Humboldt County, California


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FRANK WALTER BECKWITH.—It may well be a source of pride to public-spirited citizens of Humboldt county that a goodly number of the native-born sons of the community have remained here to establish themselves in some life work and by their integrity, intelligence and progressive enterprise have not only promoted their own fortunes, but in addition have been a credit to the county of their birth. Such a list of capable business men would include the name of Frank Walter Beckwith, who was born in the Rohnerville district July 31, 1859, and during early life became familiar with the difficult tasks of farming and stock-raising as conducted in this then frontier and isolated region. Love of the farm, however, was not sufficiently strong to subdue an innate desire to embark in business and at the age of nineteen he left the ranch to take a clerkship in a general store at Rohnerville. Upon coming to Eureka he found employment in the store of J. Lowenthal and there gained an experience of considerable value in later enterprises. From Eureka he went to Hydesville to open a general mercantile store and this business he conducted until the spring of 1915, when he sold it, having won and retained the trade of that section through his varied assortment of goods and uniform uprightness in all transactions.

The Hydesville store did not represent all of the business activities of Mr. Beckwith, who in addition thereto was the owner of the finest shingle mill in Humboldt county, this being a modern plant with substantial equipment and furnishing steady employment to thirty-five men. To develop a business to such an extent in spite of many handicaps indicates the possession of abilities out of the ordinary and Mr. Beckwith indeed merits consideration as a man of striking acumen and keen insight. This business was also disposed of in 1915. On the organization of the Eureka Lodge of Elks he became a charter member and since has retained a deep interest in the work of the order. As a Mason he has risen to the Knights Templar, Scottish Rite and Shriner degrees and has been prominent in the local work. By his marriage to Miss Gesina Drucker, of San Francisco, a Native Daughter, he has five children, the eldest of whom, Genevieve, is the wife of E. B. McFarland. The others, Shirley, Harry, Anne and Caroline, live with their parents in Eureka.

JOHN SLAUGHTER ROBINSON.—All citizens who cherish a patriotic affection for Eureka watch with deepest interest the erection of new buildings and appreciate every evidence of artistic taste and substantial construction on the part of the men having in charge this most important department of civic advancement. Perhaps few have been more successful in the drawing of their own plans and specifications than has John Slaughter Robinson, who for more than twenty-nine years has been identified with the building business in Humboldt county, and during that long period of industrious activity has been awarded contracts of considerable importance. Skill with tools seems to have been a natural gift with him, for he can scarcely recall a time when he was not interested in everything pertaining to the trade of carpenter ; yet it happened that, instead of entering the occupation for a period of apprenticeship during youth, he was put to serve under a blacksmith, and thus gave four years to a trade which he never followed and which has been of little practical benefit to him in the building business. As a boy he lived on a farm in Lawrence county, Mo., where he was born May 18, 1859, and where he had such advantages as the schools of the locality and period rendered possible.

For some years while still making his home in Missouri Mr. Robinson followed the trade of a carpenter, and this has been his chosen calling in Humboldt county, where for fourteen months, beginning in the spring of 1886, he followed the trade in Bridgeville and since then has lived in Eureka. For seven years he worked under Knowles Evans, the well-known contractor. At the expiration of the time he began to take contracts for himself and since then he has been given many building contracts of importance, including the following : Residence of Fred Bell on Third street, Eureka ; residence of John C. Bull, Jr., on E street ; Smith home on E street ; Bowker residence on the corner of Second and S streets ; Need's block on F and Third streets ; the First Christian Church on Seventh street, Eureka ; the Odd Fellows' hall in Arcata; Hotel Vance, and many others too numerous to mention. Besides his home in Eureka he is the owner of a ranch of eighty acres in the Ozark mountains in Missouri, as well as other holdings of considerable value. Fraternally he is a member of the Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. By his marriage to Caroline Bennage, a native of Indiana, he became the father of ten children. Eight are now living, including twin daughters, Jessie and Bessie, the former the wife of T. Benson. The others now living are Mrs. Pearl Hill, Mrs. Annie Winters of Vallejo, Barney, Walter, Leonard and Frank.

AUGUSTUS COTTRELL.—An identification with Humboldt county that began immediately after the arrival of Mr. Cottrell in California during 1865 has continued up to the present time to the advantage of both himself and the county; the former by reason of his stirring and profitable association with business enterprises ; the latter on account of his energetic cooperation in developing projects for the material upbuilding. The most unwearied exertion had been his previous experience, laying the foundation of the rugged constitution and tireless energy that enabled him to work his way forward to prosperity and local prominence. His early life had been passed at Oak Bay, New Brunswick, where he was born February 7, 1840, and where he had worked during boyhood on farms and in lumber woods, earning only his board and clothes, but gaining an experience of the utmost importance to later efforts. When he came to the west via the Isthmus of Panama and landed at San Francisco, he determined to seek employment in the lumber woods of Humboldt county. At that time only two steamers sailed from San Francisco to Eureka each month. Few people had begun to seek the opportunities of Humboldt county, and the demand for transportation as a rule was slight, although at times the vessels were crowded to their utmost capacity and even beyond the limitations stipulated by law.

On his arrival in Eureka the young man from New Brunswick found a village whose entire business was concentrated upon one short street. Beyond in the forests there was considerable activity, for the demand for lumber had caused the erection of sawmills and shingle mills and the woods were resounding with the ring of many axes swung by stalwart young fellows. He had no difficulty in securing employment and engaged in cutting down trees or working in sawmills or scaling logs, also contracting logging for many years. Little by little he put by his earnings and finally he had saved an amount that enabled him to embark in business for himself. With George Connick as a partner in 1888 he established a grocery store and when later the partner sold his interest to Mr. Warren the title was changed to Cottrell & Warren, continuing as such through a considerable period of growing business. For some time, however, Mr. Cottrell has been the sole proprietor of the store, which he manages with the earnestness, energy and efficiency characteristic of him in every relation of life. To superintend a business of such importance leaves him little leisure for outside activities, yet he has proved himself a progressive citizen by the ready aid he gives to enterprises of merit and by his cooperation in educational, financial and commercial up-building. A service of six years as member of the city council and of four years as a member of the board of education impressed the people with his desire to promote the welfare of the city along worthy lines. At one time he owned valuable timber lands in partnership with Thomas Baird, to whom he later disposed of his interests in these great holdings. His principal fraternity is the Odd Fellows, with which he has been connected since 1867 and to whose lodge and encampment he has been a generous helper. He is an active member of the First Methodist Episcopal Church of Eureka and for many years has been a member of its board of trustees. With his wife, who was Martha Jane Brown, of Michigan, he has a high standing in Eureka society and a host of warm personal friends. By his first wife, Keziah (Young) Cottrell, who was born in New Brunswick and died at Eureka in 1901, he is the father of two sons, Emile L. and Charles C., and one daughter, Ida May. The sons are physicians of excellent education and recognized skill and have built up a growing practice in the village of Scotia, Humboldt county.

EDWIN GRAHAM.—The climate of southern Humboldt county is particularly favorable for the propagation of fine fruits, some of the choicest varieties reaching perfection of color and flavor here, and although there is a relatively small number of fruit growers it is being steadily augmented by those who have investigated the advantages of the location. The new railroad line of the Northwestern Pacific, affording improved transportation facilities, is another argument to attract agriculturists of this class. Edwin Graham has a valuable homestead about eight miles northeast of Harris, off the Harris and Alderpoint road, and is at present specializing in the production of fine fruits, having about twenty-five acres planted in choice varieties and yielding abundantly in response to the intelligent care he has given them. He is a most capable worker, attending faithfully to the numerous details of orcharding, which keep him busy in practically all seasons.

Mr. Graham was born November 6, 1856, at Adel, Dallas county, Iowa, about twenty-five miles west of Des Moines. Francis S. Graham, his father, was a prominent official and business man of that section for years, holding the county offices of assessor and treasurer eight years each. Selling his farm for $30,000, he embarked in the banking business, building the Bank of Dallas county, but he had reverses, and after the failure of his bank came out to Napa county, Cal., where he died in 1912, at the age of eighty-seven years. His widow died January 28, 1915, in Dallas county, Iowa, when almost eighty-five. Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Francis S. Graham : Morris J., the present county clerk of Dallas county, Iowa ; Edwin; John P., who died leaving a wife and three sons ; Mary Elizabeth, wife of J. L. Simcoke, druggist, at Adel, Iowa ; and William F., who is in business at Perry, Dallas county, Iowa.

