendale district and the Myers district, and then began teaching in the Eureka schools. During that time, ten years, he was principal of the Grant, Lafayette, Washington and Jefferson schools, respectively. In January, 1911, he was elected principal of the Arcata gram­mar schools, and has continued at the head of the schools ever since, and as principal has endeared himself not only to the scholars, but to all residents of the place. During this time the Pleasant Hill school building was built. Four separate buildings house the grammar schools of Arcata, in charge of a corps of eight teachers, besides the manual training department, which will be opened in January, 1916, with one instructor.

 

Mr. Stewart has continued taking advanced courses with different educa­tional institutions and he is now doing work in the Humboldt State Normal School.

 

The marriage of Mr. Stewart occurred in Eureka, February 21, 1909, uniting him with Miss Georgia A. McLean, a native daughter of Eureka, and they have three children, Esther, Byron and Janet. Fraternally he was made a Mason in Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., of which he is past master, and with his wife is a member of Arcata Chapter No. 207, 0. E. S. He is also a member of Eureka Lodge No. 636, L. 0. 0. M.

 

 

L. C. LORENTZEN.—In his residence on his beautiful farm. in a bend of the Mad river lives L. C. Lorentzen, who has been a resident of Humboldt county since January, 1898. He was born in Tondern, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, October 17, 1863. His parents, Jorgen and Maria (Schmidt) Lorentzen, were also natives of that place and were descended from old and honorable families there. The father was a farmer in well-to-do circumstances and resided there until his death in 1898. The mother is still living in the old home.

 

Of their five children L. C. Lorentzen is the oldest and was reared on the farm until the age of sixteen years, his education being obtained in the public schools. At the age of sixteen he was apprenticed to the shoemaker's and harnessmaker's trade, learning .both trades during his apprenticeship. When twenty years of age, as was the custom and law of the country, he was mustered into the German army and served three years, after which he was honorably discharged in 1886. He then established himself in business in his native place and ran a shoemaking as well as a harnessmaking establish­ment, continuing actively in the business until 1898. He had a brother, Hans Christian, who had migrated to Humboldt County in 1886 and had returned to the old home on a visit. His favorable reports of the country and the splendid opportunities that awaited young men who were energetic and eager to engage in business made a great impression upon the mind of L. C. Lorentzen, and it was natural that he should determine to come to California also. It was in January, 1898, that he arrived in Eureka with his wife and two children. For two years he worked for his brother, who was a dairyman. Then he worked another year in the same line of work on ranches near Fern­dale. Having accumulated some means, he determined to start in dairying for himself. He leased a dairy farm near Ferndale and operated it for three years, and then moved to Arcata bottoms and leased a ranch of sixty acres on Mad River. Later he leased thirty acres more, thus farming ninety acres on which he had a dairy of forty cows. At the end of seven years he sold his lease and purchased the Luther G. Crawford ranch of one hundred acres on Mad river and has resided there ever since. He has improved the place, one-half being under plow and rich bottom land, where he raises sufficient hay and green feed for his dairy herd of forty cows. He also leased one hundred acres of the Shaw place, which he farms in connection with his own. The ranch is beautifully located in a bend of the Mad River about three and one-half miles north of Arcata and is a splendid farm.

 

Mr. Lorentzen was married in Tondern, Germany, to Miss Annie C. Jacobsen, and they have five children living, as follows : John, Christian, Andrew, Leonard and Anton.

 

Mr. Lorentzen is a member of the Danish Brotherhood and of the Wood­men of the World, and is a member of the Danish Lutheran Church at Arcata, being a member of the board of trustees. Politically he is a stanch Republican.

 

 

MANVEL BRAZIL.—A young man who is meeting with success in his chosen occupation, Manvel Brazil was born at Topo, St. George, Azores, August 8, 1882. His father, Antone Brazil, was a farmer at Topo, and Manvel as a boy learned farming and dairying, receiving his education in the local schools. He remained at home assisting his parents until he came to Cali­fornia. He had relatives- in the state, among them an aunt and uncle, Mr. and Mrs. Manvel Faustino, in Humboldt County, and young Manvel heard such flattering reports of better opportunities and wages in the new country he determined to try his fortune on the Pacific coast. In 1900 he arrived in San Francisco and came immediately on to Humboldt county, where he found employment on his uncle's dairy at Petrolia. Six months later his uncle removed to Elk River and the young emigrant continued with him for another year. Coming to Freshwater he was employed on the dairy farm of Harry Marks for two years, and then for George Walker at Walker's Point for thirteen months. For the next three years he worked for the Freshwater Company, having charge of the creamery on their dairy ranch.

 

Having saved sufficient money to start in dairying for himself, in 1907 Mr. Brazil leased the Zane ranch of two hundred seventy acres on Elk river and ran a dairy of sixty cows, continuing there for seven years and meeting with success. In the fall of 1914 he sold his lease and came to the Bayside district and leased the present place of two hundred seventy acres. This is on the Arcata road about eight miles from Eureka. The entire ranch is devoted to dairying, having a herd of seventy-two milch cows, which he is gradually increasing, .with the intention of having a herd of one hundred. The ranch has over two hundred acres of bottom land, which gives him ample pasture as well as raising plenty of hay and green feed for his splendid herd of cows.

 

Mr. Brazil was married in Eureka, June 20, 1912, being united with Miss Annie Wagner, a native daughter of Humboldt county, born at Freshwater, the daughter of John and Rose Wagner, who were early settlers of Humboldt county, and engaged in farming and dairying. Mr. and Mrs. Brazil have one child, Manvel, Jr. Politically Mr. Brazil is a stanch Republican and takes pride in having become a citizen of the United States.

 

WILLIAM A. RICHMOND is a native son of California, born at Somersville, Contra Costa county, February 3, 1866, and was there reared until twelve years of age. His father, Thomas Richmond, was a native of Wales, where he was married. He then removed to Australia, where he followed mining, but later returned to England. In 1862 he came to the United States, landing at San Francisco. For a few ,years he engaged in mining in Sierra county, then removed to Contra Costa county, where he engaged in coal mining at Mount Diablo, being superintendent of the Inde­pendent Mining Company's coal mines. He divided his time between coal mining and gold mining until the time of his death, about 1881. His wife Ann died about the same time.

 

W. A. Richmond was the youngest of four children. He was reared at Somersville, Contra Costa county, up to the year 1878, when he made his first trip to Humboldt county, remaining one year and then returned to Somersville. His education was obtained in the public schools of California. In 1882 he returned to Humboldt county and this has been the scene of his operations ever since. For a time he went to school and then entered the employ of W. B. Alford, working in his drug store in Ferndale for three years. In 1887 he was employed by the Excelsior Redwood Company on Gunther's Island and became tallyman. In 1888 he went to Scotia with the Pacific. Lumber Company as tallyman, remaining for eighteen months. He then returned to the Excelsior Redwood Company, having charge of the shipping and also of the steamer Phoenix engaged in general towing on Hum­boldt bay, but principally in towing barges of rock for the government jetty. In 1896 Mr. Richmond became associated with Flanagan & Brosnan Com­pany in their mills at Bayside. They were also furnishing rock for jetties. Mr. Richmond was bookkeeper in the office until 1900, when the company sold out to the Bayside Mill and Lumber Company. Mr. Richmond took charge of the latter company's operations as superintendent of the plant until it was sold to the Bayside Lumber Company in 1905. He continued with the new company in the same capacity until 1907, when he resigned and accepted the position of bookkeeper in the office of the Humboldt Commercial Company, a position which he held until 1910. He then spent some time traveling on the coast in recuperating his health. In April, 1912, he accepted the position of superintendent of M. A. Burns Manufacturing Company's plant at Camp No. 4 near Fieldbrook. The mill is engaged in manufacturing shingles and shakes, also getting out ties, with a capacity of 250,000 shingles per day and 15,000 shakes.

 

Mr. Richmond was married in Eureka, November 2, 1891, being united with Miss Lulu Johnston, a native daughter of the county, born on Bear river. Her father, Richard Johnston, a native of County Fermanagh, Ireland, was a merchant in Australia. In 1849 he came to California and followed mining. In 1855 he came from Weaverville to Humboldt and thus became one of the pioneers of the county. Fraternally Mr. Richmond is a member of Ferndale Parlor, N. S. G. W., and Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. In his political views Mr. Richmond is a straight Republican.

 

JOHN BRAZIL.—The dairy industry has become one of the most important in Humboldt county and has made it the leading county in the state as far as dairying is concerned. There has been a material change in the methods employed in this business since the early days. When Mr. Brazil first came to Humboldt county many people were still panning the milk and skimming the cream by hand, and now the separators are universally used, there are numerous creameries located at convenient places in the county, while there is also a large condensed milk plant where are manufactured evaporated and powdered milk. Among the men who have engaged in dairy­ing actively and with success is John Brazil, a resident of Humboldt county for twenty-seven years.

 

John Brazil was born in Rio Janeiro, Brazil, June 15, 1866, the son of Joe Enos and Mary Brazil. The father was in business in Rio Janeiro for many years, but returned to St. George, Azores Islands, where he was born, and there he became a substantial farmer. He passed away in 1914, and his widow died in 1915. Of their seven children John was the second oldest. The scenes of his first recollections are clustered around Rio Janeiro, Brazil. When a lad he went to the Island of St. George, Azores, with his parents, where he assisted on the home farm and attended the local public schools. Being desirous of trying his fortune in the land beyond the seas, he migrated to Massachusetts in 1883. There he found employment in cotton mills in Lawrence and afterwards also worked on farms there. After remaining in Massachusetts for five years he came to Humboldt county, Cal., in 1888, and has since made his home here. By industry and perseverance he has become a man of affairs. For a while he was employed on dairy farms and later as a woodsman. About 1897 he leased a ranch on Kneeland Prairie, but un­fortunately the year proved disastrous to him and he was compelled to return to work in the woods to make another stake. After several years of steady work and economy he again found himself in a position to start dairying on his own account. For this purpose he leased four hundred acres near Fields Landing, where he engaged in farming and dairying for six .years, having a dairy of forty cows. In March, 1913, he came to his present place, having leased the Henry Devoy ranch of three hundred twelve acres on the Fresh­water Marsh, where with the aid of his sons he is operating one of the largest dairies in the county, milking one hundred thirty-five cows during the season. The herd is of high grade stock, the animals having been carefully selected for their yield of rich milk. The separator is run by an electric motor and the cream is shipped to the Central Creameries Company, Eureka. The ranch is all bottom land, which gives Mr. Brazil not only ample pasture, but an abundance of green feed for his herd of cows.

 

The marriage of Mr. Brazil occurred in Lawrence, Mass., uniting him with Miss Mary Mendoza, a native of the Azores. To them have been born eleven children, ten of whom are living, as follows : John, Abel, Ida (Mrs. Costa), Enos, Fred, Louis, Frank, Joseph, Sadge and George. Fraternally Mr. Brazil is a member of the I. D. E. S. All of the family are ardent members of St. Bernard's Catholic Church, Eureka. Politically Mr. Brazil believes in the principles of the Republican party.

 

JOHN HOWARD JORDAN.—A man with thirty-five years'. experience in the lumber industry in Humboldt county, John Howard Jordan is an able and valuable man in his chosen occupation, holding the position of fore­man of the woods at Fieldbrook for the Dolbeer-Carson Lumber Company, his many years of experience fitting him admirably for the place. He was born at Oak Bay, near St. Stephen, Charlotte County, New Brunswick, May 18, 1860. His father, John Jordan, who followed farming and logging in New Brunswick, spent five years on Humboldt Bay, when he returned to Oak Bay and again followed farming and logging, continuing this until his death.

 

John H. Jordan was reared at Oak Bay, receiving a good education in the public schools of the vicinity. He remained at home assisting his father until he was seventeen years of age, when he started out for himself. His first employment was on railroad construction, which he followed until October, 1879, when he came to California, spending the first four months near Davisville, Yolo County. In the spring of 1880 he came to Humboldt county, being employed by D. R. Jones, and in 1885 he entered the employ of the Dolbeer-Carson Lumber Company, and has continued with them ever since. His close application to his work and the interest he has taken in logging from the time he was a boy give him a knowledge of everything connected with his work, from judging the standing timber and the felling of trees to loading them on cars ready for transportation to the mill. This was recognized when in 1904 he was made foreman of the woods at Field-brook, which position he has filled very satisfactorily ever since.

 

Mr. Jordan owns a comfortable residence at No. 1423 Sixth street, Eureka, where he makes his home. His marriage occurred in Eureka and united him with Miss Lillian Hart, who is a native daughter of Humboldt county, born on Third street, Eureka, the daughter of George Hart, one of the early settlers. Of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Jordan hare been born two children : Percy, who is first engineer on the steamer Topeka, and Leslie, employed on the steamer Great Northern. Fraternally Mr. Jordan is a member of the Knights of Pythias in Eureka and of Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. Politically he has always been a Republican. He is a liberal and kind-hearted man, being very helpful and charitable to those who have been less fortunate than himself, and is much esteemed by his many friends for his modest, unassuming and kindly ways.

 

 

WILLIAM CLARENCE HAVENS--A resident of Humboldt County since 1887, and now engaged in dairying at Fieldbrook, William C. Havens was born in Dayton, Green county, Wis., March 11, 1866, the son of Luther Havens, who died the night William was born. During the Civil war he was a member of the Eighth Wisconsin Artillery. He had been taken prisoner and was confined in Andersonville for seven months, when he returned home, being honorably discharged, but never saw a well day after that. In 1867 his widow removed to Waseca county, Minn., and later to Lyon county, that state, where our subject was reared on a farm and educated in the public schools. When nine years old he began to earn his own livelihood, working hard on farms during summers and going to school winters. He continued to live in that vicinity until he came to Humboldt county, in June, 1887. For some years he was in the employ of the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia, working in their sawmill, and finally becoming planerman. After continuing there for three years he concluded to engage in farming and bought the place of one hundred sixty acres at Fieldbrook which is now his home. When he located on the place there were no houses on it and the land was covered with stumpage. After clearing it he improved and culti­vated a portion of the land each year, and now forty acres are under the plow. Recently he purchased a donkey engine to facilitate the removal of stumps. He is raising clover and 'green feed for milch cows, of which he has twenty-five. Mr. Havens built the comfortable residence occupied by his family. He was married at Port Kenyon, Humboldt county, in 1888, being united with Miss Mattie Kinney, born in Wisconsin but reared in Minnesota. They have five children: Angeline, Clarence, Lawrence, Harold and Howard. For nine years Mr. Havens was a trustee of the Fieldbrook school district. Fraternally he is an Ancient Odd Fellow and is a member of Eel River Lodge at Rohnerville. Politically he is a member of the Progressive party.

