Humboldt County, California



HON. JOSEPH RUSS.—The abiding influence of this man, whose wonderful powers of organization, stimulated by visions of the demands of the fu­ture, created some of the most productive industries of Humboldt county, has never been more apparent than at the present day. The keenness which enabled him to foresee the possibilities of the enterprises upon which he embarked; the breadth of imagination which governed his plans for their expansion and development during a generation beyond his own time ; the wise' provisions for the welfare of the community which he advocated during his legislative career ; all these and more are seen better in the light of their present usefulness than they could be before the fruit began to ripen in the sunshine of success. To outline the many projects which Mr. Russ matured and put into practical operation will give some idea of the magnitude of his undertakings. The details, all of which he grasped in his comprehension of the whole, are past the understanding of the average individual.

Mr. Russ belonged to sturdy New England stock, the self-reliant type trained by generations of industry and frugal living to make the most of environment, to exalt the importance of moral integrity and mental discipline, to be honest, thrifty and independent. He was a native of Maine, born December 19, 1825, in Washington, Lincoln County, and was ten years old when his parents removed to Belmont, Waldo County, that state, where he grew to manhood. The greater part of his education was acquired in the district schools there. When he reached his majority he went to Dartmouth, Mass., and commenced his independent career, remaining there two years, at the end of which period he ventured in business on his own account, at Fall River, Mass., engaging in teaming and merchandising. He was disappointed in the results, and tried another line at Appleton, Me., buying an interest in a sawmill, and giving some time to its operation, at the same time carrying on a grocery store. He continued thus for about three years. During this time tales of the gold discoveries on the Pacific coast fired his ambition, and he determined to seek his fortune in the mines. But he already had the foresight which was later to be so large a factor in his success. Instead of rushing out without preparation or definite plans of any kind he made ready to embark in business upon his arrival, buying material for a building which he had made in sections, which would only need joining when he reached his destination. He took passage on the "Midas," which went around the Horn, and purchased a large quantity of flour at one of the ports en route. He landed at San Francisco March 15, 1850, after a five months' voyage, but saw fit to alter his arrangements, and selling his building and flour at a small profit joined six other men, the party buying a boat and starting up the river to Sacramento. There they sold the boat, and Mr. Russ proceeded to White Oak Springs, where his sawmilling experience proved valuable, as he took charge of a sawmill at that point for two months. After that he contracted to build a bridge across the American river, and upon its completion took other work of the same kind. In the summer of 1850, with a partner, he opened a general store at Volcano, Amador County, but it was not a success.

It was then Mr. Russ went into the cattle business, in which his name and fame will live for many years. Purchasing a herd, he drove it to the Yuba River and disposed of it at moderate profit. Soon afterward he made another investment of the same kind in that section, upon which he realized so handsomely that he had enough capital to go into business, opening a hay and feed yard in the Sacramento valley, and purchasing teams which he employed in the transportation of freight between Colusa and Shasta. At Placerville he bought a herd of cattle which he drove to Humboldt County in the fall of 1852 and grazed upon Bear River Ridge. He was one of the first to explore the Eel river valley and surrounding country, and he was so impressed by the resources of the region generally that he took up a claim near Capetown, on the strength of his conviction that here were to be found more natural advantages than he had observed in any other part of the state. In the fall of 1853 he was associated with Berry Adams in the purchase of a large number of beef cattle in Sacramento, and they drove them to Hum­boldt county and opened a meat market at Eureka, with which Mr. Russ was connected for two years. He then went to the forks of the Salmon river and established a market of his own, spending two years at that loca­tion, from March, 1855, to the spring of 1857. Purchasing another drove of beef cattle in Oregon, he took them down to the banks of the Bear River, and again opened a market in Eureka, where the Russ meat market is still a popular trading place. Before long he commenced to invest in grazing lands, acquiring the nucleus of an estate which now includes fifty thousand acres and more in Humboldt county, stocked with four thousand head of cattle, thirteen thousand sheep, and horses and mules in large numbers. In 1870 Mr. Russ erected the sawmill still conducted under the name of Russ & Company as the Excelsior Mills at Eureka.

Though Mr. Russ had individual interests so extensive that they required unremitting attention, many of the important ideas he introduced benefited the surrounding territory as much as his own properties. Thus he deserves great credit for inaugurating the dairy industry in this region,' being one of the first to venture in that line here and going into it on a larger scale than any other individual operator, keeping over two thousand milch cows among his herds for this purpose. His work in the development of the business, and in demonstrating its possibilities in this section, represents the most import­ant progress made in that branch in his time.

So systematically did Mr. Russ plan his undertakings, and so thoroughly were his plans blocked out, that many of them were practically self-operating for years to come, and thus the estate remains intact to the present. The importance of this one estate in relation to the welfare of the community may be estimated from the single fact that three hundred men, on an average, are given employment in the conduct and management of its numerous activities.

Mr. Russ used the great influence he acquired as a trust from his fellow citizens. He could realize that the men who commanded means could also command power, and he felt it his duty to see that that power was not abused. So along with his private responsibilities he shouldered the burdens of the community in which he had cast his lot, and he never betrayed the confidence reposed in him. He took a leading part in politics simply because he understood the needs of his county and was in a position to do effective work to satisfy them. It was his belief that business men should participate in public affairs, giving the benefit of their ability and experience in directing government into the best channels. So when he was nominated for the office of state senator at the Republican convention in 1875 he accepted from a sense of obligation. He was defeated by a small majority, but met with better success in 1877, going into office with a flattering vote. In 1885 he was elected a member of the lower house of the state legislature, and was a member of that body at the time of his death, October 8, 1886. He always took a deep interest in the success of his party, and had served in 1880 as a delegate from California to the national Republican convention, which met in Chicago that year. Mr. Russ's contribution to educational facilities in his adopted state deserves special mention. He had all the veneration of the typical New Eng­lander for institutions of learning, and during his service in the legislature worked faithfully to secure adequate appropriations for the public schools and other causes which he considered of similar importance. He was one of the principal stockholders in the Humboldt Seminary at Eureka, and always maintained a personal interest in its well-being, giving generously to support its enterprises and broaden its work. A public school building in San Diego, Cal., bears his name as a mark of gratitude for his liberality, he having donated the lumber necessary for its construction. His reputation for giving without stint was so generally believed in that it was said he never refused assistance to any worthy cause. His means were also extensively employed in benevolent enterprises, and invariably without ostentation or self-right­eousness of spirit. They were acquired so honorably that no recipient needed to have any qualms about tainted wealth.

On December 17, 1854, Mr. Russ was married to Zipporah Patrick, who still survives, residing at the old home near Ferndale, the place being known as Fern Cottage. She was born in Wyoming County, Pa., daughter of Nehe­miah Patrick, like her husband a notable pioneer settler of Humboldt County. He came to California over the plains in 1852, and settled in this county the year following. Thirteen children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Russ, viz.: Edward died in infancy ; James B. is deceased ; Mary E. married James T. Robarts and both are deceased ; Margaret C. married Rev. Philip Coombe, of San Francisco ; Ira A. is a resident of Eureka ; Annie J. married B. F. Har­ville, of San Francisco ; William N. is a resident of Eureka ; Georgia married Frank G. Williams, of Ferndale ; Edythe J., wife of H. D. Cormick, of San Francisco ; Bertha is at home ; Joseph, Jr., is a resident of Ferndale; Winifred Estelle and Zipporah are deceased.

ANDREW S. WALDNER.—The Western Hotel of Eureka, of which Mr. Waldner is proprietor, deservedly occupies a high place in the estima­tion of the traveling public and has become a favorite stopping-place for people of all classes. The location of the building is on the corner of First and D streets and furnishes every facility for the prompt accommodation of travelers and is one of the largest and most popular hotels in Eureka. The hotel maintains ninety-seven guest rooms, neatly furnished and provided with modern conveniences, and brings its proprietor an excellent return upon his investment.

The country of Sweden has presented to the United States some of its ablest citizens, who have figured prominently in both political and commercial fields, as well as in all fields of labor requiring tact, keen perceptive ability and industry. Andrew S. Waldner is one of her sons, having been born at Muelby, Oestergoetland, September 13, 1861. His parents were Magnus and Mathilda Swanson Waldner. The father served in the Swedish army and his name of Swanson was changed by the government to Waldner, a name his family adopted. The father, who by trade was a stone-cutter and mason, invested in a small farm in Sweden which he cultivated with success, thus making it possible to give his children a good education. Andrew Waldner was the youngest of a family of ten children, five of whom are living. He was born September 13, 1861, and continued to remain with his parents in Sweden until eighteen years of age. On his arrival in the United States he remained for a short time at Greenport, N. Y. Thus forced to begin life for himself, he moved to Indiana and was fortunate in securing employment in the bridge building department of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railway Company. He remained for twelve years with this company, building bridges in differ­ent parts of Indiana and Illinois. While thus engaged he was married in Attica, Ind., to Miss Amanda Tolv, a native of the Hoosier state. About this time he quit bridge-building and took charge of the branch of the Standard Oil Co., at Attica, in which he continued over seven years.

In May, 1891, Mr. Waldner arrived in Humboldt County and followed his trade of carpentering at Eureka until October of the same year, when he became proprietor of the Fields Landing Hotel. It was but a short time until he became conversant with all departments of the hotel business, enlarging the building and making improvements from time to time. In November, 1913, Mr. Waldner leased the Fields Landing Hotel, in the meantime having purchased the furnishings of the Western Hotel in Eureka from the Otto Petersen estate, and of which he assumed the immediate management. Experience has qualified him for this business, of which he has made a decided success. The entire aspect of the hotel proves that the proprietor is the possessor of original ideas and wise business judgment, enabling him to give his customers and guests the best possible service.

To Mr. and Mrs. Waldner have been born three children, two of whom are living: Elmer is a graduate of Queen's University in Canada and is at present manager of the Top Light & Shade Company, Oakland, Cal.; Marie, Mrs. Bryan, resides at Portola, Cal. In political views Mr. Waldner adheres to Republican principles, while fraternally he holds membership with Eureka Aerie No. 130, F. 0. E.

GEORGE HENRY COX.—Among the bright and active young business men of Bridgeville whose splendid energy and modern methods have con­tributed not a little to the rapid growth of the community, is George Henry Cox, junior member of the firm of Henry Cox & Son, general merchants. Since embarking in this business they have built up a good trade among the people of the locality who soon came to appreciate their fair business dealings and reliability as merchants. Like many others who have helped to develop this part of the state, Henry Cox was born in New Brunswick, coming to California thirty-nine years ago and locating in Humboldt County. For a number of years he worked as a woodsman, but by frugality and well-directed energies, soon acquired property and a place among the well-to-do men of the community, among whom he has an enviable reputation, tested during the passing of many years. He was married to Miss Maria Jane Coffron, a native of Maine, who came with her uncle, Ellis Coffron, to Humboldt county in 1877. They occupy a comfortable home at Bridgeville and richly deserve their success and the good will of their associates. Their sons and daughters are: Clara B., the wife of Robert L. Thomas, a civil engineer, residing in San Francisco; Minnie, Mrs. Charles Griesbach, of Bridgeville ; G. Henry, the third in order of birth ; Gertie, now Mrs. Martin Crogan, farming at Larabee; Clarence W., who makes his home in Bridgeville ; Anita and Harold, attending school in this place.

G. H. Cox was born January 4, 1889, at Bayside, this county, and con­tinued to reside at home until thirteen years• of age, when, thrown upon his own resources, he went to Eureka and obtained employment with the Gil­lette Tea, Coffee & Spice Co. His next position was with the Daly Bros. Arcade dry goods house, where his innate courtesy and desire to please made him invaluable to his employers, with whom he remained for two years. The following two years he spent with the Pacific Oak Extract Co. at Briceland. Having but scant educational opportunities in his youth, later application remedied the earlier deficiencies in schooling, and, being ambitious to fit himself for a business career, he entered the Eureka Business College, gradu­ating from its commercial department in 1908. "Whatever of success he has attained is therefore attributable to his natural and mental qualifications and a determination to prosper. He was married to Miss Jessie, daughter of John H. Felt, a pioneer of Cuddeback, this county, in 1910, and they made their home at Hydesville, where Mr. Cox was employed as book-keeper in the general merchandise store of Frank W T. Beckwith, until taking up their resi­dence in Bridgeville, where, in June, 1912, the present partnership of Henry Cox & Son was formed.

GUSTAV ALFRED WALDNER.—Through substantial traits of character embracing intelligence, industry and great perseverance Mr. Wald­ner, a native of Osterland, Sweden, and a resident of Humboldt county from his arrival at Eureka during 1878 until his death, February 21, 1913, was able to gain for himself financial prosperity and that which is yet more to be desired, the respect of associates and the deepest esteem of intimate friends. Different lines of labor engaged his attention from the time of his arrival in California. Like the average Scandinavian boy he had been taught to be useful and was expected to contribute to his own support as soon as physically able to perform any kind of manual work. The most -important part of his education had been his industrial training and it laid the founda­tion of the ultimate prosperity to which he attained. For a number of years he owned and operated the Western hotel at Eureka. Another early enter­prise in this city was the carrying on of a fish business, while his earliest means of self-support here was through work in the redwoods.

The development of land was made a matter of importance to Mr. Waldner, who, with the most unbounded faith in the rise of values in Humboldt County, bought and improved a tract of forty-five acres on the Eel River, built a house on the farm and later sold out at a fair advance. During the fall of 1910 the Waldner Fruit and Land Company, of which he was president, bought four thousand acres of raw land near Fort Seward, but on the other side of the river. At the time of his death he was deeply interested in the development of this vast tract, which he had started to plant into fruit of different kinds with the intention of selling out in tracts of twenty or forty acres to the small farmer desiring a safe investment with ideal home environ­ment. The land is rich and well adapted to fruit, hence his plans for its development will in all probability be carried to a successful issue. The Humboldt County Fruit Growers' Association was organized largely through his efforts and he continued one of its leaders until his death. Through his marriage to Tillie Anderson, a native of Kalmastan, Sweden, he became the father of five children, Clarence E., Clara V., George A., Genevieve and Glenn A. Always active in civic and county affairs, he served for two terms as a member of the Eureka city council and used his influence to promote worthy movements for local development and welfare. His fraternities were the Foresters, Eagles, the lodge and encampment of Odd Fellows, and the Pioneer Odd Fellows, and with his wife was a member of the Centennial Lodge .of Rebekahs. Mrs. Waldner passed the chairs twice. It is the united testimony of those who knew Mr. Waldner that his course in life was such as to reflect credit upon the citizenship of Eureka, and when he passed away the simple but impressive last service, the flowers and the silent sympathy of old neighbors and friends indicated the affectionate regard in which he was held.

HON. JOHN W. McCLELLAN.—Not alone through the interesting fact that he is the son of Hugh McClellan, until his decease one of the most promi­nent and influential men of the county, but also by reason of his own intimate identification with public affairs and his own successful incumbency of the office of state legislator, which he filled for two consecutive terms, is Mr. John W. McClellan, one of the distinguished men of the county and state. His political career practically dates from 1906, at which time he became the Republican nominee for assemblyman, being elected in 1906 and 1908, and serving during the sessions of 1907 to 1909, including the extra sessions. So thoroughly worthy has been his political life, and so ably has he discharged his numerous responsibilities on behalf of the people, that he has made friends even among the opposite party, who readily accord him the homage due a conscientious and painstaking servant. He was chosen by his colleagues as chairman of the live stock, dairy and dairy products committee, and other­wise rendered his constituents valuable service on the other committees of the assembly; among them, the ways and means committee.

To Hugh W. McClellan belonged the distinction of being one of the earliest residents of Van Dusen Township, as well as one of its most extensive landowners. Innumerable landmarks in the community bespeak the far-sightedness and enterprise of this honored pioneer, who recognized in the advan­tages of soil, climate and situation, splendid opportunities for the fulfilling of large ambitions and for the leading of peaceful, contented and successful lives. At the time of his decease, December 31, 1911, he was the owner of a vast estate, numbering twelve thousand acres, which he devoted to the raising of sheep.

The record of the McClellan family in America is traced back to the seventeenth century when its first representative crossed the untried waters of the Atlantic, settling in Maine. A descendant of this immigrant later went to Massachusetts, where Hugh McClellan was born near Deerfield. Gold having been discovered in California, which was to prove the talisman to draw thousands of emigrants to this state, the father decided to try his fortunes in the west, and came, in 1852, via the Isthmus, settling first at Crescent City, Del Norte county. Few people had as yet been attracted to the bound­less west and few also realized its matchless possibilities of production as did young McClellan, who was engaged for a time after coming here in operating a pack train to and from the mines of Del Norte County, to southern Oregon mines and points in Idaho. Abandoning the mines in 1867, he came to Humboldt County and in Van Dusen township took up a claim, erecting thereon a cabin which is still standing. Ten years later this rude structure gave way to a more commodious and comfortable home, built of logs, which is now one of the landmarks of this locality. Possessing traits that enabled him to sur­mount all obstacles, he added to his landed possessions from time to time until at his death he was the owner of a large estate, which he devoted to stock-raising. When this property came into the possession of J. W., however, he, in 1914, disposed of the sheep which he found to be no longer profit­able on,account of the devastation of his flock by the coyotes, and engaged in raising Hereford and Durham cattle for the market. He was married in Ferndale, in 1905, being united with Miss Lucy, the daughter of Dr. William H. Michel. She is a native daughter of Mendocino county. They occupy a handsome residence on the home place, which indeed has no superior in this beautiful locality. Mr. McClellan is a member of Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E., and of Humboldt Parlor, N. S. G. W.

FRANK ALBERT WECK was born in Milan, Italy, on the 5th day of September, 1843, the son of Carl Weck, who died soon afterward, when Carl, the youngest child, was one year old. His mother with her four children moved to Switzerland, and four years later emigrated to America, locating first in Galena, Ill., and later in Iowa. There the son commenced the study of pharmacy and the drug business in general, a line in the pursuit of which he won for himself considerable credit and wealth. By the ,Panama route he came to California in 1858, landing at San Francisco, and from that city went at once to Uniontown (now Arcata) making the trip on the bark Quada Bell with Captain Ross, where he completed his studies as a drug­gist in a drug store, then owned by Dr. F. Damour. About four years later he took a position as manager of a drug store in Eureka owned by James M. Cox, but known as the James Davis drug Store, which he later purchased in partnership with James M. Short. The business prospered and eventually he bought out his partner's interest, but still later he sold an interest to S. A. Vance. This partnership proved entirely satisfactory, but on account of Mr. Vance's ill health, and wanting to take charge of his father's office, Mr. Weck purchased the Vance interest in the business and continued to conduct it alone until he sold out to his son-in-law, C. R. Fitzell, who had been in his employ for a number of years.

Mr. Weck was for many years so closely associated with the life and development of Humboldt county that its history would be in no wise com­plete without a record of the part he played here in an early day. It is also a fact of which the county is justly proud that Mr. Weck has never lost his affection for the locality that was first his home when he came a stranger to the coast, and where he still has a host of warm friends and admirers, men who remember him for his business ability and for his political sagacity in the days when he was helping to shape the destinies not alone of his home city but had his hand on the helm in affairs of the state as well.

In addition to his continuous interest in the drug business up to this time, Mr. Weck possessed other interests of a widely varying nature, each and all of which he conducted with a skill and ability far beyond the average. As was but natural with one whose faith in the future of Humboldt county, and of Eureka in particular, has been a constant flame illumining all his thought and conduct, Mr. Weck invested in real estate, doing this with such wisdom and foresight that his holdings have constantly increased in value. He erected the Weck block on F and Third streets, Eureka, and still retains title to this property. Weck's addition to the city of Eureka of one hundred and ten acres was also owned by him, this property having been purchased when it was a wilderness of brush and trees, and later cleared, developed, platted, improved and sold off in town lots. Another of his ventures was the purchase of a three-acre tract on E and Clark streets, which he likewise sub­divided and sold in lots.

Yet another unique occupation of this interesting man was the gathering of medicinal plants and herbs, from which various medicines are compounded. These he cured and sold to the several local markets, and for a considerable time exported many to foreign markets. As a phase of this work which is of especial interest may be mentioned the fact that he had a complete collection of these native herbs mounted and framed, and presented a set of forty of these to the College of Pharmacy, University of California, and at the same time delivered lectures covering his work and discoveries along this line to the student body of the college.

His long residence in Eureka and San Francisco has given Mr. Weck a wide range of acquaintances, among whom are many celebrities, past and present. Of these, one for whom Mr. Weck probably holds dearest memories is Frank Bret Harte, with whom he was on terms of closest intimacy. While Harte was employed on The Northern Californian, the pioneer newspaper of the Bay region, Mr. Weck did relief work for him on urgent occasions. Their work threw them much together, while a multitude of common interests and tastes cemented the friendship.

Political activity has ever contained a keen fascination for Mr. Week, both by reason of civic pride and patriotism, because he highly appreciates his duties as a citizen, and because his splendid mind delights in the "game" and its playing. He has been prominent in the affairs of his party for many years, and at one time was often spoken of as a candidate for various county and city offices. He was chairman of the Republican county central com­mittee of Humboldt County when Garfield was nominated for president, and also president of the local Republican club at Eureka at the same time. He served several terms as city treasurer of Eureka and as deputy county treasurer, always with the greatest satisfaction to his constituency and to the people in general. He was also a member of the first city council, and it was during his term that Eureka became a city.

During his residence in Eureka Mr. Weck became very intimately identi­fied with the fraternal life of the city and county, and this association has not been broken, although for more than thirty years he has been almost con­tinuously a resident of San Francisco. He is a frequent visitor in Eureka, where he still retains valuable real estate interests, and in this way has been able to keep alive his active membership in the several organizations with which he is connected. He was instrumental in getting the first Rebekah Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., organized under state charter (Centennial Rebekah Lodge No. 100). He holds membership in Fortuna Lodge No. 221, I. 0. 0. F., which he joined over forty years ago ; also Mt. Zion Encampment No. 27, I. 0. 0. F., and is a charter member of Lincoln Lodge No. 34, K. of P. In the Grand Encampment of Odd Fellows he holds the position of grand trustee, to which he has been elected annually for thirty years and is also a past presi­dent of the Veteran Odd Fellows Association of California. He is also a prominent member of the Elks, being identified with the Berkeley lodge. Another link which binds him to Eureka with ties of lasting strength is his membership in the Pioneer Association of Eureka, and his keen interest in the affairs of the organization. He is also the secretary of the Humboldt County Association of San Francisco.

While he was yet a resident of Eureka Mr. Week was married to Miss Laura M. Keleher, who came to Humboldt County in 1857 and taught for a number of years in the public schools, first at Hydesville and later at Ferndale and Eureka. Mrs. Weck, who is a woman of culture and ability, is the mother of four children, three daughters and a son ; of these the eldest, Mrs. C. R. Fitzell, now resides in Eureka ; Mrs. Lincoln Fitzell is a resident of Mokelumne Hill, Calaveras county, Cal. ; the son, Charles A. Weck, a graduate of the Uni­versity of California, is superintendent of a large mining proposition at Mason, Nev. ; the youngest daughter, Mrs. H. L. Fales, makes her home in Montana.

In San Francisco, where Mr. Weck has made his home for so many years, he is quite as well and favorably known as he is in Humboldt County, and in political and fraternal circles throughout the entire Bay district he is popular as well as a prominent factor. His activities have been wide, and his wonder­ful mind has grasped at a thousand opportunities, where a less resourceful man would have seen nothing. He is broad minded, progressive and capable, and is in every respect the type of man of which any state or municipality may well feel proud to claim as her own.

On taking up his residence in San Francisco Mr. Week formed a co­partnership with Mr. C. C. Blakeslee, and under the firm title of Blakeslee & Weck established a manufacturing pharmacy and wholesale drug business. Their goods found a ready market over the entire Pacific slope. Some five years later Mr. Weck was compelled to take control and assume all the responsibility on account of Mr. Blakeslee's ill health and retirement. 'The business was thus continued in connection with the collecting and marketing of the medicinal plants of the Pacific coast, for which a demand had been created in the eastern and foreign markets.

In 1891 the F. A. Weck Company was incorporated with a capital stock of $100,000, Mr. Week becoming president of the corporation. This venture was not a success and after three years the company disincorporated, leaving Mr. aleck to assume the responsibilities. However, the business was con­tinued by Mr. Weck until April, 1906, when the earthquake and fire destroyed and consumed the entire plant, including all books and papers, thus making the loss very heavy, for he was unable to collect on outstanding accounts. Nevertheless all obligations were promptly paid in full and no one was injured by Mr. Weck's misfortune.

On September 5, 1915, Mr. and Mrs. Weck celebrated the fiftieth anni­versary of their marriage, this day also being the seventy-third anniversary of Mr. Week's birth. The occasion was one long to be remembered by the guests, including relatives and friends to the number of three hundred.

HUMBOLDT COOPERAGE CO.—Established in 1903 on a small scale with a capacity of from twelve to fifteen thousand feet every ten hours, by subsequent steady growth the Humboldt Cooperage Company has increased to a capacity of fifty thousand feet and furnishes employment to one hundred and fifteen persons in the factory besides twenty-five men in the woods. Seven miles east of the main plant in Arcata is located the stave bolt plant. After the logs have been brought to the landing, the drag saw cuts them into proper bolt lengths, and they are then loaded on cars and brought over the company's tracks to Essex, thence by the Northwestern Pacific Railroad to the Arcata plant, where they are sawed into staves and heading. From the spruce and fir are manufactured staves that are shipped to San Francisco and there put together into barrels intended for all purposes—containers for liquid and dry products such as oils, asphaltum, sugar, butter, fish and fruit, and into pails for candy and other articles. The field of operation is being enlarged through effective salesmanship, the firm having an able repre­sentative in Henry Koster, through whom arrangements are being made to ship the products to the Orient.

From the beginning there has been a steady improvement in the plant at Arcata. It has been the aim of the management to keep in touch with every modern facility for the increasing of the output and the reducing of the expense of manufacture. An electric power system has been installed and modern machinery of original design introduced to render efficient and effect­ive the output of the factory. There are not wanting many who insist that, without a single exception, this is the best equipped plant of its kind in the United States. Much of the credit for the individually efficient and mechan­ically modern cooperage with electric drive throughout and the best facil­ities of the century in every department, may be given to the vice-president and general manager, Julius J. Krohn, a native son born in what is now Madera county, Cal. Before coming to Arcata he was associated with the California Barrel Company of San Francisco and thus gained a wide and valuable experience in the line of cooperage. In addition to the business, which he manages with keen intelligence and sagacious judgment, he is aiding in the material upbuilding of Humboldt county through personal efforts neither few nor small and as a member of the Humboldt Promotion and Development Committee and Chamber of Commerce of Arcata, as well as Humboldt Chamber.of Commerce of Eureka, occupying a place of recognized importance among the public-spirited men seeking the development of local resources. Associated with him in the financial guidance of the growing business are the following gentlemen: C. L. Koster, president ; W. B. Sweet, secretary ; H. A. Koster, Gen. John A. Koster, F. J. Koster and J. H. Day, constituting with the officers the directorate of the concern. Throughout this section of the state the corporation has gained a reputation for reliability in business transactions, breadth of commercial vision and tact in dealing with customers, employes and other business concerns of the state, and the solid reputation already established may be regarded as prophetic of future growth and continued development.

FRANKLIN T. GEORGESON.--The people of Eureka recognize with satisfaction and not a little local pride that, in the decision of Mr. Georgeson to engage in the practice of architectural engineering at this place, they have regained to citizenship a native of Humboldt county, whose course of study in metropolitan environment afforded him exceptional advantages and whose initial experiences in designing and drafting have indicated the possession of talent developed beyond a suspicion of mediocrity. Although his prominence in the line of his specialty has made him best known in the cities bordering San Francisco bay, he is becoming known here through professional acumen as well as through the fact that he is the eldest son of former mayor Fred W. Georgeson and a grandson of the late J. F. Thompson. From his earliest memories he has been familiar with Humboldt county. Here his early train­ing was received and it was not until after he was graduated from the Eureka High school with the class of 1906 that he left his native locality with the intention of taking up special studies. It had been his ambition from early boyhood to acquire a knowledge of architecture, for the designing of build­ings and the drawing of plans fascinated him in no small degree.

From the fall of 1906 until the spring of 1910 Mr. Georgeson was a stu­dent 'in the department of architecture, University of California, and he was so thorough in his studies and so intelligent in grasping professional techni­calities that he was graduated with honors. At the same time the degree of Bachelor of Science in Architecture was conferred upon him. Upon the completion of the regular course of four years he remained at the university for six months of post-graduate work. Meanwhile he had devoted his sum­mer vacations to commercial work in the offices of various architects in the bay cities. Often during the university terms he aided in offices of promi­nent architects and thereby gained practical and profitable experience in his profession. Upon the completion of his post-graduate course he engaged in special work on eastern competition drawings, making Los Angeles his headquarters during the time. Returning to San Francisco, he entered the office of Walter H. Parker, famous through his schoolhouse designs, and at one time engaged as a designer with the great firm of Daniel H. Burnham & Co., of Chicago and New York. To Mr. Parker is to be given the credit for the architectural beauty of the San Jose State Normal School and the Belmont Military Academy. Many other public buildings are monuments to his taste and ability. During the period of his connection with the office Mr. George-son aided in designing the Northern California Bank of Savings at Marys­ville, the Citizens' Bank of Winters and the Princeton Union high school. Two large competitions also engaged his attention, namely: the Washington state capitol at Olympia and the San Francisco city hall. The originality of his work attracted the attention of officials of the Panama-Pacific Interna­tional Exposition Company and they retained him to make the permanent drawings for the harbor view site and the Presidio reservation, besides giving into his charge the responsible task of checking up the work of the parties in the field.

With these varied tasks, all giving promise of larger achievements in the future, Franklin Thompson Georgeson never allowed himself to forget Humboldt county or Eureka, the city where he was reared, although lie was born in San Francisco February 24, 1889. Frequent visits kept alive his affection for the dear old associations and when it became possible for him to engage in architectural work upon an independent basis he decided to return to Eureka. During July of 1912 he returned to Humboldt County and after a brief period of association with F. W. Georgeson in the management of the Laurel Lumber Company at Elinor he opened an office in Eureka for the practice of architecture. Since then he has secured the privilege of designing a number of local works in process of development. The design of the Humboldt county exhibit at the Panama-Pacific Exposition is an original creation of his own and will be developed under the supervision of the Hum­boldt exposition commissioners, Messrs. W. S. Clark and James F. Coonan. The offices of Mr. Georgeson are located in the Georgeson building at the corner of Fourth and E streets, and there he is prepared to submit plans and specifications for any kind of architectural work. It is most fortunate for Eureka, at this opening day of a new era of local development, that there should have come hither for practice an architect so capable of guiding all future work in a noteworthy manner, making it worthy of the aspirations of this western port and elevating it above the architectural mediocrity de­pressingly noticeable in many towns. One of the best-built cities in America credits its architectural supremacy to the genius of one man, and it is the belief that Eureka, in its formative period, may be made architecturally beau­tiful through the talented guidance of local architects, the impress of whose personality and artistic tastes will be left upon the generation in which they live.

CHRISTIAN N. JENSEN.—As one of the most important ports on the northern California coast Eureka is a thriving trade center, the numerous vessels which put in there buying supplies which add considerably to the income of the local merchants. One of the enterprises fostered to a large extent by the patronage of the vesselmen is the wholesale and retail establish­ment of Christian N. Jensen. Mr. Jensen's success in his present line is a refutation of the old saying, "Once at sea, always a salt," for in his early years he spent a number of years at sea. The experience was a valuable preparation for the business to which he now gives his attention, for he caters especially to the ship trade, and his thorough understanding of its require­ments has made him popular with a number of captains and stewards of boats calling at this port. He also commands a good share of the trade in the city and vicinity. Though he has not been a resident of Eureka for many years he has long been familiar with its attractions, having first visited the city over thirty years ago, as a sailor.

Mr. Jensen was born in Thisted, on the west coast of Jutland, Denmark, June 5, 1862, and his father, Capt. Jens Petersen, was a captain, following the sea for thirty-six years. For twenty years he was sailing master for the father of the late H. D. Bendixsen, shipbuilder at Eureka, who was ship­owner and capitalist at the birthplace of Christian N. Jensen. He lived to the age of seventy-five, and his wife, Petrina Petersen, outlived him, dying two years later at the old home in Denmark. They had two sons and two daughters: Peter, a resident of Aalborg, Denmark, was a steamship captain until his retirement, on February 1, 1914; Marie, Mrs. Jensen, died in San Francisco, leaving two children ; Christian N. is mentioned below ; Nicoline is the wife of Capt. L. Hanson, of Alameda, Cal.

Christian N. Jensen spent his childhood in Denmark, attended the pub­lic schools, and was confirmed in the Lutheran Church. All his environment strengthened his inherited taste for the sea. When thirteen and a half years old he became a hand before the mast on a Danish sailing vessel, and during the sixteen years that he followed the sea he sailed under seven different flags. In 1881 he came around Cape Horn on the Chilean barque Pondecherry from Shields, England, to Valparaiso, where he spent two years in mining and in the navy of Chili, serving on the El Vaco, a man-of-war, in the bom­barding of Callao, where he was wounded. In 1883 he came to San Francisco, and from there he sailed in the coasting trade as well as in the trans-Pacific trade, becoming mate on vessels. For some time he was in the em­ploy of the Whitelaw Wrecking Company as professional diver. After these years of activity on the high seas he determined to become a landsman and sought work accordingly, with the result that for twelve years he was in the employ of J. Boyes & Co., butchers and produce commission men of San Francisco. Thirty-one years ago he had made his first visit to Eureka, but it was not until 1904 that he came here to make his permanent home. In that year he established himself in business as a merchant at the corner of Harris and California streets, and continued at this location until he moved his business across the street, where he had purchased a corner lot. In 1911 he built a large two-story frame structure 55x110 feet in dimensions, in which he now has commodious quarters, but none too large for his growing business. He deals wholesale and retail in groceries and meats, both fresh and salted, and has a line of general merchandise particularly adapted to filling ship orders, selling to many of the foreign and tramp steamers which put in at Eureka. So thoroughly do his customers rely upon his honesty, and so trustworthy have they found him in supplying their wants, that he fre­quently receives instructions to bring duplicate orders to boats he has pro­visioned, as soon as he can sight them. His place of business is conveniently situated, at the corner of California and Harris streets, overlooking the bay, and like a true sailor his telescope is always ready. Mr. Jensen's solid credit and ample capital enable him to keep well stocked with a most desirable line, and also to make favorable prices to his customers, who thus find many advantages in dealing with him. His store is large and nicely arranged, with a place for everything, and all kept in sanitary condition, invitingly clean. The remarkable prosperity of the business has been the logical outcome of his strict attention to its details and personal supervision, and in this he has the able assistance of his wife, who keeps the books and is competent to take care of almost any part of the establishment; her assistance has been inval­uable, and Mr. Jensen gives her credit for a full share of his success. Though he has lived a strenuous life hard work does not seem to have affected his strength or ambition harmfully, and his upright character has been unspoiled by his contact with all manner and classes of people.

In San Francisco, on August 20, 1890, Mr. Jensen was united in marriage with Miss Anna C. Seemann, a native of Grenaae, Jutland, Denmark, but of German parentage. Mr. Jensen was made a Mason in Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M. He has shown his interest in the welfare of Eureka by joining the chamber of commerce, in whose activities he has taken a helpful part.

JAMES MAHAN.--The force of quiet, persistent industry is seen in the life of James Mahan, a pioneer of 1866 in Humboldt county and one of the very earliest settlers in the then wilderness at Blue Lake, where after twenty-five years of the most arduous work, and with the effective aid of his wife and children, he transformed one hundred sixty acres of heavily timbered land into an improved farm of considerable value.. Four dates stand out prominently in any narrative pertaining to his life, viz. : that of his birth in Ireland in 1826; that of his marriage at Galena, Ill., in 1856, to Miss Ellen McCormack ; that of his removal to California by way of the isthmus in 1858; and that of his death at Eureka, Humboldt county, in 1898. Accompanied by his wife, who was born in Ireland in 1838 and whose tireless energy and capable efforts made her a most efficient helpmate, he made the long voyage to the far west during the pioneer era and after a little more than six years in the mining camps of Sierra county proceeded to Humboldt county, here to aid in the clearing of the wilderness and the starting of pioneer agricultural activities. Both he and his wife were plain, sensible, industrious and efficient. It was their belief that by application, energy and honesty they could succeed in life, which they did. They taught their sons and daughters to work and attend strictly to their own business, and the children have endeavored to follow their early training very closely. The family have always been loyal to the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church and to the principles of the Democratic party.

There were ten children in the family of James and Ellen Mahan and eight of these are now living. William J., a farmer living on the old home­stead at Blue Lake, married Margaret Keating and has two sons. Annie E., Mrs. Daniel Mahoney, is the mother of five sons and one daughter, and lives on a farm near Blue Lake. James P., a member of the law firm of Mahan & Mahan at Eureka, married Laura Perrott, he graduated from the University of Michigan, class of 1905, with the degree of LL. B. Nellie T. resides with her mother at No. 1213 G street, Eureka. Lawrence E., a member of the law firm of Mahan & Mahan and also a graduate of the law department, University of Michigan, married Mayme Malone and has one child. Rebecca J., a school teacher in the Eureka schools, resides with her mother. Dr. David J. Mahan, a graduate of the San Jose State Normal School and the University of Cali­fornia, is now practicing medicine in San Francisco ; he married Meta Brown and has two children. Dr. Eugene F. Mahan, a graduate of the Eureka Business College and the College of Physicians and Surgeons, is now a prac­ticing physician in San Francisco.

JESSE WALKER.—Fifty-seven years ago Jesse Walker settled at his present location, the Sunset View ranch, about four and one-half miles north­west of Petrolia, in Humboldt county, and a glimpse of his beautiful "moun­tain home by the sea" is sufficient to explain why he has remained there. However, the attractions of an ideal home have not been the only influences to hold him, for he has become one of the large land owners of his locality and for years has been extensively interested in stock-raising. His early days were filled with the typical adventures of those who braved the journey across the plains and life in the then primitive region along the Pacific coast, and his mature years have been blessed with the abundance which is the reward of his labors. More than that, he has the warm personal friendship of hun­dreds of his fellow citizens in Humboldt county and well deserves the regard which they show for him.