Edwin Graham grew up on his father's farm in Iowa, and had the educational advantages afforded by the neighboring schools. After his father's business losses he clerked in stores at Adel and Minburn, Iowa, following that kind of work for many years. The day after his marriage to Miss Adel Winans, of Adel, Iowa, he started with his wife for California, arriving at Healdsburg, Sonoma county, in October, 1877. After clerking there. for two years he removed to Petaluma, where he was in the employ of Joseph Campbell, a pioneer merchant of that place, continuing with him for three years, when he engaged in ranching three miles out of town. In the fall of 1886 he removed to Willits, where he was a dealer and shipper of poultry and eggs. During this time he drove a band of two hundred turkeys overland from Willits to Cloverdale, where he sold them at a good profit. In the fall of 1889 he removed to Ukiah, where he accepted a position in the old Ukiah House. For ten years he acted as head clerk and bookkeeper at the old Ukiah House, and meantime, in 1893, took up the homestead in southern Humboldt county which he now cultivates and resides upon, having one hundred sixty-three and twenty-three hundredths acres, of which twenty-five acres are cleared and planted in fruit. He has over five hundred trees set out, including two hundred peach trees, principally Muirs, although he also has Wheatland, Triumph, Foster, Susquehanna and Strawberry varieties ; fifty fig trees of the White Adriatic variety, besides San Pedro White, San Pedro Black and California Mission ; apples, Early Harvest, Yellow Transparent, Summer Sweet Paradise, Red Astrachan, Gravenstein, Yellow Belle-flower, Ben Davis, Wallbridge, Newtown Pippin and Arkansas Black; pears, Bartletts, Winternellis and Howell ; prunes, Tragedy, German, French, Imperial Epinuse, Silver and Sugar ; plums, Kelsey Japans, Imperial Gage, Washington, Jefferson and First Best ; besides six hundred grapevines, Mission, Muscat, Alexander, Mrs. Pince, Thompson Seedless, Black Malvoise, Isabelle, Muscatel and Zante currants ; blackberries, Himalaya Mountain, Lawton, Mammoth, Oregon Evergreen, Loganberries and Burbank's Phenomenon; raspberries, Evergreen Red. Mr. Graham has taken great care in the selection of his fruit stock, and is reaping the results. In addition to his orchard work he is giving some attention to stock growing, raising about $500 worth of hogs annually. There is still considerable timber on his property, pine, spruce and tan oak, the latter especially valuable, not only for the bark, but also for the lumber, which is beautifully grained, takes on a high polish, and is strong and durable, particularly desirable for the manufacture of fine furniture. Mr. Graham has won the highest respect of his neighbors by his industrious devotion to his work, and he is regarded as one of the most intelligent, progressive ranchmen in his locality, where he is helping to raise and maintain high standards by his own fine productions.

Mr. and Mrs. Graham have one child, David Morris Graham, now in the employ of Livingston Brothers, San Francisco, as head window trimmer ; he married Miss Hattie Babbage, of San Francisco.

ALBERT VAN DUZEN, JR.—California is justly proud of her native-born sons, and among them is Mr. Van Duzen, Jr., who was born in Del Norte county, July 15, 1878. His parents moved to Trinidad, Humboldt county, when he was but four years of age and here he received his educational training in the public schools of the county until he was eleven years old. He then moved with his parents to North Fork, which is now Korbel, and here he attended the schools of the Scottsville district, now known as Blue Lake. He remained here two years, next going to Bayside, and in another year moved to Glendale and still continued his schooling for two years in that district and from there to Warren Creek for a year, when they located in Scotia, where he completed the grammar school, June, 1894. He then attended the high schools at Arcata and Eureka for two years, but gave up the rest of the terms to engage in lumbering in the woods at Scotia. Later he entered actively in the management of his father's general merchandise establishment in Loleta.

Albert Van Duzen, Sr., is also a native son of California, having been born near the San Gabriel Mission, Los Angeles county, Cal., May 7. 1855, and he is the son of Isaac, Van Duzen, one of the old pioneers who crossed the plains in 1852, by way of the southern route, and located in Mariposa county. Here he entered on one hundred sixty acres of government land and for a time engaged in teaming and hauling and later moved to Humboldt county in 1865. Here he located at Table Bluff and rented what is known as the Bluff House. His son, Albert, Sr., then attended the public schools of the district and also in Arcata until fifteen years of age and in 1875 he married and moved to Trinidad, where he drove the mail route for two years, from Trinidad to Arcata. Later he engaged in teaming with ox teams and for five years drove an ox team in the woods, logging in Del Norte county. He then returned to Trinidad and continued his teaming for Cooper Brothers for one year, and from there moved to Mad river valley and drove for Korbel Brothers, and for three years was .engaged by the Minor Company at Glendale. He was one of the last men in the county to give up the ox-team method of transportation, hauling the last logs at Scotia with ox-teams. He then moved to Loleta and opened a general merchandise store, 'where he still resides. He is a member of the Odd Fellows and in national politics favors the ideas of the Republican party. He was united in marriage with Florence Cartwright, born in Racine, Wis., and of their union there have been two children, Albert, Jr., and Theodore, who assists his brother in the store.

Mr. Van Duzen, Jr., in the management of the store, keeps it well stocked and up to date, having added to the stock from time to time until now they have the largest and finest store in Loleta. A new building has been built where the store is now housed. They have been very successful since coming to Loleta and have done a great deal for the advancement of the community. Mr. Van Duzen, Jr., has been secretary of the Board of Trade for a number of years. He is a stanch Republican, always entering heartily into all movements for the general upbuilding of the town.
He was married in Eureka to Mildred Olive Hannah, a native of that city, and they have been blessed with three children : John Henry, Theodore Lewis and Paul Stillman. Mr. Van Duzen, Jr., is public-spirited, enterprising and industrious.

JAMES T. FRASER.—It is not a misstatement of fact to say that there is no work in which one may engage which has greater possibilities for benefiting and uplifting humanity along broad and deep lines than has the teacher's profession. This had been the life work of Mr. Fraser's forebears for several generations, and while he himself is not engaged directly in that occupation, he is still interested in educational matters and exerts an important influence in Eureka as a member of the school board. As the name might suggest, the family is of Scotch origin, and the grandfather of James T. Fraser, also James Thomas Fraser, a native of Inverness, Scotland, was closely related to the MacDonalds and MacGregors of that shire. He was a man of splendid learning, a college graduate and it was with this training that he came to the new world and became a school teacher in Nova Scotia, teaching in both the English and Gaelic languages. His love of learning he bequeathed to his children, and his son Donald became a noted geologist. Another son, Abraham, the father of our subject, and a native of Pictou county, Nova Scotia, was also an educator of note, and a graduate of the college in Pictou. In addition to teaching the general branches he specialized on music, making a specialty of teaching in classes, in which he proved unusually successful. He was also a valued leader in religious work, especially in the Presbyterian church, of which he was a member. His usefulness to the world was cut off when he was comparatively a young man, his death occurring when he was only forty-nine years of age. His wife was in maidenhood Susanna McIntosh, a native of Smithfield, Nova Scotia. Her family had also originated in Scotland, her father, George McIntosh, a native of Greenock, establishing the family in Nova Scotia, where he became a farmer. The mother still makes her home in Caledonia, Guysborough county, Nova Scotia.

Five children were included in the parental family and James T. Fraser was the third in order of birth. Besides himself two others of the family are residents of Eureka, Mrs. Margaret Zerlang and J. M. James T. Fraser was born in Caledonia, Guysborough county, Nova Scotia, August 24, 1869, and his boyhood and youth were passed in his native heath. After attending the public schools of that place and obtaining a good education he began working on the farm and in the woods, and still later became interested in mining there. He was about seventeen years of age when he left the family home and started out in the world independently, coming to the United States at that time and locating in Minneapolis. There he found employment at teaming and log driving on the Mississippi river, as well as in the woods. Altogether he remained in that section for about three years, then setting out for the far west, and his advent in Eureka dates from July, 1889. During that summer and following ones he was employed in the redwoods, while during the winter seasons he devoted his time to learning the boiler-maker's trade in Langford Brothers' boiler works. After completing his trade he continued in the employ of the firm under whom he had had his training. During 1896 and '97 he had charge of the pump station of the Eureka water works for the Ricks Water Company, but at the end of this time he returned to his old employers, continuing with them and becoming one of their most trusted employes. So trustworthy was he held to be that he was sent by the firm to various places in this and other states in charge of important work that needed the supervision of an expert.