 

 

ALEXANDER CHRISTIE.—Among the farmers and dairymen of Fieldbrook, Alexander Christie has been a resident of Humboldt county since 1888. He was born near Ballycastle, County Antrim, Ireland, August 26, 1863, the son of Daniel and Mary (Elliott) Christie, also natives of Antrim and of Scotch descent. His father was a farmer there, so young Alexander was brought up on the farm and educated in the public schools in the vicinity. In 1884 he came to Bryn Mawr, Pa., where his uncle, John Christie, was a contractor. He worked for him and others until 1888, when he came to Hum­boldt county. He was employed in the Carson & Snyder mill on Salmon creek. In 1889 he entered the employ of John Vance as woodsman and in the summer of that year logged on the place he now owns. He continued with John Vance nine years, becoming head swamper. During this time he purchased the present place of eighty acres on the Fieldbrook road, and in 1896 located on it, at once beginning to clear and improve it. In the spring of 1898 he made the trip to Klondyke via Skagway and over Chilcoot Pass, reaching the divide March 16. At Dawson he located claims, but they did not prove profitable, and later he worked at mining and also for the govern­ment building roads. After remaining nearly four years in the frozen north he returned to Humboldt county and again took up the improvement of the ranch.

 

In the fall of 1901 Mr. Christie returned to his old home in County Antrim and while there he was married, July 4, 1902, to Sarah McGowan. Immediately after their marriage they set sail for the United States, coming direct to Humboldt county, where Mr. Christie again resumed work on his ranch, carrying on farming and dairying. He also bought other land, and now has ninety-two and one-half acres, upon which he is engaged in farming and stock raising. The large and comfortable residence which he built and occupies is one of the finest country homes in the Fieldbrook district. Mr. and Mrs. Christie have eight children, viz.: Mary, Sarah, Alexander, Ernest, John, Alfred, Ralph and Rachael. Fraternally he was made a Mason in Ballintoy Lodge, F. & A. M. (County Antrim, Ireland), and is now affiliated with Arcata Lodge No. 106, F. & A. M. In religious views he is an Episco­palian, having been reared in that faith, while politically he has always been a Republican.

 

 

ERNEST W. DIXON.—The superintendent of the Jacoby creek stone quarries, above Bayside, Humboldt County, is Ernest W. Dixon. He was born at Elk City, Ore., March 12, 1878, the son of James E. and Mary (Hamar) Dixon, born in Missouri and Kansas respectively. The latter crossed the plains over the old Oregon trail with their parents to Oregon in 1845. The grandfather, J. E. Dixon, located and owned the Donation Land Claim of six hundred forty acres, the present site of Corvallis, Ore., while Grandfather James Hamar afterwards located on Yaquina Bay, Lincoln County, Ore. James E. Dixon was a farmer on Yaquina Bay and was also a mail-carrier before the railroad was built. At the age of seventy-six he is now living re­tired on his old home place. The mother is demised. .

 

Of the six children born of this union Ernest W. is the second youngest. He was brought up on the farm, receiving his education in, the public schools. When fourteen years of age he started to work in the stone quarry at Yaquina Bay, continuing there steadily until sixteen, when he again attended school for two winters, continuing to work during the summers to defray his expenses. Some time afterwards he went to Washington, going to work in the Big Stone quarries at Fisher on the Columbia river, getting out rock for the jetty. He worked his way up until he became foreman and afterwards rose to be superintendent of the quarries, making an exceedingly creditable showing. However, he resigned this position to become superintendent of quarries on Lopez Island, Puget Sound, where he continued nearly one year. It was then that he was offered his present position in Humboldt county as superintendent of the Jacoby creek quarries, of which he took charge in June, 1912. The quarries had just been opened at that time, but since then they have been enlarged and another quarry has also been opened. The quarries are well equipped with the latest machinery, such as compressed air drills, the air being compressed by electric power. There are five mammoth derricks and two large cranes, which are operated by steam power. By this method it is possible to obtain the largest rock, some of which weigh twenty-five tons. The rock is loaded on cars and transported to barges, and is then taken by two tow boats to the jetties. This company operates and owns its own engines, cars, barges and tugs, over which Mr. Dixon has general super­vision. It is by far the largest industry of its kind in the county, and some idea of its extent can be had when we state that two hundred men are em­ployed by the company in the quarries and the transportation of the rock.

 

In Salem, Ore., Mr. Dixon was married, October 14,. 1900, to Miss Katie Lathrop, born in Hartford, S. Dak., the daughter of P. N. and Kate (Bradley) Lathrop, born in New York and Ohio respectively. They were married in Galesburg, Ill. The father served in an Illinois regiment in the Civil war. From Illinois Mr. and Mrs. Lathrop removed to South Dakota, where he ran a creamery. From there they went to Oregon and in 1913 came to Bay-side, where they now live. Mrs. Dixon was reared and educated in Oregon. They have two children, Newell and Wanda. Fraternally he is a member of Vancouver Lodge No. 3, I. 0. 0. F., also a member of the United Artisans in Elk City, Ore. Politically he is a stanch Republican.

 

 

SAM BETTENCOURT.—A dairyman on Freshwater creek, Sam Betten­court has been a resident of California since 1889. He was born on the Island of St. George, Azores, March 22, 1873. His father, Antone Bettencourt, was a man of extensive affairs in St. George Island, for besides being a large farmer and stockraiser there he was engaged in importing coffee from Brazil and was a successful business man.

 

Sam Bettencourt grew up on his parents' farm in St. George, and re­mained there until 1889, when he came to California. The advantages for obtaining an education in St. George were meager. So on his arrival here he endeavored to make up for this lack by hiring an instructor. In this way he obtained a good knowledge of English and in a short while he was able to read and write the language of his adopted country as well as his native language. His first employment was in San Mateo, Cal., working on a dairy farm there for about six years. With the means which he had saved in the meantime he started in the dairy business for himself. In San Mateo he leased ranches and milked from one hundred fifty to two hundred cows while in that county. Later he ran a dairy in Santa Clara county, where he had a dairy herd of one hundred milch cows. In September, 1914, he came to Hum­boldt county and leased the Dr. Felt ranch, where ever since he has engaged in dairying. Here he has one hundred ninety-three acres on Freshwater creek, where he has ample pasture and feed for his herd, numbering one hundred twenty-five head, of which about seventy are milch cows, fine registered Jerseys, in fact the best Jersey stock in California. This gives him a splendid quality of milk which is well received by his customers. He has a retail milk route in Eureka which he serves regularly each day. He has a splendid arrangement for cooling the milk, which is delivered in ex­cellent condition.

 

Mr. Bettencourt was married in San Mateo, Cal., to Cora Borges, born near Virginia City, Nev. They have three children, Manuel, Mariana and Adelina. Fraternally he is a member of the I. D. E. S., while politically he is a Republican.

 

 

EMILIO PERACCA was born in Pelio, Province of Como, Italy, July 4, 1883, the son of Pietro and Catherina (Borgio) Peracca, farmers of that place. Emilio was the oldest of seven children and after completing the public schools he assisted his parents on the farm. Having heard of the opportunity of good wages and steady employment for industrious young men in Cali­fornia, he concluded to come hither, and in November, 1902, he came to Sonoma County, Cal., where he was employed on a dairy farm until 1903, in that year coming to Humboldt county. Here he worked for Joe Moranda, a dairyman at Loleta, for three years, and when Mr. Moranda removed his activities to Arcata, Mr. Peracca still continued in his employ, remaining on the dairy at the latter place for two years. Returning to Loleta, he entered the employ of Mrs. Mozzini, continuing on her dairy ranch for two years, when he concluded to engage in dairying on his own account. For this purpose he leased the Jim Moranda place, where he operated a dairy for three years. In October; 1914, he formed the present partnership with Emillio Bettigieo and leased two hundred sixty acres, on which they are conducting a dairy of eighty cows. The ranch is well adapted for dairying and stock raising, the rich bottom land yielding an abundance of hay and green feed.

 

Mr. Peracca is an enterprising and progressive man who is ever ready to contribute of his means to worthy enterprises for the upbuilding and improvement of the community.

 

 

JOHN MILLEN SIMPSON.—As president of the Eureka city council, and one of the men whose faithful and untiring efforts were instrumental in having the city purchase the water system which supplies its mains, John Millen Simpson is recognized as an important factor in the life and develop­ment of Eureka and the surrounding country. He is a native of this city and is descended from one of the old and highly respected pioneer families of the county. His father, James Simpson, was born in New Brunswick, Canada, and was a ship carpenter by trade. He came to the United States when he was a young man and served on the Union side during the Civil war. In 1868 he came to California, locating in Eureka, where he engaged in ship carpentering. Later, in 1876 or 1878, he opened a shipyard of his own and for several years conducted this with great success. After this he was en­gaged in contracting and building and was well known in this line in Eureka and vicinity, following this line of occupation until he retired from active busi­ness several years ago. He was married to Miss Elizabeth Hickey, a native of Maine, and both he and his wife are at present residing in Eureka, where they are well known.

 

Mr. Simpson was born in Eureka, Humboldt County, Cal., January 25, 1874. He passed his boyhood days in his native city, attending first the public schools and later matriculating at Phelps Academy, where in due time he graduated. After being employed in Eureka for a time he entered the employ of the Iron Mountain Company, Limited, proprietors of the smelter at Kes­wick, Shasta County. He began his service here as bookkeeper, but worked his way up until he became manager of the local company store. He applied himself very closely to his work, and this, in connection with the fumes of the sulphur and arsenic from the smelter, made serious inroads on his health, forcing him to give up his position and return to Eureka to recuperate. His health was soon regained and he shortly entered the employ of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company, at San Francisco, as freight clerk, soon after­ward being promoted to the position of purser, and for eight years continued in this capacity in the coasting vessels between San Diego and Victoria, B. C. In 1900 he left the sea for good and returned to Eureka, where he became local agent for the North Pacific Steamship Company, holding this position until 1911, when he resigned to become resident agent for the Western Pacific Railroad until this agency was given up. In December, 1912, he was elected secretary of Eureka Aerie No. 130, F. 0. E., and has held this office since that time. During this period the order erected the present magnificent Eagles' Home at Eureka, a large three-story brick structure, 60x110 feet, and one of the finest lodge buildings in the state, and thoroughly modern in arrangement and appointments. The aerie has a mem­bership of nine hundred fifty and is the largest in Humboldt County.

 

Mr. Simpson has been very prominent in forwarding the best interests of Eureka, and for many years has taken an important part in all municipal affairs. In 1907 he was elected a member of the city council and was re­elected to succeed himself in 1909, 1911 and 1913. He was chosen president Of the council in 1909-11 and again in 1913-15, being in that responsible posi­tion at this time. As the chairman of the finance committee, chairman of the street and alleys committee, and similar capacities, he has been active for public improvements. In his connection with the city council he used all his influence for the cause of city ownership of the municipal water system and so ardently did he plead for this with the aid of fellow-workers in the council, that the day was finally won and an election called which voted bonds for the purpose of taking over the city water system, a thing that is now accomplished, Eureka being one of the cities to lead in municipal ownership in the state.

 

The marriage of Mr. Simpson took place in Berkeley, Cal., October 25, 1898, uniting him with Miss Agnes Esson, a native of Bay City, Mich. Mrs. Simpson has borne her husband five children, all of whom are well and favor­ably known in Eureka. They are Millen L., Nathelle, James, Jack and Wayne. Both Mr. and Mrs. Simpson are deservedly popular among their many friends in Eureka and San Francisco, and Mr. Simpson is particularly prominent in fraternal affairs. Besides the Eagles, of which order he is recognized as one of the leading members, he is a member of the Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E., and Humboldt Parlor No. 14, N. S. G. W. In his political affilia­tions Mr. Simpson is a stanch Republican, but is far bigger than any mere party, being an advocate at, all times of those principles and measures which stand for the best growth and development of the city, county and state, and never fearing to desert party lines when the welfare of the community demands it. He is a member of the Episcopal Church of Eureka.

 

 

ROBERT H. BOHMANSSON.—The superior advantages afforded by the Stockholm College of Pharmacy gave to Mr. Bohmansson an early and adequate training in the occupation to which he has devoted himself from young manhood. Descended from an old Scandinavian family, he was born in Sweden, April 19, 1865,- and received a common school education prior to takirig up pharmaceutical studies under special instructors at the capital city. On the completion of his course in the college he came to the United States in 1889 and proceeded direct to Nebraska, where he found employment in Omaha. Two years later he came' to California, which since 1891 has been his home and the center of his business enterprises. As a clerk in a San Fran­cisco drug store he gained the experience necessary for the management of a business of his own. It was not long before he availed himself of an oppor­tunity to acquire a business and established a drug store on the corner of Folsom and First streets.

 

Coming to Humboldt County in 1900, Mr. Bohmansson opened a drug store at Arcata. From the first he received a fair patronage. Later he estab­lished a branch at Blue Lake and still later opened a drug store at No. 301 F street, Eureka, the latter being now the only one in his possession, although for a few years he owned and managed all three establishments. During 1910 he removed to Eureka, where with his wife, formerly Amelia Rundblad, a native of Sweden, and their children, Elsa, Greta and Ruskin, all Californians by birth, he has established a comfortable home and entered into affiliation with the social life of the community. His time is given almost wholly to the management of his store and he has taken no part whatever in politics or local affairs, nor is he connected with any of the fraternities excepting the Scottish Rite Masons and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks.