The Walkers are probably of Scotch ancestry. John Walker, father of Jesse Walker, was born in North Carolina, whence he removed with his parents to Kentucky in boyhood, remaining in the latter state until after his marriage. By occupation he was a farmer, and he became a breeder of fine horses and familiar with stock-raising, gaining experience which qualified him for his later years in the west. From Kentucky he removed to Illinois, becoming an early settler in Dewitt County. In the early fifties he sold out his interests there and brought his family out over the plains, the little party having its own train, two wagons drawn by eight oxen each, one two-horse wagon and one four-mule wagon. It was four months to a day from the time they left Clinton until they halted in the upper end of the Willamette valley, settling in the mountainous wilderness of Umpqua, Ore. This was in 1853, and after about four years in that region Mr. \\Talker moved farther down, into Humboldt County, Cal., buying a farm at Hydesville. We have the following account of his six children: (1) James, the eldest son, died in Illinois, leaving one son, Isam, now a resident of Eureka and interested in ranching in Humboldt county. As his mother died before his father, Isam Walker accompanied his grandparents to Oregon. (2) William Pinckney died at Hydesville. (3) John lived in Eureka, where he died. (4) Benjamin F. went to Oregon, where he became a sheep rancher, and died there. He married a Miss Reed, and left three children : Abraham Lincoln, who is proprietor of a meat market at Hydesville ; Sybil, who keeps house for her uncle, Jesse Walker ; Benjamin F., a farmer in Santa Cruz county. (5) Martha was married in Illinois to Moses Kenna, and died there leaving one daughter, Laura, now Mrs. Joseph Bowles, residing in Kansas. (6) Jesse, the youngest, completes the family.

Jesse Walker was born May 22, 1838, in Dewitt County, Ill., near Clinton, and was fourteen years old when the family set out for the Pacific coast region. He rode a horse and drove the cattle. His schooling was all received before he came west, and indeed had there been schools accessible he could hardly have attended, as his father needed him to help with the work. Eureka had a good school, but by the time the family moved to this section he was fairly launched in his life work, being about nineteen. In 1858 he came to his home on the Capetown road, four and a half miles north of Petrolia, taking a squatter's right on one hundred and sixty acres, which he still owns. Later he took up an adjoining one hundred and sixty under the homestead act, proved up on that property and still owns it. The remainder of his twenty-two hundred acres has been acquired by purchase, from time to time, as opportunity offered and his means permitted. Of this Mr. Walker cultivates about twenty-five acres, the rest being in native grass and valuable pasture land for his herds. On an average he has two hundred fifty head of stock, usually marketing one hundred steers and heifers annually ; he has two thoroughbred Durham bulls. For his own use Mr. Walker raises some horses, but his attention is given principally to his cattle. He employs one man, looking after much of the work himself, for though past threescore and ten he is active and able-bodied. Business has claimed all his time prac­tically and public honors have not appealed to him, his interest in such affairs being limited to supporting good men for office.

During the Civil war, in 1863, Mr. Walker enlisted in Company A, First Battalion, Mountaineers of California, being mustered into service in Eureka, and served two years, his chief duties being to guard the white settlers against the Indians in Humboldt, Trinity and Klamath counties. He was in several skirmishes with the Indians. By virtue of this service he is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, belonging to Colonel Whipple Post, G. A. R., at Eureka. Politically he has been a consistent member of the Republican party.

In the year 1868 Mr. Walker was married to Miss Mille E. Babcock, who was born in New York state, of Connecticut parentage, and grew up in her native place. She came to Humboldt county where she married Mr. Walker. She died here in 1907. He still continues to occupy the beautiful farm residence which he erected twelve years ago and which is ideally located in the mountains, overlooking the Pacific ocean, giving it the name "Sunset View Ranch," the situation being chosen for its romantic charm and whole­some natural surroundings. Modern comforts supplement the other attrac­tions, the house being provided with all the conveniences which up-to-date architecture employs so well, and the home and its environs suggest taste and appreciation of the fine art of living. Mr. Walker's niece, Miss Sybil -Walker, has kept house for him for some time, providing the cheer of a true ' home atmosphere by her agreeable presence and thought for his comfort.

GEORGE WALKER COOK.—The name of Cook will have a permanent place in the story of the development of that part of Humboldt county lying around Petrolia, where the late Charles S. Cook settled back in the fifties. He did his share in advancing progress in his day, and now his two sons are upholding the worth of the name, having large interests in land and stock and taking their place among the most valuable citizens of the locality. The younger, George Walker Cook, is one of the largest stock-raisers in the county, operating over four thousand acres of range land and keeping several hundred head of cattle the year round.

Charles Sage Cook was born in New York State, but the family moving to Ohio and Michigan his boyhood was spent principally in the latter state. When a youth he began railroad work there, and was acting as engineer on a freight train, probably on the Michigan Southern road, when a collision made him decide upon a change of occupation. He went west to St. Joseph, Mo., whence, in 1852, he came across the plains to Oregon, riding a mule all the way. After working there for a time he drifted down into the Rogue river country, following mining at Althouse and Sailor Diggings, and finally into Humboldt county, Cal., in 1854-55. He operated a pack train from Centerville, Humboldt county, on the Pacific coast, to Petrolia in the early days, having from fifteen to twenty mules, and was engaged principally in that line for several years, eventually, however, becoming interested in land and stock. He acquired possession of two expensive stock ranches, the one where his son Levant now lives, a tract of eight hundred ninety acres, which has been occupied continuously since Mr. Cook took it up, and another of seven hundred fifteen acres owned and cultivated by his other son, George Walker Cook.. Charles S. Cook died on his home ranch, May 5, 1898, when sixty-eight years old. He was survived by his wife, Mrs. Elizabeth Ann (Walker) Cook, who died January 18, 1906, when eighty years old. She was born at Clinton, in Dewitt county, Ill., daughter of John Walker, of Hydesville, who settled in Humboldt county in pioneer times. Mr. and Mrs. Charles S. Cook were married at Hydesville, and two sons were born to them.

George Walker Cook was born September 16, 1863, in Humboldt county, and began his education in the local public schools, later taking a com­mercial course at Heald's business college in San Francisco, which he com­pleted in 1884. Returning to his home county he took charge of the part of his father's land which he now owns, and he has also bought many acres more, at present having eighteen hundred acres in his own name, besides which he rents twenty-six hundred acres. He is engaged in breeding high-grade Herefords, and keeps between four hundred and five hundred head, turning off from one hundred to one hundred fifty steers and heifers an­nually. Though thoroughly attentive to his business interests Mr. Cook is not unmindful of public duties or indifferent to social conditions in his neighborhood, and his loyal support of all things which make for the better­ment of the community has been an appreciable influence for good. Personally he has a character consistent with the name he bears and the respect of all his associates. At present he is serving as trustee of his school district.

Politically he is a Republican, and socially he is a member of the Knights of Pythias, belonging to the council at Petrolia, where he has passed all the chairs.

In 1899 Mr. Cook was married to Mrs. Clara A. (Conklin) Johnston, who grew up in Pretolia. By her first marriage, to Frank Johnston, a member of a pioneer family of this county, she has one child, Alvin. She is a member of the Episcopal Church at Pretolia. Mr. and Mrs. Cook live three and a half miles north of Petrolia, on the Capetown road.

Moses John Conklin, father of Mrs. George W. Cook, was born in New York, and was a distant relative of the famous Roscoe Conkling. Coming to California in 1852, he engaged in the hotel business at Sacramento, where he married Miss Margaret Chambers, a native of Ireland. After several years of hotel keeping he removed up to Humboldt County, settling south of Petrolia. He brought his family, and his wife was the first white woman to enter the region south of Cape Mendocino in Humboldt County. They brought the first wagon down south of that point, and at Devil's Gate rock, this side of the "Ocean House," they had to draw it up by means of ropes and let it down the same way. Mr. Conklin engaged in farming and stock-raising, and was not only an active business man, but energetic in the administration of public affairs, serving as assessor, justice of the peace, notary public, etc. He lived to be over fifty years of age, his wife dying when forty-seven years old. Nine children were born to them, namely : Alonzo died when two years old ; Clara A. is the wife of George W. Cook ; Emma A. became the wife of Thomas Kennedy, now of Blaine, Wash., and died leaving three children, all of whom are at Blaine; Adeline died unmar­ried ; Lillie, unmarried, resides at Oakland, Cal.; Ella, twin of Lillie, died when twelve years old ; Maggie is the wife of William Wicks, a stockman, of Petrolia ; John, twin of Maggie, lives with Mr. and Mrs. Cook ; Martha died unmarried.

LEVANT COOK.—The sons of the late Charles Sage Cook are now among the most prosperous agriculturists in the region lying north of Petrolia along the Capetown road, Levant Cook owning his father's old homestead place of eight hundred ninety acres. It has been occupied continuously since the elder Mr. Cook took it up, fifty years or more ago, and the work of improvement has been carried forward steadily, though the land is devoted principally to stock raising, in which line Levant Cook has his principal interests.

Charles S. Cook was born in New York State, but the family moving to Ohio and Michigan his boyhood was spent principally in the latter state. When a youth he began railroad work there, and was acting as engineer on a freight train, probably on the Michigan Southern road, when a collision made him decide upon a change of occupation. He went west to St. Joseph, Mo., and from there came across the plains to Oregon, riding a mule all the way. This was in 1852. After working there for a time he drifted down into the Rogue river country, mining at Althouse and Sailor diggings, and finally, in 1854-55, came to Humboldt county, Cal. He ran a pack train from Center­ville to Petrolia in the early days, having from fifteen to twenty mules, and was engaged principally in that business for several years, eventually, how­ever, becoming interested in land and stock. He acquired possession of two extensive stock ranches, the one where his son Levant now lives and another of seven hundred fifteen acres owned and cultivated by his other son, George Walker Cook. Charles S. Cook died on his home ranch May 5, 1898, when sixty-eight years old. His wife, Mrs. Elizabeth Ann (Walker) Cook, died January 18, 1906, when eighty years old. She was born at Clinton, Dewitt county, Ill., daughter of john Walker, of Hydesville, who settled in Humboldt County in pioneer times. Mr. and Mrs. Charles S. Cook were married at Hydesville, and two sons were born of their union.

Levant Cook was born June 10, 1859, in the old town of Hydesville, and grew up on his father's ranch two miles north of Petrolia, attending school at that place, and also at Ferndale, Rohnerville and Hydesville. Later he attended the Pacific University at San Jose. He and his wife settled on their present ranch, the old Cook homestead, when they were married, and have lived here ever since, with the exception of eight years spent on the adjoining ranch of the Cook estate. He is engaged profitably in the raising of beef cattle, keeping on an average one hundred fifty head, and for the most part breeds Durhams. He has been very successful in this line and in his general farming operations as well, and personally he is one of the most respected citizens in his neighborhood, a worthy son of one of the early founders of this community. Representing the best element in both paternal and maternal lines, he had a good heritage of substantial qualities to begin life with, and he has been a credit to the good name he bears in all the associa­tions of life.

January 10, 1890, Mr. Cook was married, at San Francisco, to Miss Ethel Gertrude Pomeroy, who was born near Portland, Me., at a place called Yarmouth. She is the daughter of Richard and Emma (Thoits) Pomeroy, natives of Cumberland county, Me., where they were married. The father was a seafaring man, employed in the transatlantic trade. In 1880 he brought his family to California and engaged in dairying in Marin county, Cal., and in Coos county, Ore. The mother died July 9, 1895, at Bandon, Ore, where the father is now engaged in business. Three children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Cook: Reed Pomeroy, Carroll Levant and Barrett Elton, all of whom make their home under the parental roof. The Cooks have a pleasant home and a cheerful family life, and the sons all give promise of developing the reliable character and qualities of capability with which the name has long been associated.

Mr. Cook is a prominent member of the Knights of Pythias lodge at Petrolia, in which he has passed the chairs. Politically he has been a con­sistent member of the Republican Party, with whose policies he has been in sympathy since old enough to vote.

JOHN SMITH SEELY, SR.—Another of the pioneers of Humboldt county, and one whom his fellow citizens hold in high esteem, is John Smith Seely, Sr., who has been a resident of Humboldt county since 1870, and who during these many years has proven himself to be a man of ability and splendid character. He was for many years engaged in dairying and farming, but within the past few years he has retired from active business pursuits, and is enjoying a well-earned rest in his pleasant home in Arcata.

Mr. Seely is a native of Canada, having been born near Huntington, province of Quebec, a place about five miles from the New York state boun­dary line, on March 8, 1848. His father was Hiram Seely, also a native of the province, while the grandfather, John Seely, was born in England and settled in the province of Quebec, where he was a farmer. The father was also a successful and prosperous farmer of that section. He had retired from business a few years previous to his death, which occurred in 1888. The mother was Elizabeth (Smith) Seely, also a native of the province of Quebec, where she died in 1867. The childhood of the present respected citizen of Arcata was spent on the farm, working with his father, when he was not attending school. After completing the grammar school he entered a local academy, but soon gave up his course there to return to the farm, preferring the farm work to school life.

It was in October, 1869, that Mr. Seely determined to come to California, and that same month he arrived in Sonoma county, where he had relatives living. He crossed the continent on one of the first transcontinental trains. He remained in Sonoma County for several months, and in February, 1870, came to Arcata, Humboldt county, where he has since made his home. Here he at first went to work for wages, by the month, continuing for a year. Dur­ing that time he had saved a little money and the next year he planted ten acres of potatoes on shares. When the crop was harvested Mr. Seely found that he was out two hundred dollars and two years' work, what he had saved the first year having been lost in the unsuccessful venture in potatoes. He was not disheartened, however, and the following year, 1872, he rented a ranch from his cousin and engaged in farming for himself. Here he met with merited success, and in 1876 he purchased his home place of forty acres, and has continued to farm this property since. In the beginning the raising of potatoes was his chief industry, and he found the crop a very profitable one. In 1877, with a brother-in-law, he purchased a ranch of one hundred acres, and for the next two years he operated both these properties with much success. In 1879 they divided the one hundred acre ranch and dissolved partnership.

It was in 1885 that Mr. Seely started in the dairying business, making his first venture on a small scale. The price of butter went very low soon after this, at one time reaching the small price of eleven cents per pound; later the price increased, but by so small a margin that there was no profit in the business at that time, and Mr. Seely sold his stock and engaged in general farming. Recently he has retired from active business, having leased his property, and now resides in Arcata, where he owns a comfortable home.

When Mr. Seely first came to Humboldt County the land lying between Arcata and the river was all brush, timber and marsh land, but it has since been reclaimed and is now rich bottom land. Many other changes have also taken place in the surrounding country during the long years of his residence in the county.

Aside from leasing his farm property, Mr. Seely also has an interest in the general merchandise store of Seely & Titlow Company in Arcata. He is a Republican, and has always taken an active part in political affairs, and especially when the welfare of the city is involved. He is progressive and broad-minded, and an independent thinker. He is a member of several fraternal organizations, being a charter member of the local Knights of Pythias, and a member of Anniversary Lodge No. 85, I. 0. 0. F.

The marriage of Mr. Seely occurred in Arcata, February 14, 1874, uniting him with Miss Laura Virginia Deuel, a native of California, born in the mining camp at Virginia Mills, near Oroville, Butte county. She is the daughter of Edmund P. and Margaret Deuel, pioneers of California, who came to Trinidad, Humboldt county, when she was eighteen months old. Here she received her education in the public schools. Mrs. Seely has borne her hus­band five children, four sturdy sons and one daughter. They were all born at Arcata, and have grown to manhood and womanhood there, receiving their education in the public schools. They are: Henry Stanley and Frank Hazel-ton, merchants in Arcata; Charles Hiram, shingle manufacturer in this vicinity ; John Smith, Jr., clothier in Eureka ; and Virginia May, at home.

Mr. and Mrs. Seely are well known in Arcata, where they have many friends and acquaintances, and are highly esteemed by all who know them.

GEORGE WALKER.—Ever since pioneer days in Humboldt County the name of Walker has been associated with agricultural interests, especially with the section in and around Eureka. The family is of English origin, and the first representative of this branch was Charles Walker, who came to the United States in 1852. Landing at New York City, he went from the metropolis to Syracuse, that state, and it was there that he was united in marriage with Mary Kirby, a native of Ireland. Following their marriage the young people set out for the new and untried west, which at that time was attracting the attention of the entire world on account of the discovery of gold. By way of the Isthmus of Panama they reached the Pacific ocean and embarking on a north-bound vessel they finally reached San Francisco. They had been in that metropolis only a few years when they decided to come to Humboldt county, making settlement at Eureka, where Mr. Walker found employment with John Vance. In the capacity of blacksmith he worked in the latter's lumber mills in that city, his services covering a period of twenty years. In the meantime he had purchased two hundred forty acres of un­improved land about six miles north of Eureka, on the Arcata road, which came to be known as Walker's point, and the name still clings to it.

At the end of a long and pleasant business association with Mr. Vance Mr. Walker settled upon his own property in 1878, clearing and improving it preparatory to engaging in dairying and general farming. This combined occupation engaged his attention throughout his remaining active years, and when he retired from business he turned the management of the property over to his son George, with whom he was living at the time of his death, July 13, 1912.

It was in Eureka that George Walker was born, July 1, 1862, and he has known no other home than Humboldt County. Here he attended the district schools until he was sixteen years old, becoming well versed in the essentials that led to making him the broad and well informed man that he is today. The same thoroughness which he displayed in the pursuit of his studies was shown in the interest which he took in his father's dairy business, and when the father laid down the responsibilities of the ranch the duties were readily and easily assumed by the son, who strove in every way to maintain the stan­dard of excellence in dairy and ranch matters which had made his father successful. For fifteen years he continued the dairy business, the ranch in the meantime becoming one of the most highly developed in the vicinity. In December, 1914, however, he gave up its management, at the same time turning it over to a tenant, he himself building a commodious seven-room bungalow on a pleasant elevation of the ranch on the Eureka-Arcata road, half way between the two places, and where, with his wife and family, he makes his home.

In Eureka, on August 1, 1884, Mr. Walker was united in marriage with Amanda M. Martin, who like himself was a native of Humboldt County, her birth occurring in Trinidad. The seven children born of their marriage are as follows: Irving ; Mary Caroline, Mrs. Pidgeon, of Bayside ; Lucinda, Mrs. Frank Lindley, of Garberville ; Easter, Mrs. Frank Mitchell, of Bayside ; Jennie M., Mrs. Harkey, of Eureka ; Helen Mae and Martin Earl. All of the children have been reared to lives of usefulness and are a pride and comfort to their parents. Mrs. Walker's father, Christopher Martin, was a native of Missouri, where he was married to Caroline Cooksey. Mr. and Mrs. Martin were among the pioneers who helped make history in California, having come here in 1849 by the only means possible at the time, the prairie schooner, drawn by ox-teams. After a long and difficult journey they at last reached their destination, settlement being made at Trinidad, Humboldt County, where for many years thereafter Mr. Martin engaged in farming. Not only was he a successful farmer, but he was a man whose presence was felt as a moral stimulus and his death in 1872 was mourned universally by old and young.

DONALD P. COOMBE.—The great stretches of ranch land belonging to the Russ estate in Humboldt county, some two hundred and fifty thousand acres all told, and the extensive operations in cattle dealing and raising neces­sary to make these vast holdings profitable, at once suggest the bigness and freedom of the old days in the west. But the primitive conditions and dangers which were the principal elements of romance then have disappeared before the wonderful business methods which now afford most of the marvelous features of life on an immense stock ranch. To some extent, indeed, the prin­ciples of intensive farming are beginning to be needed in the ambitious enter­prises which modern cattlemen undertake, for economy of administration and conservation are found to be quite as important on large properties as they are necessary on small tracts. For systematic management and scien­tific methods the Russ family has long held the leading place in the county. Mrs. Zipporah Russ, widow of Joseph Russ, and her children are now carry­ing on the cattle business under the name of Z. Russ & Sons, Incorporated, and are acknowledged to be the largest cattle and cattle land company in this region. Their holdings lie in various parts of the county, and the Bear River branch of their business is conducted under the foremanship of Donald P. Coombe, a grandson of the late Joseph Russ, who lives there with his family on the great Mazeppa ranch, about four miles north of Capetown. He is a young man, but fully alive to his responsibilities, and apparently inherits the family characteristics of executive ability and alertness which enable him to handle its large affairs competently. (The biographical sketch of his grandfather, Joseph Russ, appears on another page in this work.)

The Coombe family is of English origin, and Rev. Philip Coombe, father of Donald P. Coombe, was born in London, England. He was highly edu­cated, receiving his college training at Oxford, and came to America when twenty-eight years old, locating at Ferndale, Humboldt county, Cal., where he served as pastor of the Congregational Church. At the same time he conducted the Ocean House ranch, which property was owned by his wife as one of the heirs of Joseph Russ, and he was a very popular resident of the vicinity, where his culture and consistent Christian character made him beloved by all classes. Later he took the charge of a Congregational Church at San Francisco. His death occurred in 1912, when he was sixty-one years old. His widow, Margaret C. (Russ), resides at San Francisco. They had a family of six children : Winifred, Mrs. Peter R. Peterson, lives in Colusa county ; Edith M., Mrs. Thomas B. Griffith, is a resident of Wichita, Kans.; Donald P. is mentioned later ; Amy, Mrs. Arthur B. Fields, lives at Portland, Ore.; Ila B., a graduate of Leland Stanford University, lives with her mother ; Mariam Z. is the wife of Archer Veal, a ranchman, and resides at Yuba City.

Donald P. Coombe was born January 8, 1885, and up to the age of nine years lived at Ferndale and on the Ocean House ranch. His father then re­moved to San Francisco to take a pastorate there, and the boy had the best public school advantages, attending in the winter time, and spending his summers on the Ocean House ranch. After completing the grammar and high school courses, and some work at night school, he entered the Davis Agricultural College, so that he has had scientific as well as practical training for his present work. However, he was employed as a carpenter in San Francisco for a period of three and a half years, and was so engaged at the time of the big fire. At his mother's suggestion he came back to Humboldt county and to the Mazeppa ranch immediately thereafter, and put in a year there as rider before he was made foreman, in 1907. He has held the position ever since, it is needless to say satisfactorily, for the interests are too im­portant to be trusted to incompetent oversight. The Mazeppa ranch is headquarters for the various ranches of Z. Russ & Sons included in the Bear River division, over which Mr. Coombe has jurisdiction. About ten thousand sheep, twelve hundred milch cows and sixty-five hundred beef and stock cattle graze on its ranges, and under Mr. Coombe's management the profits have shown steady increase. He gives his undivided attention to supervising the division, keeping all its large concerns under his personal direction, and the results will bear comparison with those on any other branch of the Russ estate. Personally Mr. Coombe is a young man of admirable qualities, un­assuming and trustworthy, and he is taking a place worthy of his honored ancestry in both paternal and maternal lines. Fraternally he is a member of Ferndale Parlor, N. S. G. W.

Mr. Coombe was married to Miss Margaret Sanders, daughter of John and Jessie (Newland) Sanders, born in Norway and California respectively. The father came to California when a young man and located in Humboldt county, where he married and has been principally engaged in farming since that time. Mrs. Coombe was born at Petrolia, but received her education in the public schools of Capetown, where she resided until her marriage to Mr. Coombe, November 15, 1909. They have one child, a daughter, Carol. Mrs. Coombe's attractive personality and pleasant hospitality are appreciated by her friends everywhere and are a boon to the home life on the ranch.

JEPTHA C. PHILLIPS.—Though a comparatively recent settler in Humboldt county there is no more public-spirited and enthusiastic citizen in Alderpoint than Jeptha C. Phillips, the present postmaster at that point. A carpenter by calling, he has already proved his reliability as a contractor in the new town, having had the honor of building the first house there, the Alderpoint Hotel. He was appointed to the postmastership in October, 1912, and although the work has been out of the ordinary because of the con­ditions prevailing during the building of the railroad he has given the utmost satisfaction and shown himself capable of efficient service. Mr. Phillips is a Southerner, born April 24, 1861, near Bluntsville, Alabama, where the first eight years of his life were passed. Thereafter he lived in Arkansas, with the exception of a short stay in Texas, until his removal to California. In his early life he followed farming, but abandoned that occupation twenty years ago for his trade, and has since been a successful carpenter and builder. When he decided to devote all his time to his trade he moved to Hot Springs, Ark., and he also made a visit to Texas, where he followed carpentry four months. In December, 1909, he removed with his family to Humboldt county, California, and he first set foot in Alderpoint, April 23, 1911. Here he soon had the contract for the construction of the Alderpoint Hotel, and he handled the work from the beginning, clearing the site of trees, stumps and brush and beginning to build on June 20th. It is a substantial two-story frame, thirty by sixty feet in dimensions, containing eighteen rooms, was completed on contract time, and is not only a monument to Mr. Phillips' superior workmanship but marks the beginning of a new era for the town; and Mr. Phillips by his conscientious fulfilment of his obligations established a reputation which his subsequent work has fully justified.

Alderpoint is about eight miles southeast of Fort Seward and located on the Eel river, on the line of the Northwestern Pacific railroad just completed, which connects Eureka with the metropolis on the bay. The railway survey was made in 1910, and since June, 1911, the town has been the active center of road building operations, grading, blasting, tunneling, etc., the temporary quarters of hundreds of laborers, mechanics, engineers and other employees, as well as officials, and has been visited by a number of the magnates interested in the work of construction. With such a mixed population, of many shifting elements, the duties of the postmaster have been anything but easy—in fact, all the local officials have found their work complicated by the unsettled state of affairs. Nevertheless, Mr. Phillips has endeavored to give the best of service to all, and he has proved himself admirably fitted for responsibilities, earning the respect and good will of the many with whom he comes in personal contact in the discharge of his duties. His temperate habits and intelligent grasp of his work recommend him to the best element in the community. The office is still in the fourth class, but is doing a steadily increasing business, and the town bids fair to become an important trading point now that the railroad has opened communication with nearby communities.

Mr. Phillips is thoroughly alive to the possibilities of his adopted town, and willing to do all in his power to promote her best interests. Having driven the first nail in Alderpoint, he feels naturally a particular interest in her improvement and development along building lines, but is as ready to work for her good in any other commendable way, standing for good gov­ernment and progress however expressed. He has built a home for himself and family there, showing his faith in the stability of the advancement already made, and as a man of reliable character and an accommodating official is regarded as one of the citizens to whom the town may look for its continued prosperity. Courteous and unassuming, he has displayed high principle and fidelity in everything entrusted to him, and commands universal respect. His faith in the town is such that, in February, 1915, he went into the grocery business in partnership with J. A. Merrill, under the firm name of J. A. Merrill & Co., and the postoffice is in their store.

Mr. Phillips married Miss Eugenie Moore, born near Atlanta, Georgia, and a daughter of J. S. and Elizabeth (Rice) Moore, also natives of Georgia. Mrs. Phillips went to Arkansas with her father when seventeen years of age, and three years later her marriage occurred. Of the eight children born of this union four survive : Joseph Scott, Thomas Arthur, Otis and Goldie, all making their home with their parents. Mr. and Mrs. Phillips are both earnest Methodists and are taking an active part in the organization of a church at Alderpoint. In Arkansas Mr. Phillips served as a member of the board of school trustees and also as justice of the peace.

CHARLES WILLIAM WALKER.—A native of Switzerland, born at Giubiasco, in the canton of Ticino, April 23, 1870, Charles William Walker left the home' of his parents and came alone to the United States when he was a lad of but fifteen years. He landed in New York without money or friends and began the struggle for a livelihood under a severe handicap. For a number of years he met with difficulties that would have discouraged and broken the spirit of a less determined and ambitious youth, but to him they were only a spur to his energies and in the end he has won prosperity and a place of honor and respect among his fellow citizens of Humboldt county, where he has made his home since 1891.

Mr. Walker is the son of Baptiste and Kate Walker, both natives of Switzerland, his father being a farmer. His boyhood days were spent on the farm and for a few brief years he attended the public schools of the district. His father died when Charles was a year old and there were several small children in the family. This necessitated that each of the, children should aid in the earning of the livelihood and when Mr. Walker was fifteen he de­termined to come to America, feeling that the opportunities here were greater than in his native land. On arriving in New York he sought employment wherever it was to be obtained and for a number of years endured the greatest hardships. He worked in restaurants and hotels and so managed to live and to save a little money. At the end of a year he decided to come to the Pacific coast and reached San Francisco, November 1, 1888, with ten dollars in cash, all the money that he possessed. He went from there to San Luis Obispo County, finding employment on a dairy ranch where he remained for three years. In 1891 he came to Humboldt County and again secured employment on a dairy ranch, working for A. Kuhen at Ferndale. Later he took charge of this ranch for Mr. Kuhen, managing and superintending the dairy for four years. The following six years he worked on various ranches in this section of the county.

The marriage of Mr. Walker, which took place in 1900, changed his mode of living, for he rented a ranch at Pleasant Point on a three years' lease and engaged in farming for himself. For the first two years he met with much success, but the third year the river flooded the ranch, washing away many acres of the land and with it practically all the profits of several years' work. In May of that year Mr. Walker sold his interests at Pleasant Point and moved to Arcata, where he rented the ranch of M. P. Roberts and again engaged in dairy farming, remaining but a few months and then disposing of his interests to Albert Kausen. In 1904 he rented a property from the Dolbeer & Carson Lumber Company and followed his former occupation here on the ranch which he still operates. When he first took charge of this ranch he commenced dairying on a small scale and has gradually increased the scope of his enterprise until at present he has a herd of some forty milch cows and one of the most profitable places in the valley. He is also extensively engaged in stock raising. In his farming he has given much attention to the raising of potatoes and has met with unusual success in this venture. The ranch consists of two hundred acres of improved land and is a handsome property and is located six miles north of Arcata.

In addition to his attention to the farm and its varied interests, Mr. Walker has become associated with outside interests as well. In the fall of 1914 he purchased a forty-three-acre ranch at Ferndale from C. de Carle, which he leases for a dairy ranch. He is especially interested in the United Creameries of Arcata, in which he is a stockholder. He is also a stockholder in the bank of Arcata and is interested in the new hospital in Arcata.

Since coming to Humboldt county Mr. Walker has met with several severe reverses, but he has persevered and is now one of the prosperous farmers in the valley. He is a self-made man in the best sense of the word and is an example of what thrift, industry and application will do for a man in Humboldt County. Aside from his business interests he has many warm friends and is popular with a wide circle of acquaintances. He is a prominent member of the Knights of Columbus, and with his family is a member of the Catholic Church in Arcata. In politics he is a Republican and a stanch party man, being always found in line for the support of party principles. Mr. Walker attributes his success in no small degree to the help and encourage­ment of his wife.

The marriage of Mr. Walker took place in Eureka, December 31, 1900, uniting him with Cecelia Peinn, a native of Locarn, Ticino, Switzerland. She came to California when she was a girl, making the long journey alone, and coming to San Francisco where she had a brother residing at that time. She has borne her husband three children : William P., Elsie Ida and Katie ; the latter died at three years. The eldest of these is now attending the Arcata public schools.

PATRICK MACKEY.—For years the late Patrick Mackey and his brother John were associated in the cattle business as large operators on the Cooskey range south of Petrolia, Humboldt county, where they settled as early as 1860. Thus Patrick Mackey was a resident of this section for over fifty years, his death occurring October 8, 1910. He was spared to see his adopted state emerge from primitive conditions, and being possessed of an energetic and ambitious nature himself had a hand in the development of his locality, where his name will have a permanent place in history as one of the courageous spirits who undertook to wrest fortune from an untried land and found justification for their faith in its resources and in the unqualified success which rewarded their efforts. Widely known and honored in his gen­eration, the residents of Petrolia and the rest of the Mattole district take pride in the fine memorial which his widow has erected at that place—the Catholic Church building, which occupies a beautiful location overlooking the village. The site was donated by Mrs. Zanone, of Eureka.

Mr. Mackey was a native of Ireland, born January 15, 1825, in Queens County, and was a young man when he came with his parents to the western world. At first he lived in New Brunswick, where he found employment at chopping and other heavy work in the lumber woods, for which his large frame and powerful build well fitted him. Later he removed to Minnesota, and in 1858, in company with his brother John, came to California, coming by way of Panama to San Francisco, and thence the same year to Humboldt County. During their first two years they worked in the lumber woods, and in 1860 came down to the Mattole district, settling on the Cooskey range, where Patrick Mackey took up three hundred twenty acres of land. For a few years he had a hard row to hoe, but the prospects were sufficient to hearten him, and he and his brother soon found themselves profitably engaged in cattle growing on the range, where they continued to operate for many years. In time they bought out other holdings, becoming the owners of about fifty-five hundred acres of range land, of which about twenty-seven hundred fifty acres belonged to Patrick Mackey, they being equal partners. About thirty-six years ago he also purchased the McAuliffe place, the tract of one hun­dred sixty acres now owned and operated by his daughter, a mile and a half south of Petrolia, and located on the Mattole river. He married a member of the McAuliffe family, which has also been settled here since pioneer days. The Mackey brothers' extensive interests as cattle growers were acquired entirely through their own good management and intelligent foresight, which prompted them to take advantage of the opportunities this section offered, and they were ranked deservedly with the most substantial business men of their day, citizens whose value in the upbuilding of the region is more and more appreciated as time goes on. He was a Democrat in political opinion, but not active in party or an aspirant to public office.

On February 18, 1867, at Eureka, Mr. Mackey married Miss Joanna Mc­Auliffe, who was born in County Cork, Ireland, and came to Boston, Mass., in childhood, and about 1865 came to Humboldt, where two uncles, John and Dennis McAuliffe, were pioneer ranchers on Mattole river, coming in 1858; of the union of Mr. and Mrs. Mackey was born one child, Georgina. Mrs. Mackey now makes her home at Ferndale. She and her daughter retain the large holdings Mr. Mackey acquired, renting the range land. As already men­tioned, Mrs. Mackey erected the fine Catholic Church at Petrolia as a memorial to her husband, in the region where during half a century of upright living he had formed many ties among long-time associates and cherished friends, and where his public-spiritedness could always be counted upon to aid all movements for the upbuilding of the community and betterment of its citizens.

Miss Georgina Mackey was born on the Cooskey range, about twelve miles south of Petrolia, and received her. education in the excellent convent at Eureka. She is now engaged in agricultural pursuits on her own account, living on the old McAuliffe place of one hundred sixty acres previously re­ferred to, a very productive ranch which she is bringing up to its best pos­sibilities by modern methods of cultivation. Her executive ability and thor­ough comprehension of the requirements of the work are manifesting them­selves clearly in her success, which has made the venture profitable as well as enjoyable. Miss Mackey has evidently inherited a good measure of her parents' business acumen, for Patrick Mackey gave his wife a large measure of the credit for his success, and her enterprise is meeting with deserved rewards.

Being especially interested in the pioneer history of Humboldt county and particularly of the section in which her life has been spent, Miss Mackey prizes a copy of the Humboldt Times of April 8, 1876, which contains a description of the Mattole river (the Indian name for clear water) by the first white man that ever beheld it, and which we are able to present through her courtesy :

"Mattole River and Valley.—In looking over the files of the Humboldt Times, many items connected with the early history of the county present themselves to view. In the issue of September 23, 1854, an article appears headed, `Mattole River and Valley,' giving a description of the discovery of the Mattole river. It is as follows: Mr. Hill in his last trip down the country found a large river hitherto unknown to the people of this section, called by the Indians Mattole, which he says is as large as the Eel (Weeott) river. The Indians apparently had never seen a white man here. Mr. Hill had with him Indians from the Bay who interpreted for him. The Mattole Indians had no knowledge of any settlement below them. Upon the assurance of the Indians he had with him, the wild ones came to him. Mr. Hill struck the river a few miles from the ocean. He describes the valley of the river in glowing terms. The lands are rich, with open prairies sufficient for a large settlement of farmers. The lands above the river bottom are open timbered table lands, easy to clear, and affording sufficient timber for fences and fire­wood for ages to come. Near the river cottonwood is the principal growth, but as you recede from the water spruce, pine and redwood predominate. The prairie is covered with the finest specimen of clover, which grows to an almost unheard height. The timbered lands are covered with wild oats and several varieties of grass. The great feature of the valley is the climate, which from the description given will compare favorably with any portion of the state. There it is warm; no fogs, no cold north winds. The sun shines out clear and bright, as if not ashamed to show itself. Mr. Hill was surprised on his return to learn that the sun had not been seen during his absence."

MRS. FLORA BROWN POINSETT.—When only a child Mrs. Flora Brown Poinsett came with her parents across the plains from Illinois to make her home in California, accompanied also by her grandparents, Samuel and Jane Handy, the journey west being made by the slow method of ox teams. Her father, Adam Brown, was a farmer, born in Illinois, where he was mar­ried in the town of Marshfield to Naomi Handy, a native of that place. Of the three children in the family, Flora, Louise and John A. Brown, the first is now Mrs. Poinsett, of Arcata, the second died at the age of eighteen years, and John A. now resides at Iaqua, Cal.

The greater part of the childhood of Mrs. Flora Brown Poinsett was spent in Humboldt county, Cal., where her family settled near the mouth of the Mad River and engaged in farming and stock raising, the Handys locating on a ranch on Arcata Bottoms, which is still owned by members of the family. Later Mrs. Poinsett's father returned to Illinois, and after his death the mother was married to Christopher Columbus Sands, an expert ox teamster of Humboldt County, where she continued to make her home. Mrs. Poinsett well remembers the Indian uprisings in the neighborhood of their California home, when Henry Minor was killed, and the people of Uniontown (now Arcata) and that vicinity gathered in the old stone store (at that time the only store there), of which they made a fort for safety, expecting attacks from the Indians any time during the day or night. The education of Mrs. Poinsett was received at the local public schools and under the instruction of Prof. James B. Brown, and at the age of eighteen she began teaching at Fairhaven, on the Peninsula, in Humboldt county, continuing that work for a year, until her marriage, which took place in Eureka, on July 29, 1872, uniting her with Mr. Joseph B. Poinsett, who was born in New Jersey and came to Humboldt county as a young man. During the Civil war he served in the California regiment, stationed at Hoopa, and for seventeen years vas in the employ of William Carson as sawyer and foreman, after which he located a farm at Alliance, buying the old Hutchinson place of twenty acres, where he .engaged in dairying. In 1907 Mr. Poinsett sold this property and purchased the present estate on the Boynton Prairie road, two miles above Arcata, which at that time consisted of four hundred forty acres of wild land, which he improved greatly, the land being on a high elevation, overlooking Humboldt bay, with a splendid view of Arcata, Eureka, the Mad river and the Pacific ocean and beach. The estate is well kept with a com­modious residence and attractive gardens, and here at Hillcrest Farm, as the place is appropriately named, Mrs. Poinsett, with the aid of her son, con­tinues to operate the ranch successfully since the death of her husband, which occurred on May 4, 1912, he being well known in the vicinity as a stanch Republican, and in fraternal circles as a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Thirty acres of the property are under cultivation, whereon hay and green feed are raised for the stock, the rest of the estate being used as grazing land, and Mrs. Poinsett, who has proved herself an excellent business woman, is meeting with much success in her dairy business on the ranch, as well as in the raising of stock, fine draft horses, poultry and turkeys. In her religious associations she is a member of the Methodist Church, and is also a prominent member of the W. C. T. U. at Arcata, having taken an active part in its philanthropies for the last twenty years. She has two sons, Charles Bethel and Elwood Jay ; the former resides at Pinole, and the younger makes his home with her, assisting her in conducting the ranch.