In 1914 Mr. Fraser was elected justice of the peace of Eureka township and January 4, 1915, he assumed the duties of the office, his term covering four years. It is Mr. Fraser's intention to fit himself for the practice of the law, and for this purpose he has been reading law for some time, and will continue his studies while holding the office of justice.
In Eureka, on July 31, 1896, Mr. Fraser was united in marriage with Miss Dora Zerlang, a native of this city and the daughter of Charles Zerlang. The latter, a native of Prussia, Germany, immigrated to Nova Scotia, and from there came to California, becoming a pioneer settler. In 1871 he came to Eureka, where he owned and ran lighters, and it was while pursuing his daily duties that he was accidentally drowned in Humboldt bay. In Nova Scotia he married Elizabeth Williams, who was born in Guysborough county, and of her eight children Dora, Mrs. Fraser, was next to the oldest. Some time after the death of her husband Mrs. Zerlang became the wife of Fred Haase, of Eureka. Three children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Fraser, A. L., Elizabeth Zerlang and James Thomas. Mr. Fraser was made a Mason in Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., of which he is past master, and with his wife is a member of Camelia Chapter No. 63, 0. E. S., he being past patron. In the Loyal Orange Institution of the United States, of which he is a member, Mr. Fraser is past grand master of the state, and both himself and wife are active members of the Presbyterian Church.

VICTOR HOPE.—Coming to Blocksburg forty years ago, and since that time continuously residing here and conducting a flourishing business until he retired from active life a few years ago, Victor Hope is known as one of the oldest and most substantial residents of this part of the county. He is a pioneer in the truest sense of the word, and blazed the way for more than one industry or undertaking. He purchased a blacksmithing business on his arrival here, and is well known to the farmers and ranchers for a radius of thirty miles. He invented a side-hill plow which he manufactured and sold for many years, and also invented and manufactured a picket weaving machine. He built a tiny cabin back of his shop, cleared a small patch and improved it by planting a garden and orchard, he being the first man to plant apples in this vicinity, thus demonstrating the suitability of this locality for this great industry. Both Mr. and Mrs. Hope are very musical, he being an accomplished violinist, while his wife is a pianist of ability. In an early day they played very often for dances and other social events, but in recent years their music has been their chief social pleasure. They are both very socially inclined and are popular with a wide circle of friends.

It was in 1875 that Mr. Hope came to California, locating at once in Blocksburg, where he bought out the blacksmith shop of John Stemmons, this being the first business of the kind in Blocksburg, and is still owned by Mr. Hope and leased out by him. He was born in Washtenaw county, Mich., March 22, 1847. His father, the Rev. S. B. Hope, of the Universalist church, was born and reared in New London, Conn., while his mother, Lucy Moore, was born and reared in Ontario county, N. Y., where she met and married the Rev. S. B. Hope, who was attending college in that county. After their marriage they came by ox teams to Washtenaw county, Mich., where Mr. Hope, Sr., engaged in farming. Both parents died there, the father at the age of sixty years and the mother living to be seventy. There were ten children in their family, all of whom lived to maturity save two, Victor being the sixth born. He attended the public schools until he was fourteen years of age, and then ran away from home and traveled extensively. From the time that he was fourteen until he was twenty-six he was in every state and territory of the United States, except Washington, Oregon and Montana. He learned the blacksmithing trade at Schoolcraft, Kalamazoo county, Mich., and became a journeyman blacksmith and an expert horseshoer. He is a natural machinist and has so been able to accomplish much more at his trade than would otherwise have been the case. He came to Colorado and worked for a time in the gold mines, prospecting for gold where Leadville now stands. He then went to Nevada and worked in the Belcher gold and silver mines on the Comstock lode at Gold Hill. From there he went to Reno, where for one summer he was employed in the lumber woods, and then came to Humboldt county in the fall of 1875, settling at Blocksburg, where he has since made his home. Mr. Hope was a strong Union sympathizer and at the time of the Civil war he tried to enlist in the cause of freedom, but the loss of an eye by an accident many years before prevented his being accepted. He drove cattle across the plains from Texas to Nevada and was in many skirmishes with the Indians where the fighting was close and sharp. He learned to understand the savages, however, and after coming to Blocksburg he had no trouble with them, although this place was one of their meeting places and on the exact spot where his residence now stands the Digger Indians had a large wickiup, and here they congregated and held their war dances. Often as many as five hundred bucks and squaws were assembled here, but there was never any resultant trouble. About two years ago Mr. Hope met with a serious accident. While he was drilling a premature blast of dynamite nearly tore his hands off, besides which he received other injuries, from which he was laid up for months, and even yet he cannot close his hands with a firm grip.

The marriage of Mr. Hope took place in 1879, uniting him with Mrs. Emily (Tooby) Prior, the daughter of George J. and Emily (Close) Tooby, both natives of England, the father having been born in Gloucester and the mother in London, within sound of Bow-Bells. Mrs. Hope was born at Gloucester, and there was reared and educated, especial attention being given to her musical education, in which line she has marked talent. She was married there to Thomas M. Prior and came to Alderpoint in 1874. By this marriage she had two children : Gertrude, now the widow of Elisha Bosworth and residing in Eureka with her four children ; and Douglas H. Prior, of the Tooby & Prior Cattle and Land Company.

Mr. and Mrs. Hope have one child, Roscoe Moore, who resides at home and manages the Hope ranch of five hundred acres, of which this capable young man owns about one-half.

The parents of Mrs. Hope both died in England, where her father was especially well known and respected. One of her brothers, George J. Tooby, formerly an extensive sheep owner, now lives in Eureka. All of his six children are well known in Humboldt county, and E. N. Tooby is the present county assessor, just having been re-elected. He is one of the extensive land owners and stock men of the county and is held in high esteem.

Mr Hope is a Democrat and has always taken an active interest in all local affairs, being broad minded and progressive, and having the courage of his convictions. Mrs. Hope is a member of the Episcopal church, in which she was reared. Both Mr. and Mrs. Hope are in sympathy with the cause of education and their influence in local affairs has always been felt on the side of right. They are also keenly interested in the early pioneer history of the county, and particularly of this section, being well informed on all details of early history and land marks.


WILLIAM CARSON.—It is difficult to say anything of William Carson without referring at once to the salient feature of his business career, his preeminence in the redwood lumber industry in Humboldt county. One of a little group of Canadians from the province of New Brunswick who started out together in the famous year of the exodus to California, instead of "striking it rich" in the mines he found his early training in his native woods the best possible preparation for success in his new field. He did follow mining part of the time during the first few years after his arrival, but it was as a lumberman that he acquired fame and fortune, and did most to attract attention to the resources of his adopted county. When the comforts and luxuries of the civilized world began to find their way into the settlements about Humboldt bay and the social order became established, none was more prompt to encourage the improved living conditions made possible by the numbers of enterprising tradesmen and merchants who flocked to this promising region. Eureka especially felt the impress of his interest and generosity. His heavy investments in local undertakings and property were not made entirely with the idea of personal profit, for all of them contributed to her upbuilding. He did not hesitate to show his faith in her prospects in the most substantial manner, putting his capital into buildings and public utilities as the spirit of the town warranted such expenditures, and doing more than his share in the furtherance of projects which were purely the expression of civic pride. The North Mountain Power Company, now known as the Western States Gas & Electric Company, was one of the ambitious concerns he fostered to success. Something of the man's wonderful mental and physical vigor may be understood from the fact that he remained in active connection with his large financial and lumbering operations up to the age of eighty-five years. As one of the characters whose deeds stand out in the records of the early days he could never be forgotten, and he was spared to see and take part in so much of the modern development of his section that his name enters into practically all of her history from 1849 to the present.