 

 

GEORGE HILLER.--A native of France, George Hiller was born in Alsace-Lorraine, January 1, 1832. When a lad of fifteen years he came to the United States with an older brother and sister in 1847 and settled in Buffalo, N. Y., where their brother Jacob had preceded them. In that city he learned and for several years followed the shoemaker's trade. His brother Michael, who had come with him from France, in 1851 made the trip to California via Cape Horn, whither he was followed two years later by George, who came west via the Isthmus of Panama. Before leaving for the west, however, he had the satisfaction of seeing his parents and younger brothers and sister settled comfortably in a little home in Lancaster, Erie County, N. Y. For eleven years thereafter George Hiller was occupied with gold mining in Shasta County, Cal., in which he made a very good start in life. He came to Humboldt County for the first time in 1857, and thereafter .his sum­mers were passed here in farming, while during the winters he followed mining in Shasta county. During his early residence in Humboldt County he advanced money to John C. O'Connor and took security on the farm at Alton. O'Connor defaulting, Mr. Hiller had to foreclose and thus secured the land. He came here to settle in 1864, having that year married in San Fran­cisco Miss Charlotte C. Joerrs, a native of Hanover, Germany, who had come directly from that country to America by way of the Isthmus of Panama and landed in San Francisco December 25, 1863. The young couple made ex­tensive improvements on the farm, engaging in grain and stock raising and hauling the produce to Bucksport with ox teams, a distance of twenty-two miles. Besides this property Mr. Hiller owned two hundred forty acres at Alton purchased in 1862, was also the owner of two farms at Grizzly Bluff and one at Dow's Prairie in Humboldt county, and about twelve hundred acres of stock and timber land. He used to kill his own hogs and put up a brand of bacon known as the Eel River Bacon, which was in good demand at mines and lumber camps. On June 30, 1910, his residence was destroyed by fire, after which he built a substantial and attractive farm residence in the bungalow style on the old Hiller homestead near Alton, and here his widow makes her home, keeping house for three of her sons and making frequent visits to San Francisco, where she has warm personal friends and old-time acquaintances.

 

Mr. Hiller had helped to organize the Eel River Lodge No. 210, I. 0. 0. F., at Rohnerville, Cal., and was the last of its charter members to die, having been connected with this lodge for fifty-five years. For about sixty years he was• a Mason, belonging to the Eel River Lodge No. 142 at Fortuna, and he was buried in Rohnerville Cemetery with Masonic honors by that lodge, his death occurring at his home in Alton, June 27, 1914, at the age of eighty-two years, five months and twenty-seven days.

 

Besides his widow, George Hiller left seven sons, two children, a son and a daughter, having died in childhood. Named in order of birth the children are as follows : George, Jr., who died at the age of eight years, in 1873 ; Philip Alexander, born December 26, 1867, now a resident of Alton ; Theodore Ferdinand, born at San Francisco, February 10, 1869, now a farmer at Grizzly Bluff ; Charlotte C., who died at the age of four years, in 1873 ; Frederick M., born June 1, 1872, residing at San Francisco, having been a salesman with the Crane Company, plumbers, for twenty-two years ; Henry George, born March 27, 1874, now a rancher at Alton ; Charles R., born April 5, 1876, also on the home farm ; Benjamin Franklin, born May 6, 1878, now an attorney, at Ferndale ; and Albert William, born September 15, 1879, a physician in Los Angeles.

 

Mrs. Hiller was born in Hildesheim, Hanover, September 15, 1838, the daughter of Valentine and Bernardina Joerrs, also Hanoverians. The father was a blacksmith and also a land surveyor, which latter business he was following at the time of his death, while still a young man in his thirties. Mrs. Joerrs died in San Francisco at the age of seventy-nine. The only child in her parents' family to attain maturity, Mrs. Hiller received her education in Hanover, and when about twenty-five years old came to the United States in 1863, reaching San Francisco via Panama. She was attracted to San Fran­cisco owing to the fact that two uncles, William and Henry Joerrs, resided there. In an early day, 1847, they had come here from Buenos Ayres and were the pioneer carpenters and builders in San Francisco.

 

WILLIAM H. HAW.—The son of a pioneer settler of Humboldt county, Cal., William H. Haw, whose talents are being devoted to the developing and furthering of the resources of this state, is a man of whom California may well be proud. The ancestry of Mr. Haw dates back to both Scotland and Ireland, his grandparents, Henry and Margaret (Clydesdale) Haw, hav­ing come from Scotland to the latter country, where their son, Robert A., the father of William H. Haw, was born May 19, 1827. Three years later the family removed to the United States, settling in Brooklyn, N. Y., where the father continued to follow his trade of weaver for six years, at which time he bought a farm in Steuben County, N. Y., where he died some time later at the age of sixty years. On his father's farm in Steuben County the son Robert's childhood was principally spent, he attending school from there by means of a trail blazed through the woods. After taking up the study of the millwright's trade, Robert Haw was employed in that line until the year 1854, in which year he removed to California, making the journey by way of the Isthmus of Panama, and after settling in Humboldt county, Cal., he found the business of millwright a most profitable .one in his new home, for he was employed in the erection of several mills along the Pacific coast, among them being those at Hoopa, Hydesville and Eureka. By his marriage with Ruth Ann Hatch in New York state, Robert A. Haw became the father of three children, namely : Carrie I., deceased ; Lillian, the wife of Capt. Henry Weber; and William H., who has made a name for himself in the quarrying and contracting business, having opened up and equipped with the most modern machinery one of the best quarries to be found in California, which quarry. he is now operating.

 

It may be said that to Mr. Haw much credit is due for the good condition of the streets of the city of Eureka and the roads of Humboldt County. The stone from his quarry is of the variety known as tachylite, being a basaltic lava in a glassy or non-crystalline condition and contains over forty-two per cent silica and is now used universally in Eureka for concrete work, for the city streets and also for county roads.

 

The education of Mr. Haw was received in the public schools and at business college, after which he was identified with railroad and lumbering interests in Humboldt county, later being elected to the office of county clerk of Humboldt county, which office he filled for two terms or eight years. His marriage to Alice L. Young took place in Eureka and they make their home in the handsome residence owned by Mr. Haw on H Street in Eureka.

 

It will be seen that the progressive spirit of his father and grandfather, who settled and improved the wild districts of new lands, is not wanting in W. H. Haw, by whose initiative and industry the native resources are being developed and improved in the California county where he makes his home.

 

 

CHARLES EUGENE FALK.—A native son of California, and for his entire lifetime a resident of his native state, Charles Eugene Falk is today a son of whom the commonwealth may well be proud. He knows every phase of the lumber industry and every department of the work from the judging of the standing timber and the felling of trees to the last detail of the business management and office work. It is this thoroughness, together with his native ability and application to business that have given him the important position of superintendent of the Elk River *Mill and Lumber Company, which he now fills so efficiently.

 

Mr. Falk was born in Eureka, August 4, 1869, the son of Noah Falk (one of the oldest living pioneer lumbermen of the county) and Nancy N. (Brown) Falk, a native of Maine. The mother removed with her parents to Wash­ington Territory when she was a young girl, and there she met and married Noah Falk. Both parents are still living in Arcata, where they have made their home for many years. The father is still hale and hearty, although he is well past the age of seventy-nine, and takes an active interest in all the affairs of his great business interests. A native of Pennsylvania, born about 1836, he came to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama in 1852. He became interested in the lumber industry in Humboldt County at an early date, and it was he who organized the Elk River Mill and Lumber Com­pany, and who has been its president and leading spirit down through the intervening years, still retaining both the name and the actual position of interest and control.

 

The boyhood days of Charles Eugene Falk were spent in Eureka, where he received his early education, first attending the public schools, and later attending the Lytton Springs Military Academy in Sonoma county, for some three years and a half. When he was about twenty years of age he went to work for the Elk River Mill and Lumber Company, and has since then passed through every department of this plant. At first he put in three years in the blacksmithing department, learning all the details of the work there and becoming a proficient workman. This company, which is practically owned by Mr. Falk's father, operates a sawmill, shingle mill, planing mill, and other associated industries, and manufactures redwood lumber of all kinds and grades. The mills and shops are all under one roof, and only the latest devices and machinery are employed. The company owns a shipping wharf at Bucksport, this county, where the product is loaded directly on the ocean steamers. There are one hundred sixty men employed on an average by this company. In addition to the mills and shipping plants the company operates extensive lumber camps and owns its standing redwood timber. The company is one of the oldest in the county, as well as one of the best known. The officers are: Noah H. Falk, president and manager ; W. J. Wrigley, secretary-treasurer; and Charles Eugene Falk, superintendent. They sell through J. R. Hanify' & Co., at San Francisco, located on Market street, and through the Humboldt Lumber Association, in Eureka.

 

Both Mr. Falk and his father are men of rare ability and business judg­ment. They have been instrumental in the development and upbuilding of a splendid industrial enterprise, which has flourished for many years as the direct result of their industry and application. They have made for them­selves a place in the life and history of their state and county that is worthy of emulation, and their record for fair and honorable business methods is unsullied and unstained.

 

The marriage of Mr. Falk took place in 1893, uniting him with Miss Blanche Alice Graeter, of Dillon, Mont., the daughter of August Graeter, a pioneer miner of Bannack City, Mont. He was for many years one of the foremost men in the Montana mining fields, and it was he who built the first electric dredger at Bannack City. He is now retired and still lives in Mon­tana. Mrs. Falk has borne her husband three children, all natives of Eureka. They are: Muriel A., now a student at the University of California at Berke­ley, where she is specializing in vocal music; Drury Noah and Dorothy Ann, the latter two being both students in the Eureka High School.

 

Aside from his splendid reputation as a business man, Mr. Falk is well known in fraternal and social circles. He is a prominent Mason and an influential. member of the local Elks, in both of which orders he is very popular. In politics he is a Republican, and is interested in public questions of all kinds, being especially keen when the issue involves matters of local import. He is progressive and a firm believer in the future of Eureka and Humboldt County, and is one of the stanchest boosters that the region possesses.

 

ROCCO AQUISTAPACE.—A successful and enterprising business man, liberal and well liked in the community where he resides, Rocco Aquistapace has made for himself a fine record in the country of his adoption. His birth occurred in his early home in Italy, near Sondrio, Lombardy, on January 6, 1863. Mr. Aquistapace's father, who was also named Rocco, was a farmer and dairyman, and the young Rocco was educated in the public schools of his native land and assisted his father upon the home farm, learning much of the business of dairying, which he was to follow for some years after coming to California. At the age of twenty years he enlisted in the Fifth Alpine Regiment of the Italian army, served the regular time of two years and was honorably discharged. In 1889 he determined to try his for­tune in America, and consequently came to California, first stopping at San Francisco, and thence removing to Santa Barbara. His first employment in this country was three years spent at a dairy in the Santa Maria valley, after which he returned to Italy for a visit to the old home and to see, his parents, who were then living but have since died. For seven years Mr. Aquistapace remained in Italy, his first marriage taking place there, uniting him with Amelia Cortoni, a teacher in that country. After her death he was married to Celestina Pedroncilli. By his first marriage there were two chil­dren, namely, John, who is serving in the Fifth Alpine Regiment in Italy, the same regiment in which his father served in early manhood, and Elena, who is now Mrs. John Baracca and resides in Eureka, Cal. By his second mar­riage Mr. Aquistapace is the father of one son, Henry. Until the year 1899 Mr. Aquistapace remained in Italy, where he followed farming, but like many others who have lived in California, he felt a desire to return to this country. So, with his family, he came once more to Santa Barbara County, and in July, 1900, removed to Eureka, securing employment on a dairy in the vicinity of that city, and later at the Pacific Lumber Company's sawmill at Scotia, Cal. In the year 1912 Mr. Aquistapace started out in a new line of work, purchasing the old Humboldt House on First street, Eureka, which he reopened under the name of Hotel Lombard, in memory of his home in Italy, and since that time has met with much success in this new occupation, managing an excellent hotel and having a large trade. Fraternally Mr. Aquistapace is a member of the Loyal Order of Moose, and in his political interests he is associated with the Republican Party.

 

 

ANDREW P. NELSON, superintendent of shipping for the Eel River Valley Lumber Company at South Bay, was born at Tondern, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, September 19, 1888, the son of Anton and Annie Nelson, who immigrated to Humboldt county, Cal., in the spring of 1889, when Andrew was an infant of six months. Here the father followed the lumber industry, first in the employ of the Pacific Lumber Company as tallyman and inspec­tor and afterwards with the Eel River Valley Lumber Company for seventeen years as superintendent of shipping at South Bay, a position which he re­signed to engage in the lumber business at Richmond. There he incorporated the San Pablo Lumber Company of Richmond, of which he is manager, the company being engaged in the retail lumber business there.

 

Of the four children comprising the parental family, Andrew P. Nelson is the oldest. He spent his childhood at Fields Landing, receiving a good education in its public schools. In 1902 he entered the employ of the Pacific Lumber Company at Fields Landing as tallyman and continued in that capac­ity for a period of eleven years. In February, 1913, he resigned to accept the position of superintendent of shipping for the Eel River Valley Lumber Company at South Bay to succeed his father, who had resigned. He has con­tinued in the position ever since, his many years' experience qualifying him well for his duties. 'He is interested with his father in the San Pablo Lumber Company of Richmond. Fraternally he is a member of Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. In his political views he is a staunch Republican.

 

 

GEORGE PATMORE.—Born in London, England, December 12, 1843, George Patmore came to California in the year. 1861, making the trip across the ocean on the steamer Great Eastern, this being the steamer's second trip. From New York he engaged passage to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama and thence up the coast to San Francisco. His first location was in Sierra County and from there he removed to Yuba County. In that county in 1868 he was married, and about two years later, in 1870, removed to Humboldt County. Locating first at Elk Prairie, now called Fruitland, he drove the mail route for a time from Hydesville to Strong Station, and was also em­ployed on the neighboring ranches. Later he rented a ranch and engaged in ranching for himself, but in 1872 moved to Camp Grant, where he assumed active charge of the ferry on Eel river. On account of Indian hostilities he was forced to remove from the district, first taking his family to Rohnerville and afterwards to Bryan's Rest. What is now Bryan's Rest he located as a claim and improved it. He later sold his interests in Bryan's Rest and went to Rohnerville. His wife died there February 14, 1876, when twenty-five years of age.