JAMES P. ANDERSON.—Descended from a sturdy old Danish family, and himself a native of Denmark, James P. Anderson is one of the most highly honored and respected citizens of Humboldt county, as well as one of the most prosperous. He came to California some forty-odd years ago, and has since that time resided continuously in •Humboldt county. The son of a farmer, he turned naturally to the soil in the new land, and has made a great success of farming and stock raising in this locality. As befitting one whose faith in the future prosperity of the county and of the state is an abiding one, Mr. Anderson has from the early stage of his residence here invested heavily in land, and today many hundreds of acres of the finest acreage in the county are owned by him. He is still active in the management of his affairs and spends his time between his different ranches and his residence in Arcata.

Mr. Anderson was born in Bornholm, Denmark, on one of the islands in the Baltic Sea, May 1, 1846. His father was Anders W. Anderson, also a native of Denmark, born in 1801, and died in 1870. He followed the occupa­tion of farming for the greater part of his life and was very successful. The mother was Caroline Anderson, born in Denmark in 1810 and died in 1890. She was married to Mr. Anderson in 1840, and of this union six children were born.

The boyhood days of Mr. Anderson were spent on his father's farm, where he assisted with the regular work. He attended school, such as was afforded at that time in Denmark and received such other advantages as the time and country afforded. He remained at home with his parents until he was eighteen, and during the next three years served in local militia. At the expiration of this period he determined to come to America and seek his fortune in the new land, where the tales of wonderful opportunities gave such splendid impulse to ambition and youth. Accordingly he made the journey, and arrived in New York, April 29, 1867. In Warren County, Pennsylvania, he secured employment on a farm, where he remained for some time, also working for a time in a tannery in the same county.

Tales of the still greater opportunities offered in the rich farming districts of the far west continued to lure the young man, and he early determined to hoard his earnings, and as soon as they were sufficient to make the trip to California, hoping there to find the real "promised land." Accordingly, in 1869 he left Pennsylvania, making the journey to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama, and arriving in San Francisco in February of that year. From San Francisco he went to Stockton, where he found employment with the Central Pacific Railroad, then under construction. In the summer of the same year he was employed on a steamboat operating from Stockton to Fresno, on the upper San Joaquin river, and while working here contracted malarial fever, which necessitated a change of climate. As a result Mr. Anderson went to Sonoma County, where he secured work on a farm. In the winter he came to Humboldt county and went to work for Lawrence Ford, making stave bolts, remaining with him but a few months. Later he con­tracted for the building of a canal from the slough up to the land-head of the tide water, where Creamery No. 1 now stands. After the com­pletion of this task he went to work for H. S. Daniels (who at that time owned the ranch where R. W. Bull lives now) and remained with him for two years, being engaged in general farming. Mr. Daniels also owned a mountain ranch known as Angels Ranch, and after a time Mr. Anderson bought a half interest in this property and they engaged in farming and stock-raising in partnership. Soon after this arrangement Mr. Daniels sold his interests to J. Carlson; and in 1881, two years after the first purchase of the ranch, Mr. Anderson bought out the interest of Mr. Carlson and became the sole owner of the property. The ranch consists of farming and range land about three miles above Korbel. At this time it contained between seven hundred and eight hundred acres, and Mr. Anderson engaged in stock-raising and general farming. From time to time he has purchased adjoining acreage and today Angels Ranch comprises about twenty-five hundred acres and is known throughout the county as one of its best ranches. In his enter­prises there Mr. Anderson has been especially successful.

When his children were of an age to attend school Mr. Anderson pur­chased a ranch near Blue Lake and removed there with his family as Angels Ranch was too far from the town for the children to receive the proper advantages of school, with the then conditions of travel. Later, when they had completed the grammar school course, he purchased a twenty-acre place with large residence in Arcata, and removed his family there that the children might have the advantages of high school. Here he engaged in dairying for many years.

Mr. Anderson has always been interested in the purchasing and improv­ing of acreage, and at the present time owns several valuable properties in the county. Among these the best known are Angels Ranch, which is operated under his own management ; an apple orchard at Blue Lake, which is one of the best in the county ; and the home property at Arcata. All of these have been greatly improved and developed since their purchase by their present owner and are today a credit to the county. Recently Mr. Anderson sold ten acres of his home place, sub-dividing it, and disposing of it as resi­dence lots, it being known as the Anderson Subdivision. There is also a valuable ranch in Vallejo which he has owned for several years. Angels Ranch is devoted to raising sheep and Angora goats and general farming, raising full-blooded and graded Southdown and Shropshire sheep and Mohair Angora goats.

The marriage of Mr. Anderson took place in Arcata, Humboldt County, June 14, 1879, uniting him with Miss Emma Anderson, a native of Skaane, Sweden, born September 29, 1859. She came to the United States alone when she was yet a young girl, coming directly to Humboldt County, where she has since resided. Her parents, Christian and Hanna Anderson, came to California six years later and are well known residents of Humboldt County, making their home in Blue Lake. Mrs. Anderson has borne her husband nine children, eight of whom are living. They are : Mary Caroline, Mrs. Oliver Brown, of Blue Lake; Martha Elizabeth, Mrs. John Dinsmore, of Bridge­ville; Hazel Hellen, Mrs. Lem Yokum, of Arcata; Edith Christina, Mrs. George Minor, of Glendale; Harry C., assisting in operation of the home farm ; James Paul, attending University of California; George C., attending high school, Arcata ; and Wilford, attending the grammar school.

Mr. Anderson attributes his success in no small degree to the able assistance and counsel of his faithful wife and helpmate, who has ever been ready and willing to share her part of the mutual trials and burdens.

Aside from his prominence in a business way, Mr. Anderson is one of the best known and most influential men in the community where he lives. He has taken time from his busy life to take an active part in all local questions that tend to the upbuilding and general betterment of the com­munity and is always to be found on the side of progress and social uplift. In politics he is a Progressive Republican, and he is a progressive in the truest sense of the word. He is also prominent in fraternal circles, being made a Mason in Arcata Lodge No. 106, F. & A. M.; he is a member of Humboldt Chapter No. 79, R. A. M., Eureka, and of Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T. ; Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., in San Francisco, as well as the Knights of Pythias, and with his wife and daughters is a member of Arcata Chapter, 0. E. S. Mr. and Mrs. Anderson were raised in the Lutheran church, to which faith they still adhere.

Mr. Anderson is still active in business, and is enjoying the busy life as well as when he was not so prosperous. His success and attendant wealth have not been won without his having experienced many hardships and en­during many years of bitter toil. His present position in the community is, however, not accorded him because of his wealth, but because of his reputation for honesty and fair dealing with his fellowmen, and his splendid qualities of heart and mind.

GEORGE C. LINDLEY.—One of the large stock and fruit ranches in the Upper Mattole valley of Humboldt county is that of George C. Lindley, who has lived there since he was a boy of about sixteen years, when he began to work for the late owner, George Hindley. He now rents the property from the Hindley estate, and though there is considerable responsibility involved in the management and unlimited hard work in the cultivation of the place, his long experience qualifies him for the one and his unusual physical strength for the other.

Mr. Lindley is a son of Oscar Lindley, a well known old settler in the Mattole valley, who had a family of nine children, eight sons and one daughter, George being the sixth in the order of birth. He was born December 9, 1882, on Green Ridge, Rainbow, and after receiving common school advantages began to work out by the month. His only employer was the late George Hindley, for whom he began work some sixteen years ago, and whose daughter Verna he married in 1906. Mr. Lindley was associated with his father-in-law in the operation of the ranch for so many years that his work has had a definite share in its successful development, for Mr. Hindley relied upon him implicitly, and never hesitated to trust anything to him. His broad shoulders and exceptional strength, combined with intelligence in directing his labors, and his executive ability, made him a most capable help­er, and he cooperated with Mr. Hindley and his family to their mutual advan­tage in the improvement of the ranch. It consists of two thousand, three hundred sixty acres in the Upper Mattole region, about seventeen miles south of Petrolia, and the stock on the place usually consists of about one hundred seventy-five high-grade Herefords and Durhams and one hundred thirty Poland-China hogs. Forty acres of the place are in fruit bearing orchards of apples, prunes, peaches and walnuts. Mr. Lindley runs the prop­erty alone for about four months of the year, having help only during the months when the work "bunches" so as to make it impossible for one person to handle all the details successfully. He is a man of commendable character, not only because of his industry, but also on account of his integrity and his progressive disposition. At present he is serving as school trustee in the Honey Dew district. For the last nine years he has been road overseer for the Upper Mattole section of the First district. Politically he is associated with the Republican party. Fraternally he is a member of Ferndale Lodge No. 220, I. 0. 0. F., and Ferndale Parlor No. 93, N. S. G. W.

In 1906 Mr. Lindley married Miss Verna Hindley, and they have two children, Margaret and Elwyn. Mrs. Lindley was born in Upper Mattole and has inherited the practical common sense for which her family is so well known and is a woman of admirable character, a congenial helpmate much beloved and appreciated by her family and neighbors. She and her husband are members of the Episcopal Church.

George Hindley, Mrs. Lindley's father, died -March 10, 1914, after an active and successful career in the Upper Mattole valley. The acquirement and development of the highly improved estate which he left was practically his life work, and he was ably assisted by his wife, Margaret (Holman), and their large family, as well as by his son-in-law, all working together to bring the place to its present high state of development. Mr. Hindley was one of the most highly regarded men in his locality, and he gave his fellow citizens able service as supervisor of District No. 1, of Humboldt county. Able, public-spirited and hospitable, he became one of the most popular men in his neighborhood, and the spirit of thrift and good management which characterized all his business undertakings seems to have settled permanently on the place which was his home for so many years.

LOUIS P. ROSSIER, M. D.—Descending from sturdy old French Huguenot ancestry, and himself a native of Switzerland, Dr. Louis P. Ros­sier has brought with him to California all the sterling qualities of heart and mind, and all the gentle kindness of heart and consideration for the welfare and rights of others which his ancestry and nativity stand for. In his prac­tice at Garberville, Humboldt county, he is called upon to display all the varied graces that are demanded of the family physician, and especially of the family physician in the rural community, and this calls continually into play all that is best and truest and kindest in his nature; and it is an acknowledged fact among his patients, that he has never yet failed them in their hour of need, whether they have been in need of physics or sympathy, a porous plaster or kindly advice.

Dr. Rossier was born in Switzerland, April 11, 1852, the son of John and Louise (Mayor) Rossier, both natives of Switzerland. His mother died in Canada at the early age of thirty-four years, and his father died in Boston, Mass., at the age of sixty-three. His parents left Switzerland when Louis P. was a child of two and a half years, coming to Canada, and locating about fifteen miles from Montreal, where the father, who was a teacher, was en­gaged to teach the French language in a young ladies' seminary. Later he taught in a boys' academy or high school, and in a mission boarding school about thirty miles southwest of Montreal, on the Richelieu river. Some­time after the death of his first wife the elder Rossier went down to Boston and became a preacher in the Free Will Baptist church. There were five children by the first wife, all of whom grew to manhood and womanhood. They are: Henry Daniel, residing at Canandaigua, N. Y.; Louis P., re­spected citizen of Garberville; Clara, Mrs. Evans, residing at Fitchburg, Mass.; Samuel, residing at Newport, Vt.; and Emil, residing at Coventry, Vt. The father was married a second time, and of this second union were born eight children.

When Dr. Rossier was fifteen years of age he went to Vermont from his home in Canada and secured employment on a farm. He did not at that time speak a word of English and his employer did not speak a word of French, but the boy was quick and willing and the association proved satisfactory, and he remained here until he was twenty years of age. Then he fell ill with an affliction of the heart and returned to his home in Canada and again entered the school where his father taught, becoming both a student and a tutor in French. He pursued his studies along the line of the sciences and English, becoming proficient in both.

It was not until he was twenty-five years of age that Dr. Rossier determined to take up the study of medicine. From the age of twenty-two until he was twenty-five he had worked as a carpenter and millwright at Montgomery, Vt., and it chanced that his employer was a physician, one Dr. Wilbur. The young man became interested and commenced to read and study with the older man as his preceptor and teacher and later he entered the University of Vermont, at Burlington, graduating June 28, 1878, with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. He began his practice at once at Irasburg, Vt., later moving to Morgan's Corners, in the same state, and still later to Island Pond, where he was located from 1881 to 1889.

It was in 1889 that Dr. Rossier came to California. In 1894 he located in Garberville, and ever since that time has been a resident of this locality, save for a period of nine months, during 1909, when he was in Stanislaus county.

The field in which Dr. Rossier has found his work for the past twenty years is a large one, and the scope over which he keeps watch and ward is extensive. He has been seriously hampered in that he has no hospital accommodations near at hand, and all serious surgical cases have to be sent to Eureka, where there are splendid hospitals, and where he works in cooperation with the finest physicians and surgeons in the city. The doctor inspires confidence in all his patients, men, women and children. In keeping with his Huguenot ancestry he is kind hearted and considerate with all mankind, but somewhat radical when it comes to matters of principle involving questions of right and wrong, standing firmly for what he considers right and holding himself unflinchingly to the standards which he advocates.

Men in the medical profession who spend their lives on the frontier and very sparsely settled mountain districts never receive the appreciation that is due them for the self-sacrifice they show to the sick and needy, often spend­ing days and nights in a buggy or saddle, climbing the mountain roads and trails to reach a patient in time to alleviate pain and suffering, by bringing into use his years of study and experience, when he might use that same knowledge in the larger cities without entailing the discomforts and hard­ships of frontier life. Too much credit cannot be given Dr. Rossier for his unselfish devotion to his duty and his profession.

PETER PARTON.—Many of the early settlers in Humboldt county came west to work in the lumbering industry, attracted not so much by the prospect of high wages as by the climatic conditions prevailing in California. The work in the woods in the Lake states and in Eastern Canada is made doubly hard and perilous by reason of the rigorous winters ; and the idea of being able to escape these unpleasant and terrible conditions was a pleasing one, even to young and vigorous lumbermen. Among this class of pioneer settlers may be named Peter Parton, for, although at this time he is a farmer, when he first came to California, many years ago, he was a lumberman, and up to that time practically his entire life had been spent in the woods. He had been employed in Canada and around the Great Lakes, and had endured all the hardships of the long cold winters in the lumber camps, and felt that it would be indeed worth while to make an effort to locate where this might be avoided.

Mr. Parton is a native of Canada, having been born at Toronto in 1868. His early life was spent in that city, where he attended the public schools until he was thirteen years of age. Conditions in the home were such that at that time he was obliged to start out for himself, and his first employment was in the woods, where he worked for H. B. Rathburn, about one hundred miles east of Toronto. He remained there but a short time, and then came to Saginaw, Mich., where he was again employed in the lumber camps.

It was in 1889 that Mr. Parton left the east for California, coming directly to Humboldt County, where he had two brothers living ; it being through their letters that he was induced to come west. He soon secured a position with Flannigan & Brosnam Lumber Company, working in the woods and remaining with them for almost a year. Later he was with Bill Crowley on the Freshwater river, and still later with Frank Graham at Riverside, both of these men being pioneer lumbermen and well known throughout the county. He was variously employed in the work of the lumber camps until his marriage.

At the time of his marriage Mr. Parton determined to give up the life of the woods, and naturally turned to farming. He purchased what is now his home place of forty acres from the Mary Mahoney estate. At the time of purchase but twenty acres of the farm were improved and under cultivation, and since that time Mr. Parton has cleared and improved the remaining twenty acres. The first year he was on the place he made a specialty of rais­ing peas, but the following year he took up dairying on a small scale, and has since then been constantly interested in that line of farming. He now owns a herd of thirty milch cows, mostly Jerseys and Holsteins, all graded stock. He is interested in the United Creamery at Arcata and has held the position of director for the past nine years.

Aside from his position as a prosperous farmer and business man, Mr. Parton has become widely known through his political activities in his district. He is a Democrat and has been closely associated with the affairs of his party for many years past. He is also a prominent member of the Knights of Columbus, and with his family is a member of the Catholic Church in Arcata.

The marriage of Mr. Parton and Miss Nellie Mahoney took place at Arcata, July 3, 1892. She was born on the ranch where they now live and is the daughter of Michael and Mary (Judge) Mahoney, who were pioneer settlers of California, and were married in San Jose. Her father was an educator, but did not follow it for any length of time, but turned his attention to farming. In about 1868 they located in Humboldt county and purchased the ranch about a mile northwest of Alliance, where they reared their children and spent the remainder of their lives. Mr. and Mrs. Parton have ten children: Joseph Albert, attending Eureka business college; Eugene, attending the Humboldt State Normal ; George, Herman, Emile, Clara Cecelia, James, Valentine, Donald and Mary Grace. Both Mr. and Mrs. Parton are public spirited and enterprising and are ever ready to help those who have been less fortunate.

HUGH L. CAVE.—Retrospection plays a great part in our later years in proportion as the conditions in the present are different from those of the past, and one needs to use very little imagination to picture Mr. Cave sitting before the fire in the cool evenings, again visioning the events of his earlier life and, unconscious of the passing of time, once more traveling the path of the pioneers, seeing only in the embers the days gone by. He sees the prairie schooner hauled by oxen, and again lives through the awful encoun­ters with the Indians that attended every overland journey to California in the fifties. He was born in Van Buren County, Iowa, November 8, 1837, and is the son of Richard and Colma B. (Williams) Cave, who were early pioneers of that county. Richard Cave was born in Kentucky, July 30, 1799, and was married in Boone County, Missouri, to Colma Williams, September 28, 1820. Here he learned the trade of millwright, which he followed the greater part of his life. In 1836 he moved to Iowa and there built the first steamboat ever navigated on the Des Moines river, the section of land on which he lived having been purchased a short time before from Black Hawk, the chief of the tribe of that name. In 1840 the steamboat was built in part­nership with another man and together they owned and operated the boat between their place and St. Louis. The partner then decided the boat needed a coat of paint so he started down the river but never returned, having sold the boat and decamped with the money. This was a great blow to Mr. Cave, and he again engaged as a millwright and followed this trade until 1850, when he started for California, crossing the plains in a prairie schooner and bravely facing the dangers he knew were sure to follow. He safely reached the land of promise and located on the Yuba River, where he engaged in mining for two years, but gave it up to return to Iowa in the spring of 1852. He engaged passage on a steamer by way of the Isthmus to New Orleans, and up the Mississippi to the old home in Iowa. The lure of California was too strong for him and in the fall of the same year he again returned, this time locating at Sacramento, where he engaged in house-moving. At this time the high floods of the Sacramento river were raging and he found plenty of employ­ment to keep him busy for a year or more. In the summer of 1853 he moved to Salmon River, Siskiyou county, where he established the first swinging derrick ever used on the river. A water wheel was first built in the stream and this was the power used to swing the derrick. He remained here only a short time, next building a sawmill on the north side of the Klamath river, then organizing a dredging company, and building the first irrigation system used in the county. He also engaged in mining but did not follow this long. In May, 1859, he sold his many interests in the Klamath valley and moved to Shasta County. Here he purchased a drove of cattle and, leaving them here, was returning to his mine when he was suddenly killed by a highwayman on the summit of Salmon Mountain. His family expected him to return in a short time, so hearing nothing from him for two weeks, searching parties were formed, and to the son, Hugh, fell the shock of finding his father's body, on the trail over the mountain, July 30, 1859. Deeply grieved over the tragedy, he returned home to break the news as gently as possible to those waiting for them both. His brother, Josiah, then went to Iowa and, in 1860, returned to California, bringing with him his mother and sisters. They arrived in Arcata, July 1, and there it was that the new home was established.

In 1858 Hugh Cave left his home in Iowa, starting with a party by the southern route over the plains for California, journeying through Kansas and New Mexico via Las Vegas and Albuquerque. Continuing on their way to the new El Dorado, they arrived at Needles in September, 1858, and here encountered a large band of hostile Indians who gave battle. A large num­ber of the party were killed, the surviving few returning to Albuquerque, where the party disbanded. Mr. Cave was fortunate enough to escape death at the hands of the Indians, however, and he formed a new company, this time going by way of Tucson, Arizona, and from there to Yuma, arriving in Los Angeles in 1859. They still continued their journey up the coast and reached Sacramento, May 18, 1859, having been on the way one year, lacking ten days. In Sacramento he purchased a pack-mule and started for the mines to find his father, who was then employed in the mines, far from all civilization. After his father's death he drove the large herd of cattle left in Shasta valley by his father to the Three Cabin ranch in Humboldt County, arriving there December 1, 1859. Here he remained and engaged in stock-raising until 1861, but, the Indians becoming very hostile, he was forced to abandon the ranch and all the cattle and flee for safety to Arcata, where he remained during 1862-3, the period of the Indian wars. He then returned to Three Cabin ranch and there, of his fine herd of two hundred cattle, only sixty-six were left. During the time he was forced to leave his ranch to the mercy of the Indians he had engaged in logging and had also driven a team for Isaac Minor, hauling logs from the camps in the woods to the mills. He was so disheartened over the loss of his cattle that he determined to sell the remain­ing few and forever forsake stock-raising. In 1864 he started with a pack train for Idaho to engage in mining but, not finding conditions satisfactory, he once more returned to Humboldt County by way of San Francisco. In 1865 he rented a tract of land and engaged in farming for ten years but in 1875 he gave this up to enter the livery business. This venture was any­thing but a success as he lost the sum of $2,500, so he again returned to farming, following this until 1880, when he married and went to Walla Walla, Wash. Here he engaged in the raising of grain in the valley until 1895. This, too, proved to be a failure, so on they moved to Rio Grande, Colo., but they decided that conditions were only to their liking in California, so Arcata saw them once more in January, 1897. Here he again engaged in dairying, but selling his interests in 1901, he entered the teaming and hauling business in and around Arcata, retiring to a justly earned rest in 1910. In 1913 he re­visited the old home he had left fifty-five years before, but indeed the surroundings had changed. The old home did not look natural, but while there he found an old mill-stone that had been left by his father seventy-five years ago. He published a challenge in the local newspapers as being the oldest living white man born in the vicinity, and found only one man, who was two years older than himself. After this visit to the old home he returned to Arcata. He was united in marriage November 16, 1867, with Anna Jane Morton, a native of Philadelphia, Pa., the daughter of William Morton, who, when she was three years old, started on the journey to California, locating in Trinidad and later removing to Elk Camp on Bald Hill. Here Mr. Morton owned a stock ranch and also became the proprietor of a hotel for travelers in the vicinity, but in 1862 was forced to seek shelter with many others in Arcata from the marauding bands of hostile Indians. Here in Arcata Mrs. Morton died, and after her death he took up a claim at Scottsville on Mad River, on which he lived until the year 1875, when he sold his interests there and returned to Illinois, where he passed away. Of the marriage of Hugh L. and Anna Jane (Morton) Cave there are six children: Colma Brent, married to Frank E. Sapp, of Arcata ; Alfred Henry, marine engineer in the employ of the North Pacific Steamship Company ; Rose Melvina, married to Henry D. Abrams, who is engaged in farming in New Mexico ; Hugh William, a conductor for the past ten years in the employ of the N. W. P. Ry. ; Richard Walter, also a conductor for seven years on the N. W. P. Ry., and Victor Morton Cave, engineer on the coast division of the Southern Pacific Railway out of San Francisco.

Mr. Cave is the only living member of his father's family and his memories may well be envied by the people who have only lived in the present prosaic generation. He now devotes his time to the writing of special articles for the newspapers and is a man who has a large circle of friends and is a most entertaining and thrilling relater of the adventures in the exciting days of early California. He has long since retired from any active labor, but has always enjoyed the best of health even though his early years were full of grim hardships. He has witnessed the many changes that have taken place in the county and has watched its growth from an undeveloped section over­run with Indians to its present busy, commercial activities. He is indeed a true pioneer and Humboldt County is justly proud to number him among her citizens.

CHARLES A. ROBERTS.—The first shipment of stock made by boat from a Humboldt county port to San Francisco was sent down in 1894, during the great midwinter fair, and the shippers were Charles A. Roberts and Robert W. Robarts, the former the late proprietor of the butcher shop at -Petrolia, farmer, stock-raiser and cattle-shipper—one of the most enterprising business men of the region about Petrolia. Not only was he one of the best known stockmen of Humboldt county, but was also well known in stockyard circles at San Francisco, his large transactions and honorable dealings having brought him into familiar acquaintance and excellent repute with some of the leading figures in the business on the Pacific coast. Mr. Roberts was of pioneer parentage, being a son of the late William Roberts, who undoubtedly inherited his taste for frontier life, his parents having been early settlers in Iowa. William Roberts was only a boy when his father died in that state, but his mother lived to be over ninety-one years of age, and paid him a visit after he had settled in the Mattole valley.

William Roberts was born in Iowa, and first came out to California shortly after the gold discoveries. He crossed the plains the second time in 1851, in the train of T. M. Brown (afterward sheriff of Humboldt county), and during the rest of his life made his home in Humboldt county. Soon after his marriage he moved out onto the Coosky range, which was then occupied by the Indians, and engaged in the stock business, being one of the earliest in that line in the county. He and Theo Aldrich ran cattle on that range for several years, and the tract of fourteen hundred acres nine miles south of Petrolia, which is still owned by the Roberts family, was always referred to as the Aldrich & Roberts ranch. William Roberts prospered, and was active to the close of his life, dying at the age of seventy-six years. The old homestead, a tract of one hundred fifty-five acres, had been sold, but was repurchased by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Roberts.

At Eureka, Humboldt county, William Roberts married Miss Elizabeth Lambert, then only a young girl of about sixteen, who had crossed the plains in the same train as himself in 1851. She survives him, and is now the wife of T. J. Frost, of Eureka. To her marriage with Mr. Roberts were born seven children, two of whom died in youth, and Stella passed away at the age of twenty-eight years ; she was the wife of James Kingston, well known in shipping circles in Eureka, and left one daughter, Ruth. Charles A. met his death in the sinking of the Hanalei. The three survivors are: Belle, now the wife of George Foster, of Petrolia ; Sarah, wife of Otis Ellingwood, living in Washington; and Robert, of Ferndale, where he is engaged in the furniture and upholstering business.

Charles A. Roberts was born August 2, 1863, in the Mattole valley, where he grew to manhood, obtaining his education in the local public schools. All his mature life he was a devoted business man, and also a large stock grower and dealer, having the old Roberts homestead where he lived, two miles south of Petrolia, also leasing the Coosky ranch (the Aldrich & Roberts ranch) in the Coosky range south of Petrolia, where he raised large numbers of cattle, being associated in the latter ranch with his brother Robert. Besides supplying his own shop at Petrolia with wholesome and choice fresh meat he had stock for valuable shipments, sending stock by steamship to San Francisco from Port Kenyon and Eureka. As previously noted, he made his first shipment in 1894 in company with Robert W. Robarts, a boatload of cows sent down for their patrons on commission. The venture proved profitable, and Charles A. Roberts afterward continued in this line, in which he was considered one of the most reliable authorities in the business in Humboldt county, as well as an excellent judge of beef cattle. He shipped stock on all the following boats : "Hattie Gage," from Port Kenyon ; "Argo," Eureka ; "Norfolk," Eureka ; "Alice Blanchard," Fields Landing ; "Newport," Port Kenyon ; "Bonita," Eureka ; "Weeot," Port Kenyon ; "Pomona," Eureka ; "Willamette Valley," Eureka ; "Chilcat," Port Kenyon ; "Eureka," Eureka ; "New Humboldt," Eureka. The shipments ranged in size from eighty to one hundred eighty-five head. From a boy he helped his father and learned to ride the range and when a lad assisted in driving cattle down the coast.

It was in 1892 that Mr. Roberts first opened a meat market at Petrolia, and though he did not continue the business steadily, since he was in it several times, for the last six years of his life he followed it without interruption. His common sense and good judgment were so well known as to need no comment. Though his father's large interests and possessions gave him great opportunities for acquiring experience in his early life he showed him:- self worthy of the excellent start that training proved to be, and his capability in the management of his various undertakings formed the basis of his continued success.

In Eureka June 15, 1896, Mr. Roberts married Miss Harriet S. Aldrich, daughter of William and Mary Belle (Whitson) Aldrich, the former a native of Delaware county, Ohio, the latter of Pennsylvania ; they were married at Tipton, Iowa. Mr. Aldrich first came to California across the plains in 1849 when a young man. He was successful in his undertakings and after accumulating considerable means he returned to Iowa, where he married. He and his wife were proprietors of the Aldrich House in Tipton, and later he purchased a farm near there and engaged in farming and as a breeder of fine cattle and standard horses, afterwards also engaging in the banking business. He finally retired from business and spent his winters in California. On his last return trip he was stricken with apoplexy and died at Barstow, Cal., March 23, 1904, aged seventy-seven years. His wife died in Iowa, January 23, 1906. Of the thirteen children born to Mr. and Mrs. Aldrich two died in infancy, the other eleven reaching maturity and nine still survive. Mrs. Roberts, the seventh in the family, was born at Tipton, Iowa, and was a graduate of Tipton high school ; after teaching a short time she took up bookkeeping and held that position in a bank in Tipton ; ,in 1894 she came to visit her uncle, Theodore Aldrich, in Mattole ; she liked the country and decided to remain and in 1896 was married. She became the mother of three children, Donald Aldrich, Harry Lambert (deceased) and Lloyd William.

There never was a bereavement that caused such general sorrow and deep sympathy in the community as the death of Charles A. Roberts and his son Harry and there was general sorrowing in all the homes where he was known. Mr. Roberts was liberal to a fault and often neglected his own business affairs to help others and do a good deed to those who were needy. He was a good husband and father and also a kind neighbor. His benignant and generous character endeared him to a wide circle who appreciated the good he accomplished in his own unselfish life and for his upright and honest methods of doing business. He is held in loving memory all over the county where his entire life was spent. Mr. Roberts and his son Harry L. took passage on the ill-fated Hanalei Sunday morning, November 22, 1914, which struck the rocks at Ducksbury Reef off the Marin shore on November 23 and went to pieces on the 24th at 3 A. M. The drowned bodies of the father and son were recovered and brought to Petrolia, where they were buried on Sunday, November 29th. Mr. Roberts was clerk of the school board of Petrolia district at the time of his death. Since his death his widow has continued the affairs of her husband, i. e., farming and cattle raising.

ANDREAS E. PETERSEN.—Descended from an ancient Danish family whose genealogy is traceable back through many generations of splendid men and women who exhibited the tendencies and characteristics representative of those fair minded, firm and indomitable people who laid the foundation for the Anglo-Saxon civilization, Andreas E. Petersen is himself a man of splendid character and attainments. He and his father were well-to-do farmers in Schleswig, but smarting under stringent German domination, he sold his holdings and came to America with his wife and family, almost immediately locating in Humboldt county, where together they have formed a very valuable and desirable addition to the community. Mr. Petersen is decidedly independent and liberal in politics and religion, with most pronounced humanitarian views and sentiments. His wife is a delightful hostess, kindly and hospitable, whom it is a delight to know. Their home is two miles east of Ferndale, where they have a fine dairy farm which has been their home for many years. They are well-to-do and generous, believing .in progress, education and right living along broad lines.

Mr. Petersen was born at Kreis Aabenraa, in Schleswig, Denmark (now a part of Germany), February 21, 1847. He received his education in the Danish language, and was reared and confirmed in the Lutheran church. His father, Peter Petersen, was a dairy farmer, owning a large farm which he conducted with great profit ; the mother was Johanna Cathrina Petersen ; both parents living and dying in Denmark. There were in their family six children, of which the present honored citizen of Ferndale was the eldest born. The others were : Botilla, single, and residing at Schleswig; Peter Jesperson, residing in Ferndale, and now retired from active business ; Lawrence P., a dairy farmer near Arcata ; Theodore, a dairy farmer near Santa Barbara, Cal. ; and Anna Cathrina, deceased, who was married and lived in Schleswig, where she died, leaving her husband, Andrias Bronson, .with seven children.
The marriage of Mr. Petersen took place in Schleswig, March 29, 1873, uniting him with Miss Maria Cecelia Eskildsen, of that place. Of this union have been born six children, all natives of Schleswig. They are ; Peter, married to Miss Sophia Quist, and engaged in dairy farming at Centerville ; Hans E., dairy farmer at Suisun, Cal., and married to Miss Marie Everson ; P. Nicolai, a dairy farmer at Grizzly Bluff, and married to Miss Johanna Linnemann ; Johannes E., who is conducting his father's farm ; Hanna C., the wife of Niss C. Eskildsen, residing at Centerville; and Caroline C., the wife of Prof. Hans C. Christensen, of the Arcata High School.

It was in 1894 that Mr. Petersen came to California and located in Humboldt county, purchasing a tract of only partially improved land about two miles east of Ferndale and one mile from Waddington, consisting of seventy acres. This he has cleared and improved, and today has one of the attractive dairy farms of the district. Originally it was largely swamp land, but this has been drained and brought under a high state of cultivation and pasturage. In the old country Mr. Petersen was the owner of a fine, large dairy farm, but felt that it would be preferable to start anew in a new land rather than longer endure the despised foreign rule, and so disposed of his interests and made the long journey to California, which he has never regretted. Since coming to Humboldt county he has taken an active interest in all the public affairs of the community, and is generally appreciated as a citizen of the highest type. He has always been especially interested in dairying and has done much for the development and prosperity of this great industry. He promoted the Capital creamery and was one of the stockholders in that enterprise. He has also taken a great interest in fraternal circles and is one of the important factors of the Danish Brotherhood, being secretary of that order, and being one of the organizers of the Danish Sisterhood in Ferndale. He is also a member of the Ferndale Lodge, Fraternal Brotherhood. In his political views Mr. Petersen is a Republican, although he is at all times above any party, giving his support and cooperation rather to the principles and the men who represent those things which make for the common welfare.

EMORY A. BRIGHTMAN.—A native of the Golden West and descended, on both his father's and his mother's side, from early California pioneers, while his father's ancestry is directly traceable to those pioneers of an earlier day, the Pilgrims of the Mayflower, Emory A. Brightman is a true son of his forebears, and has inherited the sterling worth of the men who carved their future in untried ways. He himself began the fight of life when he was but fourteen years of age, at that time going to work on the neighboring farms, and at eighteen he was aiding in the support of his father and family, his mother having died at that time and his father being in ill health. Since that time he has forged steadily ahead, always dependent upon his own efforts, meeting the difficulties in his path squarely and fearlessly, and in the end vanquishing them. He is now the junior member of the firm of Goff & Brightman, proprietors of the Ferndale Meat market, with their place of business on Main street, Ferndale. Mr. Brightman has been in this business for some five or six years, and has met with the greatest success. Previous to his taking over the enterprise with Mr. Goff he was in the employ of the former owner, and so was familiar with the details of the business and also with the local conditions of the trade. He is the outside man of the firm and is an exceptionally hard worker, being always in evidence when there is aught that concerns his business interests to claim attention.

Mr. Brightman was born in the Yosemite valley, Mariposa county, Cal., August 29, 1883, his parents being now both deceased. His father, Frederick Augustus Brightman, was a native of Massachusetts, born at Fall River. His ancestors came over with the Mayflower and settled at Plymouth, and many of the descendants are still to be found in the vicinity. His mother was Mary Duff, born at Washington, D. C., who came to California with her parents when she was a child, and met and married Mr. Brightman in Mariposa county, where the latter was engaged in driving a stage and teaming. He also drove a stage into the Yosemite valley in the early days. In 1879 Mr. and Mrs. Brightman (Sr.) came to Humboldt county, and engaged in farming and dairying. They were the parents of four children, of whom the present respected citizen of Ferndale is the eldest. Other members were : Frederick Wade, now a teamster in Ferndale ; Adelle, the wife of Frank Kelley, and Esther, both residing at Independence, Ore.

Reared on a farm, young Emory Brightman learned at an early age to assume his share of the farm duties, and began milking cows at the tender age of six years. He attended school for a time, but from fourteen years of age he worked whenever he could secure employment on the neighboring farms, and at the age of eighteen he began to assist with the support of the family. His marriage occurred in Eureka, October 13, 1906, when he was twenty-three, uniting him with Miss Bessie E. McHenry, a native of Iowa, born at Woodbine, that state. She came to Humboldt county with her parents when she was but five years of age and has since that time made her home here. Her father, Henry McHenry, died before the family came to California, and her mother, who was in maidenhood Clara Moss, married again to Louis Hansen, and now resides at Pepperwood, where Mrs. Brightman spent her girlhood and received her education. She has one full brother, Arthur McHenry, residing in Eureka, and nine half brothers and sisters. After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Brightman were engaged on a stock ranch at Grizzly Bluff for several years, and then came to Ferndale, where Mr. Brightman entered the employment of Joe Russ in the Ferndale Meat Market. Also in the employ of Mr. Russ at the same time was Joseph Goff, and in 1909 these enterprising young men bought out the then owner and have since conducted the business under the firm name of Goff & Brightman. They have a first-class establishment in every way, modern and sanitary, after the latest approved ideas, and are doing a splendid business. They have their own slaughter house and take especial care in selecting their animals for slaughter, thus securing only the highest grade of meats. They carry a complete line of fresh, dried and pickled meats, bacon, eggs, butter, vegetables, etc., and their facilities for the care and handling of these products are of the very best. They also give the most courteous treatment to all customers, and in consequence their business is not only prospering, but is rapidly growing in scope and value.

Quite apart from his popularity as a business man, Mr. Brightman occupies a very influential place in the general affairs of the city, being well and favorably known in social and fraternal circles. He is a prominent member of the Odd Fellows, being affiliated with the Ferndale Lodge No. 220, I. 0. 0. F., and is past grand. Mrs. Brightman is also active in the affairs of the Rebekahs, and is serving as noble grand, taking an interest in all their activities, and her influence has done much toward the upbuilding of the order. She is a member of the Methodist church, and takes a great interest in the activities of this denomination, of which she is a regular attendant. In their home life Mr. and Mrs. Brightman are especially. happy. They arc the parents of four children : Vernon, Lloyd, Mary and Leland.