Mr. Carson was born in Charlotte county, New Brunswick, July 15, 1825, and had his early experience in lumbering there, assisting his father, who was engaged in getting out ship timber for exportation to Liverpool. The year of the gold excitement he decided to join the adventurers flocking to California, and on September 18, 1849, embarked at The Ledge, New Brunswick, in the ship Brazilian, which was several months on her journey around the Horn, arriving at .San Francisco April 1, 1850. His companions were Oliver Gilmore, Jeremiah Whitmore, Daniel Morrison and Sandy Buchanan, all like himself woodsmen from New Brunswick. They found temporary employment at San Francisco, part of the time rolling out (by hand rollers) gold bars; from which the fifty-dollar slugs of those days were made. Going to Sonoma city, the party bought wild horses from the Mexicans, packed their goods and proceeded to the Trinity gold fields. When they struck the watershed of the Eel river on their journey north they mistook the stream for the Trinity and followed its downward course until their approach to the ocean told them they were on the wrong track. They eventually reached their destination and worked there during the summer of 1850. Food in that region being scarce and high priced, they decided to winter in Humboldt county, where game of all kinds was plentiful, and therefore made their way to the bay, arriving late in October. At that time Martin White was about to build a small slash sawmill with an estimated capacity of four thousand feet per day, and for this mill Mr. Carson and his companions contracted to supply logs. On the 1st of November, 1850, they started out and located their logging camp between Ryan's slough and Freshwater, at a point where spruce and similar timber of a size suitable for a small mill was available, close to the slough. It was at this camp, in November, 1850, that Mr. Carson and Jerry Whitmore cut the first tree for a saw log that was ever felled in Humboldt county. Thus began his remarkable career as a lumberman. "His history has been similar to that of many of the successful pioneers of California. He came to get gold out of the ground, but he did not get it in the shape of virgin metal, but in the form of another product of the ground, the wonderful lumber resources of this county."

After a winter of logging the party again went to the mines, starting March 1, 1851. They arrived at Big Bar, on the Trinity, about the middle of the month, and resumed work on the claims they had left the year before. During that summer they constructed the Arkansas dam across the Trinity. The following May they learned of the construction of a sawmill on Humboldt bay by Ryan & Duff, and leaving the mines they went to the Sacramento valley, where they bought oxen with which they drove to Humboldt, with the view of engaging in logging. Reaching Humboldt again in August, 1852, the original party divided, and Mr. Carson went into the lumber business, with which he was thereafter permanently associated. In the summer of 1854 he operated the Muley Mill in Eureka, located at the foot of I street, and during that year worked as a sawyer, his shift being every day and every alternate night. In the fall he shipped on the Cydras the first cargo of redwood lumber which was sent out from Humboldt bay,, all previous shipments having been of spruce and fir. The partnership between William Carson and John Dolbeer was formed in 1863, and continued' until the death of Mr. Dolbeer in 1902.

The Daily Humboldt Standard in its announcement of Mr. Carson's death mentions him as the dean of redwood manufacturers of the state, and he was survived by only one of the pioneers in that line, Noah Falk, who, went into the business considerably later. But it was not merely because of his prominence as a lumber manufacturer that Mr. Carson was entitled to recognition among the leading men of the state. Financial institutions and public utilities of various kinds were among the useful enterprises he promoted, and while he was interested in most of the local undertakings of the kind his operations extended all over the state. He was one of the founders of the Humboldt County Bank,, of the Bank of Eureka and of the Savings Bank of Humboldt County. As one of the incorporators of the Eel River & Eureka Railroad Company,, and one of those who made possible the Bucksport & Elk River railroad and the Humboldt Northern railroad, in both of which he held interests,, he deserves credit for the introduction of transportation facilities which brought new business and new life into his section, enabling it to compete with other localities on terms of comparative equality. The first large modern brick business structure in Eureka was the Carson block, the three-story building which occupies a quarter of a square at the northeast corner of Third and F streets. Mr. Carson built it in 1890;, at a cost of $100,000, besides which he put $30;000 into the part of the second and third floors devoted to theater purposes. At the time of the, erection of the building a number of citizens of Eureka were clamoring for a modern playhouse, and it was to meet their wishes that Mr. Carson fitted up the theater, which is still considered the finest between Portland and San Francisco. The North Mountain Power Company, which has since become the great electric power and light distributing concern of the county, now known as the Western States Gas & Electric Company, also numbered Mr. Carson among its founders. Outside of Humboldt county, the Milford Land & Lumber Company, the San Diego Lumber Company and the West Coast Lumber Company owed their development to Mr. Carson's participation and influence, which he also exerted towards building up the shipping so important to the lumber companies. In the latter connection he was one of the powers of the Humboldt Lumber Manufacturers' Association of Eureka, which handled exclusively foreign lumber shipments from the mills represented in its organization, and operates the tugs Relief and Ranger on Humboldt bar.

It is noteworthy that Mr. Carson continued to give his personal attention to his large milling and other interests up to two years before his death, remaining in active business up to the age of eighty-five years, when he turned his affairs over to his sons, whom he had trained for the purpose, J. M. and C. Sumner taking charge of the milling and lumbering operations at Eureka, and W. M. Carson having charge of the San Francisco offices.

Except as a life member of the Humboldt Club, and a member of Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., Mr. Carson belonged to no social organizations. Nothing more complimentary to Mr. Carson could be cited than his popularity as an employer. It is no exaggeration to say, that in the great county of Humboldt, and probably in all California, there was none more respected and beloved by his employes. Nor was there an employer who. gathered about him better men. He was a friend to them all, particularly in sickness and in trouble, although they may not always have realized it. In his own early experience he became thoroughly familiar with their side of affairs and their attitude, and he never forgot the lessons then learned, as his regard for their comfort, sympathy in all his dealings with them and kindly understanding well showed. It is significant that in the court records of Humboldt county there is no instance of a suit for damages for personal injuries to which Mr. Carson was defendant.

Mr. Carson died February 19, 1912, after several months' illness, at his home in Eureka. His modesty and unassuming disposition had always made him averse to publicity so far as his personal affairs were concerned, but just before the San Francisco fair C. P. Soule, of the Bank of Eureka, of which Mr. Carson was president, prevailed upon him to compile a brief autobiog7 raphy, and the outline of his career which appeared in the Daily Standard at the time of his death was written from notes taken then and formed the basis of the present article.

In May, 1864, Mr. Carson was married to Miss Sarah Wilson, of San. Francisco, whose death in 1904 terminated a union remarkable for happiness and devotion. They are survived by four children : J. Milton and C. Sumner,, of Eureka; William M., of San Francisco ; and Mrs. Carlotta C. Tyson, of Piedmont, Cal..
The beautiful residence on the mill site, at the head of Second street,. was one of the most significant indications of Mr. Carson's affection for Eureka. This palatial dwelling, not excelled by any other home in the state, was one: of his most important contributions to the beautifying of his chosen city, the scene of the interests closest to his heart.

ROBERT PORTER.—As a typical representative of those brave, courageous pioneers who settled in this county when the country was yet in its original wildness, mention is due Robert Porter, who lived to witness the changes which fifty-seven years brought, knowing meanwhile that he had not been an idle looker-on in the transformation which had been wrought. His father, David R. Porter, who was born in Londonderry, Ireland, immigrated to the United States in young manhood and settled in Lancaster, Pa. His marriage united him with Catherine McDee, who was born in Scotland and came to the United States with her parents during her childhood. David R. Porter engaged in general merchandising in Pennsylvania and also in Botetourt county, Va., accumulating a competency in the undertaking, for it is known that several years before his death, at the age of seventy-two, he had lived retired. His wife passed away when in her seventy-fifth year.