 

In Rohnerville Mr. Patmore engaged in teaming and hauling up and down Eel river valley, driving a four-horse team from Rohnerville to Eureka, besides which he also engaged in painting and decorating, a trade he had learned in London, England. Later he took up a timber claim, and home­steaded and bought land until he had a tract comprising one thousand acres. Still later he purchased the old Dobbyn range adjoining his timber land. He then engaged in the raising of cattle and sheep, continuing in this business until 1900, when he opened a general merchandise store in Rohnerville. Leav­ing his ranch to the capable management of his son, Mr. Patmore was enabled to remove to Rohnerville, where until his death, August 18, 1914, he spent his time looking after his store. His stock originally consisted of books and stationery, and to this was added later a supply of groceries and a butcher shop was also installed. Still later he started a furniture and hardware department and a plumbing and machinery store with a line of agricultural implements. From time to time he added to the stock, until it became the finest in the town, occupying five store buildings, of which he was the owner.

 

Mr. Patmore was married in Brown's Valley, Yuba County, in 1868, being united with Miss Elizabeth Wright, a native of Indiana and the daughter of Jesse and Sarah Wright. The Wright family crossed the plains with ox teams in the '50s and while still on the plains the father died. The mother continued the journey to Yuba County, where she remained until she came with Mr. and Mrs. Patmore to Humboldt County. At the age of ninety years she now resides on the frontier of Alberta with a son. Mrs. Patmore became the mother of five children of whom three are living : Mary, of Rohnerville ; George W., of Dyerville ; and Elizabeth, Mrs. Evers of Fortuna.

 

Fraternally Mr. Patmore was a charter member of Onward Lodge No. 380, I. 0. 0. F., of Fortuna, was also a Veteran Odd Fellow, while in politics he favored the principles of the Republican Party and was always ready to promote any movement for the good of the community.

 

 

FRED S. BAIR.—The proprietor of Bair's Garage in Eureka and of the Three Cabins ranch on Mad river, where he is extensively engaged in sheep raising, Fred S. Bair is a native son of Humboldt county, born at Arcata, October 9, 1881, the son of Thomas Bair, a pioneer and man of affairs in Humboldt county, who is represented on another page in this work. Pri­marily Fred S. Bair attended. the public schools in Arcata and then entered Mount Tamalpais Military Academy at San Rafael, where he was graduated in 1901. Returning to Humboldt county he began ranching and since that time he has engaged in stock raising, making a specialty of raising sheep, in which he has met with much success. The Three Cabins ranch contains eighteen thousand acres of land in one body, located on Mad river and Boulder creek, about forty miles from Eureka at the junction of Butler valley with the Korbel road. The ranch is well watered with numerous springs and streams, having a frontage of nine miles on Mad river, while Boulder creek flows through the ranch from the headwaters to its mouth, where it empties into Mad river. It is beautifully wooded with pine, redwood, tan and white oak and other varieties of forest trees and abounds in very picturesque scenery. The grass grows luxuriantly and besides ample range and pasture for his flock of eight thousand head of sheep and other stock, Mr. Bair makes an abundance of hay on which to winter his stock. He has large and suitable barns and other buildings and the ranch is well improved for its purpose. His flock is high grade and he secures blue ribbon bucks from the State Fair at Sacramento to head his flocks. There are also three sulphur springs in different parts of the ranch.

 

For protecting his flocks from bears, mountain lions, coyotes and wild cats, Mr. Bair has a pack of splendid hounds and it is the consensus of opin­ion that his kennel contains the fastest hounds in the state.

 

Aside from his extensive ranching interests Mr. Bair is also engaged in the automobile business in Eureka. In 1915 he built the Bair garage, a fire­proof structure, 63x100 feet, of reinforced concrete, on the corner of Sixth and D streets—as fine and complete a garage as can be found in the state. It is fully equipped with the latest machinery, being the most complete machine shop in the county. He has the agency for the Locomobile, Cadillac and Oakland automobiles and the Knight & Savage tires.

 

The marriage of Mr. Bair occurred in Eureka, uniting him with Miss Mabel Mitchell, also a native of Humboldt county. Mr. and Mrs. Bair are well and favorably known and popular among their many friends, not only in this county, but throughout the state. Fraternally Mr. Bair is a member of Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. In politics he is a Democrat. He is a member of the California State Automobile Association as well as the Ameri­can Automobile Association, and prominent in all movements for the upbuild­ing and betterment of conditions in the county and state.

 

 

FRANK LAUGHLIN.—An experienced woodsman who has been a resi­dent of Humboldt county since October, 1877, and connected with the lumber industry since 1880, is Frank Laughlin, foreman of woods for the Hammond Lumber Company, having charge of logging operations at Trinidad. He was born at Linn, Osage county, Missouri, May 7, 1865, being the second oldest of a family of seven children born to John and Louisa (Senefee) Laughlin, natives of Kentucky and France respectively. The father was a farmer and served as sheriff of Osage county during the time of the Civil war. In 1877 he brought his family to Humboldt county, locating on a farm at Alliance, where he and his wife resided until their deaths,

 

Frank Laughlin was brought up on the farm in Missouri, where he attended school until 1877, when he accompanied his parents to Humboldt County, attending school in the Alliance district. When seventeen years of age he began working in the woods in the employ of the Vance Lumber Company, slinging water on the skids or wetting the logging road, thus making it possible for the big bull teams to haul a string of logs. When the Hammond Lumber Company purchased the interests and mills of the Vance Lumber Company he continued with them in the same capacity until the donkey engine came into use and did away with the old ox teams for logging. During winters he engaged in chopping, and logged during the summers, and altogether he has been employed in the lumber industry for thirty-five years, being with the Vance company and its successors since 1880. His close application to his duties and his experience in the different kinds of work connected with the estimating, felling, logging and transportation of red­wood timber were recognized in 1906, when he was selected foreman of the woods at Trinidad, a position which he has faithfully filled.

 

Mr. Laughlin's marriage occurred in Arcata, January 13, 1896, when he was united with Miss Lizzie Folts, a native of Humboldt County, born in Bay-side. Her parents were early settlers of the county. To Mr. and Mrs. Laughlin have been born four children, Austin, Jessie, John, and Florence. In his political views Mr. Laughlin is a stanch Republican.

 

 

EDWARD GEORGE KRAMER, owner and proprietor of the Revere Hotel at Eureka, while himself a loyal son of the. Golden West, is descended from the sturdy stock of German parentage. His parents, George and Alice (Gries) Kramer, were both born in the Fatherland and grew to maturity on their native heath. By way of the Panama route they came to California, in 1852, and settled in Nevada county, near Nevada City. Here the father engaged in ranching and in the merchandise business for thirty years, becom­ing known as one of the most worthy and respected members of his com­munity. In 1884 he removed with his family to Eureka, where he purchased the Revere Hotel. He immediately improved this property and erected a sub­stantial addition to meet the demands of the city for a first-class hostelry. As the genial landlord of the Revere, he presided over its fortunes until 1892, when he retired from active business, although he continued to be a well-known figure in Eureka until his demise, which occurred in Oakland, Novem­ber 14, 1914.

 

On the retirement of his father, Edward George Kramer, the oldest son, took over the business and has since conducted it. He was born at North San Juan, Cal., Nevada County, August 21, 1867, and was seventeen years of age when the family moved to Eureka. He attended the public schools of this city, and associated himself at an early age with his father in the hotel business, and so was amply fitted to take up the entire management when the father was ready to lay it down. This long experience has not been in vain, and today he is one of the most popular hotel men with the traveling public that California boasts, and is the personal friend of half the commercial men on the coast.

 

Aside from the hotel business, Mr. Kramer has extensive real estate hold­ings, and is generally identified with the commercial life of his home city. He is a director of the Humboldt County Bank, and part owner in the Puter­Dungan tract, an exceedingly valuable water front property. Mr. Kramer has just completed a summer home on his place on Reed Mountain, near Garber­ville and two miles from the highway. It is most complete and modern in its appointments and establishes a precedent which others will undoubtedly follow. Needless to say, Mr. Kramer is a stanch believer in the future of Humboldt County and is one of the most enthusiastic and substantial boosters that Eureka boasts. His close association with commercial travelers and the traveling public generally has afforded him many splendid opportunities to forward the welfare of the city and county, and it is an acknowledged fact that he neglects none of them. He has always been identified with all move­ments for the advancement of Eureka and has done much for the general betterment of the city which is his home. He is a charter member of the Eureka Aerie No. 130, Eagles, and a member of the Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. O. E.

 

In San Francisco, in 1892, Mr. Kramer married Miss Mattie Hardewig, a native of that city, and their union has been blessed with two daughters, Olive and Helen. Other well known members of this family are the brothers of Mr. Kramer, Ralph, Herbert, and Clarence, the latter being deceased.

 

 

JOHN HENRY BLAKE was born in Clarkson, Monroe county, N. Y., January 31, 1850, the son of Joseph C. and Lucinda Blake of old Colonial and Revolutionary stock. His education was obtained in the district school, the Clarkson Academy and at the Brockport State Normal, after which he kept books in his father's store in Hartford. Next he learned the printing business on the Hartford Dayspring, owned and edited by 0. D. Hudsell, one of Horace Greeley's old students. The newspaper business not agreeing with his health he learned telegraphy and worked as operator for the Chicago & West Michigan Railroad, now the Pere Marquette ; afterwards as operator for the Standard Oil Company in Clarion county, Pa. In 1879 he came to California, settling in Woodland, Yolo county, where he followed several pursuits until 1883, when he came to Humboldt County. He bought a half interest with his brother-in-law, C. B. Bryant, in Christmas Prairie and some years later he purchased the interest of Mr. Bryant and continued farming and stock raising alone. In the fall of 1903 he moved to Arcata, where he now resides. However, in 1902 he built the pioneer telephone line in Humboldt from Christmas Prairie to Blue Lake for his own use; the following year he built lines to Arcata, and others followed rapidly until at present he has about seventy-five lines and one hundred fifty telephones with two centrals, in Blue Lake and Arcata. Besides being the sole owner of the Blake Telephone Company he owns large timber holdings as well as property in different parts of Humboldt County, to say nothing of interests in mines, and has achieved success financially.

 

Since moving to Arcata Mr. Blake has taken an active interest in all things for the betterment of the city and county of his adoption, helping to organize the first chamber of commerce and the federated commercial bodies, serving a year as president of the last named. He is a charter mem­ber of the Arcata Club and also a member of the M. E. Brotherhood, of which he was president for one term.

 

On September 1, 1875, Mr. Blake was married to Rosa A. Bryant, the daughter of Delos and Mary Bryant, prominent farmers of Coloma, Mich., and the present year, 1915, together with their two children, J. C. and M. L. Blake, and seven grand-children, celebrated their fortieth wedding anniversary. Mr. Blake is intensely interested in numismatology and has the largest collec­tion of coins in the county, among them both colonial and continental cur­rency and coins, and one particular piece, a silver medal made especially for and given to the Indian Chief Pontiac by King George III of England and worn by the former during the remainder of his life, is worth thousands of dollars. He also has a cabinet of Humboldt county Indian and pioneer relics as well as a large number of guns and pistols, no doubt the largest private collection in the state.

 

Fraternally Mr. Blake is an Odd Fellow, having joined the order in 1878. Politically he is a stanch Republican, but has never been an aspirant for office. It is a.matter of pride with Mr. Blake that his ancestors date back to the old Puritan families of 1630 and members have been represented in all of the Colonial wars and the Revolution, with several of the family in General Washington's command, and representatives of his family have also been in the wars since the struggle for independence.

 

 

WILLIAM HANEN WARD, chief engineer of the Humboldt Transit Company, was born in Bathurst, Australia, January 3, 1880, the son of William John and Mary (Hanen) Ward, natives of Bathurst, Australia, and Oswego, N. Y., respectively. His grandfather, Robert Hanen, who served in a cavalry regiment in the Civil war under General Custer, continued in the army after the war and served in Indian campaigns. Aftef his honorable discharge he went to Nevada, where he was lost track of. The father was a farmer in Australia. In 1883 he brought his family to Philo, Mendocino county, where he bought a farm in Anderson Valley and continued farming there until his death. The mother still resides at the old home. Her brother is the Hon. William Hanen, editor of the Point Arena Record and ex-member of the State Legislature.

 

William H. Ward was the oldest of four children and was brought to California by his parents when he was three years of age. He received his education in the public schools at Philo. After completing the local schools he entered the Vander Nailen School of Engineering in San Francisco, where he graduated in 1905. He then came to Eureka and entered the employ of the Humboldt Transit Company as motorman. After continuing this for two years he became engineer at the power plant, and January 1, 1915, was promoted to chief engineer of the company at Eureka in charge of the power plant.

 

Mr. Ward built and owns a residence at No. 1435 A Street, where he resides with his family. He was married in San Francisco, being united with Miss Stella Cureton, born in Point Arena, and they have two children, Kenneth and Glenn. Mr. Ward is prominent among local stationary engineers, being well and favorably known for reliability and integrity. Mrs. Ward is a member of the Congregational church.

 

ALBERT WARREN WHITE.—Master mechanic of the Humboldt Transit Company, Albert Warren White was born in Battle Creek, Mich., October 27, 1876. His father, C. H. White, was born in Michigan and was a promoter. Among other things he manufactured Malta Vita in partnership with Niel Phelps. C. H. White was married in Battle Creek to Meribah Acker-son, and they now reside in Jackson, Mich. Albert W. is the second oldest of a family of three children. His childhood was spent in Battle Creek, where he was educated in the public schools and at the Krug Business College. He followed bookkeeping for a short time,. but could not stand the confinement, so when seventeen years of age he entered the employ of the Citizens Street Railway of Battle Creek, where he was motorman for five years, and When the Interurban line was completed he entered the shops of the company as a helper, learning the machinist trade, and two years later became master mechanic in charge of these shops at Battle Creek and at Augusta. He held the position until 1902, when he resigned and removed to Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., as master mechanic for the street car line, in charge of shops at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., as well as Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario.