HANS C. CHRISTENSEN.—The descendant of an excellent old Danish family, Hans C. Christensen bears all the marks of his distinguished ancestry in his face and figure, being a splendid type of the ancient Norseman of fable and song. His splendid physique led to his selection for service in the Danish Cavalry, where men of the greatest muscular development and activity are in great demand, and where he won much distinction. He is today one of Ferndale's most active, popular and successful business men, and possesses a host of friends. His customers always receive a square deal, and also the most courteous of treatment. He started as a penniless boy in Humboldt county almost thirty-five years ago, and by the excellent efforts that he put forth has climbed slowly and surely upward to the top of the ladder. He is now vice-president and manager of the Kausen-Williams Hardware Company, in Ferndale, and one of the heaviest stockholders of this prosperous concern.

Mr. Christensen is a native of Denmark, having been born on the Island of Fyen, June 16, 1864. His father, Christian Christensen, was a hotel-keeper at Odense, the capital of the island, and there the son passed his childhood. His mother, Mary Christensen, died when Hans was a mere babe, he being the only child of this marriage. The father married again shortly and ten children were the issue of this second marriage. The father and step-mother are both living in Denmark at present, having retired from active life. The young Hans was reared by his step-mother, and received a grammar-school education, pursuing his studies until he was fourteen years of age, when he went to work among his mother's people, being employed by his mother's sister. The opportunities of the Western World appealed to him, however, and in 1882, when he was but eighteen, he came to America. He came at once to San Francisco, and from there went to Eureka, and later to Ferndale, which has been the center of his operations ever since. On his arrival in Ferndale he found himself quite without money and was forced to accept any employment that offered. Consequently he went to work on a farm for $15 per month, and from that small start worked himself up until he was receiving the highest wages paid for farm and dairy work. In 1885 Mr.. Christensen returned to Denmark for a visit, and while there enlisted in the Danish army as a cavalryman, serving for two years. He then returned to Ferndale in 1887, and resumed work on the various dairy farms. In the spring of 1892 he was married to Miss Johanna Christensen, the daughter of Christian Rasmussen, of Denmark, now deceased. In the fall of that same year Mr. Christensen rented the Waddington Dairy farm and for four years conducted this place with marked success. He then moved to the Keohan ranch of two hundred twenty acres, near Waddington, where he engaged in the dairy business for ten years. At the end of that time he was stricken with appendicitis and was obliged to undergo a serious surgical operation, in August, 1906. He was then forbidden by his physicians to do any more farm work, and so disposed of his farm and dairy interests and moved into Ferndale. Later in the year he purchased an interest in the Kausen-Williams Hardware Company, of which he is now vice-president and manager. He owns one hundred twenty shares out of the three hundred that are issued, and is making a decided success of his conduct of the business. The store is large and modern and the stock is excellent, while the trade is all that could be desired, and is rapidly increasing. The firm is incorporated for $30,000 with $19,000 paid in, there being 300 shares at $100 valuation each. The officers of the company are : J. C. Erickson, of Ferndale, president ; Hans C. Christensen, vice-president and manager ; and S. B. Morrison; secretary-treasurer.

Quite apart from his business associations and his consequent popularity as a merchant, Mr. Christensen has created a place for himself in the general activities of the town that is well worth the emulation of older residents than he. He is a prominent member of the Danish Lutheran church, of Ferndale, and was a member of the building committee which erected the new church edifice. He is also well known in fraternal circles, being an influential Mason of Ferndale Lodge No. 193, F. & A. M., and of Ferndale Chapter No. 78, R. A. M., of which he is high priest. He is intensely interested in all that pertains to the general welfare of the town and community, but has steadily declined to accept any public office, preferring rather to render his service as a private citizen. His support is always forthcoming for all movements for progress and municipal improvements and upbuilding along permanent lines.

In his home life Mr. Christensen is very happy. His fine family of six children have all grown to manhood and womanhood and are either located in Ferndale or within easy reach thereof. They are all men and women of sterling qualities and enjoy the honor and respect of their friends and acquaintances. They are : Mary, who is a stenographer for Puter & Quinn, attorneys at law, in Eureka ; Christ, who is a tinner for the firm of Kausen-Williams Hardware Company ; Robert, a dairyman in the vicinity of the home town ; Sophius, a clerk in the hardware store ; Alfred and Elmer.

JOSEPH B. GOFF.—Although still a young man, not yet having turned the thirtieth mile-stone on his road of life, Joseph B. Goff has "made good" in his business career. For the past five or six years he has been in business for himself in the butcher and meat market business in Ferndale, where he makes his home, and is meeting with more than ordinary success. The business is conducted on a strictly business basis, the latest sanitary devices being employed for the handling of all meats, and for their care and preservation. Great care is also taken in the selection of beeves and other animals for the slaughterhouse—they maintaining their own—so that only the highest grade of meats are to be found in stock. The most conscientious consideration is always given to every customer, this being another of their "specialties."

Mr. Goff is a native of California, having been born at Petrolia, Humboldt county, December 12, 1884. His father, James H. Goff, now deceased, was one of the Petrolia pioneers of an early day, and is remembered with the greatest respect. His mother, who was Miss Mary J. Patrick in the days of her maidenhood, was also a pioneer of Humboldt county. She is still living, and makes her home at Waddington. She bore her husband six sons, of whom the present respected citizen of Ferndale is the fifth. He passed his boyhood at Petrolia and Ferndale, attending the public schools, and later taking a business course at the Sisters' College, in the latter place. He then entered the employment of the firm of Russ & Patrick in their meat market, remaining with them for five years. Later Joe Russ bought out the interests of his partner, and conducted the business alone for a year. At the end of that time, in 1909, Mr. Goff and his present partner, Emory A. Brightman, purchased the business and have continued to conduct it under the firm name of Goff & Brightman. Their place of business is well located on Main street, and they carry a splendid line of fresh, pickled and dried meats, vegetables, lard, bacon, eggs, etc., and are doing a thriving business.

In addition to his popularity as a business man, Mr. Goff also stands exceptionally high in social, fraternal and political circles. He was elected as a member of the board of trustees for Ferndale in 1914, and is making a record that is very gratifying to his friends and supporters. It is a known fact that this small city is especially well governed and that her streets, schools, and other public institutions are well above the average city of her class. This is, of course, due to the splendid public spirit which prevails, and which has been fostered and developed by such men as Mr. Goff. He is always well to the front when matters of local importance are in the balance, and there is nothing that he considers too good for his home town. He is a member of the Ferndale lodge, Woodmen of the World, of the Eureka Elks, and also of the Ferndale Parlor, No. 93, N. S. G. W., in all of which he is an influential and a popular member.

The marriage of Mr. Goff and Miss Beatrice Stone, of Ferndale, was celebrated March 4, 1913. Mrs. Goff is, like her husband, very popular with a wide circle of friends, and is well known in social circles.

JOHN N. CHAIN, M. D.—The somewhat accidental circumstance of association with a gentleman skilled in the science of materia medica turned the thoughts of Dr. Chain to that profession in the formative period of youth and led to a course of classical and professional preparation that now places him in the list of brilliant practitioners in Humboldt county, where he is. associated with the Northern California Hospital at Eureka and maintains a general practice, in that city that brings him into friendly touch with all classes of people. Much of his early life was passed on the frontier and in the saddle, for although a native of Illinois he was scarcely a year old when the family removed to Nebraska, then almost beyond the boundaries of civilization. The privations of the isolated country home, the poverty of the environment, the long day's toil for the necessities of existence and the struggle to secure a common school education in a region none too blessed with schools, all this lingers in his memory of youth, but against it he places his love of animals, his delight in horseback riding and the rugged health that came from the outdoor life of the prairies. His father, Jacob M. Chain, was a native of Ohio and his mother, Amelia (Simms) Chain, of Illinois, while his birth occurred at Lewistown, Fulton county, in the latter state, August 14, 1876. After having lived on the homestead near Lincoln, Neb., from 1877 to 1895 (in the meantime, from 1893 to 1895, having studied medicine in that state), in the year last mentioned he came to California with his preceptor, Dr. Fred R. Breed, and studied under him in San Diego, where he laid the foundation of his broad professional knowledge.

Through his own efforts John N. Chain acquired the highest educational advantages. After he was graduated from the high school he matriculated in the University of California, from which., after seven years' study, he received the degrees of B. S. and M. D. in 1904. A period of practical experience in hospitals of Sacramento and San Francisco was followed by his location in Eureka in 1905 and after three years in the office of Dr. Rea Felt in February, 1908, he opened an office of his own in the Ellery building, where he has been located ever since. While skilled in every department of the science, perhaps his greatest reputation has been obtained in obstetrics and gynecology, but he makes somewhat of a hobby of healthful and sanitary conditions. As a physician he advocates prevention of disease. He thoroughly believes in the old adage that "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." Frequently he has lectured on sanitation and health, the proper observance of the laws of which he believes would greatly lessen community illness or contagious diseases. A service on the Eureka Board of Health covered four years and gave him an opportunity to publicly advocate the most stringent municipal rules in regard to sanitation. Professional societies of which he is a member are the Humboldt County, California State and American Medical Associations, while his fraternal affiliations are with Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., and Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. In 1902 he was united in marriage with Miss Fannie M. Squires,. a native of Seward, Neb., and they have two. sons, John and Jere.

FRANK J. BERNARDI.—One of the leading men of Eureka, and sole proprietor of the leading blacksmith shop in the city, is Frank. J. Bernardi, a native of Switzerland, but for many years a loyal. citizen of the United States. In 1884, when he was a lad of sixteen years, he came to Eureka, and ever since has made his home in Humboldt county, being well known in Eureka and also in Alliance, where he made his home for two years.

Mr. Bernardi was born in the Canton of Ticino, Switzerland, March 19, 1868, the son of John and Mary Bernardi, both natives of that country, the former a cabinet-maker by trade. Of his mother Mr. Bernardi remembers nothing, as she died when he was a child of but five years. He was given such advantages as the local schools afforded and when he was a lad of fourteen years came to the United States in company with a younger brother, Titus. They left Switzerland in September, 1882, and in December of that year Frank J. came to Humboldt county. During his youth he learned the cabinet-maker's trade in his father's shop, but on arriving in California he went to work on a dairy farm near Mattole, this county, where he remained for two years, in the meantime learning the language and manners and customs of the country. After returning to Eureka in 1884 he worked in sawmills in and near that city for a time. For several years it had been his desire to learn the blacksmith's trade., and the opportunity offering, he began an apprenticeship under J. P. Holt, under whom for one year he acquired the rudiments of the trade. Going to Marshall, Marin county, he worked at the trade for a year, then returned to Humboldt county and worked in the mills in Eureka for a time. Subsequently he was engaged in the blacksmithing business in Alliance for two years, at the end of that time returning to Eureka, where he has since made his home. May 1, 1896, he opened a blacksmith shop in Eureka and in July of the same year entered into partnership with A. S. Kerr under the firm name of Kerr & Bernardi. Under this name business was conducted for seventeen years, their establishment in the meantime becoming Eureka's leading blacksmith and wagon shop.

On January 1, 1913, Mr. Bernardi purchased the interest of his partner and has since that time been sole owner of this flourishing establishment. The shop is located at No. 217 Third street, and occupies a two-story building, 30x110 feet, and all the latest machinery required in such an establishment has been installed. This includes a power drill for iron and steel, emery wheels, electrical portable drills for wood, iron and steel, trip hammer, tire crimping machine or setter, two forges, clipping machine, rimmers, band saws, wood boring machine, planing machine, as well as other machinery necessary for their wagon-making shop and for their automobile repair work, with electricity for the motive power. In connection there is a fully equipped and first-class paint shop. i\Ir. Bernardi makes a specialty of the manufacture of three types of wagons—delivery wagons, logging wagons and heavy trucks—the kinds turned out by his shop being well known and of acknowledged value in the locality. He also employs an expert horse-shoer and his work in this line is also of superior grade. He is himself in constant charge of the work, whether it be the repairing of a wrecked automobile, a broken wagon, or the manufacture of a new one, and nothing leaves the shop that is not up to standard.

The marriage of Mr. Bernardi took place in Eureka in 1896, uniting him with Miss Delma Ada Thomas, the daughter of William and Mary Thomas, pioneers of Humboldt county, where Mr. Thomas has been engaged in logging for many years. Both Mr. and Mrs. Bernardi have many friends in their home city. Mrs. Bernardi is a member of the Christian church, and a regular attendant at its services. In fraternal circles i\Ir. Bernardi is especially popular. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias and past chancellor of the local lodge. In politics he is a Republican, and is keenly alive to all that is for the best interests of the community, although he has never been actively interested in party affairs. He is one of the best boosters that Eureka has, and as is befitting with one who believes fully in the splendid future of the city and county, he has invested in real estate and now owns valuable property in and near Eureka.

JOSEPH MORANDA.—The population of California is indeed very cosmopolitan in its nature, many nations being represented by its citizens and among them is Mr. Moranda, a native of Switzerland, having been born near Locarno, Canton Ticino, March 19, 1864, where he received his education in the public schools of the vicinity and where he spent the earlier part of his life engaged in farming on the home place. At the age of nineteen he decided to come to America to try to better his condition, having heard good reports from his father and other returning countrymen: His father, Bartolomeo Moranda, had come to California about 1869 and was engaged in gardening near Stockton for fourteen years when he returned and resumed farming in Ticino. Hence, Joseph naturally early conceived a strong desire to see the land of gold and sunshine. On leaving Switzerland he came directly to Marin county, but he did not feel satisfied with conditions there. So in January, 1884, he moved to Humboldt county and began work on a dairy farm located on Bear river ridge and known as the Russ ranch. Remaining there only a short time, he was then employed by the Clark brothers on their dairy ranch at Grizzly Bluff. Later deciding to enter the business for himself, he leased a tract of land comprising one hundred and sixty acres on Eel river, known as the Dungan ranch. He purchased his stock and entered earnestly into the dairying business, which he followed for twenty years on the one ranch. He milked as high as one hundred head of cows, and his land being in the extremely fertile section caused by the overflow of Eel river, it was unusually fine for farming. In 1906 he gave up his lease and purchased the ranch which is now the home place in Arcata. In this ranch there are one hundred and five acres, all highly improved and well adapted to farming and dairying. Here Mr. Moranda is at present engaged in general farming and dairying and owns a fine herd of forty cows. All the improvements and equipment on the ranch are of the finest and most modern, and he has attempted to make his ranch the best in the district. He has built a large residence on this place. In all political matters he has entered with a will, always following the ideas of the Republican party, and is a member of the F. 0. E. Ile was married in Eureka, October 6, 1892, to Henrietta Hammitt, a native daughter of Humboldt county, having been born at the foot of Table Bluff near what is now Loleta. Mr. and Mrs. Moranda have been blessed with three children, two of whom are now living : Joseph Edward, who died October 5, 1910; Hazel Lucille, and Charles Walter.

Mrs. Moranda's father was Elwood Hammitt, born in Ohio, 1832, and one of California's pioneers, crossing the plains in 1851, in search of the new El Dorado, his method of transportation being the then favorite ox team. He did not succeed in finding the gold he hoped for and hearing of the fields of Alaska he started ont on another hunt for treasure, taking passage on a sailing vessel with seventy-five companions, for one of the small islands off the coast of Alaska. Returning to California he entered the mines of Yreka, but in 1854 he went to Oregon, remaining there for a few years. Next he heard of the opportunities of Humboldt county and in 1866 he came here, and engaged in farming until the time of his death, which occurred March 5, 1908. Her mother is Charlotte (Gordon) Hammitt, a native of Missouri, but crossed the plains when nine years of age, with her parents ; and is at present living in Loleta. Mr. Moranda is an industrious, progressive farmer and has been very successful. However, he attributes his success, in no small degree, to the assistance of his wife, who has stood nobly by him, encouraging and aiding him in every way by her help and counsel. When he first came to the county he did not have money enough to start in business, so was employed for a few years by others, thus saving enough of his earnings to start for himself. His present financial standing is a silent tribute to his ability both as a business man and successful farmer.

CHARLES I. HARPST.—One of the well known lumbermen of Humboldt county, and one who has been very actively associated with the development of the lumber industry in this section of the state, is Charles I. Harpst, who at present is engaged in farming, and owns a handsome place adjoining Arcata on the west, where he makes his home. He has been associated with the lumbering business since coming to California in 1882, until within the past few years, when he retired from active participation in commercial lines, and took up farming. He has been interested in various well known lumber companies in the county. In his business undertakings he has always been very successful, and throughout the county he is known as a man of reliability and integrity of character.
Mr. Harpst is a native of Ohio, having been born in Hancock county, twelve miles from the town of Findlay, on his father's farm, May 29, 1861. His father was Edward Harpst, a native of Pennsylvania, born in York county, March 28, 1822, and died October 19, 1908. He lived with his parents in York county until he was eight years of age, when they removed to Franklin county, Ohio. Here he attended school for a short time, but spent the greater part of his time working on the farm. For a few years he followed the carpenter's trade, and later as a farmer he was very successful. In 1894 he made a trip to California to visit his son and other relatives here, remaining for a year. He returned to Ohio and resided there until the time of his death. The mother of the present worthy citizen of Arcata was Sarah N. (Brown) Harpst, a native of Pennsylvania, born April 5, 1822. She was the eldest child in the family, and was married in Franklin county, Ohio, early in 1850. She became the mother of six children, four of whom are living at the present time, two residing in California and two in Ohio. The mother is 'still living.

The early life of Charles I. Harpst was spent on his father's farm in Hancock county, Ohio. He attended school in his district until he was nineteen, assisting in the meantime with the farm work, and remaining at home until he came to California in October, 1882. He came direct to Humboldt county, where he had relatives living, and soon after his arrival he went to work for a relative in the Harpst & Spring shingle mill. Within a short time he was advanced to the position of foreman of the mill, which position he held until 1886. At that time he took charge of a dairy ranch for this same company, occupying this position for some four years. In 1900 he gave up the care of the dairy farm to engage in business with the new company known as the Union Shingle Manufacturing Company. Mr. Harpst was manager of this company continuously until it closed down in 1911. having worked up all the available timber. During this time he was also interested in the Bayside Lumber Company, being one of the original board of directors, and continuing in this capacity as long as he retained his interests in the company. He sold his interests in the Bayside Lumber Company four years ago. Another of the industries in which he has been interested and to which he has given material support is the Devlin Tannery Company of Arcata, of which he is a stockholder and a director.

In all his business undertakings Mr. Harpst has been unusually successful, and he has displayed quite marked ability as a business manager. Since he retired from active business pursuits, Mr. Harpst has taken up general farming. In November, 1909, he removed with his family to the home place of thirty-eight acres, all improved land, adjoining Arcata, and here he has resided since. .He is especially well informed on all the details of farming, this having been the training of his boyhood, and his earliest business ventures having been in this field, so has met with his customary success in this last undertaking.

The marriage of Mr. Harpst took place in Arcata, July 16, 1895, uniting him with Miss Nora Seaver, a native of Shelter Cove, Humboldt county, Cal. She is the daughter of Daniel A. and Anna (Briggs) Seaver, pioneers of California. Her father came to the coast by way of the Isthmus of Panama in the early mining excitement, and located in Humboldt county, where he resided for many years. Mrs. Harpst is the mother of one child, a son, Charles W. Harpst.

Both Mr. and Mrs. Harpst are well known socially in Arcata, where they have a wide circle of friends. Mr. Harpst is prominent in fraternal circles, having been made a Mason in Arcata Lodge No. 106, F. & A. M., of which he is a past master ; he is also a member of Humboldt Chapter No. 52, R. A. M., and of. Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T. ; also of Oakland Consistory and Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S. He is also a member of Anniversary Lodge No. 85, I. 0. 0. F., Arcata, of which he is past grand. Politically he is a Progressive Republican, but locally he is an independent voter, preferring to support the men whom he deems best fitted for the various offices.

JAMES McCREADY.—Although a native of New Brunswick, James McCready has been for almost fifty years a resident of Humboldt county, and is one of the honored pioneers of the state and well known throughout his section thereof as a man of sterling worth and unwavering integrity. He has been engaged in various pursuits, but for the greater part has been engaged in farming or been connected with the lumbering industry. He is at present retired from active business life and lives quietly on his ranch near Blue Lake, where several of his children also reside, the ranch itself being run under the management of his sons.

Mr. McCready was born at Wawweig, St. Andrews Parish, Charlotte county, New Brunswick, February 26, 1843. Here he spent the early years of his life on the farm of his father, attending school in the winter and working on the farm during the summer months. When he was fifteen he gave up his school attendance and went to work regularly. At first, he worked in the woods driving logs and received for this $16 a month. Later this was increased to $1.25 a day, which to the lad seemed a very large sum. He made his home with his parents on the farm up to the time he came to California, working with his father when the work in the woods was closed down. At the age of twenty-three, on March 27, 1866, he was married to Margaret Simpson, a native of New Brunswick, born January 3, 1849.

It was in 1868 that Mr. McCready determined to come to California. This determination was arrived at through the receipt of letters from a brother, John McCready, who was then living in Humboldt county, stating that the wages paid on the coast were much higher than received in New Brunswick, and the climatic conditions also far superior. Accordingly Mr. McCready made the long journey with his family via the Isthmus of Panama, landing from the old Aspinwall in San Francisco, and came on to Eureka on the Hesperian, arriving with only $16 in May, 1868, having been nine days en route from San Francisco. He immediately went to work at Freshwater for his brother, John McCready, who had come to California in 1859 and was well established and acquainted with conditions and people in Humboldt county. Through him James McCready later secured employment with John Connick and George Carson, remaining in their employ for several months, and though he had hired to them for $50 a month they were so pleased that they paid him $60. Later John McCready and Dan Morrison secured his services to work in their logging camps and for seven years he was thus employed. In 1876 he went to Salmon creek and found work with Dave Evans and Harvey Marks in the woods, remaining with that company until the firm dissolved in 1878. In 1871 he had homesteaded one hundred sixty acres of land where Wrangletown now stands, and had also purchased thirty-five acres of rich bottom land.

In 1872 trouble came upon Mr. McCready in the illness and death of his wife, who left two small children to be cared for. The expense of sickness and death had been very great and Mr. McCready was obliged to sell his property to clear off his debts ; then placing the children, William John and Margaret Ella (now Mrs. Montgomery), in the care of a family in town he continued in the employ of his brother. In 1876, as above stated, he worked on Salmon creek until the firm failed, then he went to Arcata and worked for James Gannon for four years, after which he purchased forty acres of land at West End, where he built his home, meantime being employed by Isaac Minor in the woods on Warren creek. He prospered in his undertakings, and soon was able to again purchase land, this time choosing a forty-acre tract along Mad river. The land was all unimproved and thickly covered with a heavy undergrowth which made travel across it impossible save in the beaten trails. There was no road up that side of the river and the only way to reach the homes located there was by fording the river or by boat. Mr. McCready moved onto this place March 24, 1883, and that same night heavy rains fell, rendering the river impassable until the first of June. It was several years before there was any other way of reaching Arcata, and as the Mad river was apt to be impassable much of the time during the winter the settlers in that section were often cut off from supplies for many months at a time, and so were obliged to lay in their winter supplies early.

For a few years after taking up his residence on this place Mr. McCready worked for Isaac Minor in the woods during the winter, and in the summer months cleared his land and brought it under cultivation. He purchased additional land from time to time and now owns two hundred forty-four acres, eighty of which is bottom land. The first summer he bought a few cows and engaged in dairying on a small scale, farming what land was then cleared. In 1886 he made a handsome profit on the farm and in the fall of 1887 he gave up working in the woods and thereafter devoted himself to the care and development of his own property. ''At present he has a herd of forty milch cows and makes a specialty of the dairy business. A number of years ago he built a new home about a quarter of a mile from the old place, and located on a bluff overlooking the river. Of late years he has retired from active life, and his sons are operating the farm. He owns a residence in Arcata, but has never made it his home.

The second marriage of Mr. McCready took place in Humboldt county November 8, 1879, uniting him with Phinattie Eliza Connick, a native of New Brunswick, born in Bailey, Charlotte county, May 24, 1857. She came to California with her parents in April, 1876, and has since resided in Humboldt county. She has borne her husband nine children, three daughters and six sons. They are : James Melvin, David Clifton, Fred Herbert, Jennie May (Mrs. Baumgartner), George Connick, Ray Grant, Laura Gertrude, Leslie Paul and Lola Pauline, the last two being twins. All the children are living at this time and all are well and favorably known in Humboldt county, where they were born, and where they have received their education and grown to manhood and womanhood.

Mr. McCready is proud of the record that he has made in his many years of active service. He has never been discharged from any position, and could always return to a former employer and receive employment at any time. He is industrious and earnest in all matters that he undertakes and is a good neighbor and a true friend. He has never been active in public matters, having always been exceedingly busy with his personal affairs, but he is well informed and progressive in his ideas, and wide awake to anything that tends for the betterment of local conditions. He is a member of Humboldt Lodge No. 77, I. 0. 0. F., at Eureka, and has been a member of the order for more than forty years. He is also a Veteran Odd Fellow and a member of the Rebekahs. He declares that this is the only place in which he cares to live, and is certain there is no other place that can compare with it.

JAMES BAIRD HILL.—Among Humboldt county's native-born sons is James Baird Hill, who has been a successful dairyman and farmer most of his life. Born in Bald Hill, Humboldt county, March 8, 1862, he attended the public schools of the district until fifteen years of age, when he first engaged in farming with his father. Neal Hill was born in County Antrim, Ireland ; attended the schools of the county and then decided to come to America. After spending some time in New York City and Philadelphia he came to California via the Isthmus of Panama, about the year 1851, coming direct to Humboldt county and there he engaged in mining for a number of years on the Salmon river ; later he took up a range and engaged in stock-raising at Bald Hill, supplying the miners with beef. About this time the Indians became troublesome, so he took his family to Arcata, he going to Idaho to mine for himself and later to Montana. He returned to Humboldt county in 1865 and again went to the mines in Montana, remaining eight years ; on his return he purchased the home place where he engaged in farming, and serving as a supervisor of the county. He later engaged in the dairy business till he retired, living in Alliance until he died. His wife, Nancy Baird, was born in County Antrim, and now makes her home in Arcata. The son, James Baird, was raised in Arcata and educated in the public schools. When he was fifteen they moved onto the farm, James working for his father, and later they farmed in partnership for about three years, after which he started for himself, renting the Nixon ranch and engaging in farming, which occupation he successfully followed for seven years. He then purchased forty acres of unimproved land and started to clear the land, this taking him four years, but notwithstanding the nature of the land he started dairying on a small scale, having only five cows at the time. It was not long before he had increased his herd to thirty head of finely graded stock. Then he entered into the creamery business and two years after he purchased the home place. Creamery No. 1, of the United Creameries Company, was built, and he was given the contract for hauling all the butter from this branch for six years. He is now engaged in the dairy business and farming, and has been very successful, sparing no expense in making his farm the finest in the vicinity. He also leases twenty-five to forty acres of land on which he raises grain, hay and feed. He is a stockholder in the United Creameries Company, and is also a stockholder in the Savings Bank of Arcata. He is a charter member of the Arcata Parlor No. 20, N. S. G. W., and a stanch Progressive politically, fostering all movements for the good of the community, but has never sought any office. He is a Presbyterian in religion. Mr. Hill is a man who has labored untiringly and unceasingly, and his ranch today is a monument to his industry and perseverance, his success only coming after years of hard work and diligence.

ISAAC ABNER BEERS.—An eventful life has been the portion of Mr. Beers, who was horn in Tompkins County, New York, February 23, 1839, and here he attended the public schools of the district and graduated from them. Taking the teachers' examinations and successfully passing them, he began teaching when only nineteen years old. He was desirous of entering college and, to obtain the necessary funds, he taught in the district schools, his first one being in Bradford county, Pennsylvania. He retired after his first term there, and returning to Tompkins county, taught the next two terms in his home district. Having saved enough money to enter the academy at Ithaca, the county seat, he enrolled, but war being declared in 1861 he returned home and prepared to offer his services in the cause. In 1862 he enlisted in Company K of the One Hundred and Thirty-seventh New York Infantry, and served until the close of the war. The battles in which he participated saw him well to the front where the bullets were flying thick and fast, and some of the battles in which he took an active part were Chancellorsville, under Hooker ; the Battle of Gettysburg, under General Meade ; the Battle of Lookout Mountain, and the battles on the march through Georgia to Atlanta, having been promoted to commissary of the regiment, and served as such during the historic Sherman's March to the Sea ; he continued in service till the close of the war, taking part in the Grand Review in Washington, and being mustered out at Bladensburg, Md., in June, 1865. He is the only man living in Humboldt county today who has a medal for serving in the Battle of Gettysburg, and this is one of his cherished possessions.

After being mustered out he returned to New York, where he engaged in lumbering for one year and then moved to Galesburg, Illinois, where he resumed his teaching and later engaged in the lumber business. While in Galesburg he married Anna L. Woodward and in the spring of 1869 they moved to Carroll county, Iowa, where he engaged in farming. While residing in Carroll county he was elected county superintendent of schools, which office he held for two years. In 1877 he came to California and located in Arcata, Humboldt county, where he engaged in the carpenter's trade. He contracted for the building of houses in Arcata for a number of years and in 1882 he took charge of a general merchandise store on the Klamath river at Orleans Bar, which business he successfully managed for two years. He returned to Arcata in 1884 and again entered the contracting business, and this he followed for the next six years. In 1890 he was appointed United States Indian agent at Hoopa by President Harrison, and here he remained for three years, creditably performing the manifold duties of his position. In the fall of 1888 he was elected Justice of the Peace of Arcata, but resigned the office to accept the position of United States Indian agent. After his return from the agency he was again elected Justice of the Peace in 1894, and has been re-elected every four years since that time. For sixteen years he has been notary public and is the present City Recorder of Arcata, having served since 1894, so that for the past few years he has devoted his entire time and energies to his various public offices.

Mr. Beers is a member of Colonel Whipple Post No. 49, G. A. R., and is an ardent Republican, having cast his first vote for Abraham Lincoln. His marriage occurred September 15, 1868, in Galesburg, Ill., to Anna L. Woodward, a native of Medina county, Ohio. Mr. Beers was bereaved of his wife, October 7, 1914; she was a devout member of the Presbyterian Church, in the fellowship of which her husband still continues. Mr. Beers has been distinguished for his enterprise, and since coming to Humboldt county has entered actively into all public movements that have tended to upbuild the community.

ELLIS HUNTER.—One of the notably successful young business men of Petrolia is Ellis Hunter, a member of a family well known in this region, and of unusual mental and bodily vigor. He is a son of Elias Hunter and grandson of Walker Sanders Hunter, the latter one of the earliest settlers around Petrolia and in his prime a prominent merchant and large landowner. The earlier generations of the family are fully mentioned elsewhere.
The eldest of a family of twelve children, Ellis Hunter was born June 19, 1876, at Petrolia, where he grew to manhood. He had the ordinary public school education and started work at the age of fourteen, being employed by the month on a ranch. For the six years preceding his marriage—from the time he was eighteen until he was twenty-four—he worked on the dairy ranch of one man, James Giacomini. During the several years following he was variously employed, for two years as a buttermaker with the Kinstra Company, of Seattle, wholesale dealers in butter, eggs and cheese. Returning to Petrolia he engaged in the hotel business, renting the Walsh ranch with hotel on it, and besides running the hotel he began agricultural operations on his own account, in time buying that place and then a little later the Gouthier ranch, a tract of four hundred forty acres. The Walsh property contains one hundred thirty acres in Petrolia and he owns and conducts the Petrolia Hotel located thereon, which he has enlarged and modernized. The house was originally one and a half stories high, and he has raised it and made a full two-story building, having an eighteen-room hotel, which under the able management of himself and wife has become one of the most popular hostelries in Humboldt county. Its table has the reputation of being unrivaled in this section—a well deserved tribute to Mrs. Hunter's superb cooking and due also to the advantage of having the best supplies always at hand. Fruits and vegetables of the finest quality are raised on the ranch, where Mr. Hunter keeps six cows to furnish milk, cream and butter for the hotel especially, and the large patronage from the tourist and automobile trade shows how far the fame of the good things so plentifully provided here has been carried. The hotel is equally noted for its cleanliness and good cheer, and its popularity is due in great measure to Mrs. Hunter, who deserves great credit for the assistance she has given her husband. Some eight years ago Mr. Hunter bought the livery barn at Petrolia, which he has since conducted, his father looking after affairs there. His larger ranch is located four miles northeast of Petrolia on Conklin creek, a branch of which stream flows into the Mattole river above Petrolia. There he raises beef cattle. He owns all his property clear, and no business man in the town commands more respect or good will among his fellows than Ellis Hunter. He is a Republican in his political views, but not an aspirant to office, though he has served as a member of the Board of School Trustees.

In Seattle, Wash., Mr. Hunter married Miss Martha Wright, a daughter of Marshall and Martha (Rudolph) Wright, pioneer farmers of Mattole. Mrs. Hunter was born in Petrolia. Mr. and Mrs. Hunter have two children: Warren Ellis and Mayme Myrtle. Mrs. Hunter is a member of the Seventh Day Adventist church.

IRVIN H. DREWRY.—A stopping place in high favor with automobilists who frequent the road between Willits, Mendocino county, and Eureka, in Humboldt county, is the East View hotel. It is located on the Drewry ranch in southern Humboldt county, about one and one-half miles south of Harris, on the main line of travel in that region. The hotel and ranch are owned and operated by Irvin H. Drewry and his sister, Miss Sarah E. Drewry, and though they took possession at a recent date the popularity of the resort is already widespread. These young people have undertaken considerable in their present venture, but they have made a beginning which promises well. Mr. Drewry has the principal care of the ranch, and he has already made a reputation as a stockman, cattle buyer and drover. With the Drewrys resides their maternal grandmother, Mrs. Sarah F. Williams, by whom they were reared, and who has been in California since 1852, having been brought to the state when three years old.

John P. Drewry, father of Irvin H. and Sarah E. Drewry, is a large landowner in the same vicinity, having a ranch of fifteen hundred acres lying in Humboldt and Mendocino counties, which he rents at present, however, to Ed. Smith, of Ukiah. He is now engaged as a captain of the guard at the Folsom City (Cal.) penitentiary. His first wife, whose maiden name was Mary E. Williams, died when her two children were very young, Sarah but eighteen months old, Irvin eleven days. Mr. Drewry remarried, and by his second union, to Airs. Sarah Jane (Yeates) Hepburn, has one child, Carl Perry, now (1914) thirteen years old. Irvin H. and Sarah E. Drewry were born in Mendocino county, and as their mother died so young they were reared by their maternal grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. James H. Williams, on their Leggett valley ranch, situated on the south fork of the Eel river, about twenty miles due east of Rockport. They have had public school training, and have continued to hold their interests in common, working together most satisfactorily. They made their first business venture in 1910, when they began by keeping a lodging house and store in Ukiah. As it proved a success they undertook more, renting a half interest in the McKinney ranch (a tract of nine hundred and sixty acres), which they operated for two years. There they became quite extensively interested in cattle, keeping about one hundred head, as well as a hundred hogs. It was there also that they had their first experience in the conduct of a summer resort, the Hunter's Home on that property doing well under their management. In December, 1913, they purchased the East View ranch and summer resort from Olive E. Snooks—five hundred and twenty acres of land and the hotel located on the highway as above related. After investing all their capital in this property these courageous young people still have an immediate future full of busy promise. But they are cheerful, capable workers, and have every prospect of carrying their enterprise along successfully. The hotel is a comfortable and restful resort, and its guests partake of the best ranch products, fruits, vegetables, milk, cream and eggs noted for their high quality and freshness, and cooked and served under the efficient supervision of Miss Drewry, whose culinary skill has already become known to the patrons. Her competent oversight of all the details necessary to the comfort of guests contributes much to their health as well as pleasure, and the wholesome restfulness of the place is one of its greatest attractions. The patrons are principally automobilists.

As a ranchman Irvin H. Drewry is progressing notably. He has profited well by his varied experience in the stock business, and is regarded as an exceptionally good judge of cattle and hogs, his own success being substantial evidence of his all-around knowledge in this particular line. He is a very tall man—six feet, six inches in height. His industry and good ideas on ranch management have even in the brief time he has had his present property become apparent, and his ambitions for its development along the most approved lines have already commenced to be realized. There is a good home orchard and vegetable garden on the property, providing abundant supplies for the table. Mrs. Williams retains all her interest in the welfare of her grandchildren, willingly advising and assisting in the conduct of their affairs, and they thoroughly appreciate the substantial aid she has extended to help them take advantage of their opportunities in their present enterprise. With the family an old friend, Mr. Mitchell, has made his home for many years, and he has been most solicitous in encouraging Mr. Drewry and his sister in their attempts to make a success of their work. Mr. Drewry is a Progressive in his political s3sInpathies.

FRANK DEUEL.—That the romance of early California was not confined to either the days of Spanish and Mexican dominion, or to the life of the gold seekers, is amply shown in the experiences of such early pioneer families as that of Frank Deuel and his forebears. Mr. Deuel himself was born in Forest Hill, Placer county, December 6, 1855. From there his parents came to Humboldt county in 1859 and located at Trinidad. Later they located on the peninsula above what is now Samoa, but the Indians became troublesome and they moved into Eureka. Here the lad attended school for several years, until the family removed to Arcata, where he finished his education in the public schools. Conditions were of course exceedingly primitive, and by the time he was eighteen years of age he had gone as far as the local schools could take him, and he then went to work on the ranch with his father.
Mr. Deuel's first independent business venture of magnitude occurred in 1877, when in partnership with John Seely he purchased one hundred twenty acres of land in Arcata bottom. The following year they divided the ranch, each taking sixty acres. Here Mr. Deuel engaged in farming and dairying for a number of years, greatly improving the place in the meantime. In 1906 he retired from active business, leased the home place, and moved into Eureka to live. Life in the city, however, did not satisfy the man who had all his life lived in the great open places next to nature and loved them, and after a few years he returned to make his home on his farm, where he is residing at present.
During his lifetime Mr. Deuel has seen Humboldt county transformed from a wilderness into a land of beautiful farms and handsome homes, with all the attendant struggle and heartache, triumph, failure and success that ever attend periods of transformation. He has himself been a more than ordinarily successful farmer, and his sterling qualities of heart and mind have won for him a wide circle of sincere friends. In politics he is a Republican and has served his party in various capacities, several times being a delegate to conventions. He has always taken an active interest in all matters of local public welfare, and for twenty-five years has served as school trustee in his home district. He is also keenly interested in fraternal organizations and is a prominent member of the Knights of Pythias and of the Native Sons.