It was while the family was living in Old Virginia that Robert Porter was born in Fincastle, February 22, 1828, and in that state he was reared and educated primarily. At the age of sixteen he began to earn his own living, his first work being as clerk in a general store in Virginia for two years. Later he joined an engineering corps on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, and during this time diligently pursued his studies in civil engineering, so that he ultimately rose to the position of superintendent of construction for the company, continuing as such until 1852. In the spring of that year he and eleven companions started for California, each of the party being well equipped for the long and tedious overland journey. June 9th was the day on which they crossed the Missouri river at St. Joseph, Mo., from there going to Salt Lake City, where they rested for about two weeks. The possibilities of making a fortune in the mines had not been the least consideration in the minds of the young men when they started on their journey, and while in Salt Lake City they made investigations as to the conditions and prospects at a camp called Seventy-six. Evidently opinions differed as to the advisability of investing at the camp, for it. is recorded that Mr. Porter bought the animals from those of his companions who wished to remain there, while he and his little train started out for Sacramento, reaching that town the day after the fire that nearly destroyed it. From there he went to Hangtown, now Placerville, and from there to Jay Bird canyon, but his labors did not Produce the results he had anticipated, and he went to Mariposa county, where better results rewarded him. In the latter part of the '50s he came to Eureka, then a crude town on the water front claiming a population of less than five hundred inhabitants. Employment awaited him in the sawmill of John Vance, where he familiarized himself with the business and was finally given charge of the office and finances of the concern and remained associated with it until 1866. In the meantime he had recognized a good opportunity to establish a business of his own and forthwith opened the second general merchandise store in the town, a business which he conducted successfully for two years. It was in 1868 that he went to Hydesville and engaged in the same business in partnership with James M. Cox, having bought out the pioneer merchant in the town, R. 0. Metcalf, and thereafter business was conducted under the name of Porter & Cox. Associated with H. C. Hansen, in 1878 Mr. Porter bought a one-half interest in property which be  came known as the Hansen & Porter stock ranch, adjoining Fort Baker. The purchase was made at a time when stock land was selling at a low figure. Subsequently the partners consolidated their interests with those of Joseph Russ, thus bringing under the control of the three over twenty-four thousand acres of fine land. Meantime Mr. Porter bought out the interest of Mr. Hansen in the enterprise and Mr. Russ and himself were thereafter equal partners. The raising of sheep and cattle formed their chief industry and proved profitable from the first. In partnership with A. W. Torrey he purchased the Iaqua ranch of about seven thousand acres located thirty miles east of Eureka, and of this he ultimately became the sole owner by the purchase of Mr. Torrey's interest, continuing to run it as a stock ranch up to the time of his death. He also owned the Kneeland ranch of sixty-five hundred acres near Blocksburg. In the meantime the general merchandise business at Hydesville had been continued in partnership with Mr. Cox, but just prior to the death of the latter Mr. Porter purchased his interest in the business and continued it alone. However, in 1898 he sold out his interests in Hydesville and removed to Eureka, where as early as 1858, with Richard Brett, he had purchased forty acres of land for $1000. This was afterwards laid out as Brett & Porter's Addition and is one of the finest residence portions of Eureka. In 1892 Mr. Porter erected a handsome residence in the city, and it was in this that he resided from 1898 up to the time of his death, April 13, 1906.

While making his home in Hydesville Mr. Porter assisted in the organization of the Bank of Eureka and continued, to be a stockholder in the same until his death, also for many years having been a director and vice-president. He was also interested in the founding of the Savings Bank of Humboldt County, of which he was also president. It was largely through his efforts also that the Humboldt Bay Woolen Mills Company was organized in 1901 with a capital of $100,000 and with himself as vice-president. Up to the time of his death he continued actively interested in the various institutions with which he was connected, as well as overseeing his large ranching interests.

On the 8th of March, 1868, Mr. Porter was married at Table Bluff, Humboldt county, Cal., to Miss Eliza Foss, who was born in Saco, York county, Me., the daughter of Tristram and Lydia (Cousins) Foss, both natives of Saco, Me. The grandfather of Mrs. Porter, Zachariah Foss, was also a native of Saco, Me., and a participant in the Revolutionary war. He was the owner of the old Foss farm near Saco, which is still in the possession of the family. Mrs. Lydia (Cousins) Foss was born in Lyman, Me., and died there after rearing to years of maturity a family of five children. She was survived by her husband, who passed his last days at Table Bluff, Cal. The eldest of the five children born to this couple was Tristram Henry, who died at Table Bluff, Cal. ; Mary, Mrs. J. K. Dollison, is a resident of Palo Alto, Cal. ; Samuel is a resident of Eureka ; Calvin resides in Palo Alto ; and Eliza, Mrs. Porter, completes the family. She was reared and educated in Saco, Me., and in 1856 accompanied her father to Bureau county, Ill., where she taught school. In 1866 she came with her father to California, making the trip by way of Panama to San Francisco and locating at Table Bluff. Of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Porter eight children were born, as follows : Catherine, Mrs. H. L. Shattuck, of Denver, Colo. ; Elizabeth, Mrs. 0. F. Pira, of Alameda, Cal.; Robert Dollison, a director of the Bank of Eureka, and who assists his mother in the care of her extensive ranch and property interests ; David, who died at the age of ten years ; Theodore, a resident of Eureka ; Edith, who makes her home with her mother ; Kendall, junior member of the firm of Sarvis & Porter, of Eureka ; and Grace, Mrs. Kimball, residing in Denver, Colo. Since the death of her husband Mrs. Porter has continued to make, her home in the old family residence at No. 1710 E street, Eureka, finding her time fully occupied with looking after her varied interests and in fulfilling her social and religious duties. She is stanch in her support of Republican principles, and is a member of the Monday Club. In early life Mr. Porter was a believer in Democratic principles, but after the second administration of President Cleveland he changed his party affiliations and identified himself with the Republicans, owing to the attitude of the Democracy on the financial question. As early as 1850 he affiliated with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Virginia and became a charter member of Humboldt Lodge No. 77, I. 0. 0. F., Eureka. Mr. Porter was a noble, high-minded, useful citizen and friend, who deserves a prominent place in the history of the county and state.

CONRAD BULLWINKEL.—Descended from a long line of farming ancestors, Mr. Bullwinkel was born in Driftsete, Ampt Hagan, Hanover, Germany, March 22, 1838, the son of John and Tepke Bullwinkel, also natives of Germany. There he received his early schooling and at the age of fourteen he began to help his father on the home place. In 1855, when he was seventeen, he set sail -for America, going direct to South Carolina, and at a small place called Valhalla he was employed on a farm for a few years. Later he became interested in the gold mines in that vicinity, but after remaining in that state for four years he decided to come to California. Taking passage on a steamer westward bound by way of the Isthmus of Panama, his journey's end brought him to San Francisco in 1859, and from there he went direct to San Pablo, Contra Costa county. There he again engaged in farming, but not finding conditions quite to his liking he went to Nevada. After engaging in mining in that state for one and one-half years he returned to San Francisco and obtained employment in a grocery, and later was employed in a hotel for a short time. On coming to Humboldt county in 1869 he preempted eighty acres on Little river and soon afterwards he took up a homestead claim of one hundred sixty acres of government land adjoining the original tract. This land, now the home place, is under a high state of cultivation, in distinct contrast to the virgin condition at the time it was purchased. The effort spent in clearing the dense growth of brush and timber and putting the land in condition for farming has been well rewarded, for it has been transformed into a valuable dairy farm. For years he followed dairying and general farming with success, and at the present time is retired from farming activities, having leased the home place and retired to a justly earned rest. He is the only one of the original pioneer settlers in the Little river section, where he was also the first to engage in dairying. In those days the milk was skimmed from pans and churned by hand. Later the use of a separator simplified butter making ; to furnish power for his churn and separator Mr. Bullwinkel installed a water wheel in the creek running past his house. In the early days he hauled the butter in kegs to Eureka, where it was shipped to San Francisco, whereas he now has a market at his door.

Mr. Bullwinkel has never entered into political affairs, but is an ardent Democrat and an earnest follower of the party's ideas. He is also a member of the Lutheran Church. He is a man who has been successful in his long life as a farmer and one whose success is entirely due to his own thrift and perseverance. Mr. Bullwinkel's father also devoted his whole life to farming and became one of the substantial citizens of his community.

CIPRIANO MARK BERNARDI.—One of the enterprising and progressive young men engaged in dairying in Humboldt county is Cipriano M. Bernardi, who, though of foreign birth, has brought to his work in this country the energy and ability which America is always glad to recognize among her citizens. A native of Lodrino, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, Mr. Bernardi was born August 16, 1871, the son of Natale and Marcelena Bernardi, both of whom died in their native canton. The father of Mr. Bernardi was a painter and decorator by trade, and spent much time in that line of work in Paris, where there are many fine examples of his skill remaining. Of the six children in the family, Cipriano was the youngest, and grew up in Lodrino, receiving a good grammar and high school education, graduating from the latter school in 1888. The next year he came to San Francisco, Cal., having been attracted hither by the good reports from his sister, Airs. Helena Biasca, and her husband who were dairying at Capetown, Humboldt county. Soon after coming to this country Mr. Bernardi secured employment on a dairy farm at Waddington, Cal., being engaged later at others in the same locality. When he had saved sufficient money to enable him to start in the dairy business independently, he removed to Freshwater and there leased a dairy from Dr. Felt,. which he conducted for twelve years with a herd of sixty cows. In 1912 he leased his present place from George Crowe, a one hundred acre ranch adjoining Eureka on the east, whereon he raises grass and clover, as well as such green feed as beets, carrots, peas and corn, for his herd of forty milch cows. His herd consists of high grade Jerseys, twenty-five of which are full blooded, of the Sam Lambert stock, which is considered the finest Jersey stock in California. The bull, which was brought from Highland, N. Y., was sired by Noble Oakland, the grandsire being Golden Jolly. Mr. Bernardi has sold full blooded male and female Jersey cattle in different parts of California and has sent about fifteen head to Honolulu, always obtaining good prices because his stock is the highest strain. For some years he has sold milk to retailers in Eureka, in which city he is now starting a new milk route.