Resigning his position in October, 1903, Mr. White came to California and was soon in touch with the Humboldt Transit Company. Accepting the position of master mechanic with the company, he came to Eureka on October 22nd of that year and assumed his duties and has held the place ever since. When he came to Eureka there were only three cars and about three miles of track and nine men in the employ of the company. Now there are over thirteen miles of track and seventeen cars and about fifty men employed. The car barns have been at the corner of Third and A street, but the company is now building new car barns and shop on Harris and J streets. In addition to the shop and track he has charge of the over-wires for carrying the current.

Mr. White was married in Battle Creek, Mich., to Miss Bessie J. Bradish, a native of Augusta, Mich., and they have five children, Harold, Eldon, Lorena, Carroll and Margaret. Fraternally he is a member of Eureka Aerie No. 130, Fraternal Order of Eagles, and in political views is a stanch Republican.
 

ROBERT COPLAND.—A substantial citizen and enterprising man who has been a resident of Eureka since August, 1883, Robert Copland was born at Douglastown, on the Miramichi river, Northumberland county, New Brunswick. His father, David Copland, was born in Dumfriesshire, Scotland, and as a young man served on a man-of-war in the English navy under Lord Nelson. He immigrated to New Brunswick and became a contracting stevedore at Douglastown. His business, however, was not limited to that section, but also extended into other cities in the Dominion. While in Quebec on a large contract loading ships he died. The mother, Mary McAllister, was also born in Dumfriesshire, Scotland. When she was a girl she saw the "Scotch Grays" come home from the battle of Waterloo. With her parents she came to New Brunswick, where she married Robert Copland. After her husband's death the mother reared her family in Douglas-town, afterwards moving to Newcastle, where she died.

Robert Copland was the youngest of a family of six children and is now the only one living. He received his education in the subscription schools of that period. From the time he was twelve years old he assisted his mother in obtaining a livelihood for the family. At the age of fourteen he apprenticed himself to the shipsmith trade in the shipyards in Newcastle and followed it for a number of years, when he entered the employ of Brown, Brooks & Ryan to work as a blacksmith on the construction of the bridges over the Miramichi river along the International Railroad, continuing with the firm for six years. He then began work in the lumber industry as chief engineer at the Fish mill, Newcastle, afterwards becoming foreman of the mill. At the time of the boom in Winnipeg, in 1882, he resigned his position and made his way to Manitoba, where he worked as a blacksmith in the Canadian Pacific Railroad shops. In about five months the boom had subsided and he accepted a place with his old employers, Brown Brothers, who were engaged in manufacturing agricultural implements in Belleville, Ontario. For many years he had had a strong desire to come to the Pacific coast, and particularly to Humboldt county, and when leaving New Brunswick in 1882 for the west it was with the intention of eventually visiting Humboldt county. After six months with Brown Brothers he resigned his place with them and in August of 1883 he arrived in Eureka, landing from the steamer Chester. Two days later he accepted the position of chief engineer with McKay & Co., lumber manufacturers and proprietors of the Occidental Mill in Eureka. His previous experience had fitted him for the position and he enjoyed not only his place but this climate and its people. It is needless to say his services were appreciated, for he was retained until his resignation in June, 1908, to retire from active work. All this time, for a quarter of a century, he held the position of chief engineer in one place, and in that time had but one vacation of seven days to attend the Knights Templar Conclave in San Francisco.

•In 1908 Mr. Copland made a trip back to his old home in New Brunswick, returning to the coast by the Canadian Pacific Railroad, stopping at Calgary, Alberta, where he became interested and purchased city property. Returning to Eureka he has since lived retired, his only care being the oversight of his property, which consists of several residences and lots in this city. He has much faith in the future prosperity of Humboldt county and is progressive and liberal, being always willing to aid movements that have for their aim the improvement of the city and county and the betterment of the condition of its citizens.

Mr. Copland was made a Mason in Northumberland Lodge at Newcastle, New Brunswick, and since coming to Eureka has been affiliated with Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M. He is also a member of Humboldt Chapter No. 52, R. A. M., and Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T.
 

LEWIS BUONCORE KINGSBURY.—A man who is highly respected for his honesty of purpose, sterling qualities and integrity, Lewis Buoncore Kingsbury has been a resident of Humboldt county since February, 1875. He was born in Boston, Mass., February 25, 1851, the son of Reuben and Elizabeth (Buoncore) Kingsbury, natives of Dedham and Boston, Mass., respectively. They were farmers near Lexington, the first battle ground of the Revolutionary war.

Lewis B. Kingsbury received his education in the schools of Lexington and remained on the home farm until sixteen years of age. At that time he was apprenticed as a tanner and currier in Woburn, Mass., continuing there for eight years. Having a desire to come to the Pacific coast, he came to San Francisco in December, 1874, and in February, 1875, he arrived in Eureka. March 1, 1875, he began working in the Occidental Mill piling lumber in the yard, and later he ran a planer. He has continued in the employ of the mill ever since with the exception of eighteen months when he was with the Jones Mill on Gunther Island. Since 1883 he has been with the Occidental Mill steadily as head planerman, and this, too, without any interruption except in 1893, when he had a vacation of two months. During this time he visited the World's Fair in Chicago.

Mr. Kingsbury resides at No. 223 West Cedar street, and also owns other property in Eureka, where he is well and favorably known for liberality and kindliness of heart. He was made a Mason in Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., in 1882, and since 1887 has been a member of Humboldt Chapter No. 52, R. A. M. He is also a member of Humboldt Lodge No. 77, I. 0. 0. F. Politically he has always been a stanch Republican.
 

JOHN EDWARD JOHNSON.—Trainmaster of the Northern Division of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad at Eureka and a resident of Humboldt county since May, 1900, John Edward Johnson was born in •Engelholm, Sweden, December 4, 1880. His father died when John Edward was a babe and he came with his mother to the United States in 1883. They lived a short time in Ogden, Boone county, Iowa, and then removed to Pilot Mound, that county, where he received his education in the public schools. When fifteen years of age he began to earn his own livelihood by working in a grocery store at Harcourt, Iowa, continuing to clerk there for a period of five years. In the spring of 1900 he came to San Francisco and in May of the same year came to Eureka, where for the first three years he clerked in a grocery store. When the Santa Fe took over the old Eel River & Eureka Railroad the road was called the San Francisco & Northwestern Railroad. It was at this time that he entered the employ of the company as assistant station agent at South Bay, afterwards becoming agent at the same place. He continued with the road and was agent at different stations, mostly on the south end, excepting one year passed in Eureka. In 1910 he was made train dispatcher with headquarters in Eureka, and later on was promoted to chief dispatcher, the road in time becoming the Northwestern Pacific. In the spring of 1914 he was made trainmaster, a position he has held ever since. When he first became dispatcher the road ran only to Shively, but since the through trains have run to San Francisco the Northern Division, of which he is trainmaster, has been extended from Trinidad to Willits. Mr. Johnson applies himself closely to his duties and thus renders efficient service both to the public and to the company.

Mr. Johnson was married in Eureka April 19, 1907, being united with Miss Agnes Smith. She was born in Eureka, the daughter of Robert Smith, a pioneer of Humboldt county and an expert accountant. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have one child, Robert Edward. Mr. Johnson was made a Mason in Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., of which he is now junior deacon. He is also a member of Humboldt Lodge No. 77, I. 0. 0. F., and the Encampment of same, and with his wife is a member of the Rebekah Lodge, of which Mrs. Johnson is past noble grand. She is a member of the Episcopal Church.

Mr. Johnson is also a member of the Woodmen of the World. In his political views he believes firmly that the principles of the Republican party if carried out would be of the greatest benefit to the greatest number of people.
 

JACK B. TAMBOURY.—The superintendent of ranches for the Northern Redwood Lumber Company at Korbel, Jack Tamboury, was born in Basses-Pyrenees, France, November 9, 1878. He came from his native France to Humboldt county, Cal., with his parents, J. P. and Annetta Tamboury, in 1883, the family locating in Blue Lake, where the parents still reside. Jack Tamboury was educated in the public schools of Blue Lake, and after completing his work in the local school was employed on ranches near Blue Lake and learned farming and stock raising, in time becoming proficient in both branches. In 1901 he began working for the Riverside Lumber Company on their ranch at Riverside, continuing there after the company bought the Korbel plant in 1903. The company name was then changed to the Northern Redwood Lumber Company, at which time he became second foreman on their Riverside ranch. When the company purchased the old Norton ranch about 1905, he became foreman on this ranch and continued in that position until 1909, when he was made superintendent of ranches, looking .after all the livestock, such as horses, cattle, hogs and sheep, and also having charge of the slaughter houses for the company. There are three large mountain ranches, besides the Korbel ranch, a large stock ranch where the cattle are fattened, also the dairy ranch at Blue Lake, consisting of over two hundred acres, which is devoted to dairying. The buildings are large and modern and give ample room to the one hundred much cows in the dairy herd.

Mr. Tamboury was married in Blue Lake to Miss Adeline Merriam, born in Nova Scotia, the daughter of Judge J. E. Merriam, of Blue Lake, and they have one child, Annetta. Fraternally Mr. Tamboury is a member of the Ancient Order of Foresters and the Knights of Pythias at Blue Lake. In politics he is a stanch Republican.
 

JOHN HENRY HUNTER—A typical representative of the name he bears, John Henry Hunter is a man of notable physical proportions, six feet, four inches in height, and very strong and active. His father, John Henry Hunter, settled in Humboldt county in 1867, and his uncle, Walker Sanders Hunter, some years previously. They had large families, and many of their descendants continue to reside in the Upper Mattole district, where the Hunters have always been known for a high order of citizenship, capability, sterling worth and honorable independence.

John Henry Hunter, the elder, was born in Missouri, in which state he passed his early life. Coming to California in 1850, he returned to his native state a few years later, married there, and not long afterward moved west again, settling in the Sacramento valley. He mined on the Michigan bar until his removal to Humboldt county, in 1867. Acquiring possession of a nice farm in the Upper Mattole region, he devoted the remainder of his active years to its improvement and cultivation, and as one of the old-time settlers of this section should be given due credit for his share in converting it from its primitive condition to its present state. He died at Upper Mattole, aged seventy-six years. In Missouri Mr. Hunter married Miss Elizabeth Brown, of that state, and there the eldest of their seven children, Judge George W. Hunter, of Eureka, was born ; Eliza, John Henry, Sophronia and Lydia were born in Sacramento county ; and the other two daughters, Emma and Minnie, were born on the Mattole, in Humboldt county. All but .one survive.

John Henry Hunter was born in 1860 in Sacramento county, the second son and third child of his parents, and was seven years old when the family removed from the Sacramento valley to Humboldt county. They brought all their worldly effects on packhorses. Schools were few and far between, and the boy was still very young when he became familiar with the care of stack as his father's assistant. After he began work on his own responsibility he bought and sold several properties in the Elk Ridge country and the Mattole river valley, living upon them as convenient and operating them while they remained in his possession. About 1905 he bought his present ranch, four hundred eighty acres, several miles down the river from Petrolia, the old Benton place, which he runs principally as a dairy ranch. He is also raising fruit, having set out about two hundred apple trees, besides which he has a fine family orchard. Mr. Hunter is well known in this region as a stockman and drover, and his capacity for hard work and level head for business management in all his undertakings have brought him a generous measure of success. Politically he affiliates with the Democratic party.

Mr. Hunter was married May 16, 1889, to Miss Annie Duckett, who was born at Ferndale, Humboldt county, one of the eight children of William and Susan (Zelmon) Duckett, the former a native of Michigan, the latter of Oregon, where they were married. Mr. and Mrs. Duckett came to Humboldt county in 1869 and took up land near Miranda, where he died at the age of sixty-two years ; she passed away when fifty years old. Two of their sons reside in Oregon; one son died in infancy; one daughter, Mrs. Moses Hunter, lives at Petrolia, Humboldt county ; two live at Eureka, this county, Mrs. Maggie Hanks, a widow, and Queenie, wife of Delphus Lambert. Mrs. Hunter has spent all her life in Humboldt county. No children have been born to her and her husband, but they have adopted a daughter, Laura, who is now the wife of Alonzo Smith, of Miranda, Humboldt county.
 

ARCHIE A. PEPIN, manager of the F. W. Woolworth Co. store at Eureka, is a young man showing in Irked business ability and acumen. A native of Wisconsin, he was born at Eau Claire in 1892, the second oldest of a family of six children born to T. W. and Phile (Monroe) Pepin, natives of Marquette, Mich. The father, an electrician by trade, was formerly superintendent of the street railway in Eau Claire, but is now residing in Seattle, Wash.

Archie A. Pepin .was educated in the schools of Eau Claire. After graduating from the high school in 1910 he entered business life, beginning his career in the F. W. Woolworth store in his native place. Coming to the Pacific coast in that year he continued with the same firm in Seattle, becoming assistant manager. Afterward he held the same position in the company's stores at Portland, Ore., and Salt Lake City and Ogden, Utah. He was then selected by the company to open new stores throughout Utah, Montana and Idaho, and thus established for himself a record for reliability and trustworthiness.

When the company decided on establishing a store in Eureka, Mr. Pepin was chosen for the position of manager, which he accepted, coming hither immediately and opening the new store July 3, 1914. The store is located on the corner of F and Third streets and is complete in its five, ten and fifteen-cent specialties. It is well patronized and it is safe to state that more people visit this store than any other in the city. Mr. Pepin takes an active interest in the affairs of Eureka. He is a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Eureka Development Association and the Humboldt Club.
 

JOHN M. CONNICK.—One of Humboldt county's most prominent industries is logging and its kindred interests, and its well-wooded hills and dense forests have yielded many million feet of the finest lumber. When this industry was still in its infancy John M. Connick heard the call of the woods and decided to try his fortune with the men already engaged in the logging business. He was born in Charlotte county, New Brunswick, December 2, 1855, and received his early education in the district schools, attending faithfully for a number of years. In his early youth the woods exerted a wonderful fascination for him, and several seasons were spent in the woods in the east. In the summer, the camps being closed, he was employed on his father's farm, and thus acquired a general knowledge .of farming which he put to use in later years. In 1874 he came to Humboldt county and for ten years worked in logging woods around Humboldt Bay. In 1884, with his brother Fred, he engaged in stock-raising at Fruitland, continuing this for nine years. After selling their stock John M. Connick rented the ranch and it is still in the hands of a tenant, although Mr. Connick still owns it. The ranch comprises fifteen hundred acres, well located on Eel river near McCann station, and is devoted to stock-raising.