The marriage of Mr. Deuel to Caroline Goble occurred April 14, 1883, near Bayside, Humboldt county. Mrs. Deuel is a native of Springfield, Ill., born February 9, 1856, the daughter of Abraham and Mary (Griffith) Goble, natives of Kentucky and Indiana respectively. The marriage of the parents occurred in Illinois, where Mr. Goble carried on farming until he came to California. Mrs. Deuel crossed the plains with her parents in 1862 with horse teams, settlement being made in Humboldt county. Later the parents crossed the plains twice, on both occasions Mr. Goble acting as captain of the train, and each time returning to make his home in Humboldt county. On both of these trips their daughter accompanied them. Mr. and Mrs. Deuel are the parents of three sons, as follows : Frank, Jr., a machinist residing in Arcata ; John Seely, making his home with his parents ; and Guy Richard, employed with the North-Western Pacific Railroad and residing in Eureka.

While the setting for the life story of Mr. Deuel is full of romance, it is but the closing chapter to the story which his father, Edmund Perry Deuel, commenced many years before. The father was born in Tompkins county, N. Y., October 30, 1823, and at an early age moved with his parents to Jackson county, Mich., where his father engaged in farming. Later the family moved to a farm in Saginaw county. Edmund lived at home, helping with the farm work until he was quite a lad, when he went to work as a woodsman, at which occupation he continued until he came to California. The first start was made with a six-horse team across the plains ; but in attempting to overtake an outfit ahead, Mr. Deuel drove his horses so hard that they became exhausted and sick and he was forced to sell his outfit and return to New York. The next tiMe he started it was by water via the Panama route, and during the winter of 1851-52 he reached San Francisco, then the land of promise. Failing to find the desired conditions in San Francisco, he went on to Sacramento, where he contracted for teaming and freighting from that city to Forest Hill. This was a profitable line of work and he followed it until he came to Humboldt county in 1859. The trip up the coast to Trinidad was made on the steamer Columbia. At Trinidad he again engaged in teaming and freighting, using an ox-team for much of his work in the woods. Soon afterwards .he engaged in the wood business on Humboldt bay. In 1869 he purchased the old Cochran place of one hundred sixty acres, all unimproved land located in Arcata bottom. It required several years of hard work to clear the land of brush and timber before he was able to engage in farming. In 1877 he sold the home place and moved to Washington territory, locating on a farm in Whatcom county. Edmund Deuel lived only a year after going to the new home, dying in October, 1878. His wife, the mother of Frank Deuel, was Marguerite Sherman. She was born at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., April 29, 1825, and their marriage took place when the bride was but seventeen, in Jackson county, Mich., December 23, 1842. Three children were born to them. Mrs. Edmund Deuel spent her last days with her children and died near Arcata when seventy-eight years of age.


JAMES H. WILLIAMS was a native of Kentucky, a "forty-niner," and a pioneer settler in northern Mendocino county, where he lived for almost forty-five years. His first removal westward from the state of his birth was to Missouri, whence he came out to California in 1849, making the journey across the plains with ox-teams. He mined at Placerville, and in Butte and Plumas counties. After his marriage he continued to live in Plumas county for a few years, carrying on a dairy, and in 1869 moved over to Mendocino county, where he bought the Leggett valley ranch, purchasing the rights of three different squatters to obtain the land he desired. His active disposition and nobility of character made him a most desirable citizen from every standpoint. He had the energy and ambition to improve his property and assist in the opening up of his section to civilization, and his many fine traits encouraged the proper kind of citizenship, the example he set influencing many to public-spirited efforts in behalf of the community as well as to enterprise in the management of their own affairs. His death occurred January 20, 1914, at Garberville, Humboldt county, when he was eighty-six years of age. To his union with Miss Sarah F. Rucker eight children were born who attained maturity. Cedelia is the wife of S. F. Webber ; Jehiel is a guard at the San Quentin prison ; Mary E. was the wife of John P. Drewry ; William was drowned when fifteen years old; John is a resident of Salida, Cal.; Annie is the wife of R. E. Roach, of Cummings, Mendocino county ; James lives with his mother ; Lawrence was accidentally killed; on the railroad, at Fort Bragg, when twenty-one years old.

Mrs. Sarah F. Williams, widow of James H. Williams, is a woman of forceful character and interesting personality. Her experiences in California in pioneer days were many and varied, developing a fearless, capable disposition which made her a most valuable helpmate to her husband. Her sympathetic consideration for others, fortitude and reliability have won her the affectionate esteem of her neighbors and friends everywhere, and her devotion to her family has never abated. Mrs. Williams was born in Illinois, in Hancock county, daughter of Ben and Sarah (George) Rucker, the former a native of Indiana, where they were married. Of the thirteen children born to them six died before the family removed to California, the parents and seven children crossing the plains in 1852, with ox-teams. The journey from Illinois took six months. They settled at Bidwell's Bar, in Butte county, where Mr. Rucker engaged in mining for a number of years. The mother subsequently removed to Plumas county. Mrs. Williams was but three years old when the family made the journey to California, and when sixteen she became the wife of James H. Williams.

CHARLES ALFRED LARSON.—From the age of twenty years Mr. Larson has made his home in the United States, and throughout all of this period he has been identified with Northern California, his original destination in 1887 having been San Francisco and his first employment that of a laborer in a manufacturing plant at Oakland. Born in Westergothland, Sweden, July 16, 1867, he was reared on a farm and had no educational advantages except such as a neighboring school afforded. During 1888 he came to Eureka, a stalwart young man of twenty-one, industrious and capable, and ready to engage in any business that offered an honest livelihood. For two years he worked in the John Vance mill on G street, after which he engaged as a stevedore along the water front for a number of years. Meanwhile he was eagerly awaiting any opportunity for more important activities and thus it came about that finally in 1902 he was in a position to embark in general merchandising. The opening of the Eureka Co-operative Mercantile Company's store, at No. 1900 California street, marked an important epoch in his life, for since then, as president and manager of the company, he has risen to rank among the leading merchants of the city and county.
Solely through his own capable efforts and through his evident adaptability to the happy solution of mercantile problems, Mr. Larson has met with recognized success and has seen his business develop with such rapidity as to justify the establishment of a second store, where he has his headquarters. The new store at No. 2100 California street is large and well stocked, carrying a general line of merchandise, hardware, dry goods, shoes and similar accessories, in addition to having a department for the sale of hay and grain. In connection he built and is operating a large bakery, which supplies bakery goods for his own stores, as well as enabling him to fill orders for other stores in Eureka. The successful business man of today is the ripened product of the Swedish emigrant of 1887, ambitious to find a home in the new world, energetic and industrious, and never content to do less than his best in even the humblest task. He is a member of the Retail Grocers' Association of California and takes an active part in the Eureka local of the same, and served as delegate to the state convention at Del Monte in October, 1914. 'With all of his engrossing business claims he has found time for participation in the Scandinavian Brotherhood, Fortuna Lodge No. 212, I. 0. 0. F.; North Star Lodge No. 39, K. P., at Arcata, and Hoopa Tribe, I. 0. R. M. He was made a Mason in Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., and is a member of Eureka Chapter No. 52, R. A. M., and Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T. With his wife and family he is a member of the Swedish Lutheran Church, of which he is president of the board of trustees. By his marriage to Emma Anderson, a native of Sweden, he has six children, all of whom were born in Humboldt county, namely : Verona, Esther, Oscar, Alfred, Selma and Edwin.

JACOB RASMUSSEN.—Closely associated with the farming community of Humboldt county there will be found a generous sprinkling of Danes and others from the northern district of Europe. Mr. Rasmussen is a native of Denmark, having been born near the village of Rudkiiibing, on the island of Langeland, December 6, 1845. He is the son of Rasmus Christensen, also a native cif Denmark and a man who devoted practically his whole life to farming, owning a small farm in Denmark and on the homeplace he died in 1854. Jacob Rasmussen received his earlier education in the schools of the old country, but wishing to better his condition he decided to come to America and landed in New York in 1868, being absolutely without a friend or relative in the new country. He did not remain long in New York, however, but moved to Iowa, where, in Woodbury county, he found employment in a pottery, remaining there for twenty months.

Coming to California in 1870, Mr. Rasmussen located in Marin county, where he obtained employment on dairy farms. Hearing of the great opportunities for a young energetic man in Humboldt county he took a trip to look over the field, but in the fall of 1873 he returned to Marin county, where on October 7 of that year he was married to Christine Nissen, a native of Tondern, Slesvig, Germany. She had come to California in 1871. After his marriage Mr. Rasmussen once more came to Humboldt county locating on Bear river ridge, and here he formed a partnership with his brothers-in-law, N. C. and E. P. Nissen, for the purpose of renting the Mountain Glenn ranch of six hundred acres of improved land. Here they engaged in dairying with one hundred fifty cows, making their own butter, which they shipped direct to the San Francisco markets, hauling it about sixteen miles to Hookton on South bay and shipping by water from there. The lease of the ranch expiring in two years, Mr. Rasmussen purchased what is now his home place of one hundred thirty-seven acres three miles west of Ferndale, later purchasing eighty acres additional adjoining the original property. At the time of purchase only fifteen acres of the ranch were improved, the rest being covered with a thick growth of brush and timber. At first he engaged in dairying on a small scale, but as he cleared and improved the land, he enlarged his business. He was the first man to engage in dairying in the Eel river valley, successfully following the business for a number of years, but during the last few years he has lived retired from all active affairs to enjoy the rest he has so justly earned. He was interested for a time in the Chapin, Peterson & Rasmussen Company, engaged in general merchandising in the Odd Fellows building in Ferndale, but because of carrying too many accounts which proved to be worthless it was not a success and he sold out and dissolved partnership. He was also a stockholder in the Ferndale electric light plant, but he later sold his interest to Mr. Barnes. At the present time he is a stockholder in the Bank of Ferndale and has been a director in the bank since its organization. His son, Frank N., is cashier of this bank. Mr. Rasmussen was one of the organizers of the Humboldt County Fire Insurance Association, of which he has been treasurer from its inception. The company was started about twenty years ago and has grown steadily, and now has over one million dollars of insured buildings among the farmers of Humboldt county at a very nominal rate of insurance, thus creating a great saving for the people of the county. Mr. Rasmussen was made a Mason in Ferndale Lodge No. 193, F. & A. M., in 1875, is a member of Ferndale Chapter No. 78, R. A. M., of Ferndale Lodge No. 220, I. 0. 0. F., and with his wife is a member of the Eastern Star and the Rebekahs. Mr. and Mrs. Rasmussen have four children : Frank M. ; Jennie, Mrs. L. C. Erickson, of Centerville ; Roland T., a draughtsman in Oakland ; and Dora J., who resides at home. Mr. Rasmussen is one of the most prominent men in the section and is a thrifty, industrious farmer, one who is surrounded by a large circle of admiring friends. He has always taken an active part in all matters pertaining to the upbuilding and uplifting of the community.

JOSEPH J. WEISS.—The Hurlbutt Market, on Fifth street, Eureka, conducted by the firm of Weiss & Baumgartner, is one of the most up-to-date provision houses in the city, and the sanitary, neatly kept establishment has set a high standard for merchants to follow in its modern equipment, convenience of arrangement and facilities for prompt service. Mr. Weiss has been a resident of Eureka for more than a quarter of a century, and from the time of his arrival here until he bought out the business was in the employ of L. S. Hurlbutt, the former proprietor. He is a native of Cincinnati, Ohio, and of German extraction, his father, Joseph Weiss, having been born in Germany, whence he came to this country when twelve years old, living in Ohio from that time until he came to California. He learned the butcher's trade in Cincinnati and afterward conducted a meat market there for a number of years. Now he is a resident of Eureka, and, though seventy-five years of age, is actively assisting his son at the Hurlbutt Market.

Joseph J. Weiss was born September 18, 1864, and was reared and educated at Cincinnati, living there until he attained his majority. Then he came to California, in the year 1885, first locating at San Diego, where he found employment in a butchering establishment. After a year in that city he came to San Francisco, where he worked in a meat market for about two years, in 1888 arriving at Eureka, which has since been his home. Entering the employ of L. S. Hurlbutt, he remained with him until he took over the business on his own account in 1900, buying out the Hurlbutt Market, which name he has since retained. He has a partner in the ownership and conduct of the establishment, Fred Baumgartner ; they do business under the firm name of Weiss & Baumgartner, and their enterprise has attracted a large trade, which systematic methods and accommodating service have not failed to hold. They have a large trade in fresh and pickled meats, sausages, butter and eggs, and put up large quantities of bacon and lard, doing their own slaughtering ; the slaughter house is located on Elk river, about five miles south of the city. In 1914 they erected, at Nos. 312 and 314 Fifth street, the substantial and finely appointed business building which they now occupy, commodious and specially arranged for the needs of the business. It is a one-story structure, 30x70 feet in dimensions, of concrete, and strictly sanitary in every respect, easily kept clean and carefully looked after. A large share of the success which the firm has enjoyed may justly be attributed to Mr. Weiss, whose long experience and thorough familiarity with the ins and outs of the local trade have been most valuable. Progressive and energetic, he has not only demonstrated the proper spirit in the conduct of his business, but has proved himself equally wide-awake in matters affecting the welfare of his adopted city, where he is held in high esteem by a wide acquaintance.

Mr. Weiss was married at San Francisco, in 1890, to Miss Laura Brandt, of that city, and they are the parents of two children: Joseph C., who is employed at the Hurlbutt Market ; and Olive, who is now engaged in teaching in the Eureka Business College. With his family Mr. Weiss resides at his well-kept home, No. 918 J street, where he and his wife entertain their many friends, and their. hospitality and good will are appreciated by all. Mr. Weiss was made a Mason in Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., of which he is past master. He is a member of Humboldt Chapter No. 52, R. A. M.; is past eminent commander of Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T., and also a member of Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., San Francisco, and a charter member of Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. He is progressive and enterprising and very optimistic for Eureka's greatness and is ever ready to give of his influence, time and means toward its upbuilding commercially, socially and morally.

CHARLES CLIFFORD FALK, M. D., F. A. C. S.—Born in Hancock county, Ohio, November 17, 1872, Dr. Falk was brought to Humboldt county, Cal., by his parents at six years of age. He inherited his mechanical ability from his people, who were skilled machinists, blacksmiths, millwrights and carpenters ; and during vacations he worked at these various trades, in which he was proficient at an early age. Completing his education in the public schools of Eureka, the higher branches were taken up at Phelps Academy, and at the age of twenty-one he entered the Cooper Medical College in San Francisco, receiving the degree of M. D. in 1897. For four years he served as county physician ; one year as county health officer, and two years as a member of the city board of health. In this capacity he was instrumental in securing the passage of ordinances requiring inspection of meats, slaughter houses, meat and fruit markets, restaurants, hotels, etc.

Recognizing the advantage of air, light, heat and sanitation as important aids to nature in the cure of disease and injury, Dr. Falk spent several months in careful study of the construction of various institutions in the larger Eastern cities, and in 1910 he perfected plans for one of the most modern hospitals in the West. In the Northern California Hospital means for ventilation, sanitation, light and heat are incorporated to the highest degree known. By the natural ventilating system the required three thousand cubic feet of fresh air are changed three times in one hour ; this being accomplished with an air current of less than three linear feet per second, without what is known and recognized as a draught. In addition, the lower strata of air containing the contaminating organisms are removed by means of an outlet in the form of a steel flue located near the floor. This method of ventilation originated, so far as is known, with Dr. Falk and his father, E. H. Falk. The result is so perfect that it has attracted wide attention, and is believed will play an important part in improved systems of ventilation in future.

Along the line of his profession Dr. Falk is a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons ; is associated with the Humboldt County, California State and American Medical Associations, while fraternally he is a charter member of the Eureka Lodge, B. P. 0. E.

THOMAS W. SWEASEY.—One of the oldest, if not the oldest living pioneer in Humboldt county, is Thomas W. Sweasey, prominent business man of Eureka, where he has made his home for many years. Although now well past eighty-two years of age he is hearty and robust of health, and his intellect is as bright as in the days of his prime, when he was proving such a factor in the development of his county and state. He is a man of great force of character and has accomplished many things of importance and has accumulated a large fortune by his endeavors. He has suffered severe reverses at times, through the loss of valuable timber lands and also in mining ventures in Alaska, but has always recouped himself and continued, with splendid success in the end. He has had many exceptional pioneer experiences and his tales of the early days read like a romance. He and his father and family blazed the trail, cut the brush and trees, and brought the first wagon to Eureka that ever came overland, all those before having been shipped in by steamships. He also established and ran the celebrated overland stage from Eureka to Ukiah, carrying the mail for more than twenty years, and was also one of the pioneer hotel keepers of Hydesville. He is noted throughout the county for his integrity of character, as well as for the active part that he has taken in all the affairs of the city and county for so many years. He is now the manager of the Fashion livery barn, owned by Richard Sweasey & Co. (Richard Sweasey being his brother), and is part owner of the Fashion stable, corner of Fourth and G streets, besides owning other valuable property in and near Eureka.

Mr. Sweasey was born in London, England, July 6, 1832, the son of William J. and Anna (Crouchey) Sweasey, both natives of England. When he was but four years of age his parents came to America, settling at Harmony, Posey county, Ind., where the father engaged in farming. The family at this time consisted of three children, three others having been born in America. They were : Margaret, later Mrs. James Henderson, of Sacramento, who died about a year ago ; Esther, now the widow of Henry Axton, residing in Eureka ; Thomas W., the subject of this sketch ; Louisa, Mrs. Powers, of Fresno, now deceased; Anna, Mrs. Gillette, of Stockton, now deceased; and Richard, one of the most prominent men of the county and also one of the wealthiest, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this edition.

It was in the fall of 1849 that the family left their home in Indiana for the long journey across the plains to California. They came as far as the Missouri river, wintering near St. Joe, Mo., and early the next spring continued on their way. There was a train of ten wagons, with three yokes of oxen to each, and much loose stock, including cows and horses. The father was the captain of the train, and practically its owner. They wintered that year on the Calaveras river, and the following spring moved near San Francisco, where the father took up government land and engaged in farming. In 1854 he came to Eureka and engaged in the general merchandise business, and also for a time farmed on the O'Neil river. He built the steamboat Humboldt in partnership with his son Richard, who still owns the vessel, which is running from Seattle to Skaguay. The opening of an overland trail for wagons from the "outside" into Eureka marked an important step in the history of the county, giving a new means of travel. Over this trail the Sweaseys, father and sons, brought six of the wagons that they had brought from Indiana, about three hundred head of cattle and fifty horses. They crossed the Sacramento river at Benicia, where were then the only white settlers on the trail into the Eel river valley. This road is still traveled.

The farm on which the elder Sweasey located his family was on the Eel river, near the present site of Hydesville, and here they resided for a number of years. When the father and the son Richard went to Eureka and engaged in the merchandising business, Thomas W. remained in charge of the ranch, conducting it with much success for a long time. He established, in addition, a stage line from Eureka to Hydesville, later extended it to Blocksburg, and at a yet later date extended it through to Ukiah, this being the famous overland stage, which for twenty years carried the mail between Eureka and Ukiah under his management.

The marriage of Thomas W. took place in 1853, uniting him to Miss Sarah Davis, of Redwood City, San Mateo county, Cal., the daughter of a well-known pioneer family of the state. Mrs. Sweasey bore her husband four children, all natives of Eureka, and well and favorably known throughout the county. They are : Elizabeth, now Mrs. S. F. Bullard, of San Jose ; William, married to Catherine Forse, and living at Rohnerville ; Ellen, now Mrs. Foss, residing at Samoa ; and Daisy, now Mrs. Nelson, residing at Hydesville.

From 1897 to 1900 Mr. Sweasey was engaged in gold mining in Alaska, being located at Dawson. He made his way over the Chilcoot Pass, packing his grub over the mountains ; he built a scow from lumber he had whipsawed and went down the Yukon to Dawson. He was fairly successful in his ventures, but failed to find the wealth that he had so ardently hoped to locate there. For the past eleven years he has been in the livery business in Eureka, and in this line has been especially successful. In addition to his business ability Mr. Sweasey is popular with many friends throughout the county.

He is a stanch Democrat, and although he has never been actively engaged in the politics of his party he is well informed and takes an influential part in all questions of public interest, especially when they are local issues that affect the welfare of the community. He is also well known in fraternal circles, and is a prominent member of the Masons, having united with that order when he was a young man.

The boyhood days of Mr. Sweasey did not afford him much in the way Of educational advantages. He was nineteen when the family came to California, but Indiana was also a frontier country at that time, and the schools were few and inferior. He received most of his training from his mother, and attended school but four months in his entire lifetime. The mother died in Indiana, and after coming to California there was no further opportunity for educational pursuits. In spite of this handicap, however, Mr. Sweasey has done his full share in the development of his section of the state, and is well informed on all questions of the day. The standing of the family has always been high, and he has done much to keep it so. The county bears many marks of his industry and application, and he is esteemed as one of the leading citizens of Eureka and Humboldt county.

GEORGE W. WATSON.—It would be difficult to mention any important progressive movement of permanent value to the industrial, commercial or educational advancement of Eureka that has not received, at some period in its development, the practical co-operation of George W. Watson, who as president of the Eureka Foundry Company, part owner of the American Shoe Company and a leading member of the local group of realty men, has contributed variously but effectively and efficiently to civic growth. Nature adapted him for commercial pursuits, thorough apprenticeship prepared him for industrialism, habits of close observation fitted him for skilled work, while the possession of keen mental faculties enabled him to develop his varied talents not only to his personal advantage, but also in the interests of the community. Through long residence in Eureka and close, continuous study of property conditions, he is an expert judge of values and exceptionally well qualified to handle real estate deals with intelligence and discretion.

Although a native of Scranton, Pa., Mr. Watson passed his early life mostly on a farm near Flemington, N. J. At the age of eighteen he went to Boone, Iowa, where he became an apprentice as a machinist and remained until he had mastered the trade. Upon returning east he secured employment in his native city of Scranton, where he worked as a machinist in the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western and Lehigh Valley Railroad shops, also in the shops of the Dixon Manufacturing Company, large locomotive works. The year 1889 found him in California, where he settled at once in Eureka. Working as a machinist successively for the Humboldt Iron Works, the Vance mill and the old Excelsior mill, he finally bought the Humboldt Iron Works, which he operated for ten years and then sold it to the Eureka Foundry Company. After a service of four years as chief engineer for the Eureka Lighting Company he bought an interest in the California Iron Works of Eureka and served as president of the company operating the plant. Upon the consolidation of the concern with the Eureka Foundry Company he became president, which position he still holds. Under his oversight a large business has been developed that gives steady employment to a number of skilled men. In addition to the presidency of the foundry company, he with a brother, John G. Watson, conducts the American shoe store at No. 313 F street, Eureka, and he also maintains a real estate and insurance office in the store.

The marriage of Mr. Watson in Eureka in 1890 united him with Miss, Millie Langford, a native of Scranton, Pa. They are the parents of three children, all born in Humboldt county, namely : Eunice J., who has received an excellent education and at present is engaged in teaching school ; Charles, a graduate of the California State Agricultural College at Davis ; and Allan, attending the University of California. The family hold membership with the Methodist Episcopal Church of Eureka, in the maintenance and support of which Mr. Watson is a leader, as he is also in the local temperance movement  and other measures that he believes to be for the permanent religious, moral or general welfare of city and county. The Independent Order of Odd Fellows is the only fraternal organization with which he holds membership, being a member of Humboldt Lodge No. 77, I. 0. 0. F. Active in the associations for exploiting the natural advantages of Humboldt county, he is a member of the Eureka Development Association and the Eureka Chamber of Commerce. Direct in his dealings with his fellowmen, optimistic concerning the future of this section of the state and glad to be a part of the forward work of development, his long life in Humboldt county furnishes an example of stanch fidelity to the duties of citizenship and a growing community spirit of mutual helpfulness.

GEORGE WILLIAM SWEET.—Among the prosperous men in the Eel river section of Humboldt county is G. W. Sweet, who was born in Hants county, Nova Scotia, November 8, 1840, the son of John Sweet, also a native of Nova Scotia and a very successful farmer all his life. Mr. Sweet received his education in the public schools of his native county until thirteen years of age, when he left school to enter the ship yards of the vicinity, taking up the trade of ship carpenter. He did not serve an apprenticeship, but entered at once into the activity of carpenter and at this trade he worked for eleven years. He was steadily employed by one company for seven years, by the Church-Hill Company for two years and the remaining two years for other companies in the district. At one time he was carpenter on the barque Gazelle, but gave this position up to come to California.

In 1869 Mr. Sweet came to Humboldt county and followed his profession in the ship yards, but in a few years he went to Bunker Hill, where for a time he engaged in building. While there he became desirous of engaging in farming and dairying for himself, and accordingly he rented the Lone Star ranch on Bear river from Joseph Russ. In the fall of 1869 he leased a ranch of one thousand acres, and entered actively into farming and dairying. All of the cattle on the ranch were unbroken to domesticity and had to be broken to milk, an undertaking that took considerable time, but he persevered and succeeded in breaking them all, from which he selected a good herd of one hundred cows. After running the place for eleven years he gave it up, having purchased a ranch in 1882 of 'one hundred thirty acres of land on Pleasant Point. Of this only a few acres were improved, the remainder being covered with a dense growth of brush and timber, but this tract he ultimately cleared and improved. He was one of the first men in the vicinity of Grizzly Bluff to engage in dairying, and today his dairy is the model for all the valley to copy. In 1900 he purchased ten acres of land on the main road to Grizzly Bluff, upon which he built a fine home, which today is one of the best in the county. Later he purchased fifty acres adjoining the original purchase and to this small ranch he has retired from all active labors, having rented the old home place, for he prefers to live on the smaller ranch in the neighborhood of Grizzly Bluff. He is one of the founders of the Grizzly Bluff creamery, and has been one of the directors ever since its organization. When they first operated the creamery they made their own butter and during this time Mr. Sweet was manager of all the affairs pertaining to the creamery. He was made a Mason in Ferndale Lodge No. 193, F. & A. M., in 1875, and was exalted in Ferndale Chapter No. 78, R. A. M., in 1897. He has always been interested in Republican politics and takes an active part in all matters for the good of the community. In Nova Scotia, November 28, 1867, he married Mary Jane Fox, also a native of Nova Scotia and the daughter of. Oliver Fox, a successful wheelwright of the province. They were blessed with seven children, namely : Harry G., a rancher near Ferndale ; Maggie May, deceased; Sarah Inez, Mrs. Edeline, of Grizzly Bluff ; Irene Amelia, at home ; George A., deceased ; Ralph Elmer, on the home place ; and Mary Blanche, Mrs. Anderson. Mr. Sweet has been very successful since coming to Humboldt county and is one of the leading men of his community.

GEORGE MANSON MOORE.—The representative of the fifth ward of Eureka in the city council is a native of Oak Bay, Charlotte county, New Brunswick (born September 16, 1863), but has lived in Humboldt county from the age of fourteen years and is thoroughly familiar with the resources of this section of the state. During the year 1874 his father, Benjamin Moore, a ship-carpenter by trade, came to the Pacific coast and found employment at Eureka, from which point he sent back such favorable reports to his family in the Canadian province that in 1877 they joined him here. To the lad of fourteen years the journey from the shores of the Atlantic to the land beside the sunset sea was filled with unending interest, and even now his mind often recurs with enthusiasm to the events of that long trip westward. Later years gave him further experience in travel and enabled him to see much of the vast region embraced by British Columbia, as well as the mining country of California and Alaska. In 1897 he made his way to Dawson over the Chilcoot Pass, and returned by way of St. Michaels. However, he has seen no place which has appealed to him with sufficient force to cause him to leave Humboldt county. The home of his boyhood is his preferred home in mature years.

Many varying occupative activities have engrossed the attention of Mr. Moore, who gained some experience in farming in Humboldt county, for six years engaged in buying and selling cattle, and for two years carried on farming and dairying with fair results. For nine years he worked in the lumber woods and is himself the owner of timber lands in this county. For a considerable period his chief work has been that of contractor. With his father he was engaged in taking contracts for bridge building and since his father's death has continued the business, enlarging it and also adding contracting for street grading and sewer work, as well as private residences and store buildings. In this he is assisted by his son. The Alderpoint bridge, the largest single span bridge in the United States, forms a permanent memorial to the efficiency of George M. Moore, who also built bridges over tributaries to Eel river, Mad river and the Van Dusen. Mrs. Moore was in maidenhood Miss Jennie Hartford, a native of Canada and a daughter of Robert Hartford, a pioneer ship joiner of Humboldt county. Mr. and Mrs. Moore have a son, Joseph H., who assists his father in his large business undertakings.

The political views of Mr. Moore have brought him into the Progressive party and he has been an active local worker. Interest in the progress of his home city has led him to fill local offices and aid civic projects in every way practicable. For a time he served on the Eureka Board of Education. Under Assessor Connick he served as deputy county assessor, and in June, 1913, he was elected councilman from the fifth ward of Eureka, since which election he has devoted much of his time to movements connected with the progress of the city and the permanent welfare of the people. His fraternities are the Improved Order of Red Men and Foresters. A man of principle and public spirit, he has taken part in the actual material development of the county and on frequent occasions has figured in important movements for the commercial advancement of his home city.

JOEL SEVIER BURNELL.—With the coming of the vast army of immigrants into California during the gold-mining era there arrived at the mines a young New Yorker, Joel Burnell by name, who had been allured to the west at the very beginning of American occupancy and had crossed the plains in 1849 with a large expedition through New Mexico and Arizona, entering California from Yuma. After having mined with little success for a few years, in 1852 he drifted into Humboldt county and bought a squatter's claim of one hundred and sixty acres (later government land), which he proved up on and proceeded to develop. In those days it was difficult to find a market for crops. Humboldt county was so sparsely settled that a home market was lacking. It became a regular custom for this pioneer to cross the mountains to Weaverville, Trinity county, and there sell to the miners the rolls of butter, the product of the skill of his wife as a butter-maker. These trips would take two or three weeks, during which time the faithful wife was left at home alone in what was then a wilderness inhabited by Indians and wild animals. Being a man of deep religious temperament and excellent knowledge of the Bible, he often utilized these trips as an opportunity to preach the Gospel to miners. For one year he held services at Ferndale and in the '60s he preached in different parts of the Sacramento valley. The early establishment of the Methodist Episcopal denomination along this part of the coast was due in no small part to his self-denying efforts in the cause and to the work done by him without expectation or desire for pay, but wholly for the good of the church. Around the farm in the southern part of the county where he settled in 1852 there grew up a small settlement of farmers and in his honor the railroad station was known as Burnell. This was the terminus of the railroad for many years.

The marriage of Joel Burnell united him with Nancy Jane Stringfield, a native of Illinois, and a daughter of Sevier Stringfield, a Kentuckian for some years resident in Illinois, but after 1853 a farmer near Hydesville, Humboldt county. The family of Joel Burnell comprised the following children : Manfred C., now of Chico ; Louis M., ex-district attorney of Humboldt county and a resident of Eureka ; Mrs. Electa J. Houck, of Oregon ; Walter S., who resides in Escondido ; William A., deceased ; Elizabeth, a teacher in this county, who became the wife of David Jenkins and died in Kansas City, Mo.; Fred C., who died when nineteen years old; Joel Sevier, who was born near Hydesville. Humboldt county, March 15, 1868, and is now a practicing attorney of Eureka; and Ida Burnell, a successful teacher in the Eureka schools.

After completing the studies of the old Eureka Academy the study of law was undertaken by Joel Sevier Burnell, who remained in the office of his older brother, Louis M., until he was admitted to the bar in August, 1897, and since then he has continued in practice at Eureka. In addition to the details of professional work he devotes considerable time to the supervision of an apple orchard which he is developing at Camp Grant. Fraternally he is a member of Fortuna Lodge No. 221, I. 0. 0. F., and is secretary of the Association of Veteran Odd Fellows and also has membership with Centennial Rebekah Lodge. His family consists of two children, Cummings J. and Elvie, and his wife, formerly Miss Elvie S. Cummings, who is a native and lifelong resident of Humboldt county, her father, L. J. Cummings, having crossed the plains in 1851 via the northern route through Oregon and as early as 1868 established himself permanently as a resident of Humboldt county.

CAPT. JOHN EDWARD JOHNSON.—One of the best known of the younger generation of seafaring men who make Eureka their home is Capt. John Edward Johnson, master and part owner of the little gasoline schooner Magnolia, which plies between this port and Brookings, Ore., making the round trip twice each week. Captain Johnson is a native of California and came to Eureka in his mother's arms, when a babe of but three weeks. Since that time he has become well known here, although he has not made his home in this city continuously. He has sailed the high seas for many years and during that time has twice circumnavigated the globe, visiting most of the world-famous seaports.

Captain Johnson was born in San Francisco, February 13, 1875, the son of Peter Johnson, a native of Kalmar, Sweden, and a ship carpenter by trade. During young manhood the father came to Humboldt county and followed his trade here, also working in sawmills as a millwright. In early life he also followed the sea for a time. His wife, and the mother of our subject, was Katherine (Redmond) Johnson, a native of New York city. The parents came to San Francisco in 1874, shortly after their marriage, making the trip around the Horn in a sailing vessel in which Mr. Johnson shipped as the ship carpenter. Arriving in California he determined to quit the sea, and located the following year in Humboldt county, where he remained until 1899. From that year until 1906 he made his home in San Francisco, then removing to Lomita Park, San Mateo county, where both parents are now living. There were nine children in this family, all native Californians, and all born in Eureka save the eldest, Capt. J. E. Johnson. The other children are : William August, now residing in San Francisco ; Marie A., the wife of F. E. Gist, residing at Long Beach ; Elizabeth R.; Arthur, a ship carpenter ; Charles, an engineer ; Eleanor, Katharine and Edith C., all residing in San Francisco.

The boyhood days of Captain Johnson were spent in Eureka, where he received his .education in the public schools. When he was about fourteen years old he began to work at the carpenter's trade under his father, and at the age of seventeen he went to sea. His first sailing was with Capt. James F. Higgins, now deceased, on the steamer Farallon, which went ashore in Alaskan waters several years ago. After continuing with Captain Higgins for a few months he shifted to other vessels. He has followed the sea continuously for twenty-two years, with the exception of three years when he was associated with the D. K. B. Sellers Commission Company, of Eureka, being employed in the warehouse at the foot of D street. In March, 1894, he shipped in the Maggie C. Russ, built at Eureka, later sailed with the barkentine Amelia to Honolulu, and returned with her to Puget Sound. At the time of the Spanish-American war he enlisted at Mare Island in the United States navy, being assigned to the cruiser Philadelphia, on which he saw much service. They raised the flag over the Hawaiian Islands August 12, 1898, and in the spring of 1899 went to the Samoan Islands. In June, 1899, Captain Johnson was honorably discharged, after which he returned to Eureka, and during the following winter was with the schooner J. G. Wall. Later he was on the Lizzie Vance in the lumber trade, and afterward was on various sailing vessels until 1902, when he joined the barkentine Hawaii in Newcastle, Australia, remaining with her for two years and eight months. On one voyage, in 1904, he made the run to Puget Sound as master. In 1903 he left the Hawaii and joined the schooner Vine, on which he made a trip to Point Barrow, Alaska. This was his last trip on sailing craft, thereafter signing only on steam vessels. In the employ of the North Pacific Steamship Company he commanded the Newport for Charles P. Doe, of San Francisco, sailing between Eureka and San Francisco for a year. Later he commanded various other small steamers until in 1909 he took charge of the J. J. Loggie, continuing with it until February, 1912 (this boat was wrecked in October of that year), when he took charge of the steamboat Antelope for Captain Coggeshall, remaining with her until June, 1913, at which time he started in business for himself as a partner of Captain Crone, leasing the gas steamer Coaster for the season. He then determined to build a craft of his own, and for this purpose entered into a partnership with Capt. Walter Coggeshall, and the splendid gasoline schooner Magnolia was built for them at the Fairhaven shipyards, in the spring of 1914, being ready for service in May. Of the latest design and first class in every detail, it is sixty-five feet long, seventeen feet in the beam, and was constructed at a cost of $12,500. It has a capacity for eighty-five tons of freight, and is propelled by two forty-horsepower standard gasoline engines. The offices of the Magnolia Transportation Company are located in Eureka, at the foot of F street. Their schedule calls for sailings twice weekly, their destination being Brookings, Ore., making stops at Crescent City and Requa, Cal., the latter on the Klamath river, with Captain Johnson always in charge.

The marriage of Captain Johnson took place in Eureka December 14, 1907, uniting him with Miss Cecelia Johnson, the daughter of George T. Johnson, who located in Eureka in 1875 and died here February 24, 1912. Of their union have been born two children, Sophie Kathrine, aged six, and Edward Cecil, aged four years. Shortly after his marriage Captain Johnson built a bungalow on Fourteenth street, where with his family he has since made his home.

Aside from his business interests Captain Johnson is popular in many lines of activity, and is associated with the affairs of his home city. He is wide awake and progressive and is always in favor of progress and improvement and stands for social, civil and municipal uplift and betterment. Fraternally he is a member of Fortuna Lodge No. 221, I. 0. 0. F., and of Humboldt Parlor, N. S. G. W., of Eureka. He is also a member of Major Frank Rice Camp, United Spanish War Veterans, and is a member of California Harbor, Masters, Mates and Pilots of the Pacific, with headquarters at No. 36 Stewart street, San Francisco. Socially both Captain and Mrs. Johnson have many warm friends and are popular members of their social circle. Mrs. Johnson and the children are members of the Episcopal church of Eureka, and she is prominent in the various lines of church activities.

JAMES ROSS.—For almost forty years the fortunes of James Ross have been identical with those of Humboldt county, and he is one of the men whose industry and unwearying effort have changed the county from a virgin forest into a land of homes, where plenty smiles and prosperity reigns. When he first came to this locality in 1876 the beautiful little city of Arcata, where he now resides, was an undreamed-of possibility, and, only towering trees marked the present site of the habitation of man—Eureka itself was but a straggling village and there were but few settlers throughout the valley.

Mr. Ross is a native of Ireland, born in the town of Broughgammon, County Antrim, June 5, 1853, and descended from a long line of sturdy Scotch and Irish ancestry. His father was William Ross, a native of Scotland, born in Inverness. He was a millwright by trade, but much of his life had been devoted to farming, which occupation he was following at the time of his death, which occurred about 1857. The mother was Ann McCurdy, born in County Antrim, Ireland, where she was married to William Ross and where she lived until her death. She bore her husband four children, three sons and one daughter.