The marriage of Mr. Bernardi took place in Eureka, April 30, 1905, his wife having formerly been Celia Marcionetti, also a native of Canton Ticino, Switzerland, and they are the parents of four children, Alarcelina, Emory, Lloyd and Archie. The political interests of Mr. Bernardi are with the Republican party, and in fraternal circles he is known as a member of the Knights of the Maccabees.

HON. GEORGE WILLIAMS.—Between the date of his birth, March 29, 1822, and that of his death in 1908, there were compassed into the existence of Hon. George Williams eighty-six useful years. Throughout much of that period he was identified with the stock industry in Humboldt county. When he first drove a herd of cattle to Bear river in 1856 there was little in the aspect of the country to win his admiration or attract favorable notice. Very few white men had sought the isolated spot. Indians still roamed through the forests and their occasional outbreaks kept in constant danger such hardy pioneers as dared to venture upon claims, with the hope of developing farms. With shrewd foresight he grasped the opportunities of the region and saw that the excellent range and abundant water afforded excellent advantages for the stock business ; later years proved the wisdom of his early judgment.

The grandson of Welsh people and the son of Thomas Williams, a lifelong resident of Pennsylvania, George Williams was born in Lancaster county, that state, and after the death of his father in 1834 he went to Ohio with his mother, who died there at the age of forty-five. For a time he earned a livelihood as a farm hand, then at the age of eighteen learned the trade of baker, and in 1849 taught a country school in Illinois. During 1850 he came west, driving an ox-team a part of the way, but walking the entire distance from Green river to Hangtown, where he arrived almost penniless. For ten months he worked in a bakery, then for some months worked in the mines, and from 1852 to 1854 carried on a bakery at Weaverville, Trinity county, later working there as a butcher. Next he turned his attention to stock-raising and in 1856 brought his first herd of cattle to Humboldt county, where the following year he admitted to partnership Cyrus W. Morrison. It is significant of the character of the two men that they continued in harmonious and profitable partnership for forty-nine years.

Returning to Ohio in 1857 Mr. Williams married at Circleville Miss Mary Anderson, who was born there January 28, 1838. For ten years after his marriage he lived at Weaverville, Trinity county, but in 1867 brought his family to Hydesville, Humboldt county, and in 1885 removed to Ferndale, where he remained until death, a familiar and beloved figure in affairs of the town, a man of venerable and commanding presence, who bore the weight of advancing years with dignity and grace. Early in the '70s he served for two years as a member of the county board of supervisors, twice he was elected to the assembly from this district, and always he was a local leader in the Republican party. While living in Trinity county he served as member of the school board for years and as provost-marshal during the Civil war, enrolling a goodly number of volunteers, but never being obliged to make a draft for the army. Fraternally he was connected with Hydesville Lodge No. 252, I. 0. 0. F. He and his wife trained their five children for the responsibilities of life and had the satisfaction of seeing them fill worthily positions of honor in business and society. The older son, Frank G. Williams, is president of the Russ-Williams Banking Company of Ferndale, and in his sketch further mention of the family history appears.

JACOB LOEWENTHAL.—Among the number of high-class mercantile houses which do credit to the city of Eureka, none in its line is more favorably known than that of Jacob Loewenthal, the veteran clothing merchant of the city. The attractive appearance of his store and stock is an indication of the manner in which the business is conducted. The benefits to proprietor and patrons are mutual, for Mr. Loewenthal has repaid the liberal patronage of the community in kind, giving the best possible service to his customers, excellent values and a large selection, for all of which they have shown substantial appreciation. Moreover, in the forty years of his business career at Eureka he has not only become widely and favorably known in his commercial relations, but has won a measure of esteem for his personal characteristics not bestowed except where deserved. Though never participating directly in public affairs, he has lived up to the highest standards of citizenship, and has been a helpful influence in the promotion of different projects intended to contribute to the general welfare.

Mr. Loewenthal is a native of Germany, born at Kamberg, near Frankfort on the Main, September 27, 1845. His father, Hirsch Loewenthal, was a dry goods merchant at Kamberg ; his mother, whose maiden name was Rebecca Loewenstein, died in 1893, when about seventy-eight years old. Jacob was their only son, and of the three daughters but one survives, Sarah, who is the widow of Jacob Schiller, of Schweppenhausen, who was in the cattle business at Bingen on the Rhine. Another daughter, Hannchen, who died at Eureka, was the wife of the late B. Feigenbaum, who was in merchandise business at Eureka prior to 1868, when he removed to San Francisco, continuing in the same line there.

Jacob Loewenthal received ordinary public school advantages, living in his native land until after he became of age. In 1867 he came to Eureka, Humboldt county, Cal., making the long journey by way of New York and Nicaragua. On the voyage to New York he was a passenger on the Hamburg liner Cymbria, sailed from New York to Greytown on the Santiago de Cuba, and came up from Nicaragua to Eureka on the Moses Taylor. For several years thereafter he was employed as a clerk by various merchants in the city and county. In 1874, having acquired considerable experience and thorough familiarity with the demands of the local trade, he decided to begin business on his own account, opening a store in April of that year. In the four decades which have since elapsed he has become one of the most popular merchants in the city, a fact attributable entirely to square dealing. His store is at No. 503 Second street. He carries a large and well assorted stock of clothing and men's furnishings, with an average value of $60,000, and that he endeavors to supply his patrons with the best goods may be judged from some of the well known brands of ready-to-wear articles he handles, "Griffon," "Society," "Slattford" and "Loewenthal" clothing, "Stetson," "Barsalina" (imported) and "Imperial" (imported) hats, and Florsheim, William Kneeland Company, Johnson Murphy, George H. Bass and Loewenthal shoes. Here is a selection which more than meets the wants of the average customer, and well adapted to the tastes of the most fastidious, who are aware of the advantages of having an establishment of this kind in their home town. He is the oldest clothier and men's furnisher in Eureka at the present time, and has the good wishes of his fellow citizens for a long continuance of his prosperous career.

Mr. Loewenthal's life has been a success from more than the material standpoint. His means have enabled him to assist others less fortunate, and his genial, benevolent disposition is illustrated in his relations with such, as well as in the courtesies of social life. Fraternally he is well known as an Odd Fellow and a Mason. On June 7, 1873, he joined Ferndale Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., of Ferndale, Humboldt county, and he has attained the thirty-second degree in Masonry, is a past master of Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., and a member of the Order of the Eastern Star, one of the two charter members of Cornelia chapter. Politically he supports the Republican party.

In 1886 Mr. Loewenthal was married at San lirancisco to Miss Carrie Meyer, a native of Germany, and they have a family of four children: Harold Hirsch, Sidney Simon, Myrtile and Leon. Their beautiful residence is at No. 1406 I street.

JAMES FERGUSON.—A native of New York state, James Ferguson has been a resident of California since 1869, and is today one of the honored citizens of Arcata and a prosperous farmer of this community. He spent many years in the employ of the various lumber companies of the county, but in the end he chose the occupation of dairy farming, and in this line he has been very successful.

Mr. Ferguson was born in Rochester, Monroe county, N. Y., September 1, 1849. His father was Robert Ferguson, a native of Scotland, who was engaged in farming during practically his entire residence in the United States. It was after coming to this country that he was married to Anna (Bawks) Ferguson, also a native of Scotland, and of this union were born nine children, six sons and three daughters. Of these James was the fifth in order of birth. His childhood was saddened by the death of both his parents when he was in his tenth year, and he was forced to leave school and start out in life for himself. He therefore received little schooling from books, but has accumulated a vast store of knowledge from personal observation, from reading and from talking with persons of education and information. His practical education was commenced when he was a mere lad, and that in itself was of great importance. He first secured employment with E. J. Hill, driving a milk wagon, and remained with him for a period of nine years. At the end of that time he was filled with a great desire to come to California, and accordingly, in the fall of 1869, he left Rochester and started for the land of promise. The trip was made by steamer down the coast to Aspinwall, thence across the Isthmus of Panama, and up the coast by the steamer Guatemala to San Francisco. About ninety miles below Acapulco the ship on which he had taken passage was wrecked, and the passengers, some one hundred forty-seven in number, were cast ashore. They walked over the rugged country to Acapulco, and there they had to wait for a month before another vessel came to take them on to their destination. They arrived in San Francisco in December of that year.