Later farming again engaged Mr. Connick's attention, and in 1893 he purchased twenty-seven acres of partially improved land near Metropolitan upon which he located. At the time of purchase fourteen acres were improved and he immediately began to put the remainder in condition for crops. With several head of fine graded cattle he established the nucleus of a dairy business that has grown with the passing of years. The land and stock have both improved until he now has one of the finest places in the community. A part of the place is in alfalfa, and a fine orchard completes the beautiful ranch. Every modern improvement has been made and he has spared no expense to reach the high standard that he originally set for himself.

Mr. Connick is a member of Eel River Lodge No. 147, F. & A. M., of which he is Past Master, also member of Ferndale Chapter No. 78, R. A. M. He was married July 5, 1893, to Elizabeth Davis, a native of Humboldt county. They have an adopted boy, Lyle Preston Connick, and are educating him to be a credit to them. Mr. Connick is a thrifty, industrious farmer, and one of the most successful men in the county. His financial success and his honorable name are solely due to his own untiring labor and unceasing efforts, and he is well liked by all with whom he comes in contact.
 

ADOLPH FISHER, SR.—Born in a little village on the shores of the Baltic Sea in 1849, and for many years a wanderer over the face of the earth, following the fortunes of the sea to escape a hated service in the German army, from which he had deserted, and for which offense he later served a short term of imprisonment, Adolph Fisher has lived a life full of action and excitement, the quietest part of which has been the years that he has spent in Humboldt county, especially those since he became a tiller of the soil. For almost forty years he has made his home in this county and is widely known. Although a typical German in speech and manner, Mr. 'Fisher is a true American at heart and a loyal son of the country and state to which he swore allegiance many years ago.

The birthplace of Mr. Fisher was the city of Danzig, Prussia, where he was born July 9, 1849. For a few years he attended school at Danzig, but at the age of twelve years he gave up his schooling and went to work. For three years he carried mortar for masons. At the age of fifteen he took up the carpenter's trade in ship building and served three years as an apprentice in the shops. The following year he went to sea to complete his apprentice-ship, serving as the ship's carpenter, and at the age of twenty he had mastered his trade of ship builder.

At this time Mr. Fisher was notified' by the German government that he must serve in the national army, there being at that time war with Denmark. He therefore returned home and served for six months, and then deserted and again went to sea. For seven years he followed the fortunes of the sailor, during all that time being the only support of his widowed mother. He was first a common seaman, but steadily advanced and was finally given the berth of first mate. At one time he left the sea temporarily and worked on the government docks in India, having many interesting and unique experiences there. He traveled all over the world on various ships, visiting most of the famous seaports at various times.

When he finally returned to Prussia Mr. Fisher was at once informed that he was being sought by the government as a deserter. The offense was punishable by some twelve or thirteen years' imprisonment, and Mr. Fisher determined to buy himself off if possible. He had saved about $1,200, and with this he went to the proper officials and gave himself up. Some time previous to this he had met with an accident and suffered a broken leg, which disabled him from active service in the army. For and other reasons, a very light sentence was imposed upon him, and at the end of a month he was discharged.
Soon after this Mr. Fisher was married in Hamburg, but his wife lived only a few years. Following her death he again took up the life of the rover, this time shipping on a vessel bound from Prussia to San Francisco, coming around Cape Horn. Arriving at San Francisco he secured employment in the ship yards, remaining, for several months, and later was employed by the California Bridge Building Company, by which he was sent to Humboldt county to construct a bridge across Mad river. While engaged in this work he was offered the position of superintendent of construction by the Korbel Company, and so remained in the county and for seven years was with this company. During that time he built the wharf, sawmill and depot at Korbel.

In 1887 Mr. Fisher returned to Prussia and was married a second time, later returning with his wife to California. Here he purchased property in the Arcata bottom and engaged in farming. He cleared and improved this tract, but was later obliged to sell because of illness in the family. He then purchased his present home place on Dow's Prairie, in 1900, which at that time was all unimproved land. He has cleared and brought the entire tract under a high state of cultivation, and today it is one of the best properties in the vicinity. He is engaged in diversified farming and dairying, and is meeting with the greatest of success. At the present time Mr. Fisher's two sons have charge of the place, their father having recently retired from the active management of his affairs.

The second marriage of Mr. Fisher was solemnized in Danzig, uniting him with Rosa Stine, who 'was born in Prussia March 24, 1865. Upon their arrival in New York City they were married again by a Catholic clergyman. Ten children were born of this marriage, seven sons and three daughters. Named in the order of their birth they are as follows: Theresa, Adolph, fr., Julius, Rose, Fred, Harold, Homer,. Dora, Elmer and Marcus. Although nearing the seventy mark, Mr. Fisher is still hale and hearty, and delights to recount the interesting experiences of his younger years.
 

GEORGE F. REYNOLDS.—A native of California, and descended from one of the oldest and best known of the early pioneer families of the state, George F. Reynolds is today one of the influential citizens of Hydesville, and one of the most highly respected farmers of that district. He has spent his entire life time in Humboldt county, and his friends are the friends of his boyhood. He has always taken an active part in local affairs, being both broadminded and progressive, and is keenly alive to the best interests of the community, believing in laying a firm foundation for permanent progress and advancement along lines of education and development.

Mr. Reynolds was born on the old home place near Hydesville, June 3, 1873, the son of George W. and Susan (Kennell) Reynolds. His father was a native of New York and came to California in 1859, and in the fall of that year settled at Hydesville, where he took up a government claim and improved it for a home. Here the son, George F., was born and reared, receiving his education in the public schools of Hydesville. There were four other children in the family, all girls, and all well known in this vicinity, where they were reared and educated. He assisted his father with the care of the farm and early learned the practical details of farm work. He spent twenty-four years in Jackson county, Ore., engaged in mining, and then returned to California, and after his mother's death he purchased the interest of the other heirs and is now the owner of the old Reynolds homestead, where he was born, and here, too, his children have been born.

The marriage of Mr. Reynolds occurred February 10, 1903, uniting him with Miss Helen A. Fawcett, a teacher, and a native of Cuddeback, Humboldt county. Of their union have been born three children : Erla, Susan and Muriel. Both Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds are well known socially in Hydesville, where they have many friends. Mr. Reynolds takes an active interest in the development of the farming industry of the county, and is an active member of the Carlotta center of the Humboldt county farm bureau.
 

GEORGE W. REYNOLDS.—One of the early settlers of California, who traveled westward across the plains with prairie schooners, experiencing attacks from hostile Indians on the way, was George W. Reynolds, who arrived at Hydesville, in Humboldt county, in October, 1859.

Mr. Reynolds' parents were born in Vermont, his grandfather and an uncle both having served in the Revolutionary war. Mr. Reynolds himself was born in Cattaraugus county, N. Y., in 1834. While a lad he went to Walworth county, Wis., with his parents, where he was reared and educated, and where, March 10, 1859, he was married to Miss Susan Kennell, who was born in Seneca county, N. Y., of an early American family. Immediately after their marriage, in fact on the following evening, they started on the journey to California, coming to Hydesville. On the journey west Mr. Reynolds contracted chills and fever. He finally recovered, after being sick several years, but his illness prevented him from serving in the home militia against the Indians. He still owned his farm in Wisconsin, but, having used all of his available cash, he found employment on ranches.

On account of the Indians the lives of the settlers were very insecure. It is related by old inhabitants at Rohnerville that the soldiers at Fort Humboldt did no duty as far as Rohnerville and Hydesville; accordingly many men and boys were shot and killed by the Indians,. and the early. settlers got no respite from the ravages of the Indians until they formed themselves into a home militia- and drove the savages away.

With J. F. Myers, Mr. Reynolds purchased a 'farm at Hydesville, they being partners for fifteen years, when Mr. Reynolds bought out Mr. Myers and became owner of two hundred sixty-five acres, and, being a hard worker, he improved his farm, erecting building's, fences, etc. He brought into Humboldt county one of the first threshing machines ever used in this part of the country. With Mr. Myers, he ran this machine in partnership for fifteen years, and the money obtained from threshing was the means of his getting a start.

Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds. Clara, the eldest, on November 13, 1881, became the wife of C. H. Bannister, a rancher of Hydesville, and they have four children: Leonard C., deputy sheriff and jailer at Eureka ; Mabel, wife of W. R. Boyce, who resides at South Fork of Eel river and is station agent for the Northwestern Pacific at South Fork and recent candidate for sheriff, their children being Charles, Clara, Robert and Blaine ; George D., living at home and learning the carpenter's trade; Rae, learning the butcher's trade at Shively. C. H. Bannister was born in Missouri, July 31, 1859, came to Hydesville when eleven years old, and now owns a ranch on the Van Dusen about two and one-half miles from Hydesville which he rents to a tenant ; Mr. Bannister is a Progressive, and belongs to the Lodge of Independent Order of Foresters at Fortuna; he and his wife are members of the Christian Church at Hydesville, Mr. Bannister being a trustee of said church and Mrs. Bannister an active worker in the Sunday School and the Ladies' Aid. Annie, the second child of Mr. Reynolds, resides upon the old homestead. Ellen, the third daughter, became the wife of A. L. Walker, a butcher of Hydesville, and has three children, Jesse, Merle and Curtis. George F., the fourth child, is represented in a separate sketch. Jessie, the fifth child, is head bookkeeper for Daly Brothers, Eureka.

Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds were members of the Christian Church and brought up all their children in that faith. He was a friend of education, and' helped to build the first schoolhouse, also both the Christian and Congregational churches at Hydesville. Mr. Reynolds was a public-spirited man, and his wife was generous to a fault. She died in 1905, aged sixty-eight years. Mr. Reynolds died in 1903 on the George W. Reynolds homestead in Hydesville, the large farm of almost three hundred acres which is now owned and occupied by his son, George F. Reynolds.
 

FRANK JOSEPH FLECKENSTIEN, one of the successful dairy farmers in Humboldt county, was born in St. Marys, Iowa, a village some twenty miles from Des Moines, on March 19, 1878. When he was a lad of but five years he came to California with his parents, who settled at Eureka. He received his education in the public schools of Eureka and his' friends are the friends of a life time. At the age of fifteen years he began to work for his father on the ranch on Dow's Prairie. For a number of years they were engaged in clearing and improving the land, after which they devoted themselves to farming.

Frank J. Fleckenstien remained with his father on the home farm up to the time of his marriage in 1901, when he started in business for himself. For a number of years he contracted for teaming and hauling, but later gave this up and returned to the home place to engage in farming and dairying. This was in 1909, and Mr. Fleckenstien now has one of the most valuable small farms in the county. There are twenty-five acres of bottom land, all under cultivation. At the time of its purchase only one-half of the land was improved, the remaining half having been cleared since that time, and is now a splendid monument to the industry of its owner. The entire farm is especially improved for dairying purposes, and it is in this that Mr. Fleckenstien has specialized. He is particularly, interested in improving his Jersey herd and has a number of head of registered stock, and is constantly adding to this number, as well as improving his herd generally by breeding.

Mr. Fleckenstien, however, has not devoted himself exclusively to dairy-farming. He has been in the employ of the county for eight years as overseer for the building of roads, superintending the building of the road from Dow's Prairie into Light's Prairie, as well as several others. Needless to .say, he is an enthusiastic booster for all good-roads movements, and is doing his full share to make Humboldt county noted for its splendid highways.

On May 25, 1901, Mr. Fleckenstien was married to Emily Gladys Spalding, a native of Portland, Ore., and born September 3, 1880. She came to California with her parents when she was three years of age. For a year the family resided at the Jolly Giants Mill, Humboldt county, and then moved to Arcata. Here Mrs. Fleckenstien received her education and passed her girlhood, remaining at home with her parents until her marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Fleckenstien are the parents of five children, Eunice, Irwin, Lewis, Donald and Elaine, and the entire family are communicants of the Catholic Church.

Aside from his personal business integrity, Mr. Fleckenstien is known as an energetic and progressive man, keenly alive to all that is of interest to his section of the state, and is widely and favorably known. His aged father, George Fleckenstien, still resides on his ranch on Dow's Prairie, while the father of Mrs. Fleckenstien, Shepard Spalding, is living in Arcata.
 

AXCEL KJER.—It is a well-known fact that, while the world at large is much agitated over the "back to the soil" movement, Humboldt county has all the time been quietly practicing it ; and in every part of the county are to be found prosperous farmers who have left their country homes for a period of years to engage in .the pursuits of the city, and have later returned to take up the occupation of their fathers and are now happy tillers of the soil. One, of these is Axcel Kjer, well known in Arcata and the surrounding country as one of the progressive young men of the valley. He spent several years in clerical occupations after completing his education, both in the southern part of the state and in Eureka, but in the end decided in favor of the farm, and returning to the place of his birth, rented the old home place of his father, and is now one of the most prosperous farmers in the community.

Mr. Kier was born on his present place near Arcata, Humboldt county, February 7, 1887. He received his education first in the public schools of his district, and later graduated from the business college in Eureka, in 1905. That same year he removed to Southern California and was employed by the Sun Drug Company in their Redlands store, remaining with this company for a year. He then returned to 'Eureka, where he entered the service of C. B. Jackson in a clothing store. By the end of a year he had tired of the clerical life and was ready to "return to the soil." There was a place for him on his father's ranch, and there he went to work. Together father and son were engaged in dairying and farming for a few years, meeting with much success. In 1912 the father retired from active business and Mr. Kjer, Jr., assumed full control of the farm. At the present time (1914) he is engaged in dairying and farming, having made a specialty of the former. He has a herd of twenty-three milch cows and is also interested in general stock-raising. , The ranch consists of forty acres of improved land, which has been brought under a high state of cultivation, and the place is now one of the best improved and thoroughly up-to-date in the valley.