The boyhood days of James Ross were passed on his father's farm in Ireland, where he remained until he was about twenty-two. His father died when he was a lad and he continued to make his home with his widowed mother, attending the village schools until he was sixteen years of age, and later he cared for the farm. On his determining to seek his fortune in America Mr. Ross lost no time in setting sail. Arriving at New York, he set out to cross the plains to San Francisco, from which point he went at once to Humboldt county, arriving here April 14, 1876. His first employment was on Vance slough, where he worked at loading lighters going down to meet the vessels on the bay, but he remained here only a short time. Later he went to Salmon Creek and was employed in the sawmill owned by the Evans, McKay & Marks Company, remaining here until the closing of the mill in 1878. Following this he secured a position with Flanigan & Co. in their Bayside mill, soon afterward, however, securing a position in the D. R. Jones mill on Gunthers Island.

The possibilities of farming in this new country were ever fascinating to Mr. Ross and he had from the first been on the alert for an opportunity to secure a tract of farming land and return to his occupation of tilling the soil. In 1879 he rented a tract of one hundred twenty acres of bottom land, all but a small portion of which was unimproved, the tillable soil being only about forty acres. The remainder was a wilderness of trees and brush, and this he set to work to clear and bring into a state of cultivation. Bit by bit this was accomplished, and today he has one of the finest properties in the valley, cleared and highly improved. It was not until 1901, however, that he finally purchased this tract, although for many years he has been engaged. in farming and dairying here. This latter line of industry had appealed strongly to Mr. Ross and he was one of the organizers and supporters of the first creamery in the valley, which was at first known as the Arcata Creamery No. 1, but which is now owned by the United Creameries Company. Mr. Ross laid his plans for dairying as soon as the creamery was an assured fact and his first milk was delivered some three or four days after its opening. He is at present one of the stockholders of the enterprise and a stanch supporter of the industry. His first herd of cows numbered but six head, but now he has one of the best herds in the valley, and one of the best dairies as well.

When Mr. Ross commenced dairying his land was not in a condition for farming, but at this time he has one of the most profitable ranches in the valley and is noted for his success in diversified farming. He raises a variety of crops and there is no waste to his acreage as he utilizes every part of the farm. In 1912 he planted four acres to potatoes and from this tract he dug four hundred fifty sacks of fine potatoes. He has met with great success in every department of his work and is classed as one of the most prosperous farmers of that locality. His property is rapidly increasing in value and will continue to do so, as it is rich in soil and well located.

The marriage of Mr. Ross occurred in Arcata, July 30, 1879, the Rev. J. S. Todd officiating. Mrs. Ross was Miss Ann Jane Christy, and like her husband a native of Ireland, born in County Antrim, January 6, 1852. They attended the same school during childhood, and often played together in the fields and meadows, their respective homes being perhaps a quarter of a mile apart. When Mr. Ross came to America he carried with him the promise of the future Mrs. Ross to join him when he should have ready a home for her, and when the call came she made the long journey alone, coming by way of New York and San Francisco, to Arcata, being married immediately on her arrival. She has borne her husband five children, three sons and two daughters, all well known and deservedly popular in Arcata, where they have been born and reared. They are : Samuel John, residing in Arcata ; James, deceased ; Anna Jane, who married D. A. Ross and resides in San Francisco; Katie May and William C., both at home.

Mr. Ross is a self-made man in every sense of the word. He arrived in Humboldt county with nothing but his faith and courage and industry, and his desire and determination to have a home. He has labored with unfaltering application and has been justly rewarded. His family is one of the most highly esteemed in the community and Mr. Ross is accredited as one of the most reliable citizens of the county. He is popular with a wide circle of friends, where his splendid qualities of heart and mind have made for him a permanent place. He was made a Mason in Broughgammon Lodge No. 72, F. & A. M., and is now a member of Arcata Lodge No. 106, F. & A. M.; was raised to the Royal Arch Chapter in Bush Mills Chapter No. 114, in Ireland, and is now a member of Eureka Chapter No. 52, R. A. M. He is also a prominent member of Anniversary Lodge No. 85, I. 0. 0. F., in Arcata. In politics he is a Republican, although he has never been actively associated with the political affairs of his community. Together with his family Mr. Ross is a member of the St. Johns Episcopal church in Arcata.

WILFORD E. PEACOCK.—For the last four years the Pacific Coast Steamship Company has been represented at Eureka by Wilford E. Peacock, who has been in the employ of that concern during the great part of his residence in California. He came to the state in 1902, and after a stay of seven months at Los Angeles moved up to San Francisco, not long afterward securing a position with his present employers. When he had served a year in the San Francisco office he was stationed at Eureka as cashier under C. W. Hayden, his predecessor as agent, whom he succeeded in July, 1910. By his uniform courtesy and efficiency in the discharge of his duties, his attention to business and willingness to oblige the patrons of the company, he has become a respected and popularly known resident of Eureka, where he has proved a most desirable citizen. In turn, he has become an enthusiastic admirer of the beautiful little city where he has had his home for several years, and is ready to aid in movements for her welfare whenever possible.

Mr. Peacock was born March 1, 1875, at Melrose, Monroe county, Iowa, son of Samuel D. Peacock, a farmer and stockman, now conducting a large stock ranch at Salina, Kans. The father married Mary Jane Eads, a distant relative of the great civil engineer of that name, who built the Eads bridge at St. Louis and other great works. The immediate ancestors of W. E. Peacock are from Bullitt county, Ky., but the family was settled in Virginia in the early days of this country's history, and came originally from England. To Mr. and Mrs. Samuel D. Peacock were born six children, of whom W. E. is the second eldest child and second son. He is the only member of the family in this state. The father was a member of Company C, Eighteenth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, during the Civil war.

W. E. Peacock grew up at Melrose, being about thirteen years old when the family moved from Iowa to Salina, Kans., where after completing the grammar schools he attended Roache's Business College. Following this he attended a school of telegraphy in the same city, and when eighteen years old went to work as assistant at Oakley, Kans., on the Union Pacific road. He remained there for about six months in that rank, and was then assigned to a station and became station agent at Grinnell, Kans., whence he was sent back to Oakley, doing relief work and night work. In 1900 he went to Salt Lake City to take a position with the Bell Telephone Company, which then contemplated putting in telegraph instruments, using the same wires installed for the telephone service. Mr. Peacock was engaged to install the system on the lines of the Bell Telephone Company at that point, and remained at Salt Lake for fourteen months. Then, as already related, he came to California. His experience at Eureka has been pleasant, his work congenial, and his excellent personal characteristics and capability have won him many friends, in both business and social circles. He is a typical employe of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company, which has a reputation for unimpeachable service to its patrons and demands the highest qualities in those in its employ. Its steamer City of Topeka is the fastest and finest boat plying between San Francisco and Eureka. The company's office is at No. 213 E street, the warehouse and docks at the foot of C street.

In May, 1912, Mr. Peacock was married, at Eureka, to Miss Mabel Klepper, of that place, and they have one child, Virginia. Socially Mr. Peacock belongs to Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E.; the Humboldt Club, and the Eureka Development Association.

FLETCHER A. CUTLER.—Until his removal a few years ago to San Francisco, Judge Cutler made his home at Eureka, and he still retains important interests in Humboldt county, the scene of his early life and of the successes which marked the beginning of his brilliant career at the bar. He is now practicing with ex-Governor Gillett, as the junior member of a partnership established over ten years ago. His experience on the bench was obtained as judge of the Superior court of Del Norte county. Paternally and maternally Judge Cutler may be proud of the part his immediate ancestors have had in the history of Eureka. His father was a business man of the town for many years after his settlement here, in 1869. His mother was the first public school teacher here.

The Cutler family is one of long standing in this country, the emigrant ancestor, Puritious Cutler, having come from England and settled in Massachusetts during the early Colonial period. It was represented on the Colonial side during the Revolutionary war, and a number of the name have been known for distinguished military service, political prominence and professional attainments. Thomas Cutler, the Judge's father, was born March 29, 1829, on a farm in the town of Killingly, Conn., and grew up there. He came to California with the first rush of settlers after the discovery of gold, making the voyage around the Horn on the George Washington, which landed him at San Francisco in August, 1849. So far as known, only one of his fellow passengers on the voyage outlived him. Proceeding immediately to Mokelumne Hill, in Calaveras county, he began, mining, and had more than average success there and at his later locations, Chinese Camp and Copperopolis, also engaging in merchandising. In 1869 he removed to Eureka, in Humboldt county, where he was in business as a merchant for over a quarter of a century following, until his retirement in the year 1896. For several years he served as collector of the port of Eureka, and he was honored with various other positions of trust in his adopted city, where his high character and ability received deserved recognition. From the time he took up his residence here he was active in its business and public life, taking a prominent part in the administration of the local government, and by his conspicuous efficiency and public-spirited conservation of the welfare of his fellow citizens won so high a place in their esteem that his name will be permanently enrolled among those who established its institutions upon a sound basis. Though he began life without capital other than his abilities he accumulated a comfortable competence and did well by his family, in all of the relations of life so conducting himself that he was considered one of the worthiest citizens of his generation, to which he was widely known. In 1901 he moved to Oakland, Cal., hoping that his failing health would benefit by the change, but though he had been a strong man in his prime he did not rally, and he died June 30, 1902. He was buried in Mountain View cemetery, Oakland, with Masonic rites, the services being conducted by Live Oak Lodge, F. & A. M., and a committee representing the Society of California Pioneers, of which he was a member. He had been a charter member of George Washington Lodge, F. & A. M., of Chinese Camp, Cal. Mr. Cutler married Sarah L. Buck, a native of Watertown, Maine, who came alone to California when a young woman and soon afterward located at Eureka, where she was the first public school teacher. She afterwards joined her brother at Chinese Camp, and taught there for a few terms, until her marriage.

Some years later she returned to Eureka with her husband and family, and for a time had a class of private pupils, whom she instructed with her sons in her own home. Of the four children born to Mr. and Mrs. Cutler, Thomas B. became connected with the Del Norte County Bank at Crescent City, Cal. ; Fletcher A. is mentioned below ; Maude became the wife of H. T. Compton, of Stockton, Cal. ; Mary completed the family. Mrs. Cutler continued to reside at Oakland after her husband's death, retaining in her old age the charm of manner and attractive personality for which she is remembered by many old friends at Eureka.

Fletcher A. Cutler was born May 4, 1863, at Chinese Camp, Tuolumne county, Cal., and being but six years old when the family settled at Eureka has little recollection of his earliest home. He acquired his preparatory education under the direct tuition of his accomplished mother, subsequently studied for a time in the preparatory department of the State University at Berkeley, and completed the course at the boys' high school in San Francisco, from which he was graduated. Returning to Eureka, he soon afterwards received appointment as under sheriff of Humboldt county during the administration of Sheriff T. M. Brown, and during the five years of his service in that position devoted his spare time to reading law. At the end of that period he entered the law office of his uncle, S. M. Buck, at Eureka, to carry on his preparation for the legal profession systematically, and he was admitted to the bar in the year 1887. He was at once admitted to partnership with the uncle mentioned, with whom he was associated until his appointment by Governor Budd, some ten years later, to fill a vacancy on the bench of the Superior court in Del Norte county. After four years' service on the bench judge Cutler returned to Humboldt county in January, 1903, and resumed the practice of law at Eureka in partnership with Hon. J. N. Gillett, who was then representing the district in Congress and has since been honored with the governorship. Gillett and Cutler, by the individual and collective value of their services, have attained position among the foremost attorneys in the state. Mr. Cutler moved to San Francisco when he felt that he could handle his legal work better with his headquarters in the metropolis, and has an office at Room 617, No. 525 Market street. The firm has included among its clients the Bank of Eureka, the Santa Fe Railway Company, the Northern California, San Francisco & Northwestern and Freshwater Railway Companies, and other concerns of notable importance, and the list of all those who.have felt their legal affairs safe in the care of Gillett & Cutler contains the names of some heavily capitalized organizations who could not afford to risk engaging anything but the best talent.

Judge Cutler had hardly reached his prime when he found himself occupying a leading position at the bar of his state. Yet his reputation has been founded on so solid a foundation that time has strengthened it and tests have left it unshaken. The thorough training he received at home set a high standard for his later studies, and he has maintained it through all his years of practice, giving his best to every case, as if all his personal interests depended thereon. His honorable nature and high principles would make it impossible for him to slight the details of anything he undertakes, and though he is noted for his familiarity with the law, and the judicial sense which enables him to see the applicability of the statutes to whatever work he may have in hand, he never neglects to give special attention to each case, with results which justify his methods. His success in presenting cases in court is so indisputably attained by careful and exhaustive preparation and logical arrangement, that his power as a pleader and cleverness in making the most of his arguments seem spontaneous. Judge Cutler has always been admired for his strict observation of the best ethics of the profession, his consideration for his fellow practitioners, and the avoidance of tactics unworthy a man of his undoubted skill.

Judge Cutler was always considered one of the public-spirited citizens of Eureka, ready to do his share in promoting her advancement along every line, and his interest has not ceased since his removal, though his opportunities for practical assistance are not so great. He still has important property holdings in the city and county, where he has made a number of profitable investments. At one time he owned a sixth interest in the eighty-acre tract upon which the depot and yards of the Eel River Railroad were established (some years ago that company was merged with the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe), and he has also acquired valuable redwood timber lands.

Outside of his judicial duties before mentioned, the only public position Judge Cutler has held was that of postmaster at Eureka, to which he was appointed by President Cleveland. He served from 1893 to 1897. His political support has always been given to the Democratic party. Socially he is a member of the Knights of Pythias and Masons, belonging to Lincoln Lodge No. 34, K. P.; Crescent Lodge No. 43, F. & A. M., of Crescent City, Cal. ; Humboldt Chapter No. 52, R. A. M. ; and Eureka Commandery No. 35, R. T. He was a member of the Humboldt Club, and prominent in Humboldt Parlor No. 14, Native Sons of the Golden West, at Eureka, also serving as grand trustee of the grand parlor.

On February 2, 1887, Mr. Cutler was married to Miss Eicula M. Warner, who was born in Nevada, daughter of Capt. Charles C. and Lucie (Kent) Warner. One daughter has been born to them, Lucie.

COTTRELL & SHIELDS.—The senior member of the firm of Cottrell & Shields, proprietors of the moulding mill on Broadway and Cedar streets, Eureka, is John Austin Cottrell, who was born in Charlotte county, New Brunswick, on the 4th of July, 1841, and began to earn a livelihood in the lumber woods at an age when most boys are in school. Throughout all of his life he has been identified with some form of the lumber industry. As early as 1864 he came via Panama to California, but instead of settling in the state at that time, he proceeded to British Columbia and became. one of the very first men to settle at Vancouver. With him to that frontier community went his wife, Rebecca (Wyman) Cottrell, and their second son, Howard A., was the first white child born in Vancouver. The first child of that marriage, James A., is a native of Victoria.

After having engaged in lumbering in or near Vancouver for twenty years, in 1884 Mr. Cottrell came to California to establish a home. The lumber interests of Humboldt county attracted him to this portion of the state and here he has since engaged in business. For four years he engaged as an employee in the old Lincoln mill at Eureka, after which in partnership with William F. Gibbard he rented the Richardson mill on Third and B streets. The firm of Gibbard &. Cottrell carried on the mill for some five years. At the expiration of that time the senior member sold his interests to Mr. Cottrell, who continued alone up to 1901, and then erected the present modern and well-equipped mill on the corner of Broadway and Cedar streets, Eureka. Since 1911 John E. Shields has been a part owner of the business and by his active, intelligent co-operation is proving of the utmost assistance to the original proprietor. After the death of his first wife Mr. Cottrell married Mrs. Margaret Ogilvie, a widow with one son, Kenneth Ogilvie. Of their union a daughter, Lois A., was born. In fraternal relations Mr. Cottrell is a Mason of the blue lodge affiliations and has maintained a warm interest in the work of the order.

The junior member of the firm, John Edgar Shields, was born at Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, January 10, 1865, and during his teens learned the trade of carpenter, in which he became skilled to an unusual degree. After coming to California in 1888 he followed his trade in Eureka, where he erected the residences of A. S. Connick and Robert Porter, a substantial block on Fifth street, and numerous other buildings public and private. Since forming a partnership with Mr. Cottrell he has devoted his entire attention to the work at the moulding mill and has co-operated in every project for the benefit of the business. By his marriage to Alida M. Alexander, a native of New Brunswick, he is the father of five children, namely : Bertha, wife of C. E. Baldwin ; Gertrude, who married Alexander Simpson and has one son ; Edith, Mrs. John H. Bears ; Ralph I. and John. Business in the hands of men like Mr. Cottrell and Mr. Shields means a straightforward enterprise requiring honesty of character, earnestness of purpose and energy of action, qualities which the partners possess in large degree and with which they have forged to the front as representatives of a department of the lumber industry in Humboldt county.


CAPT. HENRY SMITH.—Familiarity with the life of a sailor extending back to early life in England, where he was born in Suffolk county October 22, 1842, and including experiences on the high seas in every part of the world, admirably qualifies Captain Smith for the very responsible position which he has filled since 1897, viz. : that of superintending the beacon lights in Humboldt bay as an employe of the United States government. Native ability and long experience combine to equip him for his important duties. He can scarcely recall a time when he was not interested in the sea and more or less acquainted with ocean-going craft. When only a boy he made his first voyage from London to Australia on the ship Francis Henty, and altogether he made four round trips between London and Australia. During one of these voyages to the island continent he stopped off at New Zealand and engaged in mining, but met with so little success that he turned his thoughts toward immigration to America. The bark Gertrude, built in Bath, Maine, was the ship on which he sailed from Sidney, Australia, to San Francisco, Cal., and thence he sailed north on the bark Metropolis, Capt. George F. Smith, commander, arriving at Eureka on New Year's day of 1863. The new year meant for him a beginning in a new locality in the midst of an environment and conditions different from those of his boyhood, but he speedily proved himself the master of a sailor's duties on a western vessel and during 1863 proved a most efficient assistant on the bark Rival, that sailed to Victoria, British Columbia, under Captain Blair as commander.

After having engaged during February, 1864, with Capt. H. H. Buhne, commander, on the tugboat Mary Ann, Captain Smith embarked in freight boating on the Dirigo to all the ports on Humboldt bay. During the period of employment in freighting he made a voyage to England and there married Eliza Simmonds, who was born in London and died in Humboldt county in 1902. The six children of the marriage are named as follows : Mrs. J. P. Borg, William J. Smith, Mrs. Ida M. Alexander, Charles H., Mrs. Maude B. Luberg and Fred Smith. During 1869 Captain Smith began to operate the steamboat Gussie McAlpine, from Eureka to the Arcata wharf, and later he ran the Sylvia between Eureka and Hookton. Beginning in 1875, he remained for eighteen years in the employ of John Vance and ran a steamboat to the Mad river slough. While with Mr. Vance he towed all of the rock used in the building of the West Seal Rock lighthouse. After leaving the employ of Mr. Vance he ran the steamer Phoenix for the Excelsior Redwood Company until 1897, when he entered the employ of the government, in connection with the lighthouse service in Humboldt bay. Deeply interested in everything pertaining to the ocean steamship service or bay transportation, he nevertheless has not neglected the ordinary duties of citizenship and may be found at all times favoring movements of undoubted merit and genuine public utility. When a boy in England he was confirmed in the Church of England and after coming to America identified himself with the Episcopal faith. Religious enterprises, as well as those of a strictly civic nature, receive his earnest support, nor has he been lacking in his support of all educational institutions, particularly the public schools of Humboldt county.

HARRY ELLSWORTH HURLBUTT.—Prominent among the extensive dairy farmers of Humboldt county is Harry Ellsworth Hurlbutt, of Alton, who has been a resident of this county since 1873, when he was a lad of six years. The record for business efficiency that has been made by Mr. Hurlbutt is one of which he may be justly proud, and which makes him a citizen in whom any community may feel justified in reposing the greatest confidence. That many of his fellows through Humboldt county are well aware of this is amply shown by the fact that he is now being placed by his friends and political supporters before the people as a candidate for the office of county assessor.

Mr. Hurlbutt is a native of California, having been born in San Francisco, May 12, 1867. His father was Willard Hurlbutt, and his mother Angelina Lovejoy, both California pioneers of a splendid type, and well known throughout Marin and Humboldt counties, where they resided for many years, and where their family was reared. Harry Ellsworth was the eldest of the children, and was six years of age when, in 1873, the family removed from Marin county to Humboldt county and located on a ranch. The following year they moved to Mattole and engaged in the sheep business, remaining for six years, when, in 1880, they located at Ferndale. Four years later, in 1884. they again returned to Mattole and engaged in the sheep and cattle business there, meeting with much success.

The marriage of Harry E. Hurlbutt took place in Mattole, June 24, 1894, uniting him with Miss Bertha Miner, a native of that place, and the daughter of H. A. and Margaret (Hulse) Miner. Of this union have been born six children: Earl, who is an accountant and cashier for the Pacific Lumber Com_ pany's store at Scotia ; Allen, Beatrice, Ray, Eilene and Helen.

In 1897 Mr. Hurlbutt came to Garberville and leased the Woods ranch, a property of twelve thousand acres on south fork of Eel river a mile and a quarter south of Garberville, and at present owned by Tooby Brothers. He operated this property for fifteen years, and for thirteen years of this time he resided there. His operations were very extensive and equally successful. He ran about seven thousand head of sheep and some four hundred head of cattle, also. farmed extensively. At the expiration of this time he secured his present property at Alton, known formerly as the Jerry Dahle place, where he has since resided. This ranch consists of three hundred twenty acres, and is a very valuable property. Mr. Hurlbutt has it leased for a term of five years with an option to purchase at the expiration of that time. Here he is engaged in extensive dairying, and is meeting with the greatest of success.
Aside from his business interests Mr. Hurlbutt is very popular with his friends and acquaintances, who are legion. He was made a Mason in Ferndale Lodge No. 197, F. & A. M. ; is also a member of Ferndale Chapter No. 78, R. A. M., Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T., and Oakland Consistory, Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., San Francisco, and with his wife is a member of the Order of the Eastern Star.

Mr. Hurlbutt is a Republican in his political affiliations and is actively interested in the affairs of his party, both locally and throughout the state. He is keenly awake to afl that is for the best interests of his community and is always to be found in the thick of the fight when there is a local issue involving the general welfare of city or county, and is always to be found on the side of social betterment and progress. That he has won for himself a place in the confidence of the people has already been shown by the political preferment given him, and it is not at all likely that this is the end in this line of advancement.

The father of Harry Ellsworth Hurlbutt was Willard Hurlbutt, now deceased, but for many years one of the foremost pioneers of the county. He was a native of Dalton, N. H., born March 29, 1837. He came first to California in 1859, making the journey via the Isthmus of Panama, and locating in San Mateo county, later removing to Marin county. During the year 1866 he returned to New Hampshire and at Littleton he was married to Miss Angelina Lovejoy, a descendant of an old and distinguished family. It is claimed that all the Lovejoys in America are related, all being lineal descendants of three Scotch brothers who came to America during the early Colonial days. The immediate ancestors of Mrs. Hurlbutt were all Whigs and Republicans and it is thought that this branch of the family were of the same blood as Owen P. Lovejoy, the anti-slavery champion who died a martyr at Alton, Ill., on account of his anti-slavery tendencies. Immediately after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Hurlbutt returned to California, locating in San Mateo county, where they remained for a year, later removing to Marin county, where they resided until 1873, when they went to Humboldt county. The following year, 1874, they went to Mattole, where they engaged in the sheep business, remaining until 1880, when they removed to Ferndale. Here they remained until 1884, when they returned to Mattole, and again engaged in sheep raising and cattle raising. In this Mr. Hurlbutt was very successful, and continued to reside there until the time of his death, in 1891.

Since the death of her husband Mrs. Willard Hurlbutt has disposed of her farm and sheep interests and makes her home in Garberville, where she is well known and possesses many friends. She is prominent in fraternal circles, being especially interested in the Pythian Sisters, of which order she is an influential member.

To Mr. and Mrs. Willard Hurlbutt were born four children, all of whom are living at this time, and all well known in Humboldt county, where all were born except the eldest, Harry Ellsworth, now a resident of Alton. Walter Lovejoy, a resident of Garberville, married Miss Lillian M. Newhouse ; they own a seventy-acre ranch near Garberville. Fred A. is a rancher residing at Garberville. Elmer Willard, a rancher, married Miss Mary Meyer, and resides at Garberville.

The Hurlbutt family is one of the most highly respected in Humboldt county, and in the vicinity of Garberville and Alton, where the stalwart sons make their homes, the name stands for honor and honesty in business transactions, for industry, sobriety and ability. The father is well remembered as a man of superior ability and reliability, and the sons have proven worthy of their sire.

JOHN. HARPST.—The decade following the discovery of gold in California was characterized by great activity in prospecting throughout practically every section of the state. As early as 1850 parties of prospectors had explored the country between the head waters of the Trinity and Klamath rivers and the coast, finding sufficient presence of gold to justify the operating of mines for a considerably later period. When John Harpst, a native of Ohio, born in 1839, came to California in 1857, at the age of eighteen years, he sought these mines in Trinity county and for some time followed the search for gold at Canadian Bar. When in the fall of 1858 Governor Weller called for volunteers to take the field against hostile Indians in the western part of Trinity county and the eastern part of Humboldt county, he was among the men who promptly enrolled their names and offered to do service. Under Capt. I. T. Messig he took part in a campaign that lasted through the winter of 1858-59. A number of serious engagements made the winter memorable. In one of these battles a bullet from the Indian lines pierced the left breast of Mr. Harpst and inflicted a serious wound, but youth and powers of endurance enabled him to quickly recover from the effects of the injury.

After the close of the campaign, having seen the advantages of soil and other resources offered by Humboldt county, Mr. Harpst decided to take up residence here. A few years later he became a partner with 0. H. Spring in the mercantile business in Arcata, which in an early day was a noteworthy rival of Eureka, although the latter, selected as the county-seat in 1856 and incorporated as a city at the same time, soon outstripped all competitors. Near the head of Humboldt bay he engaged in lumber operations with Mr. Spring and James Gannon. Later, with these men, together with D. J. Flanigan and T. F. Brosnan, he founded and operated the Union mill on the bay shore near Eureka. A store and shingle mill were afterward established at Bayside and lumbering together with quarrying operations continued on a very large scale for a long period of profitable years. Eventually Mr. Harpst retired from the heaviest of his responsibilities and for a considerable period before his death, which occurred February 19, 1906, he had enjoyed a rest from business cares. In September of 1896 he married Miss Kate L. Carr, who was born in Weaverville, Trinity county, Cal., the daughter of Thomas Carr, a pioneer of this state, whose sketch may be found elsewhere in this volume. Mrs. Harpst was reared in Eureka and still lives in this city. Lately she has built a large and beautiful residence on the corner of Huntoon and D streets. She has given much care to her gardens, in which she takes much pride, and as the result of her efforts she has one of the most attractive places in the city. Fraternally Mr. Harpst belonged to the Masons and Elks. In the former he had been associated with the blue lodge and chapter in Eureka, a member of the Golden Gate commandery, K. T., and Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., of San Francisco.

In the circles of early settlers, where he was best known, his name stood as a synonym for honor, while in his general circle of acquaintances, especially among younger generations, he was looked up to as a pioneer who had endured many privations in the period of the Indian troubles and who had merited the best that later years could bestow upon him.

JOSEPH EDWARD MERRIAM.—Although for many years he followed the fortunes of the sea, and though he came to the Pacific coast with the expressed intention of continuing his sea-faring life, Joseph Edward Merriam has never been aboard a vessel since he sailed into the harbor at Eureka on June 19, 1884. With him were his wife and one child, and soon after coming to Eureka he determined to give up his former calling and locate on shore, choosing Humboldt county for his future home. During the succeeding years he has been variously occupied, but has always met with much success, and is today one of the leading insurance men in the county and is also largely interested in real estate. Besides his home in Blue Lake he owns a valuable fruit garden and also a valuable timber claim of one hundred and seventy acres about six miles southeast of town. Judge Merriam does not believe in any vigorous man being idle, and seeing the many small pieces of valuable land around homes neglected, he desires to show the people of the community as well as outsiders the wonderful production of the soil and the value of raising vegetables and fruits on small tracts. Having a love for horticulture and gardening and believing that every foot of the soil should produce, he purchased two and one-half acres in Blue Lake which had been neglected and to which he devoted his spare moments. It is now in orchard, small fruits, berries and vegetables, and the whole space to the fence line is producing under intensified culture. Its success has been demonstrated, hence it is a plan that others would do well to emulate. Judge Merriam has also been interested in the buying and selling of real estate for a period of years. He has never regretted his decision, and feels that it was a wise choice that brought him to California.

Mr. Merriam was born in Port Greville, Cumberland county, Nova Scotia, December 3, 1856. His boyhood days were spent there and during his youth he attended the public schools. His disposition was a roving one, however, and when he was a lad of only fourteen years he went to sea, sailing on coasting vessels running to New York City. This was a hard and a dangerous life, for the ice floes drifted along the coast for many months of the year, and the vessels of the coast fleet were in much danger for this reason, as well as on account of storms and fog. Afterwards he was in West Indies, South American and Western Island trade, sailing out of New York and Boston, but always in Canadian ships. He was mate of the brig Zebenia for three years and for two years master. These voyages necessitated his absence from home for protracted periods, and wishing to avoid them he resolved to seek the Pacific coast, intending to run river steamers in California. For two years previous to this time his wife had been constantly with him on the water, but after the birth of their first child, Adeline, she had to remain ashore. He brought his wife and child across the continent to San Francisco, arriving in June, 1884. After four days they came on to Eureka and have remained in Humboldt county ever since. Mr. Merriam claims to be a Humboldter because he never crossed the bar after the day of his arrival.

The conditions on the coast were quite different from what he had been led to expect, and Mr. Merriam soon decided to try his fortunes on land. He secured employment with S. S. Loveren on his ranch near Mad river where the chief occupation was dairying. Mr. Merriam had never worked on a farm and was not familiar with any of the farm work, never having even harnessed or hitched a horse before this time. He was, however, strong and willing to work and to learn, and remained with Mr. Loveren for two years.

For the next three years he worked on various ranches in the neighborhood, learning much of the ways of the new country and the new occupation, and becoming an efficient farmer. In 1889 he determined to engage in farming for himself, and going into the mountains, he leased a stock range from Thomas Baird and started in the stock-raising business. This enterprise was undertaken on a small scale in the beginning, as stock at that time was high. The following year he took up a homestead on Boulder creek, near the old Rock ranch, his tract comprising one hundred and sixty acres. Here he removed with his family, remaining until their home was proved up on, which was in 1898.

It was this same year that Mr. Merriam decided to leave the homestead and go with his family into Blue Lake to reside. They moved into.the thriving little city July 25, 1898, and here they have built a permanent home, where they now reside. Mr. Merriam was already well known in the community and his popularity was attested when in the following November he was elected justice of the peace, on the Populist ticket, and has been repeatedly reelected since, holding office continuously from that time until the present.

Soon after locating in Blue Lake Mr. Merriam took up the insurance and realty business on a small scale, increasing his interests and the scope of his operations as his business developed. Now he is one of the leading insurance men of the county, and his real estate transactions are also important. He deals in both life and fire insurance, representing some twenty companies, and has written many policies in both Trinity and Humboldt counties.

The marriage of Mr. Merriam and Miss Clara Russell Webster took place at Parrsborough, Nova Scotia, June 15, 1881. Mrs. Merriam is a native of Nova Scotia, born in Cumberland county May 6, 1860, and her mother was born in that county April 15, 1835. Mrs. Merriam bore her husband five children, one of whom died in infancy. Of the others we mention the following ; Adeline M., born in Nova Scotia, and now residing in Blue Lake, is the wife of Eugene B. Tamboury and the mother of one child, Clara Anetta ; Harold Mathew, born in Alliance, Humboldt county, married Minnie Griffith ; Mary Henrietta, also born in Alliance, May 4, 1887, died in Blue Lake in 1901; Elsie Marion, born at Thief camp, on Maple creek, became the wife of Chester Moore, of Blue Lake. Mrs. Webster, the mother of Mrs. Merriam, at present makes her home with her daughter in Blue Lake.

Mr. Merriam is very much interested in all matters of public interest in Blue Lake and indeed throughout Humboldt county. He is an enthusiastic advocate of suffrage for women and his efforts are largely responsible for the fact that Blue Lake is the banner suffrage town in the county. He has taken an active part in all suffrage movements and worked earnestly for the passage of the amendment which enfranchised the women of California. He is also well known in fraternal circles, and is a prominent member of the Woodmen of the World and of the Red Men, being connected with the local lodges of each organization. He is the father of what is known as the "Blue Nose Picnic" in Humboldt county, which was started as the result of his effort to bring together and renew acquaintances of the people who came to the county from the New England states and the provinces of Canada, embracing an Atlantic coast line from Cape Cod, Mass., to Cape Race, Newfoundland. Obtaining the available addresses he sent each person a postal written by himself, and the first picnic at Blue Lake, held in August, 1911, was well attended, being one of the largest picnics held in the county, and it has since become an interesting annual event.

The varied experiences of both Mr. and Mrs. Merriam give them a wide outlook on life, and there is a fund of interesting tales that they may tell when their fancy so inclines. Mrs. Merriam was the first woman ever known to land on the Isle of Mona, an uninhabited island seven miles long, located in the Mona channel midway between San Domingo and Porto Rico.

An interesting possession of Mr. Merriam, and one on which he has spent much time and effort, is a book in which he has recorded the name of every family in Blue Lake, the date on which they took up their residence there, where they came from, who they are, and such other valuable and available information as he deems of interest.
Throughout the county Mr. Merriam is regarded as one of the most reliable and trustworthy men in the community, and his prosperity is due entirely to his own efforts and to the confidence that has been reposed in him by his fellow citizens and the resulting patronage that this has brought into his office. He has also been especially successful in all his dealings with the Indians, by whom he is regarded as a true friend and is referred to by them by the familiar name of Joe, which carries with it great respect.

SOPHUS NICOLAI JORGENSEN, M. D.—The man who pursues a purpose with resolute energy usually becomes an important factor in the professional or business circles of his community. In this respect Dr. Jorgensen has not proved an exception to the general rule, for through skill in the practice of medicine and devotion to the demands of the profession he has risen to a position of influence at Fortuna, his headquarters for more than a decade of continued activity and usefulness. It has been his practice to study every modern development in therapeutics. With this end in view he has read current medical literature with interest and concentration of thought and has maintained an active membership in the Humboldt County, California, and American Medical Associations, besides being personally and intimately identified with the American Institute of Homeopathy.

Salt Lake City, Utah, is the native home of the Doctor, and January 4, 1868, the date of his birth, but he has few childhood memories, except such as are associated with San Francisco, the family having established a home there in 1870. Always eager to learn, he proved a diligent and intelligent pupil in the San Francisco schools and when he, had completed the studies of the common branches he turned his attention to medicine with a view to entering upon the duties of that profession. Following an unusually creditable record as a medical student he was graduated from the Hahnemann Hospital College of Medicine in 1897, with the degree of M. D., and has since followed the practice of medicine and surgery, for one year in Nevada City, Cal., and since 1898 in Humboldt county, the first five years in Hydes\Tulle, and since 1903 in Fortuna. Aside from being identified with associations of a professional order he has some social and fraternal associations, notably with the Knights of Pythias and the Eureka Aerie of Eagles.

A. DAMGAARD.—The senior member of the firm of Damgaard & Strain, of Eureka, Humboldt county, Mr. Damgaard has built up a good business in the sale of Napa, Sonoma and other California wines. He has lived in Humboldt county since 1898, most of the time at Eureka, and has made a success in the wholesale liquor trade. Mr. Damgaard came to California in 1894, the year of his arrival in America, and before he went into business on his own account was variously engaged, principally at agricultural work. He is a native of the Isle of Fyen, Denmark, born April 22, 1871, and came to America in 1894, arriving at Omaha, Nebr., on the twenty-third anniversary of his birth. It was also the day Coxey's army reached that point. After spending the summer in Nebraska he continued on to the coast, and for some time was in Contra Costa county, Cal., where he found employment at all kinds of farm work, cattle ranching, general farming, driving teams, bailing hay and operating a threshing machine. In 1898 he came to Humboldt county, making the trip on the steamer Chilcot, and landing at four o'clock on the morning of September 22d. His first location here was at Ferndale, in the Eel river valley, where he remained for two and a half years ; the first year and a half he worked at teaming, breaking marsh land, and did any other work which came to his hand. For six months he was clerk for G. A. Waldner in the Western hotel, Eureka, then for two years was in business in Ferndale. Selling out, he went down to San Francisco, at which place and Oakland he was employed for a year, since when he has been settled at Eureka. Here he has established a family wholesale liquor business in partnership with Mr. Strain, their location being at No. 103 Fifth street.

Mr. Damgaard is a member of the Loyal Order of Moose and of the Eagles fraternity, and his genial disposition has brought him many friends. A lover of sports and outdoor life, he spends six weeks of each year camping out in the mountains of Humboldt county, to hunt and fish, which he enjoys more than any other diversion. Mr. Damgaard is a Republican in his political views, but beyond voting taking little active part in the campaigns.

In 1901 Mr. Damgaard was married at Eureka to Miss Selma SjOblom, of Eureka, who was born in Sweden, and their family consists of two children, Myrtle and Lillian. Mr. Damgaard owns the fine residence at the corner of Clark and E streets which he occupies with his family.

EDWARD BACKENSTOSE, D. V. S.--The distinction of being the oldest veterinary now in active practice in California belongs to Dr. Backenstose, who is well known in Eureka not only as a successful practitioner in his chosen line, but also as a food and sanitary inspector. It seems little less than remarkable that one who was graduated from the New York Veterinary College as early as 1854 should still be engaged in active practice and, notwithstanding the arduous and at times dangerous experiences of the intervening sixty years, should still exhibit the skill characteristic of his earlier days of professional work. During boyhood and youth he saw much of the dark side of life. The death of his parents and his own desolate condition without money or friends made him familiar with sorrow and privation at a time when the majority of boys are care-free. I Te was born at Geneva, Ontario county, N. Y., March 31, 1833, and in 1850 was employed to drive a stage between Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, which places were then still unconnected by any railroad line. Considerable experience in the driving of a stage-coach with all of its hardships and frequent dangers gave him a broad knowledge of life. During the years of such work he developed a love for horses and skill in caring for them. Indeed, it became apparent that he was unusually expert in the selection of remedies for the diseases of all animals and he gained a record so enviable that he was sent for in important cases throughout his section of the country. This led eventually to his course of study in the veterinary college and to his selection of the profession as a life calling.