From San Francisco Mr. Ferguson went at once to Petaluma, Sonoma county, and there found employment on a ranch, where he remained until April of the following year (1870), when he went into the Russian river country and secured employment in the woods, driving an ox-team. Later he rented land and engaged in farming, but was not successful in this undertaking, and shortly afterward gave it up. In 1885 he came to Humboldt county and went to work in the woods for W. Murphy, at Fortuna. After remaining a few months he accepted a position with the Korbel Redwood Company, continuing with them for six years, driving seven or eight yoke of oxen hauling a string of logs, from seven to fifteen, strung out some three hundred feet. Although this was dangerous work he never had a serious accident. From Korbel Mr. Ferguson came to Arcata and rented a forty-acre ranch near Alliance and engaged in dairying and general farming. In this venture he was very successful and remained on this place for three years, at the end of which time he purchased his present home place, three miles north of Arcata, arid on which he has since that time made his home. The property consists of fifteen acres of highly improved land, which Mr. Ferguson is devoting to dairying and general farming.

Aside from his business interests Mr. Ferguson has always been keenly alive to all matters of interest to the general public, and on all questions that have affected the welfare of the community. He is road overseer for the fifth district, having been appointed in 1902, and having held the position continuously since. One of the best known pieces of work under his direction was the building of the Fieldbrook road. He has been actively interested in. the political affairs of the county, and favors the Republican party, although he is an independent thinker, and always holds the best interests of the community at heart, regardless of party affiliations. He has been honored by the confidence of his constituents on many occasions, and has represented his district at party conventions on frequent occasions during the past ten years. He is also a prominent member of the Redwood Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., at Guerneville.

The marriage of Mr. Ferguson occurred at Alliance November 24, 1890, uniting him with Miss Nancy B. Nicks, a native of Illinois, born at Springfield, October 5, 1857. She was the daughter of Thomas and Nancy (Hall) Nicks, and came to California with her parents in an early day, locating in Humboldt county, where they were esteemed pioneers. Mrs. Ferguson died at her home February 27, 1906, leaving the family to mourn the loss of a faithful wife and loving mother. They were the parents of five children, one daughter and four sons, all of whom were born in Arcata, where they are well known. They are Pearl, Marvin, Ralph, Eugene and Lester. They have all been well educated in the public and high schools, and have received many other advantages which their father was forced to forego, but which he has steadfastly striven to provide for his children.

ARTHUR WILLIAM BLACKBURN.—The justice of the peace of the Ferndale district, who is also town attorney of Ferndale, secretary of the Ferndale Chamber of Commerce and a director of the local telephone concern, is well fitted in every particular to faithfully represent the interests of the people, to decide impartially matters of considerable importance and to promote local progress by his progressive aptitude for affairs. A native of Wisconsin, born at Rochester, Racine county, November 2, 1878, and a son of Matthew and Caroline (Anderson) Blackburn, he was given the best advantages his neighborhood afforded. After he had completed the studies of a private preparatory school known as Rochester Academy he entered the University of Wisconsin and continued a student in that institution until he was graduated in 1901 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Two years later his alma mater conferred upon him the degrees of Master of Arts and Bachelor of Laws, he having completed the regular course of law study in the university law department. During June of 1903 he was admitted to practice in the United States courts and all courts of the state of Wisconsin, but, instead of taking up professional work at once, he taught history for one year in the high school at Marinette, -Wis., resigning the position in 1904 in order to remove to the west.

After one year in the law office of Gregor & Connick at Eureka in 1905 Mr. Blackburn came to Ferndale, where he has since engaged in professional work and public service. Appointed justice of the peace to fill an unexpired term, he was duly elected to that office in 1910 and has since officiated with precision, dignity and an impartial administration of justice. On the organization of the Eel River & Southern Telephone Company, in which he was a leading factor, he was chosen to serve as a director of the concern and still fills the position. Any movement for local growth receives his quiet but capable support. In the fraternities he is allied with the Masons and Odd Fellows. Possessing a true public spirit, he endeavors to promote the welfare of Ferndale and Humboldt county and champions any movement for the general advancement. Through his marriage to Florence Bell, a native of Wisconsin, he is the father of three sons, Arthur William, Jr., John and Edwin.

WILLIAM H. BARNWELL.—In the early days of the history of California, before land had attained its present great value, vast areas were owned by wealthy rancheros and by the church which at one time held almost complete sway in Southern California. Thus the land from Capistrano to San Diego was formerly the property of a single ranchman, while the original territory of the San Gabriel mission extended as far as the San Bernardino mountains. In our day no such enormous ownership is possible in this rapidly growing country, but there are today numerous landowners in California possessing prosperous ranches many acres in extent. Such a one is William H. Barnwell, a well-known rancher and road overseer of Humboldt county, Cal.

Born in Southampton, England, July 31, 1858, Mr. Barnwell was the son of Thomas Joseph Barnwell, a storekeeper, and Ellen E. (Jenner) Barnwell, who were the parents of sixteen children, William being the fifth in age. The first twelve years of his life were spent in school, after which he secured a position as messenger boy. But the desire for a more stirring life was uppermost in his mind, and' following, perhaps, the example of a sailor uncle, Henry Hyde Ticknor, who had crowned his roving life by coming to far distant California where he became the owner of a one hundred sixty acre claim at Willowbrook and was one of the earliest white settlers of this county, the boy William Barnwell spent two years at sea, making several trips by steamship from Bristol, England, to New York City, and becoming a personal friend of the captain. After seven years spent in clerkship in London, Mr. Barnwell followed his unchanged determination and in 1880 came to his uncle in California, locating at Alderpoint, Humboldt county, where he took up a pre-emption and worked for his uncle who had then sold his sheep ranch and kept a roadside inn and store and owned a ferry. Besides these interest's, his uncle had charge of the stage at Alderpoint, for at that date there was no train service such as we have today. By assisting his uncle in the running of this stage, Mr. Barnwell became efficient in the work and was taken into the employ of the Miller, Bullard & Sweasey Stage Company, running a stage from Eureka to San Francisco in thirty-six hours, changing horses every ten miles.

In January, 1884, Mr. Barnwell located a homestead claim at Chalk Mountain, Humboldt county, proved up on it and later bought the balance, and here is located today his vast ranch of nine hundred sixty acres called Chalk Mountain. West of this property lay an estate of twenty acres belonging to Greenleaf C. French, an old settler in the county, who had come from Maine when a young man. Four years after the death of Mr. French, Mr. Barnwell married his widow, Mrs. Orinda French, and acquired the ownership of this property which is known as Burr Creek ranch, on the Bridgville and Blocksburg road, and here stands his pleasant home which has recently been fitted with an acetylene gas plant and possesses the comforts and conveniences of modern life. In all, Mr. Barnwell is the owner of nine hundred eighty acres, all of which is in the Van Dusen township, Humboldt county. Mrs. Barnwell had already been twice married and was the mother of seven children. By her present marriage she has one child, William H. Barnwell, Jr., who lives with his parents on the estate at Burr creek.

The beautiful residence of Mr. and Mrs. Barnwell, besides standing on an estate which is to both of them redolent of the enthusiasm of the pioneer spirit and the gentler thought of old home ties, abounds with all that modern taste can bring to the making of a hospitable and pleasant home, and is expressive of the cordial and generous spirit of its owners. Of English descent, Mr. Barnwell brings to his country home in California the geniality of old England and here dispenses hospitality with much of the large and kindly spirit of old English squires of whom Washington Irving's books tell us. Vines and gardens, a piano and other musical instruments, guns and the kindly presence of dogs, speak of the pleasant home life as well as of the sportsman's interests and the health-giving outdoor life which all California's seasons offer.