The marriage of Mr. Kjer took place February 15, 1913, uniting him with Miss Anna N. Thompson. • Mrs. Kjer, like her husband, is a native of Humboldt county, having been born in Ferndale March 17, 1890. Both Mr. and Mrs. Kjer are well known in Arcata and vicinity. Mr. Kjer politically is a Republican, but has never sought office, although keenly interested in all that pertains to the general welfare of the community.
 

MADS KJER.—One of the many pioneers of Humboldt county who are now retired from the duties of active business life and are enjoying the rest and quiet to which many years of profitable labor have justly entitled them is Mads Kjer, well known throughout Humboldt county as a successful farmer. He resides on his ranch about six and one-half miles north of the - thriving little city of Arcata. He also owns his original ranch of forty acres four miles northwest of Arcata, which is under the management of his son, Axcel Kjer, who is one of the rising generation of thrifty, successful farmers.

Mads Kjer is a native of Denmark, born in the town of Hadeslev, Sleswick, May 7, 1850. This section is now a part of the German Empire, having been ceded as the result of the great war between the two nations, whenMads Kjer was a boy. His childhood days were spent on his father's farm' and his early education was the best that was then afforded by that district. At the age of sixteen he went to work with his father and gained a practical knowledge of farming and dairying, .his father being very successful in these, lines. In 1874 he left Germany and came to the United States, hoping to find, greater opportunities than those offered in his native land. He came directly; to California, and for the first year was employed on a ranch in Alameda county. In the fall of 1875 he came to Humboldt county, locating first at Rohnerville, where for a few months ,he was employed on a farm. The following year he removed to Arcata, where he resided for a time. The next year, with his brother, he purchased the place which. he still owns, it then comprising eighty acres of unimproved land. The work of clearing and improving so large a tract consumed several years, and later forty acres of the ranch were sold. Subsequently Mr. Kjer bought out his brother's interests, and he now owns forty acres, the ranch being operated by his son, Axcel Kjer. For a time Mads Kjer engaged in general farming, but later took up dairying and gave especial attention to this enterprise, meeting with great success. In addition to this place he has other valuable property, including ninety acres upon which he resides, but which is leased. He is also interested in the United Creameries of Arcata, being one of the stockholders in this enterprise.
Aside from his business activities, Mr. Kjer has always taken a keen interest in all matters of public concern. He' is a Republican in politics, but has never been especially active in party matters. He is also a prominent member of the German Lutheran Church in Arcata.

The marriage of Mr. Kjer took place in Ferndale, Humboldt county, March 5, 1883, uniting him with Cecilia Catherine Pohier, a native of Denmark, born April 11, 1858. She has borne him four children, all of whom are living. They are : Christian Kjer, a farmer of this vicinity ; Maria Katherine, Mrs. Minor of Riverside, Cal.; Ann Sophia, Mrs. Hadden, residing on the home farm ; and Axcel, managing the old home farm. They are all well and favorably known in Humboldt county, where they were born and where they received their education.
 

CHARLES W. WOOD.—A native of Garberville, and one of the prominent citizens of that thriving little burg, and also of Briceland, where he owns real estate interests, is Charles W. Wood. Mr. Wood is the owner and operator of, three telephone lines centering in Garberville and connecting with outlying points of interest, and also having connection with the Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Company, and so with the' outside world. He is a builder and promoter of the best type, and wherever he interests himself in the welfare of a town or a community, such interest is certain to redound to the good of the general public and to the progressive improvement of the locality. He is a hustler, and a splendid business man, and in addition to his telephone lines and real estate and property interests he conducts a drug, notion and stationery store in Garberville.

Mr. Wood was born in Garberville,' Humboldt county, June 11, 1871. His father was James E. Wood, a pioneer of California, having come to Humboldt county in 1859, and being one' of the earliest settlers in this locality. He was a native of Whitehall, Greene county, Ill., and came first to California in 1858, mining in Plurnas and Nevada counties, and later becoming a hunter, supplying provisions to the government. He came to Garberville and engaged in the stock business on the south fork of the Eel river, owning and operating a splendid ten thousand acre ranch one and a quarter miles south of Garberville for many years, which is still known as the Wood ranch. It is now owned by the Tooby Brothers. This is one of the handsomest properties in the region, and its loss, during the hard times in the panic of 1893, was a severe blow to Mr. Wood, and also to his son, a respected citizen .of Garberville. His wife, and the mother of Charles W., was Laura Webb ; she survives him and now resides at Rohnerville, with one daughter ; Mr. Wood passed away in 1910, at the age of eighty years. Of their union were' born seventeen children, and there was one son, Wilson, born to Mr. Wood by his first wife, making a family of eighteen children in all. They are : Wilson, the half brother; Julia; Charles W.'; Mary Elizabeth ; Alice, living in Rohnerville with her mother ; Olive and Ella, residing in Petrolia ; George, who died when two years old; Nancy, who at her death left three children; Nellie, who died when a baby ; Louis, who died when ten years of age; john„ residing in San Diego; Della, who died at Petrolia, at the age of fifteen ; Leora Edna ; Edith, residing at Hardy, Mendocino county ; James, residing in Humboldt county ; Frank, residing in Rohnerville ; and Frances, residing in the state of Washington.

Charles W. Wood grew to manhood in Garberville, •and received his education in the public schools of that district. The family resided on the ranch, and at the early age of six Charles was given a pony and learned to ride, assisting with the care of the sheep and cattle. He grew up 'in close association with the business of the great ranch, and from early boyhood assumed his share of the duties and labors thus entailed, and so has all his life 'been familiar with the details of the cattle business.

The marriage of Mr. Wood took place in Ukiah, December 3, 1896, uniting him with Miss Lena Linser, born in Brooklyn, N. Y., the daughter of Fred and Caroline (Weinkauf) Linser, both well known residents of Humboldt county, and California pioneers. Mrs. Wood has borne her husband six children, two daughters and four sons, all natives of Garberville. They are : Leona, Ernest, Earl, Ray, Bernice and Vern Linser.

Mr. Wood was at one time extensively interested in a multitude of affairs in Garberville and Briceland and the surrounding country. He is still interested 'in a store and livery in Briceland, and, until it burned down, in 1914, he owned and ran a hotel there.

Three local telephone lines with their central office in Garberville are owned and operated by Mr. Wood, and have been constructed by him. They are the lines connecting Garberville and Blocksburg, Garberville and Harris, and Garberville and Briceland. He also owns the building where the central office is located. This office does more business than any other office in the county save those at Eureka, Arcata, Ferndale and Fortuna, and sometimes the Garberville office turns in a greater number of calls even than the Fortuna office.

Aside from his extensive business interests Mr.- Wood possesses a wide circle of social friends and acquaintances, and is very popular wherever he is known. He is a prominent member of the Knights of Pythias at Garberville, and is chancellor of the local lodge. In politics he is a Republican, but he is not a strong party man, rather voting for the principle which is involved in the issue before the people, and to secure the right man for the place.
 

JAMES WILLIAM HALE.—The general manager of the Humboldt Transit Company at Eureka and a man of many years of experience in the operation of street railways, James William Hale was born at Elk Falls, Elk county, Kan., May 29, 1876, the son of George W. and Mary (Harold) Hale, natives of Indiana. The father came to Kansas when a youth with his parents, locating in Coffey county. When a lad just past seventeen years he enlisted in Troop I, Sixteenth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, serving in the Civil war. After the war he was engaged in stock raising in Elk county, Kan. It was about 1881 that he removed to Missouri, where he was engaged in farming and stock raising at Medoc. There the mother died in 1889, and the father now resides in Muskogee, Okla.

Of the seven children in the parental family, James W. Hale was the fourth oldest and is the only one living on the Pacific coast. From the age of five years he was brought up in Missouri, being educated in the local public schools. His mother died when he was but thirteen years of age, and he then started out to earn his own livelihood, working on farms during summers and attending school through the winters until he was nineteen. He then proceeded to LeRoy, Kan., where he was employed at stock raising until May, 1898, and later he came to San Francisco with his regiment. While engaged in the occupation of farming and stock raising the Spanish-American war broke out and he volunteered his services, enlisting in Company E, Twentieth Kansas Volunteer Infantry, May 2, 1898. Coming to San Francisco with his regiment October 27, 1898, the regiment sailed for the Philippines on the transport Indiana and took part in the campaign of the Twentieth Kansas in the battles from the outbreak of the revolution, February 4, 1898, until San Fernando, June 25, 1899. He was mustered out at Manila July 28, 1899, and honorably discharged with the rank of sergeant. He reenlisted in Troop A, Eleventh United States Cavalry, and as sergeant continued serving in the Philippines, doing scout duty and participating in the several engagements of the regiment, viz.: Battle of Montalbon, December 27, 1899 ; San Antonio, August 4, 1900; Pagsanyan, August 20, 1900; defenses of Pagsanyan, September 24 and October 7, 1900. He was mustered out in San Francisco March 13, 1901, and received an honorable discharge. After a brief trip to his old home in Missouri and Kansas, he returned to San Francisco in May, 1901, and on May 20 he entered the employ of the old Market Street Railroad. Beginning as conductor, he worked his way rapidly upward to motorman, then inspector, dispatcher; later was in the law department, supervising and operating the department and becoming assistant to the general superintendent.

November 25, 1914, Mr. Hale resigned his position to accept the office of general manager of the Humboldt Transit Company at Eureka. He arrived on November 29, 1914, and since that time he has managed the company's affairs and traction line here. Aside from the general management of all the car lines in the city the company also represents the Union Oil Company of California, Mr. Hale handling all of that company's fuel oil sold in Humboldt county.
Mr. Hale was married in San Francisco, being united with Miss Violet I. G. Jackson, a native of Honolulu, and they have one child, James W., Jr., a native son of Eureka.

Mr. Hale was made a Mason in Pacific Lodge No. 136, F. & A. M., San Francisco, and is also a member of Lodge of Perfection No. 10, Scottish Rite. He is also a member of Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. In his political views he espouses the principles of the Republican party.
 

CHRISTOPHER JOHN WEBER was born in Dyerville, Dubuque county, Iowa, March 29, 1873, the son of Valentine and Barbara (Christoph) Weber, who were prosperous farmers in Newwine township. The father was township assessor for thirty-five years and there both parents passed away. The mother's brother, the Hon. John Christoph, was a member of the Iowa State Senate for two terms, and was the owner of several large farms in that county.

Christopher J. Weber was the second youngest of a family of seven children and was reared on the Iowa farm, receiving a good education in the public schools and the Dyerville high school. On completing his studies at the latter he became employed in the 'sash and door factory of Farley & Loetchers in Dubuque, Iowa, running various machines for them for about four years. Hearing of better opportunities and wages to be obtained in the new land of California, he determined to see the Pacific coast and July 11, 1895, found him in Visalia, Cal., where he was employed on farms for about two years.

In 1897 Mr. Weber came to Eureka, Humboldt county, and was first employed by the Eel River Valley Lumber Company of Newberg Mills. Afterwards he engaged in farming on Table Bluff for two years, when he moved into Eureka and entered the employ of McKay & Co. at the Occidental mill. He has continued with the company ever since, for the last eight years holding the position of yard salesman, in which capacity he has established a good record for accuracy and reliability. He is optimistic for the future growth of Eureka. He has built three different residences in the city, all of which he has sold, besides which he owns other property here, and is now improving a ten-acre ranch on the Arcata road at Walker's Point. On this property he is engaged in intensive farming and dairying. His small dairy herd comprises full-blooded Jersey cows. He makes his home on his ranch, which lies about six miles from the city, and he makes the trip morning and evening in his car, thus obtaining the keenest enjoyment from country life.

Mr. Weber was married in Eureka to Miss Ella Keith, a native of the state of Maine, and they have one child, Mary Louise. In his political views Mr. Weber has always been a Republican.
 

WILLIAM HENRY COLWELL was born in Princeton, Washington county; Me., July 29, 1855, the son of William and Dorcas (Bonney) Colwell. The father, who was a farmer and lumberman, died at the age of seventy-six years, while his wife lived to be ninety-six years of age.

William H. Colwell was the youngest of twelve children. He received his education in the public schools and from a lad worked on the farm and in the woods with his father, continuing this until he came to California in 1877. He followed lumbering for the Sierra Flume Company in Tehama county for three summers, and then decided to try his hand at mining. In Tombstone, Ariz., he began prospecting, locating and opening the Bradshaw mine, which proved to be a rich silver property. After about six months he sold it for a large sum. Following this he made a trip back to Maine, remaining about six months, when he returned to Tombstone, Ariz., and again began prospecting, but this time he did not meet with much success. In 1881 he proceeded to Lake Valley, New Mexico, where for three years he prospected and mined and did very well.

In March, 1884, we find Mr. Colwell in Sonora, Mexico, whence three years later he went to Chihuahua, remaining therefor, seven years. Next he spent two years in Durango, then a like period in Costa Rica, South America. His next location was in El Oro, Old Mexico, where he was foreman of the Esperanza mine, and while thus employed he was the victim of an accident that caused the loss of his left arm. By the caving in of rock he was buried underneath the debris. Inasmuch as a brother, Charles, and a sister, Mrs. Laura A. Farrar, resided in Eureka, he concluded to come to Humboldt county and arrived here in November, 1901. He engaged in teaming and ranching until June 21, 1915, when he was elected city superintendent of streets of Eureka, and assumed the ,duties of his office July 12, 1915. Since that time he has given all of his time and attention to the care ,of the city's streets.

Mr. Colwell was married in Eureka December 12, 1906, being united with Miss Eva Burwell, born in Zanesville, Ohio, the daughter of Samuel and Malinda (Brown) Burwell, who took their family to Judsonia, Ark., and afterwards to Humboldt county, Cal. Mr. Burwell is now living retired. He served as a drummer boy in an Ohio regiment in the Civil war. To Mr. and Mrs. Colwell have been born three children, as follows : Ruth, John and Homer. He is a member of Fortuna Lodge No. 221, I. 0. O. F., in Eureka, and is also a member of the Encampment. Politically he is a Socialist and it was on that party's ticket that he was elected to his present position.
 