Practice in the southern states, continued uninterruptedly for a period of years, was interrupted when the Civil war began in 1861. The Doctor, then in New Orleans, hurried back to New York City, there to enlist as a veterinary surgeon in Governor Sprague's Rhode Island regiment. While nominally a veterinary, this did not prevent him from taking an active part in every engagement and he fought at Gettysburg, the Wilderness, Cold Harbor, Antietam and many other battles of strategic importance. His regiment was noted for courage and he was worthy of the command with which he associated. Three times he was wounded in action and to this day he carries a bullet in his body, a memento of that great struggle. During the war he became deeply interested in military tactics and the life of the camp proved so interesting that after he had been honorably discharged he volunteered for service in the regular army. Accepted as a veterinary surgeon in the army, he was assigned to Washington Territory and for fifteen years was stationed at Walla Walla. During this time he served in the Joseph Indian war in Washington and was ordered to Montana, but before his regiment arrived the battle of Little Big Horn had been fought and lost, and it was ordered back to Walla Walla. Finally he resigned from the service and in 1884 came to California, where for seven years he was county veterinary of San Diego county and at the same time built up a large private practice. Since 1892 he has practiced his profession in Eureka, where since 1905 he has served under appointment as food and sanitary inspector and for a number of years also held office as veterinary of Humboldt county. A devoted believer in the principles of Masonry, he was made a Mason in Lake Erie Lodge, A. F. & A. M., in Girard, Pa., in 1860, and is now a member of Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., Humboldt Chapter No. 52, R. A. M., and a charter member of Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T., and also holds membership in Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., San Francisco.

WILLIAM LORD.—Few pioneers surpass Mr. Lord in length of association with the history of Humboldt county, for with the exception of his first eighteen years (1840-58) all of his life has been passed within its limits. During all of this long period, up to 1910, he has been more or less connected with mining enterprises and at various times has owned sixteen different mines on the Klamath river, so that he is as well informed as any man in regard to mines in this section of the state. A member of an old family of New England and himself a native of Carroll county, N. H., •born February 8, 1840, he was seven years old when the family moved across the state line into Maine, settling at Milo, where he received a public-school education and remained until eighteen years of age. So keen was his interest in the west, brought into conspicuous public notice through the discovery of gold, that he determined to seek a livelihood on the Pacific coast and, coming here in 1858 via the isthmus, he settled on the Klamath river in Humboldt county. For a long period he was one of the leading men at Orleans, where he bought six different mining claims, besides conducting a general store and running a pack-train from the bar to Arcata. About 1886 he removed to Arcata and here he has since made his home, now largely retired from business enterprises and enjoying in his advancing years the comforts made possible by former frugality and thrift. At the time of the Indian troubles he was in the midst of the region made perilous for white men, but his own warm friendship for the red men and his long-continued kindness to them seemed to exempt him from any danger whatever at their hands.

In the establishing of domestic ties Mr. Lord chose as a helpmate Miss Eleanor H. Locke, a native of Maine, a woman of fine mind and keen insight into both national issues and domestic problems, and a very active worker in the cause of temperance. Their children, seven in number, are as follows : Oscar William, of Eureka ; Lewis M., bookkeeper for Richard Sweasey, of Eureka ; Wilbur, of El Centro, Cal.; Mrs. Bessie Lytle, of Arcata ; Benjamin Edward, winekeeper for the Humboldt Stevedore Company, Eureka; Frank D., who was accidentally killed by an electric shock at Knight's Landing, in July, 1907 ; and Edward L., of Los Angeles. The eldest son, Oscar William, was born December 4, 1870, at Orleans, Klamath (now Humboldt) county and had a primary education in Arcata, supplementing the same with a course in the Eureka Business College in 1887-88. As a wage-earner he had his first experience as bookkeeper with Baker, Nye & Co., of Arcata. Coming to Eureka in 1891, he entered the employ of the Ricks (now the Eureka) Water Company and has continued with the same concern and its successors ever since. Starting as bookkeeper, he afterwards also became collector and in these capacities became thoroughly familiar with the entire system. On the organization of the Eureka Water Company he was elected secretary in January, 1903, and on the death of W. G. Corbaley in October, 1913, he succeeded him as superintendent. When the system was taken over by the city of Eureka September 1, 1914, he was appointed superintendent of Public Works by the City Council and as such continues superintending the city water works. It is generally conceded that the council could not have made a wiser choice, for his experience with the Eureka water system for nearly a quarter of a century has made him more familiar with the water supply, distribution and the citizens' needs than any other man. The position is one entailing great responsibility, but he has proved equal to every emergency and his management of the water interests has been satisfactory to all interested parties. In fraternal relations he is a member of the Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. Three children, Clarence W., Miriam and Ruth, have been born of his union with Miss Lottie Riddell, a native of San Francisco and a daughter of William S. Riddell, for some years a resident of that city. During 1877 the family came to Humboldt county, where Mr. Riddell had a position with Franklin Ellery for a time, but for ten years afterward he remained in the employ of the John Vance Lumber Company. Removing to Los Angeles in 1893 he has since made his home in that city. Mr. and Mrs. Lord are members of the First Congregational Church of Eureka. For many years he was a member of the board of trustees and since 1906 has been superintendent of the Sunday school. In 1909 he built a comfortable residence at No. 1312 H street, where the family dispense genuine hospitality to their many friends and acquaintances.

LUTHER LEE HOTCHKISS.—Years of experience have given to Mr. Hotchkiss a thorough knowledge of the lumber business and enable him, almost at a glance, to place a correct valuation upon a tract of timber or a block of lumber. Before he came to Humboldt county in 1910 he had worked . in timber regions in different portions of the country both north and south and had been connected with practically every department of the industry from the felling of the trees to the shipping of the lumber. It was shortly after the Civil war that he first began to work in the lumber business and since then he has been connected continuously with the work, rising from a most humble place to one of responsibility and proving his worth to lumber companies time and again in enterprises involving tact, energy, intelligence and shrewd judgment concerning the various grades of lumber. During early life he lived in Connecticut, where he was born in New Haven and educated in the grammar school of Meriden and the high school of New Britain. The first money he ever earned came through work in a factory at Meriden where ivory novelties were manufactured. Later he spent several years in the Hartford office of the William H. Imlay Lumber and Paper Company. On removing to the middle west he found employment in the commission business at Battle Creek and afterward was connected with the money-order department of the American Express Company at Detroit.

The outbreak of the Civil war in 1861 found Mr. Hotchkiss true to the Union and so anxious to enlist in the service that he returned to his old home in Connecticut, where he became a private in Company B, Third Connecticut Infantry, and with the regiment went to the front. The most important engagement in which he bore arms was that of Bull Run. On the expiration of his term of service he received an honorable discharge and returned to Detroit, Mich., where he entered upon a long identification with the Brooks & Adams Lumber Company. In these years of growing experience in the lumber industry he proved his worth to the company employing him. During a long period of busy years he considered Detroit his home, although the demands of the lumber business were such that he was frequently called on long trips to other sections and during 1888 the interests of the yellow pine lumber business took him to Brunswick, Ga. Large enterprises engrossed his attention upon his return to Detroit and later he was connected with timber interests near Green Bay, Wis. Upon coming to Humboldt county in 1910 he entered upon the duties of manager of the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia. Since 1912 he has made Eureka his headquarters and has engaged in the buying and selling of timber lands, for which important work his previous experience admirably qualifies him. Since coming west he has been an active member of the Humboldt Club of Eureka, while prior thereto he became connected with the blue lodge chapter and commandery of Masons at Milwaukee, Wis., and Oasis Temple, N. M. S., at Charlotte, N. C.

By his marriage to Eliza C. Conkie he is the father of a daughter and a son, namely : Marion H., who married Dr. C. C. Cottrell, of Scotia ; and Ray, now living in Oregon and employed at Coos bay in Coos county.

CHARLES EVERDING.—For about a quarter of a century (1868-1892) it was the privilege of Charles Everding to be identified with the business interests of Eureka, where as a partner of Capt. H. H. Buhne in the hardware line, as a leader in movements for the material upbuilding of the town and as a factor in the advance made in every department of local activity, he was counted a representative of that splendid German-American class indispensable to the progress of the west. For years his intelligent and kindly face was familiar to the people of the community. They recognized in him the traits that make for good citizenship and civic loyalty, as well as the intrinsic qualities of character that win and retain friends. Even in the independent financial circumstances of his later years he retained the frugality and industry of his boyhood years and never forgot the training he received in the parental home in Hanover, although after coming to America at the age of twenty-one he never again had the privilege of renewing the associations of early life or of seeing once more the humble cottage familiar to his earliest memories.

An experience in the manufacture of starch at Cincinnati, Ohio, qualified Mr. Everding for the same business, as a partner of his brother, John. in Berkeley, Cal., where he settled during 1862. Six years later he came to Eureka and here he remained until his death in 1892, meanwhile increasingly prominent in business, in social affairs and in the activities of the Odd Fellows.

In Cincinnati, Ohio, December 22, 1851, Mr. Everding was united in marriage with Miss Catherine Kohlman, also a native of Hanover, Germany, and both members of the Lutheran Church. Mrs. Everding survives her husband, and resides at the old home surrounded by the love and tender care of her youngest daughter, Clara A., who lives with her. The two other living children are Louis C., of Arcata, assistant manager of the North Redwood Lumber Company at Korbel, Humboldt county ; and Sarah, the wife of E. Miller, residing at San Jose. Edward Everding, .in early life was bookkeeper in the mill of D. R. Jones and later was the second man to serve as cashier of the Humboldt County • Bank, where his. keen intuition in financial affairs proved of the utmost assistance to the growth of the institution. Active in Odd Fellowship, in banking circles and in business affairs, his death in the year 1894 removed from Eureka one of its leading men and was regarded not only as a distinct loss to his own family, but likewise to the town of his lifelong identification.

AUGUSTUS GUSTAFSON.---A fondness for the life of a sailor and the necessity of earning his own livelihood took Mr. Gustafson to the sea when he was yet a mere lad in his native country of Sweden. Born December 12, 1858, he had traveled in all of the oceans and touched at all of the leading ports of the world before he sailed around the Horn on an English ship which cast anchor in the harbor of San Francisco during 1879. Nor did his experiences on the high seas end with his temporary sojourn in San Francisco, for soon he was induced to enlist in the United States navy, after which he was attached to the battleship Alaska, under Commodore Belknap and continued in the service until the expiration of his time. During the wars in Chile and Peru he engaged in patrol duty on the South American coast. Subsequent to receiving an honorable discharge on Mare Island in January, 1882, he became connected with a dry goods business in San Francisco. A very early experience as a clerk in his native land somewhat qualified him for such enterprises and when he left San Francisco in 1884 it was for the purpose of embarking in a similar venture at Sacramento. The following years brought their share of reverses and encouragement, but it was not until 1897 that he left the capital city for his former headquarters in San Francisco, where he spent some months as manager of a department in the Emporium.

Immediately after his arrival in Eureka during May of 1898 Mr. Gustafson became an employe in the dry goods house of Crocker Bros., and from them he was transferred to the management of the White House dry goods establishment, of which C. C. Dixon & Son were the proprietors. In 1902 he resigned his position in order to embark in business for himself. Opening the Model, a men's furnishing establishment at No. 437 Second street, he carried on a specialty store in Eureka until 1908, since which time he has engaged in the liquor business. For some time he was a member of the Eureka Chamber of Commerce. The Red Cap and Corona De Ora Mining Companies, owners of valuable mines, have his name enrolled on their lists of stockholders, and he has further acted as a director of the Waldner Fruit & Land Company, in which he owns stock.

By his first marriage Mr. Gustafson had three children, Augustus, Jr., Karl and Albert, all living in San Francisco. The present Mrs. Gustafson was formerly Mrs. Flora Davis. The fraternal connections of Mr. Gustafson are numerous and varied, including membership in Court Eureka, Foresters of America ; Knights of the Royal Arch, of which he is past valiant commander ; Eureka Aerie No. 130, of the Eagles ; Eureka Camp No. 652, B. P. 0. E., and the Woodmen of the World, whose local lodge he has helped to develop by personal efforts and by official work as council commander. His interest in the Foresters of America began with his initiation in Court Sacramento No. 12, of which he was past chief ranger in 1889, and since his residence in Humboldt county he has organized Court Ferndale and Court William McKinley at Arcata, had the honor of being elected supreme representative and attended the supreme court held in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1904.

WILLIAM PETER McDADE,--One of the most important industries of Humboldt county is that of ship building, and the ship yards at Fair Haven, across the bay from Eureka, are well known throughout the state, and in fact along the entire coast, as many vessels of importance, and even some little fame, have been constructed there. At present one of the most prominent figures in this great industry is William Peter McDade, who for practically his entire lifetime has been associated with the yards at Fair Haven, and to whom the construction of vessels of various types is as the breath of his life.

Mr. McDade is a native of California, having been born at Fair Haven, August 6, 1880, the son of Hugh and Agnes (Day) McDade, both of New Brunswick, Canada. His father was a ship carpenter, born in St. John, New Brunswick, where he lived for many years and where he was married. He learned his trade there, and followed it for some time, but after his marriage he came to California, hoping to better his financial condition in the west. He arrived here about 1873, locating in Humboldt county, and for many years he and his wife have made their home in Eureka. He is now about sixty-seven years of age, and is employed by his son in the Fair Haven yards as a ship carpenter, in which line he is an expert workman. The parental family numbered four children, three of whom are still living. They are : Edith, now the wife of William Falk, and residing in Eureka ; Nellie, deceased ; William Peter, of whom we write ; and Everett, a ship carpenter employed at St. Helena, Ore.

After completing his education, received in the public schools, Mr. McDade was apprenticed in the H. D. Bendixsen ship yards at Fair Haven, where he served an apprenticeship of five years, mastering all the details of the craft of building ships. Bendixsen was then the foremost ship builder of the vicinity and the Bendixsen ship yards were the first to be located at Fair Haven or in that region, and it is these yards that Mr. McDade now leases from the .Bank of Eureka. The former owners were John Lindstrom, John C. Bull, and Bendixsen. During his ownership of the yards Bendixsen did a thriving business, constructing in all some one hundred six vessels.

Mr. McDade remained steadily with Bendixsen during his ownership of the yards, then with Mr. Bull, and after they were purchased by Lindstrom he was made the superintendent, remaining in this capacity for three years, during which time the following vessels were built : Florence Wood, Daisy Freeman, Tahoe, Yellowstone, Shoshone and Catherine. Of these all were steam schooners except the Florence Wood, an auxiliary cable schooner, which was purchased by the United States government and taken to the Philippines and is still in the government service, laying telegraph cables.

Later Mr. McDade worked for the McCormick Company in the capacity of yard foreman, and while there built the Klamath, a steam schooner with a capacity of one million two hundred thousand feet of lumber, and sixty passengers. The Hammond Lumber Company then leased the yards and ran them for three years, building the Nehalem, the Fort Bragg and the Willamette, 11/r. McDade being their yard foreman during this time. Later this same company, continuing their lease, built the Necanicum, in 1911-1912, and the Mary Olsen in 1912-1913, with Mr. McDade in direct charge as superintendent'of the construction.

It was in 1914 that Mr. McDade leased the yard and engaged in the business of ship building for himself. He has recently completed the building of the Magnolia, a one hundred ton, twin screw gasoline schooner, owned by Capt. Ed Johnson, of Eureka, and also built a seventy-foot barge, beam twenty-six feet, for the Coggeshall Launch Company, of Eureka. The first steamship that Mr. McDade built was the Toledo, owned by the Fay Brothers, and now in Alaskan waters. It was one hundred six feet long, with a twenty-foot beam, and eight-foot hold. He was only twenty-four years old at that time. When he was but twenty-six years of age he was superintendent of the yards with one hundred men under his charge.

The marriage of Mr. McDade took place in San Francisco, May 27, 1901, uniting him with Miss Minnie Murphy, a native of Malone, N. Y. She is the daughter of Peter and Mary (Brady) Murphy, both natives of New York state. The father died in New York, but the mother died in Eureka.

Both Mr. and Mrs. McDade are well known in Fair Haven and in Eureka, where they have many friends. Mr. McDade is recognized as one of the most influential and prominent of the younger generation, and his splendid qualities of heart and mind have won him the confidence and esteem of a wide circle of friends and acquaintances. He is especially well liked by his business associates, including the patrons of his ship yards and the employes, the men in the yards being his most loyal and devoted admirers and friends. Aside from his business associates Mr. McDade is also popular in fraternal circles, where he is associated with several well known orders. He is especially interested in the affairs of the Elks.

MRS. SUSAN STILL.—The life of Mrs. Susan Still, of Eureka, Cal., has been from the first closely associated with the hard conditions attendant upon residence in the sparsely settled portions of our country. Born in Jefferson county, in eastern Tennessee, on October 29, 1831, she was the daughter of Robert L. and Margaret (Haynes) King, the father's family being natives of Virginia, and the mother a descendant of Revolutionary ancestors. With her parents, Mrs. Still removed to Johnson county, Mo., in 1839, and there she grew up and received her education in one of the primitive log school houses characteristic of that time, subsequently adding materially to her store of information by systematic reading, so that she is now a well-informed woman and an interesting conversationalist. Her first marriage occurred in 1847 to John Marr, a native of Missouri. Two years after their marriage he came to California across the plains, engaging in mining for about two years, when he started on the return trip by way of Panama and the Mississippi river. In the meantime he had contracted cholera and he died of this scourge in Illinois in 1851. Mrs. Marr was subsequently married in Missouri, on September 14, 1854, to James E. Still, a native of Bowling Green, Ky. For some time after their marriage they continued to live in Lafayette county, Mo., where Mr. Still was engaged in farming, but later removed to the West, with other members of the King family, among them being Mrs. Still's brother, William W. King, who later became her husband's partner on his farm in Humboldt county, Cal. The journey across the continent, which was made by means of ox-teams and wagons, was of six months' duration, continuing from April 6 to October 6, 1864. Arriving at Sublimity, Ore., the party remained there a year, driving from there to Crescent City, Cal., whence they shipped their goods on the steamer Del Norte to Eureka, they themselves coming down the coast with their stock by trail to Eureka, there being no wagon road at that time. Here Mr. Still and Mr. King rented land, which they farmed until 1868, at which time they purchased the Willowbrook farm of one hundred sixty acres near the mouth of Salmon creek from Captain Ticnor, and commenced clearing and improving the land, and by the addition of adjoining land became the owners of three hundred acres. Until Mr. Still's death they conducted the Willowbrook hotel on their property, Mrs. Still and her brother later giving their attention to dairying interests and the building up of their herd of cows, in that way clearing the estate of mortgage. They conducted the business in partnership until 1901, at which date they removed to Eureka, where they now reside on Harrison avenue, having leased their dairy and herd of sixty cows.

By Mr. Still's first marriage, to Mary Still, who died in Missouri, he had two children, Arabella, who became the wife of Thomas McDaniel and died in Willowbrook, and Alexander Leonidas, of Fields Landing. By his second marriage six children were born and of these three are now living : James H. is an engineer in Eureka ; Roberta was twice married, first to Justin N. Adams, and after his death she became Mrs. McFee and now resides in Canada ; and Louisa H., the wife of Walter Church, resides in Grizzly Bluff. Though now advanced in years, Mrs. Still is hearty and active, and busily engaged in household duties. Since the age of fifteen years she has been a faithful and enthusiastic member of the Baptist Church, and in her political interests is an upholder of the principles of the Democratic party.

ADOLPH BARRY ADAMS.—The son of a California pioneer, but himself a native of Australia, whither his father had gone in answer to the lure of the gold mining excitement, Adolph Barry Adams has yet been a resident of Humboldt county since he was a lad of sixteen, coming here thirty years ago, and is today one of the most progressive and influential citizens of Eureka, where he has made his home for most of his time since locating in California. He is at present engaged in the real estate and insurance business and represents several of the best-known companies, both in life and fire insurance. As would be but natural with one whose faith in the future of Eureka is unqualified, he has invested from time to time in real estate, building and selling several residences, and at present owning several pieces of city property.

Mr. Adams was born at Omeo, Gippsland, Australia, October 28, 1869. His father was St. Clair Adams, a native of County Cavan, Ireland, and a pioneer of Humboldt county, having located here first about 1854. He was then interested with his brother, Barry Maxwell Adams, in gold mining, and they were among the first to land at Humboldt Bay. They engaged for a time in mining with much success, and later took up government land and engaged in the cattle business. At this time they also were interested in packing freight into the Salmon creek gold mines, employing pack trains of mules, and making a success of the enterprise. When the great gold excitement in the early '60s broke out in Australia, St. Clair Adams answered the call, leaving his brother, Barry Maxwell Adams, still in Humboldt county. While in Australia he met and married Miss Marie Craig, of Glasgow, Scotland, and by her had four children, three daughters and one son, Adolph B. Adams, the subject of this sketch. The mother died in Australia and later the father returned to Humboldt county, where he died about twenty-four years ago (1890) and was buried at Weaverville, Trinity county, Cal.

The early life of A. B. Adams was spent in the gold fields at Omeo, Gippsland, Australia. He was a mere boy when his mother died, and at the age of fourteen he determined to go to sea, and secured a berth as a cabin boy on one of Pope and Talbot's vessels, the Locksley Hall. For several years he followed this life, meeting with many and varied experiences, and at the end of that time came to San Francisco, thence to Eureka, where his father had preceded him. He at once secured employment in the lumber mills near Eureka, being first in the employ of Isaac Minor, at Glendale. He did not care for this class of employment, however, and so saved his earnings and took a business course at the old business college, located on Fifth street, Eureka. Completing his course he became a bookkeeper and stenographer, and for a time made this his occupation. In 1892 he first engaged in the insurance business, conducting a public stenographic business in connection with this undertaking for some time, owing to the hard times
which attended the panic of 1892 and 1893, and which made it difficult to establish a new business. His undertaking prospered, however, and at the present time he has one of the best insurance businesses in Eureka.

The fraternal field is also one that has proven of great interest to Mr. Adams and he is a prominent factor in many of the best known organizations in the community. He is secretary of Fortuna Lodge No. 221, I. 0. 0. F.; clerk for the Modern -Woodmen of America, and chief of records for the Improved Order of Red Men, all of Eureka. He is also the commanding officer of the Fifth Division Naval Militia of California, a state military organization of Eureka, composed of seventy-five seamen and two officers.

The marriage of Mr. Adams took place in Eureka in 1902, uniting him with Miss Mae Louisa Nellis, the daughter of James Nellis, one of Eureka's oldest pioneers. Mr. and Mrs. Adams are the parents of three children, Marcel, St. Clair and Adolph Barry, Jr.

Mr. Adams possesses a bright and cheerful disposition, and expresses success naturally. He is enthusiastic about the growth and general welfare of Eureka and never loses an opportunity to give his city and county a boost.
He has a beautiful home on Harris street, where he has a carefully tended lawn with a wealth of flowers which add materially to the beauty and worth of his property. This is the third residence that he has built in Eureka, the two former ones having been sold. Mr. Adams is a conscientious worker, and early and late he may be found in his office ready to give attention to the needs of his patrons and to the affairs of the fraternal orders which he represents. It is this careful attention to detail that has built up his present splendid business, and which has given him his high place in the esteem of his fellow citizens.

FRANK EDWIN CLONEY.—The chief of police of the city of Eureka is a native of the province of New Brunswick, Canada, and was born at New St. Stephen, Charlotte county, December 19, 1870. Like the average youth of the East he received a good public school education. He made the most of every chance and subsequent habits of observation in travel and thoughtfulness in reading have enabled him to become the possessor of a varied fund of information. Leaving home at the age of seventeen he was attracted to the lumber camps of Maine and from there to the logging industries of New Hampshire. Reports received from acquaintances concerning steady employment to be had in the lumber camps of Humboldt county and his keen desire to see the west led him to California in 1888, when he was a youth of eighteen years, and during the next fifteen years he remained an employe of the large lumber interests of this section of the state.

Efficiency in the work of a woodsman, steadiness and sobriety won for Mr. Cloney a high reputation among his associates in the camps, and by degrees he also became well known in the towns, so that his appointment to the police force of Eureka in 1903 was regarded as a merited recognition of his ability. Indeed, so thoroughly did he familiarize himself with the duties of the department and so capable did he prove in their discharge that when he was appointed chief in July, 1907, the people without regard to politics felt pleased with the choice and there has been uniform satisfaction with the efficiency of the department and the success of the force in the maintenance of law and order. Some years after coming west he married Miss Heffren, a native of Arcata, by whom he has a son, Francis. Fraternally he is connected with the Elks and Eagles at Eureka.

GEORGE ALEXANDER CROWE.—One of the great industries of Humboldt county is represented by the dairy business and creamery interests, and prominent among the men interested in these enterprises may be mentioned George A. Crowe, of Eureka, the present manager of the Buhne Dairy Company, one-half -owner in the company. Their offices are located in the Buhne building in Eureka, and they represent one of the most prosperous and sound enterprises in the county.

Mr. Crowe is a native of Indiana, having been born April 1, 1868, near Jeffersonville, Scott county, where his father, Samuel S. Crowe, was a practicing attorney in that region. When the son George was a boy of twelve years the family removed to Texas, locating at Palestine, where the father engaged in farming for about one year. Later the father died there, and the mother and four children came to California, locating in Humboldt county in 1885. An elder sister, Mary, Mrs. Fouts, lived at that time in San Francisco, and the family spent some time there before coming on to Eureka, where they had other relatives (the Ricks) living. The present esteemed citizen of Eureka was the youngest of the four sons, and for a time he worked in Eureka and San Francisco, being variously occupied, but eventually becoming interested in the dairy business. He first began working for the Buhne Dairy Company twelve years ago on delivery, and his success and rise with the company have been almost phenomenal. He was steadily promoted from one position to another, as his splendid qualities were discovered and tried out by the management, and in 1906 he was made the manager of the company. At that time also he purchased a one-half interest in the business, which he retains. Under his capable supervision the scope of the enterprise has materially widened, and the business is steadily increasing in value. The company obtains all the milk and cream from the Buhne Dairy ranch, and the product stands the highest test for sanitary condition and quality.

The marriage of Mr. Crowe occurred in San Francisco in 1897, uniting him with Miss Clara Taylor, a native of Eureka, and the daughter of Frank Taylor, a pioneer of Humboldt county. She has borne her husband three children, Dorothy, Donald and Clarence.

Aside from his success as a business man, Mr. Crowe is deservedly popular wherever he is known. He is an influential member of Humboldt Lodge No. 77, I. 0. 0. F., being past grand, and is past chief patriarch of Mount Zion Encampment. He is also a member of the Canton of Odd Fellows, of which he is clerk. In politics he is a Republican, and is especially interested in all that pertains to the welfare of his home city and county. He is wide awake to the best interests of the community, standing foursquare for the right and is always well in the forefront of any movement which stands for the betterment of conditions of public weal.

JEFFERSON R. LANE.—The beautiful city of Eureka is one of the most important ports along the northern California coast, and the number of vessels putting in at this point has created a demand for trade conditions and conveniences of service of many kinds. One of the successful business men of the place who has made a specialty of work for the marine trade is Jefferson R. Lane, proprietor of the Marine Iron Works, which are equipped for a large variety of machine work, but particularly for repairs on vessel machinery. The recognized reliability of his establishment has brought him much responsible work, and he has never failed the patrons who rely upon him for conscientious attention to their needs. Considerable general machine work is also done, including automobile repairing, and Mr. Lane has the agency for the Rambler motor cars.

Mr. Lane is a Kentuckian by birth, and in both paternal and maternal lines belongs to old-established families of his native state, prominent in her politics and government affairs. He was born at Louisville August 11, 1861, and having lost both his parents by death in 1865 made his home during the next six or seven years with his maternal aunt, Louisa Butler, in that city. His independent career began at the early age of eleven years, when he left home and went west to Denver, Colo., later spending some time at Leadville, then in its pioneer days. Though so young when he started out for himself he was prudent with his earnings and managed to save a little. Some years later he went to Arizona, where he followed gold mining very successfully, laying the foundation for a competence by his profitable operations there. In 1903 he settled at Eureka, Humboldt county, Cal., where he has since been doing business, his principal interest being in the Marine Iron Works, located on First street. There he has a splendidly equipped plant, completely fitted with the most modern lathes, drills and other iron working machinery, and a corps of efficient employees capable of handling the most difficult automobile or marine engine work. He handles the Exide storage battery and makes a specialty of storage battery repairs and recharging. A large share of the business consists of expert repairing on automobiles, and he carries a large stock of automobile accessories. But the most important work is the repairing of marine and stationary gas engines, for which this establishment has no rival in skill and expert service. Aside from his interest in the works Mr. Lane holds stock in the Holmes Lumber Company at Eureka. In all his associations, business or social, he has gained a reputation for high personal qualities which accounts for the confidence of his fellow citizens and the respect which he commands wherever known.

NICHOLAS J. NILSEN.—Prominent among the dairymen of Humboldt county, and especially of the vicinity of Eureka, may be mentioned Nicholas J. Nilsen, who is owner and manager of the Bucksport dairy, one of the most thoroughly modern and best equipped dairies in the community. Here the latest sanitary methods are employed, and here an especially high standard of excellence in every department and detail is maintained. Mr. Nilsen has been a resident of Humboldt county since 1885 and has been variously employed during the intervening years and the time that he first engaged in the dairy business. He is a brother of O. Nilsen, proprietor of the grocery firm of 0. Nilsen & Co., of Eureka, and both of the brothers are regarded as citizens of the highest type and are highly esteemed wherever they are known.

N. J. Nilsen is a native of Norway, and was born at Mandal June 30, 1855. His father, Nils Christian Nilsen, a tailor by trade, died when this son was but twelve years of age. His mother, Johanna Christine Nilsen, bore her husband seven children, of whom all but the two sons now residing at Eureka died when still very young. After the death of the father the burden of support fell largely on the shoulders of the twelve-year-old Nicholas, and he was obliged to work very hard during his entire boyhood. In fact he had commenced working when he was but seven years of age, being employed in the match factory at Mandal. He attended the public schools and was confirmed in the Lutheran Church at the age of fourteen. The following year he went to sea as a ship's cook on a sailing schooner, but did not like the work and later secured employment in a sawmill, where he remained for two years. He then again went to sea, being engaged in the lumbering business, carrying lumber from his native land to Denmark on sailing sloops. His next berth was on a three-mast barkentine, which sailed between England, Ireland and American ports, and in this connection he paid his first visit to America, landing at Baltimore, Md., when he was seventeen years of age. Returning to England, he was wrecked off the west coast of Ireland, and his escape from death was almost miraculous. He afterwards sailed to Australia, England, France, Sweden, Denmark, Spain, Portugal, the Mediterranean Sea ports, South America and North America, continuing to follow the fortunes of the sailor until 1883. In the meantime, in 1880, he had married at Mandal Miss Magen Gunderson, whose father was a sailor and ship carpenter, at which trade Mr. Nilsen had worked for two years.

It was in 1885 that Mr. Nilsen came to California and located in Humboldt county. His brother, 0. Nilsen, whose sketch also appears in this edition, had come west the previous year, and his reports of the opportunities offered in the new country were. such as to make the elder brother anxious to make the change and settle here. Leaving his wife in Norway (where she remained for five years before joining him in California), he arrived in Eureka in May, 1885, and very soon he found work as a carpenter. He helped to build the Minor mill at Glendale, and also helped to get out the necessary timbers, but overwork broke down his health, so that for a year he was unable to do anything. Upon recovering he and his brother and brother-in-law (Hans Gunderson, who had come to California with him) cleared and grubbed land under contract, meeting with an appreciable success. In 1890 his wife joined him, and they settled in Eureka. Mr. and Mrs. Nilsen were the parents of one child, a daughter, Johanna, born in the mother country. She came with her mother to California, where she died at the age of thirteen years. Mr. Nilsen had been engaged in the pursuit of his trade as a carpenter, but after the death of his daughter he engaged in dairying on Mad river. Later he moved to Bayside and again rented a dairy farm, meeting with much success in this new undertaking. From there he came to Buck-sport, in the fall of 1502, and rented Henry Deering's dairy ranch of one hundred seventy acres. In 1912 he bought his present place on the historic site of old Fort Humboldt, where he owns seven lots, and where he has built a handsome bungalow of seven rooms, with all modern improvements and conveniences. On this location General Grant was in command during the winter of 1853-54. Mr. Nilsen has also built a large dairy barn which is the most modern in scientific and sanitary construction, and which has accommodations for forty mulch cows. His ultimate intention is to install the latest scientific milker and other modern improvements for dairying. This site is especially desirable for a home place, as it is within reach of Eureka by electric car service, and is on a high plateau overlooking Humboldt bay, with a magnificent sweep of scenery.

Both Mr. and Mrs. Nilsen have many friends in the county and especially in Eureka and vicinity. They are members of the Norwegian and Danish Methodist Episcopal Church, where they take an active part in the denominational activities. Mr. Nilsen is well liked wherever he is known and his business integrity is acknowledged to be above question. During the early years of his life, and even for a few years after he came to California, he was beset with many difficulties and met with discouraging reverses and misfortunes ; but within later years he has been prosperous and successful, and today is one of the influential and progressive men of the vicinity where he lives.

HUMBOLDT BREWING COMPANY.—The history of the Humboldt Brewing Company dates back to experiences that involved its stockholders in financial losses and made the plant a losing factor in the industrial development of Eureka, but recent years have witnessed a change in the entire mode of operation and new owners with new methods of manufacture and with the most modern devices of equipment have transformed the hitherto unprofitable investment into a popular and profitable enterprise. The Humboldt Brewing Company is headed by the Zobeleins of Los Angeles, the officers being as follows : George Zobelein, president ; Edward Zobelein, vice-president ; William Kramer, secretary ; and Philip Zobelein, treasurer.

The early history of the brewery shows a frequent change of ownership and a complete lack of success. The first step toward later success occurred with the purchase of the plant, then known as the Eureka brewery and situated on First street, by John U. Haltinner, July 8, 1895, seven years after which A. Johnson became a partner. During the summer of 1904 Messrs. Palmatag and Cressman bought the grounds forming the site of the present brewery on Broadway. They began to build and had the brewery perhaps one-half completed when discord arose between them and they sold out to Max Kuehnrich of Los Angeles, who purchased the plant. January 17, 1905, Messrs. Johnson and Haltinner, who owned two small brewing plants, sold them to Mr. Kuehnrich, and in 1905 the present company was incorporated and took over the plant. In 1907, when the Zobeleins acquired the Los Angeles Brewing Company plant, they also acquired the Humboldt Brewing Company plant. In March, 1911, John R. Hagen, after a long experience with the Los Angeles Brewing Company, brewers of the famous East Side beer, was transferred to Eureka and given charge of the plant, and since the advent of Mr. Hagen as manager the output has been increased and the business has doubled in volume, with every prospect for continued development under his capable supervision. Only one-fourth of the capacity of fifty thousand barrels is in use at present, so that the plant will bear a remarkable expansion of business before its capacity will be exhausted, and there is every reason to believe that with such a manager as 1\Ir. Hagen progress will be permanent and development assured. The company manufactures exclusively for wholesale and retail dealers in Humboldt county and bottlers and distributors elsewhere. Purity is the watchword of the concern and its manager has been called the "patron of purity" on account of his determination to turn out nothing but a pure product. He exercises the greatest care in purchasing malt or hops and in employing a competent brewer, nor is he less concerned as to the purity of the water used in the manufacture of the beer. To provide this requisite the company bored its own wells and regularly makes tests for the purpose of preserving the uniformity necessary to satisfy not only its own code of purity, but as well its maintenance of a commercial standard. Through the alert and efficient management, the plant has been developed from a losing proposition to a valuable unit in the industrial prosperity of Eureka.

HARRY A. PERRY.—Prominently identified with the growth and upbuilding of Humboldt county is Harry A. Perry, who is a native son of California, born near Napa, Napa county, April 28, 1879, and he attended the public schools of Napa and Sonoma counties. His father, James Martin Perry, was a native of Switzerland, in 1866 coming to California, where he married Ida Farsblade, a native of Sweden, and settled on a farm in Napa county. In the fall of 1895 he came to Humboldt, but within a year returned to Sonoma county. In 1897 he returned to Humboldt county and since then has been a resident of the Eel river valley. Here he was employed on dairy ranches and gained his experience in the work that was to be his means of livelihood in after years. In 1907 he rented the present ranch on the island in Eel river, consisting of fifty-five acres of improved land. Twenty acres of the land he cleared and fenced off into sections of six-acre tracts. He is at the present time actively engaged in dairying and is interested in the breeding of a fine line of graded Jersey stock, having thirty of the finest cows in the county. He is a member of the Ferndale Cow Testing Association, president of the Humboldt County Dairymen's Association and is a director of the Farm Bureau of Humboldt county. He has passed through all the chairs of the Knights of Pythias and is at the present time deputy grand chancellor of the local lodge. He has always been actively interested in matters pertaining to the Republican party and is ready at all times to aid any movement that has for its object the good of the community. He is an ardent member of the Presbyterian church.

Mr. Perry was united in marriage with Leila Lucretia Hansen, a native of Ferndale, Humboldt county, having been born here January 20, 1885. Their marriage took place in Ferndale December 4, 1907, and of their union there have been three children, Evelyn Aileen, Gordon E., now deceased, and Dorothy Isabel. Mrs. Perry is the eldest daughter of George C. Hansen, who was born in Iowa and came to Humboldt county in the' early '70s. He purchased a farm which he cleared and improved and engaged in the dairy business. In Ferndale he married Miss Lucretia Hall, a native of Michigan. They are retired, making their home at Point Kenyon. Mr. Perry is a successful and enterprising young man, one who is progressive, industrious and very public spirited.

OSCAR NILSEN.—Among the most desirable citizens that come to America from foreign shores there is no question but that the Scandinavians rank well at the head of the line, their industry, honesty, sobriety, and general high class of natural ability leaving little to be desired. Such an one is Oscar Nilsen, of Eureka, at present one of the most prominent general grocers that the city supports, and a man of sterling qualities of mind and heart. He came to America many years ago and has acquired his splendid business through his own efforts, ably assisted by his wife, and later by his children, all of whom are highly esteemed wherever they are known.
Mr. Nilsen is a native of Mandal, Norway, where he was born August 17, 1857. His father, Nils Christian Nilsen, was a tailor by trade, but he died August 12, 1866, when Oscar was but nine years of age. His mother, Johanna Christine (Jensen) Nilsen, thus left a widow with two small children (there being another son, Nicolai Johan Gustav, two years older than Oscar, who is now a dairyman at Eureka) was beset with difficulties to provide for the needs of her little family, and Oscar started to work in a match factory when he was but nine years of age. He was educated and confirmed in the Lutheran church, and when he was fifteen years of age he went to sea as a sailor, following this line of occupation until he was twenty-two years of age. He sailed on various Norwegian ships for several years, and later engaged in - sailing in the coasting trade on the eastern coast of North America. During that time he visited practically all the principal ports of England, Holland, Germany, Belgium, Scotland, the North Sea, the Atlantic coast of Canada and the United States and the Gulf of Mexico. Finally chance sent him to Hull, England, and while there he married Miss Theodora R. Gabrielsen, a native of Mandal, Norway, and together they returned to their native city. While in England Mr. Nilsen had been in correspondence with an old schoolmate, James Osmundsen, who was engaged in bridge building in Humboldt county, Cal., and he became desirous of coming to California to make his home. Accordingly he left his wife in Norway and made the journey alone, coming by way of Philadelphia, and from there crossing the continent to San Francisco. From there he came to Eureka, arriving July 16, 1884. Three years later Mrs. Nilsen joined her husband and since that time they have made their home in Eureka.