MARTIN GROSS.—Foreman of the woods for the Northern Redwood Lumber Company of Korbel at Camp No. 12, and a resident of Humboldt county since 1885, Martin Gross was born December 2, 1863, at Flekkefjord, Norway. His father, Edward Gross, was a native of Germany, but went to Norway, where he was superintendent of a manufacturing plant in Christiansand until his death. Martin's mother was Martine Christensen, a native of Norway, where she was married and spent her entire life. Of her two children, Martin, the eldest, spent his childhood in Flekkefjord, receiving a good education in the public schools. When fourteen years of age, like the majority of the lads of that seaport town, he too went to sea, following it for six years and sailing to many foreign ports. On his last long voyage from Savannah to Liverpool in the barque St. Lawrence, owned by parties in Arndal, Norway, the ship was wrecked off the coast of Fleetwood, England, being lost, but the crew was saved. Returning to Norway, Mr. Gross followed the coasting trade for a time, then concluded to come to America to try his luck in a new country. From San Francisco he came immediately to Eureka, arriving May 1, 1885, and went by stage to Trinidad, where he worked in the woods for Peter Hansen. After continuing with that employer for two years he was for one year with the Excelsior mill in Eureka, and then with Cutten & McDonald, shingle manufacturers, a year. Following this he accepted a position as foreman of the bolt camp with Ole Hansen at Walkers Point.

During these years Mr. Gross purchased his present ranch of fifteen acres near Indianola, where he built a residence and improved the place with a family orchard. In 1901 he resigned his place with Mr. Hansen to accept a place with the Northern Redwood Lumber Company of Korbel as foreman of the woods, and has continued with the company ever since, being now in charge of Camp No. 12.

Mr. Gross was first married December 2, 1893, to Miss Mary Mullen, a native of County Cork, Ireland. At her death she left three children : Anna M., Martin E. and Ralph. Mr. Gross was Married in Eureka May 10, 1901, to Miss Mathilda Nelson, also a native of Flekkefjord. After coming to the United States she spent nearly eight months in Wisconsin and in 1901 came to Eureka. Mr. and Mrs. Gross have one child, Edwin Selmar. Fraternally he is a member of Arcata Lodge No. 106, F. & A. M, and also a member of Eureka Aerie No. 130, F. 0. E., and the Sons of Norway. In religion the family are Lutherans, having been reared in that faith. In politics Mr. Gross is a stanch Republican.
 

ABRAHAM LARSEN has become prominent in the upbuilding of Eureka and in developing the resources of Humboldt county, being engaged in the manufacture of shingles, besides which he is interested in the real estate business. He was born in Flekkefjord, Norway, September 21, 1863. his father was a successful boat builder and house carpenter. As a youth Abraham Larsen received a good education in the public schools of his native place, continuing his studies until fourteen years of age, and then, as was the custom and ambition of lads of that 'seaport town, he went to sea, running on boats engaged in the lumber trade. During the two years that he followed this business he entered various European ports, and at the end of this time concluded to come to America. The first year in this country was passed in Cedar Falls, Dunn county, Wis., and from there he removed to Eau Claire, following the lumber industry until 1884. In that year he came to Humboldt county, Cal., having an acquaintance here. From Eureka he proceeded to Trinidad, where he was employed in a shingle mill for Peter Hansen. Thereafter he worked in different shingle mills around Humboldt bay. Desiring to engage in business for himself, in 1896 he formed a partnership with four others under the name of Trinidad Manufacturing Company, which built a shingle mill in Trinidad with a capacity of 150,000 shingles. Mr." Larsen was superintendent of the mill, which was operated for seven years, or until 1903, when, having used up all the available timber, the proprietors sold out and .dissolved partnership.

Returning to Eureka, Mr. Larsen engaged in the real estate business. He laid out the Buena Vista addition of ten acres on Hodgeson street, much of which has been sold and built up. In 1913 he again became interested in shingle manufacturing. With others he incorporated the Freshwater Manufacturing Company, of which he is secretary. The company owns eight hundred seventy acres of land on Freshwater creek, where the mill is located. Mr. Larsen was also one of the incorporators of the Waldner Fruit and Land Company, which owned four thousand acres of land near Fort Seward suitable for horticulture, Mr. Larsen being secretary of the company.

In Eureka in 1906 Mr. Larsen was married to Miss Mary Glatt, a native of Eureka and the daughter of Bartlin Glatt, a pioneer and prominent up-builder of Eureka. Mr. Glatt was born in Baden, Germany, January 23, 1834. On coming to the United States, in 1849, he went direct to St. Louis, Mo., where he had an uncle living. In March, 1852, he crossed the plains to California in an ox-team train, walking all of the way but one hundred miles, and paying the head of the train $80 for his passage. He mined for several years and met with good success. Returning to Illinois, he was there married to Henrietta Hotzen, also a native of Germany. Following their marriage they came to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama, and for three years Mr. Glatt followed mining. About 1865 he came to Humboldt county and invested his money in real estate in Eureka. Later, selling his city property, he purchased one hundred sixty acres south of town, then covered with timber. The latter was logged and when the city expanded he laid out the land into blocks and acres and sold it. Most of the property is now built up, the forty acres remaining forming the beautiful Sequoia Park. Mr. Glatt died in March, 1913, and his wife in April, 1915. They had a family of eight children. Mrs. Larsen is a graduate of the Eureka High School.

Mr. Larsen was made a Mason in Arcata Lodge No. 106, F. & A. M., and is also a member of the Sons of Norway. In religion he is a Lutheran and in politics a stanch Republican, always taking an active part in county politics.
 

JAMES CAMPBELL COPELAND.—The foreman of the woods for the Elk River Lumber Company and a resident of Eureka since December, 1883, James Campbell Copeland was born at Durham, Ormstown, Province of Quebec, March 6, 1860. His parents, Donald and Elizabeth (Campbell) Copeland, were natives of Scotland, coming to Ormstown when they were young folks and where they were married, rearing their family on the farm. They continued to make that their home until their demise.

Of their ten children six are living, James C. being the third oldest. His childhood was spent on the farm, attending the local public schools and receiving a good education. He assisted his parents on the home farm until he was twenty years of age, when he resolved to come west and located in Carson City, Nev. There he had his first experience in the lumber industry, working in a sawmill and becoming edger man. In December, 1883, he arrived in San Francisco and from there came on immediately to Eureka, Humboldt county, landing from the steamer City of Chester. He at once found work with the Vance Lumber Company, which was then logging near Essex, and he continued with the company for four or five years. Next he went to work for McKay & Co. on Ryan slough, continuing with the company for seven years as head swamper. He resigned this position to accept a similar one with the Elk River Mill and Lumber Company and devoted his time faithfully to the building of roads until May, 1903, when he was made foreman of the woods, and since then has had charge of the selection, falling and logging of the timber. For eighteen years without interruption he has been with the company, doing his duty faithfully and well.

Mr. Copeland makes his home in Eureka, where he built a residence at No. 1737 Fourth street. His marriage occurred in Eureka, where he was united with Miss Anna McGowan, who was born in New Brunswick and came to Eureka when a child with her parents. Mr. and Mrs. Copeland have three children, James Leland, Zelda and Elinore. In his political views Mr. Copeland believes in the principles of the Republican party as being for the best interest of the greatest number of people.
 

WILBUR P. WEST.—Another of the prominent dairymen and stock raisers of Humboldt county is Wilbur P. West, of Waddington, where he owns a dairy farm of ten acres and operates twenty-three acres, making up in care and application for the deficiency in acreage, and is making a success of his undertaking. He also owns a ranch of one hundred sixty acres in the hills near Ferndale, which he devotes to the raising of live stock. He is a man who has always been noted for his close attention to his business affairs, and for practically his entire life he has been associated with dairy enterprises and the breeding of stock, in both of which lines he is proficient and well informed. He considers the dairy industry the safest in which one can engage, and also is certain that Humboldt county is peculiarly fitted for this industry. He is very popular among his neighbors and friends, much loved by the members of his family, and respected by all who know him.

Mr. West is a native of California, born in Marin county, December 17, 1870. His father, W. 0. West, who was then engaged in dairy farming in Marin county, came to Humboldt county in 1873 and settled at West Point, Pacific township, and for nine years ran a part of the Russ ranch known as West Point. A native of Bangor, Me., during his earlier years W. 0. West followed the sea, commencing as a cabin boy as soon as he was old enough to hold such a position, and when he was thirty-five years of age he was made captain of a sailing vessel. He plied up and down the Atlantic coast and to the West Indies, and at one time owned a half interest in a sailing vessel of which he was first mate. This vessel was wrecked, and with it went the fortune that the young mate had accumulated, as there was no insurance. He died in Humboldt county in 1907, at the age of seventy-four years. The mother was Miss Mary J. Bishop in her maidenhood, and a native of St. Johns, New Brunswick, and now a resident of Eureka. There were five children in the family, Wilbur P. being the second born. Of the others, E. B., the eldest son, is a carpenter in Eureka ; E. C. is a street car conductor, also living in Eureka ; W. 0. is employed in the Libby, McNeill & Libby creamery at Loleta ; and Bertha E. is the wife of John Reynolds, a teamster, of Fortuna.

The boyhood of Mr. West was spent on a dairy farm and he early mastered the details of the business. Practically his entire life has been passed in Humboldt county, and he has always been more or less closely connected with the dairy and stock business. He is classed among the well informed men in the community, and his opinion on questions pertaining to this industry is worthy of consideration. In 1911 he purchased the property on which he now resides. His wife owned five acres at this place, and he bought another tract of the same size, and also rents an additional tract of thirteen acres. Besides caring for this ranch, on which he has eight cows, he manages his foothill stock farm, near Ferndale.

Mr. West and Mrs. Emma Frost were married in Eureka in 1906. She is the daughter of John Reynolds and was born in Amador county. By her first marriage she was the mother of one child, a son, Robert Frost, of Ferndale. Both Mr. and Mrs. West have many friends in Waddington and vicinity, where they are well and favorably known. Mr. West is a member of the Modern Woodmen of America at Fortuna. In his political views he is a Republican.
 

C. S. EPPS.—It would be impossible to make extended mention of either the Pacific Lumber Company. of Scotia or the Holmes Eureka Lumber Company, whose extensive holdings are in this county, without considerable reference to C. S. Epps, whose association with the former great corporation lasted for twenty-three years and was conducive to the profitable development of the holdings of the company. Since 1910, however, he has been foreman of the latter company, whose saw and shingle mills are located at Eureka, while the lumber lands and camps are near Carlotta. His intimate association for so many years with the lumber industry of the county has enabled him to be of great value to his company, whose extensive interests he looks after with such profitable results. The Holmes Eureka Lumber Company have a private track running from their camp to the mills, which conveys the logs on cars. Everything about the camp is neat and methodical ; the sanitary conditions are of the best and indeed the entire plant contains such modern improvements as reflect the systematic and orderly oversight of Mr. Epps. The laborers are comfortably housed and during the busy season they are able to care for one hundred fifty men in their snug bunk houses. Mr. Epps is a man who is never idle, occupying his quiet moments with reading the best current magazines and daily newspapers. A man broad and charitable in his views, he has aided every movement for the advancement of education, morality pr the well-being of his community. He is very optimistic as to the future of Humboldt county and is the owner of twenty-four acres of fertile land, set out to fruit ; owns a quarter section of valuable timber land and a most comfortable residence at No. 1206 M street, Eureka, where he resides with his family.

It was but natural that young Epps should show skill as a woodsman when a mere lad, for he was brought up to a thorough knowledge of the business by his father, Philo Epps, a prominent logging contractor of New Brunswick, where C. S. was born at St. George, August 20, 1862. His first work in the woods was in his native place, where he was employed by his brother Henry, who for eighteen years was foreman of the river drive. Although the youngest man in the camp he was a hard worker, and the practical experience which he gained was of great value to him in later years. The parental family numbered ten children, five sons and five daughters, of whom C. S. was next to the youngest. The father lived to the advanced age of eighty-two years.

Mr. Epps came to California in 1886, locating in Humboldt county, and from the years 1887 to 1892 scaled logs for the Pacific Lumber Company. He became an expert in thus preparing the logs and was advanced from time to time until made foreman of the company, which he served in this responsible position for over twenty years. The lady who became his wife, in 1887, was Miss May Donaldson, a native of Ottawa, where her father, Robert Donaldson, was foreman of a flour mill for twenty-five years. To them have been born four children. Franklin P. married Ethel Zane and makes his home in Eureka, where he is employed in driving the Smythe auto bus south from Fort Seward. Irene is still at home with her parents. A. Bryan, who was graduated from high school with the class of 1911, is running a logging donkey in the camp of which his father is foreman. Donald, the youngest of the family, is prosecuting his studies in the schools of Eureka.
 

HON. THOMAS HENRY SELVAGE.—The life of ex---Senator Selvage, of Eureka, now assistant United States Attorney, with headquarters at San Francisco, affords the interesting and admirable spectacle of a straightforward adherence to principles of right and justice, making possible a rise from obscurity into political and professional prominence. Exemplifying in his career the lofty ideals characteristic of generations of ancestors identified with the early upbuilding of New England, he has the heritage of rugged, positive mental traits that form the foundation of all permanent national progress. The sterling qualities that were his by inheritance became deepened and broadened through his own early experiences of self-denial and privation amid the rigorous climatic conditions existing along the northern boundaries of Maine. It was not until seventeen years of age that he left Aroostook county, that state, where he was born April 22, 1857, and came with his. parents to the more genial climate of the Pacific coast. Thus his identification with Humboldt county dates back to 1874. For a time he studied in the Arcata public school and later he attended St. Louis College in British Columbia.

An ardent desire to take up the study of the law was delayed in its fulfillment only until the necessary expenses could be met by personal efforts and protracted continuance at other employment as a means of raising the little fund of capital. Having studied law in the office of J. D. H. Chamberlain of Eureka, Mr. Selvage passed a very creditable examination and was admitted to the bar in March, 1888, since which time he has practiced in the courts of the state. During his active association with the Eureka bar he was first in partnership with Denver Sevier as a member of the firm of Selvage & Sevier, then with Judge C. H. Connick under the