Mr. Nilsen first found employment in the lumber camps and saw mills, working for a time at Korbel, and later in the shingle mills at Eureka. When the mills finally closed he took contracts to clear land, meeting with much success in this undertaking, in which for a time he was in partnership with his brother, they employing often as many as six men. After his wife came and they were located in Eureka, Oscar Nilsen was employed for two years as a longshoreman. Later he was employed as, deliveryman for J. H. Trost, in the grocery business, and there learned much of the detail of that business. For five years he worked in a feed and seed house, and later for a feed, seed and farm implement house for another period of five years. Sixteen years ago he engaged in business for himself in partnership with A. R. Abrahamsen, under the firm name of 0. Nilsen & Company, and as such has continued to do business continuously since. The firm makes a specialty of staple and fancy groceries, hay, grain and seeds, enjoying a large and splendid patronage. They soon purchased the corner of Fifth and A streets and eight years ago they erected a two-story structure which is occupied entirely by their business. Even this has proved inadequate and in addition to it they now rent space on A street for their feed and hay business. They also deal extensively in seeds, carrying a large and assorted stock of garden, grass and farm seeds, without doubt the largest and most complete line of seeds carried by any dealer in Humboldt county. They conduct both a retail and wholesale trade and are modern, up-to-date and progressive in all their business methods and pride themselves in carrying only the highest grade of stock.

The home life of Mr. and Mrs. Nilsen has been especially happy. They are the parents of ten children, and lost one child .in infancy. These children are all grown and are a credit to the community, being, like their parents, intelligent above the average, industrious and progressive men and women, and well and favorably known in Eureka. They take an active part in the affairs of the community, being interested in social, religious and fraternal affairs, and all are engaged in business pursuits. In this they are closely associated with their father, who is a prominent member of the Norwegian Nordmanna Literary Society. Of the children we mention the following: Sigurd H., who is the buyer for the grocery department of 0. Nilsen & Company, married Miss Della Miner of Ferndale, and they have two children, Margaret and Baby ; Margaret N. is the wife of Ben Anderson, of  Eureka, and the mother of two children, Benhard and Clarence ; Carl 0. is an employe of his father's establishment ; Nellie is the wife of Harold W. Hansen of Eureka, who owns and operates a machine shop on D street; Thomas, Joseph, Minnie (Mrs. Marcussen), Selma, Richard and Oscar, complete the family.

JOHN H. BLOEMER.—A representative type of the sterling men in Arcata is found in John H. Bloemer, proprietor of a flourishing laundry business which he inaugurated thirty years ago. So much of his life has been passed in the west that he might well be called a typical westerner, but nevertheless he was born and reared in the east and had also acquired his first business experience there. His earliest memories are of St. Louis, Mo., where he was born August 12, 1854, the son of parents who were able to give him good educational advantages. Appreciating his opportunities, he studied diligently in the public schools and later took a business course in Jones's College, and was thus equipped theoretically for the duties which he was to take up later. Opportunity offered a position as clerk in a grocery store in St. Louis, and he filled it acceptably for three years, in the meantime saving his earnings as a nest egg for future enterprises. A part of his earnings was spent in the trip to California in 1876, and he considers the money well expended, for life in the west opened up to him possibilities that in the east he had never dreamed of. Coming direct to Arcata, Humboldt county, he was engaged in mining at Orleans Bar for about a year, when he left the Klamath river for the Salmon river, there buying an interest in the Andrew Baer mine. This he operated until 1882, and after selling it to William Bennett he returned to Arcata, which has been his home ever since. After his return he bought a block of land and erected his present residence. For a time he was in the employ of the Jolly Giant Mill Company, but in 1885 he resigned his position to start an enterprise which he believed could be developed into a thriving business. In his surmise he was correct, for the small hand laundry which he started at that time he has seen develop into an up-to-date establishment which has no equal in the city. It was maintained as a hand laundry until 1896, in which year it was equipped with steam, and from time to time since then improvements have been added in modern machinery and the latest devices for turning out immaculate linen. All departments of the work are equipped with steam power, and the purest of water is supplied from a deep well on the premises. Mr. Bloemer takes great pride in the business which he has built up, and he has reason to be proud of his success, for he has spared neither effort nor means in his determination to serve his customers faithfully and well.

Mr. Bloemer's first marriage occurred at Orleans Bar, in 1876, uniting him with Miss Minnie Baer, who survived until 1883, and at her death in that year left four children. The eldest, John H., resides in Seattle, Wash., where he holds a position as engineer ; F. W. maintains an automobile service in San Francisco; C. W. is engaged in the real estate business in Bakersfield ; and Rose is auditor in the Union Savings Bank in Oakland. Mr. Bloemer's second marriage was solemnized in Arcata and united him with Miss May E. Hammitt, a native of Oregon, and of this marriage there is one child, Grace. For much that Mr. Bloemer has been able to accomplish in later years he gives credit to his wife, who is a woman of unusual business ability and sterling worth and has been of great assistance in furthering his interests. Fraternally Mr. Bloemer is a member of the Knights of Pythias, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and he also belongs to the affiliated order of Rebekahs. In politics he is an independent Democrat.

HON. WILLIAM KEHOE.—Politics in the hands of a man like Senator Kehoe is a straightforward matter requiring earnestness of purpose and energy of temperament ; with him, politics never descends to partisanship, but partakes of the elements of statesmanship and contains the loftiest patriotism of spirit. More than a decade before a Progressive party had been formed in California he had put forward as his favorite principles such measures as lie at the basis of that organization. On these principles he had rested his policy as a citizen, as a lawyer and as a public official. With their aid he has become known for largeness of views and breadth of civic vision. In various bills and measures they have taken visible form, always for the well-being of the state and the advancement of its citizens.
A lifelong resident of Northern California and of the coast country, William Kehoe was born at Greenwood, Mendocino county, September 12, 1876, and at the age of seven years in 1883 accompanied other members of the family to Humboldt county, where he completed a public school education. From early life he directed his studies with the law as his objective occupation, and the consummation of his hopes, as well as the beginning of his professional responsibilities, came with his graduation in 1899 from the law department of the University of Michigan. During the same year he was admitted to practice in the courts of California. Returning to Eureka, he opened an office in this city, where he has since risen to merited prominence as a lawyer and public man, and where also he has participated in business as vice-president of the Alderpoint Development Company and secretary of the Mattole Development Company. His family consists of his wife, Mrs. Ella (Cook) Kehoe, a native of the town of Wiconisco, Pa., and one son, Harold B. Elected to the state assembly from the second California district in 1908, he served with efficiency. At the expiration of his term he was reelected to the assembly and was chosen chairman of the judiciary committee. In 1912 he was elected senator from the first senatorial district and in the session of 1913 he acted as chairman of the committee on corporations, a member of the judiciary committee and a worker on five other committees of importance, meanwhile introducing and taking a very prominent part in the passage of the immigration bill, the water conservation bill and the forestry bill, all measures vitally close to the permanent welfare of the state and the best interests of the people.

DANIEL HALLARAN.—Of the officials who are engaged in looking after the welfare of Eureka none is more earnest in his endeavors than Daniel Hallaran, who since January, 1861, has resided here, and now represents the first ward as a member of the city council. He has been associated with the Vance Lumber Company and its successors, the Hammond Lumber Company, since" 1867, originally as foreman of the mill and yards until the mill was destroyed by fire, and since that time as manager of the local yard.

Of Irish birth and ancestry, born August 8, 1840, Mr. Hallaran was only five years of age at the time he was brought to the United States, and during boyhood he was a pupil in the public schools of Springfield, Mass. At the age of fifteen, in 1855 he went to sea, shipping in the whaling bark Montezuma. From New Bedford he cruised around the Western or Azore Islands after whales for about three months, touching at Fayal Harbor several times for water. After capturing two whales they started for the Rio de la Plata, where they captured a large sperm whale. They then put in at St. Catharina, Brazil, for water, and started for a trip around the Horn,'intending to cruise in the Arctic, but in a storm off the Rio de la Plata the bark sprung a leak and the captain headed her for New Bedford, while the crew worked the pumps the entire way. During the year 1856 Mr. Hallaran shipped as a boy on the clipper ship John Gilpin from New York city, bound for San Francisco around Cape Horn, the voyage of one hundred fifty days being passed without special incident. Its most exciting moment was the hour of landing in San Francisco (in the fall of 1856), then in the throes of the civic upheaval caused by the vigilance committee. Shipping in the United States revenue cutter Jeff Davis for Puget Sound, he witnessed many exciting scenes during the Indian troubles in Washington and saw the great Indian chief Lushi brought on board the ship in double irons, a prisoner, to be consigned to authorities at Olympia. Six months were spent in the northwest in the United States service and during that period he saw much of the country, passing through Seattle when it was an insignificant hamlet of three hundred persons.

Returning to San Francisco from Washington and exchanging government service for industrial pursuits, Mr. Hallaran found employment in the oil and camphor distillery of R. F. Knox located on Rincon point, in what is now South San Francisco, and continued there until the works were shut down. He then found work in a sawmill back of Redwood City, remaining there until he started for the mines at Oroville, Butte county. During 1858 he followed the stream of mining emigration to the Frazier river, but soon returned to the Oroville mines. Next he went to Siskiyou county and mined on the Klamath river, but he was not very successful. The winter of 1859-60 was spent in Stockton. The first trip he ever made to Eureka occurred in January of 1861, when he found a small seaport village whose entire business was concentrated on First street. After working for a lumber concern for some months in 1862 he went to the Salmon river of the north and engaged in prospecting, thence to Elk City and from there went on to the Big Hole excitement, where he prospected about three weeks when the stormy season came on and he had to get out of there on account of the snow. Returning to Elk City, he mined until the end of the season, and then made his way back to Eureka in the fall of the same year, resuming employment in his former capacity. When he left the second time it was for the purpose of revisiting his old home in the east, but after he had spent the greater part of 1864 in Massachusetts he returned to Eureka and secured a position in the mill of the Dolbeer-Carson Lumber Company. Very early in 1866 he again left for the mines, this time spending almost two years at Idaho City, and returning in October of 1867 to establish a permanent home at Eureka. During the more than half a century he has been associated with the business interests of Eureka Mr. Hallaran has been optimistic for its future and his investments have proven the wisdom of his judgment. He is now in the afternoon of life and in possession of valuable property which gives him an ample income. Several times he had worked here and as many times sought other places temporarily, only to come back to the seaport town of Humboldt county with an affectionate longing for the quiet place of his former association. These trips into various parts of the country had given him a healthful life in the open and stimulated his love of nature, at the same time lending the color of romance to his young manhood, but as a permanent abiding place he has been content to select Eureka, on Humboldt Bay, and here he has lived busily and happily ever since his marriage in 1867. The people honor him for his worth of character and integrity of life.

In the Democratic party Mr. Hallaran has been prominent and a local leader, however his election to the city council was made on the independent ticket in 1907, 1909, 1911 and 1913 and he is now serving his fourth term. He has been a firm believer in municipal ownership of public utilities and was always in favor of the city buying and operating the water works. Since becoming a member of the council he has had opportunity to enlist the aid of others, the result being the calling of an election in which the people voted the bonds necessary and the purchase of the water system was accomplished, thus giving the city and people a valuable asset that is continually enhancing in value. In addition he also served as library trustee for some time. By his marriage to Mary O'Brien he became the father of ten children. Mary is the wife of John Clancy ; Nora died in her nineteenth year ; John is an electrician ; Daniel is employed at the Toggery ; Arthur died when twenty-six years of age ; Frank and Esther were twins ; the former died at twenty-five years and Esther is now Mrs. Peters of San Francisco; George is a resident of Fort Bragg ; Alfred and Edmund are twins, the former assistant manager of the Hammond Lumber Company yards, while the latter is employed in the United States Engineer's office in Eureka. Mr. Hallaran was bereaved by the death of his beloved wife and helpmate January 29, 1915.

During Mr. Hallaran's first term as councilman the mayor and council issued a signed invitation to Mr. Harriman, president of the Southern Pacific Railroad, to visit Eureka in the hope of interesting him to the point of extending the road from the south into Eureka. This was the beginning of a movement that culminated in the completion of the railroad to Eureka in October, 1914.

MATTHEW SHELBOURN.—The residents of the Mattole valley felt that they had a welcome acquisition to their numbers and a real social gain when Mr. and Mrs. Matthew Shelbourn settled among them in the year 1897, and the friendliness they were first met with has never diminished. Their home is three and a half miles south of Petrolia, on what was formerly the Collins ranch, where Mr. Shelbourn is engaged principally in the stock business. A native of England, he was born July 16, 1866, in Belton, Lincolnshire, and his parents, William and Ann (Singleton) Shelbourn, were also born in that country and died there. The father, a carpenter and builder by calling, lived to the age of seventy-eight years, dying in 1904; the mother passed away in. 1906, when seventy-three years old. They had a family of ten children, six sons and four daughters, nine of whom reached maturity and only two of whom are in the United States. Mr. Shelbourn's sister, Charlotte Shelbourn, makes her home with himself and wife.
Matthew Shelbourn grew up in his native country and acquired a good education in the public and private schools of Lincolnshire. When he began to work he engaged as a gardener in the employ of Lord Brownlow, and at the age of twenty-one years entered the railway service, at first as porter at the stations, gradually working his way through various promotions until he became conductor, on the Great Northern railway line. Altogether he was in railroad work ten years, until he came to America, in the fall of 1897. Meantime he had married, and his wife had two bachelor uncles who owned and lived upon the ranch now occupied by the Shelbourns, George and Joseph Collins, at whose urgent request Mr. and Mrs. Shelbourn left England for this country. They were accompanied to California by Mrs. Shelbourn's mother and brother. The Collins brothers had acquired possession of about seven hundred acres of ranch land in the Mattole valley district of Humboldt county, and besides operating the same the younger, Joseph, acted for several years as assistant keeper at the Cape Mendocino lighthouse, situated off the most westerly point on the mainland of the United States. They were well and favorably known citizens of their section of the county, the Mattole and Eel river valleys, and their sister, Mrs. Gilbert, and her daughter and son-in-law, the Shelbourns, were hospitably received into the life of the community, into which they entered heartily. George and Joseph Collins are now deceased, and their property is now owned by Mr. and Mrs. Shelbourn, who have maintained high standing among their fellow citizens by their substantial character and many admirable qualities.

Forest View Farm, as the ranch is appropriately named, is located on Mattole river about three miles south of Petrolia and besides being supplied by the Mattole is well watered by numerous mountain springs and streams, one of these having two natural water falls of fifty and twenty-five feet respectively. From the pool above the lower falls is obtained the water supply for domestic use by piping a distance of about eight hundred feet, thus giving the purest of mountain water. In 1906 a new residence was erected, which is large and commodious and modern in all its appointments. The larger portion of the ranch is open grazing land with smaller areas studded with fir, pine, laurel or pepperwood and tanoak, and it is further beautified by profuse growths of many varieties of ferns including the maidenhair. The ranch takes its name from the beautiful view of the forests on all sides, a gem in its beautiful setting.

At Peterborough, England, June 17, 1895, Mr. Shelbourn was married, being united with Miss Alice Gilbert, a native of Peterborough. She is the daughter of William and Kezia (Collins) Gilbert, natives of Sibsey, Lincolnshire. The father was an engineer on the Great Northern Railway until his death at the age of forty-six, and as stated above her mother now makes her home with Mrs. Shelbourn. Of the three children born to Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert only two are living, Mrs. Shelbourn and her brother, Charles William Gilbert, who is assisting Mr. Shelbourn in his cattle raising enterprise. Mr. and Mrs. Shelbourn had one child, Edward, who died in infancy. They are firm believers in the principles of the Republican party, believing that its policy is for the best interests of the whole country. The family are members of St. Mary's Episcopal Church at Ferndale. Mr. Shelbourn is a member of Active Lodge No. 379, Ferndale, and Mattole Lodge No. 92, K. P., at Petrolia, of which he is past chancellor commander and as a delegate attended the Grand Lodge at San Francisco in 1915. He has always been interested in the cause of education and is serving as a member of the board of trustees of the Petrolia school district.

GEORGE ALEXANDER KNIGHT.—The genealogy of the Knight family is traced back to the colonial period of New England history and thence to substantial ancestry in England. Records, whose accuracy has been emphasized by the traditions of successive generations as well as the written accounts of the period, indicate that the family had patriotic participation in the Revolutionary war. Even now there are many of the name within the borders of New England, but the greater number have sought the larger opportunities of the middle west or the Pacific coast country. High among them all, adding prestige to a name honored throughout the entire history of our nation, but particularly worthy as the artificer of his own fortunes and the winner of his own success, is George Alexander Knight, the silver-tongued orator of California, the man of intellectual powers well reinforced by integrity of purpose, the citizen whose patriotic plans promote progressive legislation and the eloquent and tactful standard-bearer of the Republican party through many stormy convention sessions memorable in politics and decisive in results. His parents, George H. and Elizabeth Knight, the former a native of Providence, R. I., and the latter of St. Andrew's, New Brunswick, Canada, lived during the early part of their married life at Worcester, Mass., and there his birth occurred July 24, 1851. When two years of age he was brought to California, where the family established a home at Eureka, Humboldt county, and where his father conducted the first hotel for many years, meanwhile endeavoring to promote the development of the community and direct attention to latent local resources. In the sports on the playground of the Eureka grammar school the boy proved to be a recognized leader. In the schoolroom he stood at the head of his classes. So generous was he in heart, so bright in mind, so honorable in soul and so tactful in friendship that he became popular in every circle. Older people predicted a future of great promise for him, for they recognized his admirable endowment of intellect.
The advantages of the Oakland high school and three years in Oakland College supplemented a grammar-school course of study and enabled Mr. Knight in 1870 to take up the study of law with a substantial substratum of classical education. In selecting the law for his profession he was singularly fortunate in appreciating the bent of his talents. • His fine mind assimilated the theories and practices of the law with facile readiness. Nor was he less quick in his processes of logical reasoning. With the swiftness of lightning he grasped a case in all of its intricacies. Combined with this facility of mental grasp there was an ease of expression, a fluency of language, that even in early youth marked him as about to enter upon a career of promise and professional prominence. To such an one admission to the bar with honors was a foregone conclusion of his studies. It was also to be anticipated that in his six years of service as district attorney his powers should be expanded, his knowledge of the law broadened and his ability to conduct difficult cases increased. Even in those early years he had aligned himself as a stanch supporter of the Republican party, but he allowed no partisan influence to detract from the success of his administration as district attorney, in which capacity his official opinions were regarded as of great value and he exercised his influence toward the righting of wrongs that interfered with the functions of government. In the prosecution of criminals he displayed remarkable efficiency and at that early date gave evidence of the splendid legal abilities that afterward brought him to the front of his profession in the west. "Our George," the people of Humboldt county then learned to call him and in this way they still affectionately refer to him. During that period he laid the foundation of his later influence and proved himself unexcelled in the administration of our criminal laws.

With the campaign of Hon. George C. Perkins for governor of California on the Republican ticket, Mr. Knight suddenly sprang into prominence, and from that year (1879) to the present (1914) he has been one of the leading orators and statesmen of the west. It was a source of pride to his admirers in Humboldt county that his remarkable oratorical ability, cif which they had been fully aware, should take the entire state by storm during a memorable campaign that brought into prominence every gifted orator in the state. Of all the speakers who went forth to "stump" the state for Mr. Perkins none was more effective or popular than the young orator from Humboldt county and Mr. Perkins always gave to him much of the credit for his gratifying victory at the polls. In appreciation of his work the governor and party leaders urged him to become a candidate for congress the following year, but the Democratic party was then in the ascendancy, and their candidate, Charles P. Berry, defeated Mr. Knight. What seemed a defeat, however, proved to be the greatest good fortune of his life, for it caused him to determine to devote himself to the law and to relinquish all office-seeking allurements, and to that decision may be attributed his subsequent eminence at the bar. Removing to San Francisco and opening a law office, he soon became known as one of the best-posted lawyers in the western metropolis, where the firm of Knight & Heggerty long has held rank with the leaders of the profession and has retained the clientage of some of the wealthiest litigants of the period, besides taking part in many of the most famous criminal and civil cases in the state's history. Indeed the reputation of the firm is practically national in its scope.
There are many attorneys (and among them Mr. Knight himself) who consider his greatest legal forensic effort to have been his address on the final trial of Josh Hamlin, charged with the murder of John Massey. Ham= lin, convicted of murder in the first degree, but granted a new trial, lost his attorney by death, and Judge Toohey appointed Mr. Knight to defend the accused man at the new trial. The talented Henry Edgerton was on the opposing side. It would have seemed almost folly to attempt the defense of a case in which the opponent was an attorney so famed for logic and eloquence, but by a succession of court battles Mr. Knight managed to save the life of his client, who escaped with a light sentence. This trial in 1882 enhanced the reputation previously made by the rising young attorney, who later became even more prominent through the subsequent defense of Dr. Llewellyn Powell, charged with the murder of Ralph Smith, editor of the San Mateo Gazette, at Redwood City. After five trials in this case an acquittal was secured. In the case on appeal it was decided that the statute authorizing the change of venue to the people was unconstitutional.

National interest was aroused by the trial of Cordelia Botkin, charged with murder, by poisoning, of two women in Dover, Del., a case involving a number of important questions never before presented for adjudication in the California courts. In this case Mr. Knight appeared as attorney for the defendant. Aside from criminal cases he has gained distinction in the civil branch of his profession, notably in the litigation over the great estate of Thomas Blythe, the contest of the will of Jacob Z. Davis and the contest in behalf of Charles L. Fair over the will of ex-United States Senator James G. Fair. Difficult indeed would it be to enumerate all of the cases, civil and criminal, that have engaged the attention and kindled the ambition of Mr. Knight in legal victories. Suffice it to say that he has been more or less intimately identified with every important case in his home city for more than a quarter of a century, and his professional eminence renders consonant the specific recognition accorded to him throughout the entire west.

A firm advocate of the principles for which the Republican party stood from the first era of its organization, Mr. Knight early in life became interested in political affairs. Since 1879 he has participated perhaps in every. state and national campaign, giving his services without remuneration and solely for the good of the cause dear to his heart. Considered the strongest convention man in the state, he has appeared as a delegate at every Republican national convention since 1884 with the sole exception of 1888, when he received the largest electoral vote of the party for that year. One of his most noteworthy sessions of service as delegate occurred in 1884, when, at the age of thirty-three, as the champion of James G. Blaine, he opposed the famous orator, George William Curtis, editor of Harper's Weekly and a supporter of Arthur. No one who attended the convention has ever forgotten the oratorical effort of Mr. Knight, who defended Blaine in one of the most eloquent convention addresses ever delivered. The speech was the climax of the convention. Every sentence, almost every word, received a deafening applause. In the opinion of one of the noted correspondents and press reporters of the convention, it was worth half a lifetime to witness such a scene and the effect upon the great audience of the impassioned appeal of Mr. Knight, a gem of oratory, worthy of Demosthenes or Patrick Henry. That morning Mr. Knight had been comparatively unknown outside of the west. That night his name was a household word. Twelve years later a similar occasion occurred in the Democratic convention when William Jennings Bryan leaped from obscurity into prominence through an eloquent effort. However, such scenes are rare in the history of a nation, and whatever may be the cause of the flow of oratory its effect is a distinct addition to political literature.

As a delegate to the convention of 1892 Mr. Knight assisted in securing the nomination of Benjamin Harrison for the second term as president. Four years later he secured the entire vote of California for William McKinley and was elected a delegate to the St. Louis convention, where he formed strong personal friendships with Mr. McKinley and others of the foremost statesmen of the country. During 1900 he seconded the nomination of President McKinley upon the invitation of the latter. It had been a great convention, but those in the rear of the vast building had been unable to hear any of the speeches, and when suddenly the voice of the silver-tongued orator broke upon them, the confusion and noise ceased as if by magic. As a consequence he won the heartiest applause given any speaker. Great and small alike listened eagerly to his eloquent address and were quick to do honor to his ability. In the national convention of 1904 Mr. Knight was requested by Theodore Roosevelt to make one of the speeches seconding his nomination. Of this speech Collier's Weekly gave the following report : "The last day was devoted to nomination oratory. It was a severe test for the speakers, since the day was hot and the list of speakers unconscionably long. The nominating address for president, by ex-Governor Black of New York, was epigrammatic and ornate. That of ex-Senator Beveridge, who made the first seconding speech, was excellent, although a trifle overrhetorical for the occasion. Indeed the soporific dominated in the addresses and the big audience wearied of it. The best speaker of the day was George A. Knight of California. He had terse, meaty, sense-bearing phrases and his magnificent voice reached every man in the great hall. His first words, 'Gentlemen of the Convention,' brought ringing cheers from the straining audience. His next sentence was interrupted by a voice from a remote gallery, 'Not so loud,' and everybody, including Mr. Knight, roared with laughter. Mr. Knight should stand hereafter with Mr. Thurston in voice attainment. And his speech as a whole was a really great effort, by far the finest of the entire convention." The New York Sun mentioned the same address in these words : "Mr. Knight is California's pet orator. He has a voice like a Sandy Hook foghorn. He hadn't said three words of his speech before a voice from a gallery roared out, 'Not so loud, if you please.' This brought forth cheers and laughter, which Mr. Knight acknowledged by a gracious bow. Several of Mr. Knight's utterances were graciously applauded." The New York Evening Post gave this mention : "The convention was treated to an agreeable surprise in the speech of George A. Knight of California, who revives in physical type, in voice and in oratorical methods the liveliest memories of the late Robert G. Ingersoll. He made the great hit of the whole convention and could have stormed it for any political favor he had to ask. The applause, whenever called for, came in gusts and storm, sweeping the hall and sometimes coming back again after it seemed to have spent its force."

During this convention Mr. Knight was selected to represent California on the national Republican committee. His services were called into requisition in the east and middle west, and such was his popularity that he was invited to speak in Madison Square Garden, that vast hall where the measure of true orators is so promptly taken. Of that address a reporter gave this verdict, which was one of countless others of a similar tenor : "Standing in the presence of twenty thousand Republicans, George A. Knight, California's silver-tongued orator, got a reception in Madison Square Garden that will be talked of in party annals for years to come. Knight was third on the list of speakers. 'Eli' Root, the idol of New York Republicans, and Frank Higgins, the popular nominee for governor, had already spoken at length, and the audience, enthusiastic as it had been was growing weary of much oratory and the lateness of the hour. 'California stretches her hands across the mountains, deserts and fertile valleys tonight to the Republicans of the Empire state, and bids you stand with her and give a mighty majority for Theodore Roosevelt, the champion of human rights,' said Knight, and his victory was won. From thence on it was cheering and singing for over an hour. When Knight, after a glorious tribute to Grant, said, 'The Republican party offers you another Grant for a leader' a cheer went up from ten thousand throats that shook the garden. On the platform were two score party veterans of fifty years. When Knight spoke of them as pathfinders who had followed Fremont as the first Republican leader, the old men rose in a body and led the most remarkable demonstration of the night. Knight in closing said that in the olden days the farmer made a man of straw and stuck him in the fields where the crops were choice, to let the crows know where the good stuff was. `So the Democrats have placed bogie men in the Philippines to let the people know the grand work the Republican party has accomplished,' said Knight, and the audience cheered for five minutes. The Californian tried to cut short again and again, to make way for Senator Fairbanks, but each time the audience roared its disapproval and told him to talk 'all night.'" During that same memorable address delegates from Columbia, Princeton, the University of New York, Yale and Harvard, present in large numbers, gave exhibitions of "rooting" never before equaled in a political convention.

When the national convention of 1908 was held in Chicago, Mr. Knight attended as delegate from California and seconded the nomination of William Howard Taft at the personal request of that gentleman. In this speech he fully sustained his high reputation as an orator. During the convention he was again chosen to serve on the Republican national committee. Nor has he been less prominent as a leader in state conventions than as one of the principal men in the national gatherings of the party. As chairman of the state convention in 1894 that nominated M. M. Estee for governor, he wielded large influence in the work of the party. During 1908 he acted as chairman of the state convention that chose delegates to the national convention of that year. In all of this intimate connection with party affairs he has held aloof from office-seeking and only occasionally has permitted his name to be used for office, as in 1905, when he was prominently mentioned for the position of United States senator. Under Governor Perkins he served as state insurance commissioner, while later he was judge advocate on the staff of Governor Markham and attorney for the state board of health under Governor Gage.

In the midst of professional, political and public duties of vast importance and continuous demand upon his time, Mr. Knight has found the leisure for participation in social and fraternal activities and has been especially interested in Masonry as a member of the chapter and Commandery No. 1, K. T., California Lodge, and Mystic Shrine. While yet a resident of Humboldt county he was honored with the office of grand master of Humboldt Lodge No. 77, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and more recently he has been an influential member of the Bohemian and Pacific Union Clubs of San Francisco. A type of the public-spirited citizen, upright business man, talented attorney and gifted orator, his name is worthy of perpetuation in state annals not alone as the "silver-tongued orator," but also because of the force of character that made possible his rise and the integrity of purpose that permitted no blemish or evidence of injustice in his entire record, public or private. Courage and confidence have characterized his career ; an intelligent purpose has pointed the path to progress ; superior attainments have enabled him to surmount many obstacles in the struggle for supremacy, but withal he has retained the kindliness of heart that sees good in all, the earnestness of character that is unaffected by prosperity or adversity and the thoroughly admirable attributes that have made him a man among men.

GEORGE W. BURGESS.—As a justice of the peace for Van Dusen township, Humboldt county, George W. Burgess has rendered splendid service to the cause of peace and justice, law and order, in his home community. To him the functions of his office are the settlement of claims and difficulties in an amicable manner, and there is no other justice of the peace in the state whose record for the successful accomplishment of such service exceeds his, and few if any which equal it. He is now serving his last of eight terms in this capacity, and during the past four years there has not been a fine collected or a suit prosecuted in his jurisdiction, all difficulties and differences having been peacefully settled through the splendid management of Mr. Burgess. For some years he also served as deputy assessor. He is also interested in real estate and owns a fine farm of eighty acres a quarter of a mile from Blocksburg.
Mr. Burgess has been in California since November 15, 1862, when- he landed in San Francisco from a trip across the Isthmus of Panama and up the coast. He is a native of Maine, having been born in Searsmont, Waldo county, August 4, 1839, and there he grew to maturity. The educational advantages were very meager, but he received a good common school education and had one year at high school. When he was eighteen years of age he commenced teaching in the public schools of the county, usually teaching during winter terms and in the summers remaining at home and assisting with the management and care of his father's farm. When he was twenty-three years of age he forsook the home environment and came to California. Arriving at San Francisco, he went at once into Napa valley, where for a time he found employment on a ranch, and then went into the mines at Weaverville. Later he took a wood contract on the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at Jack's valley, Nev., remaining there for a year and a half. During this time his wife joined him, and later he met with an unfortunate accident, being struck by a heavy four-foot log as it rolled down the hill side, and he was pronounced fatally injured. He has, however, outlived the doctor who made the fatal prediction and is still hale and hearty at seventy-five years of age. After his recovery he taught school for- a term before leaving Jack's valley, and then became foreman for the William Winter's ranch. Following this he ran a hydraulic mine at Douglas City for one winter, this claim being the property of one Charles Trurot. In May, 1871, he removed into the mountain district of southwestern Trinity county, where he located a claim of a tract eight miles by twelve miles. The region had not been surveyed, and Mr. Burgess was the only white man therein. In 1875 the surveys were made and settlers began to come in. Mr. Burgess homesteaded a claim of one hundred sixty acres and acquired a similar tract of school land by purchase. Many of the settlers remained but a short time, and Mr. Burgess continued to purchase the abandoned rights of others until he owned a tract of eleven hundred forty acres. He prospered exceedingly in this locality, remaining until June 28, 1881, when he moved over to the Watch ranch, in Van Dusen township, Humboldt county, and for five years ran this property. December 5, 1887, he removed to Blocksburg, where he lived for two years, and December 5, 1889, he purchased his present place of eighty acres from a Mrs. Harris, and has since resided thereon.

Mr. and Mrs. Burgess have five children, three daughters and two sons, all natives of California, and well known in Humboldt county. Of these, Sadie A. is now the wife of Craig R. Thompson, a rancher of Alderpoint, and the mother of six children, George A., Edith A., Craig Gaston, Vina M., Clara D., and Ellis F.; George G. is a blacksmith in Blocksburg, and is married to Miss Maude M. Smith, by whom he has three children, Joseph G., Francis and Bessie S. ; Dora is the wife of William Wilson, of Fortuna, where Mr. Wilson is a carpenter and millwright, and owns a ranch at Cuddeback, and they have six children, Laura S., Nellie F., Lester B., Helen Georgie, John E., and Vernon ; Lucena is the wife of S. Arnet Shields, ranger on the Trinity Forest Reserve, the family making their home in Blocksburg; they have five children, Stella N., Bernice R., George William, Edith S. and Sadie A.; and Edward I., who is manager of the home place, is married to Miss Julia Josephine Smith, of Blocksburg; they are the parents of five children, Theodore F., Lloyd Edward, Willard Howard, Earl Smith and Georgette M.

Mr. Burgess is one of the most enthusiastic boosters for Humboldt county particularly and for California generally that will be found anywhere. He is especially enthusiastic regarding the advantages of real estate investments, and his advice to young men is to put all their money into land. He declares that the value is certain to increase with a rapidity that will surprise even the most sanguine, and that especially in the vicinity of San Francisco, as he believes that within a remarkably short time the region surrounding San Francisco Bay will be closely built up. In his warm appreciation of the possibilities offered by California Mr. Burgess is closely seconded by his splendid wife. She was Miss Sylvina Conant in the days of her maidenhood, a native of Appleton, Me., and her marriage with Mr. Burgess was solemnized at Searsmont, Waldo county, Me., September 17, 1861. Their home is plain but comfortable, and there the true California hospitality of a day gone by is still dispensed, giving the fortunate guest a glimpse of a period that has vanished. Both Mr. and Mrs. Burgess are well known and popular with their many friends. Mr. Burgess is a Republican and is well versed in the affairs of his party, particularly in questions of local importance.

CAROLINE COOPER BECKWITH.—The distinction of having been the first white women in the Eel river valley and the fourteenth and fifteenth white women in Humboldt county belongs to Mrs. Beckwith and her sister, Mrs. Rowena VanDyke. Mrs. Beckwith, hale and hearty at the age of seventy-nine, recounts many exciting and even dangerous experiences with the Indians that still roamed the dense forests. It is impossible for a writer of this day and generation to adequately depict the trials and anxieties of her pioneer history. There have been many memoirs written concerning the era associated with the discovery of gold, but every pen has faltered before the romance, the renunciation and the anguished apprehension of the women and girls who left their loved ones in the east and endured the terrors of Indian massacres, the privations of poverty and the loneliness of the western frontier. Grateful reverence from later generations is due these early settlers, and the twilight of the useful existence of Mrs. Beckwith has been surrounded and brightened by the affection of children, the devotion of friends and the companionship of the few survivors of those far-distant days. Sorrows, such as come into every life, have flecked her pathway with shadows, but always she has been bright, courageous and hopeful. Joys, too, have come into her life, but perhaps nothing has given her more satisfaction than the devotion of her children, whose successful and useful careers she did much in establishing.

A native of Prince Edward Island, the childhood of Caroline Cooper seemed absolutely devoid of advantages. Her father, an English sea captain and a man of considerable prominence in maritime activities, had little money, and the maintenance of the large family in comfort in the rigorous climate of the island became a serious problem. Finally he was led to the west by the discovery cif gold. Early in 1850 he set sail from his northern home along the Atlantic coast. Accompanying him, in a vessel he had built himself, were his wife and thirteen children and their families. All went well during the voyage of nine months, but misfortune awaited them, for the party arrived in San Francisco during a serious epidemic which carried away many members of the family. Three or four of the sons came to Humboldt county and engaged in lumber manufacturing, and were afterwards joined by two of their sisters, Caroline and Rowena. Three of the brothers were killed by the Indians on Eel river and a fourth brother perished in the same manner near Hydesville. Of a once large family Mrs. Beckwith and Mrs. Rowena (Walter) Van Dyke are the sole survivors. It will thus be seen that Mrs. Beckwith's life has been unusually eventful and her knowledge of pioneer conditions in Humboldt county most comprehensive.

While the name of Caroline Cooper Beckwith is worthy of perpetuation in the annals of Humboldt county, not less worthy is the name of her honored husband; Leonard Crocker Beckwith, a native of Connecticut and from the age of ten years until eighteen a sailor on the high seas in a New Bedford whaler. Arriving in Humboldt county in the fall of 1851, he settled in the Eel river valley near Fortuna and bore a part in all the pioneer history of the community. Until his death in the year 1905 he owned and operated a claim of one hundred sixty acres near Rohnerville, but in addition to cultivating the land he did much for the public service and also ran a pack-train to Trinity county. A brave Indian fighter, he enlisted in the early Indian wars and helped to drive the red men out of the county, thus making it possible for white settlers to engage in farming peacefully and uninterruptedly. On the organization of the Eel River Lodge of Masons he became a charter member and he stood four-square on the philanthropic and humanitarian principles of the order. Of his marriage to Caroline Cooper there were nine children, namely : Gertrude, Mrs. D. H. Allen, of San Francisco ; Leonard, who was drowned in Van Dusen river; Mrs. Anna Poole, deceased ; Frank Walter, of Humboldt county ; Mrs. Caroline Prichard, of San Francisco ; Harry S., of Los Gatos; Helen, Mrs. George S. Shedden, of Eureka; Mrs. Maude Stevens and Mrs. Hattie Davis, both of Seattle, Wash.


History of Humboldt County California
History by Leigh H. Irvine: Historic Record Company, Los Angeles, California, 1915
Transcribed by Martha A Crosley Graham 17 July 2006, Pages 445-594


Site Updated: 4 December 2009

Martha A Crosley Graham