JOHN ALEXANDER LANE, M. D.—It has been the destiny of Dr. Lane to be identified with Humboldt county throughout practically all of his life, for although a native of North Carolina, born in Guilford county, December 5, 1873, he was less than two years of age when his parents, Henry and Martha (Campbell) Lane, came to California, settling in this county and here rearing their two sons, George and John Alexander. Through his skill as a woodsman the father earned a livelihood for the family until it eventually became necessary to seek an occupation requiring less manual exertion and he then engaged in the hotel business at Fortuna, where he lived during his later years. The schools of that village were small, but more thorough than might have been expected, so that they afforded Dr. Lane the necessary foundation on which to build the larger intellectual and professional equipment of maturity. In the carrying out of his early desire to make a scientific study of materia medica and enter the profession of a physician and surgeon, he matriculated in the Cooper Medical College of San Francisco and had all the advantages offered by that old-established institution. Upon receiving the degree of M. D. at the conclusion of his regular course of lectures he remained in San Francisco for a year as an interne in the City and County hospital, then returned to Fortuna to take up professional work, but in 1907 removed to Ferndale and has here since made his home.

Through marriage to Augusta V. White, a native of Humboldt county and a member of a pioneer family honored throughout this section of the state, Dr. Lane is the father of three children, Lora, Henry and Tante. Activity in professional, public, educational and fraternal affairs has characterized his residence in Ferndale and his intelligent co-operation with local problems. The Humboldt County, California and American Medical Associations have his name on their lists of members and he in turn derives the benefits offered by their modern grasp of professional affairs. As a trustee of the Ferndale high school he has kept in touch with educational development and has fostered every measure tending toward the more thorough preparation of boys and girls for the responsibilities of life. His fraternal connections are numerous and include association with Eureka Lodge, B. P. O. E.; Eel River Lodge No. 147, F. & A. M., at Fortuna ; Ferndale Chapter No. 78, R. A. M., of Ferndale ; Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T., Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., San Francisco ; the Eastern Star ; the Lodge of Odd Fellows, in which he is past grand; and the Knights of Pythias, in which he is past chancellor commander.

BENJAMIN MAXWELL MARSHALL, M. D.—The association of Dr. Marshall with the professional life of Eureka commenced during the fall of 1903 and has continued uninterruptedly up to the present time, his interests not being limited to private professional practice, but including also a vital and important connection with hospital work. It is perhaps not too much to say that Eureka is unsurpassed in the character of its hospitals. Considering the size of the place, it affords a hospital service that is exceptionally up-to-date and thorough, and the physicians identified with these institutions are men of wide professional knowledge and the most earnest devotion to their chosen work. In this respect Dr. Marshall is surpassed by none, as evidenced not only by his able service as county physician and as surgeon at the county hospital, but also through his splendid service for many years as chief surgeon of the Union Labor hospital, an institution founded on the cooperative plan by the Union Labor bodies of Humboldt county. The Doctor himself took a prominent part in the founding of the hospital and the building, erected in 1905, reflects in its modern appointments his determination to secure for it a complete equipment, with facilities for operations of every character. A board of directors comprising members of the various unions in the county maintains a close supervision of the hospital. There is a capacity of fifty beds and it is not limited to its own members or their families, but is open to the public in general.

Descended from a long line of Scotch ancestry, the Doctor himself is a native of Ardpatrick, Argyleshire, Scotland, born November 26, 1875. At the age of six years he was brought to America by his parents, who settled in Canada during 1881 and later sent him to the public schools of that country. Ambitious to gain a broad educational opportunity that would prepare him for service in the world, he took a complete course of study in the classics at Westminster College in British Columbia, an institution, affiliated with the famous Toronto University. After having graduated from that college he took up the study of medicine, which he prosecuted with the diligence characteristic of him in every department of mental research. During 1902 he was graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons at San Francisco, and afterward he was engaged as assistant to A. W. Morton, M. D., in the Morton hospital, San Francisco. Meanwhile he had gained considerable added experience through service as house physician in the City and County hospital and as an assistant to the chair of medicine in the College of Physicians and Surgeons. Such advantages proved of inestimable assistance to him when he embarked in private practice and enabled him to diagnose diseases with promptness and accuracy. For five years he was surgeon at the Humboldt county general hospital in Eureka, where also he has given most able service as chief surgeon of the Union Labor hospital. So engrossed has he been in professional work that it would not be expected of him to give active participation to the fraternities, yet we find him prominent in the Orders of Elks, Eagles, Red Men and Knights of Pythias, while at the same time he is deeply interested in the work of the Humboldt Club and has aided its enterprises to the extent of his time and influence. By his marriage to Miss Josephine Pearson, a native of New Brunswick, he has two sons, Benjamin Maxwell, Jr., and Joseph W. Personally he is popular in the community which his character and professional ability are helping to upbuild. A friend of the public schools, good roads movements and other well known local projects, his residence in Eureka has tended to the widening of its prospects and the enhancing of its opportunities.

ALBERT FELIX ETTER.—In the canton of Thurgau, Switzerland, where the Etter family originated, the science of horticulture has probably reached greater perfection than in any other spot on the earth. So it is safe to assume that heredity accounts for Mr. Etter's taste for his life work, particularly as his parents, Benjamin and Wilhelmina (Kern) Etter, exhibited the same tendencies, though they made no attempt at scientific labors of the kind. However, the father was the first man in Humboldt county to grow lentils, and made a decided success of the venture. The mother was a nature lover and showed a gift in the cultivation of plants, and strong analytical and executive powers, which may well be cited as evidence that her talented son comes by his tastes and ability largely through the maternal line. Personally he is too unassuming to claim anything he cannot prove for his work, and has such high ideals that he would disclaim any pretensions to fame. But when his accomplishments are summed up, and when time has proved their worth, it is safe to say that in his own line he will rank closely after such eminent horticulturists as Luther Burbank of California and N. E. Hanson of South Dakota—in fact, he is to Humboldt county what Burbank is to the world. Though yet a young man his experiments have ranged over a period of twenty-five years. The high order of his success could be attained only through the genius which must be accompanied by untiring industry, patience and adherence to a purpose until results crown the effort.

"Study nature, not books," was the motto of the great naturalist, Louis Agassiz, and Mr. Etter has endeavored to follow the advice of so distinguished a leader in nature study. What he has done has brought him reputation as an authority, especially in the propagation of strawberries, but the great future of his work lies in its value to Humboldt county and the rest of northwestern California. Hitherto this region has not undergone the development as a fruit belt which his experiments are proving feasible. With the ever growing needs of the nation her soil must be more intensively cultivated and will be as agriculturists recognize the advisability of making small tracts yield abundantly by concentrating their efforts rather than drawing small profits from large areas. The hundreds of trials which Mr. Etter has made with fruits, forage plants, grasses, clovers, etc., will influence the planting of orchards and fields in this ,territory especially, having been made with the object of ascertaining what varieties thrive best here. Next to his joy in his work the scientist no doubt places its approval by his understanding colaborers, and then the appreciation of the public. Yet whether this comes in his lifetime or not the knowledge that he has done a real service makes all his efforts worth while. If this were not so, if he did not have this for his ultimate goal, his labors would not have the incentive which holds him until his object is attained, no matter what the obstacles which confront him.

Albert F. Etter was born while the family lived in Eldorado county, near Shingle Springs postoffice, November 27, 1872. Coming with his parents to Humboldt county he remained at his father's home on the Eel river until twenty-two years old, meantime attending the public schools near home up to the age of fifteen years. From early boyhood he put in all his spare time at horticultural work, mastering grafting when a mere child, conducting experiments in hybridizing and plant breeding from pure love of the game. He had done practical work at such things at the age of seven, with apples and peaches ; by the time he was twelve he had an excellent collection of dahlias and had begun breeding strawberries. Since he left school he has devoted himself to horticulture. The mere enumeration of his experiments would serve to illustrate how indefatigable he has been in his efforts to get at the varieties best adapted to this climate. Six hundred kinds—new and old—of apples (obtained mostly through the University of California) have been tried out by him, with the result that he has found the Northfield (originated in Vermont several years ago), Rolfe, Ecklinville, Bedfordshire, Reinette, Annas and Kirkbridge to possess exceptional qualities of color, flavor and productiveness and well adapted for cultivation in northwestern California. As yet, these varieties are practically unknown in the horticultural world, and their introduction will mark a distinct advance. Of all these, he sees special merit in the Northfield, which he believes will prove as great a benefit to northwestern California among apples as the navel orange was to southern California among citrus fruits. It is large, attractive and hardy, and the tree has the additional superiority of holding its fruit and not dropping it on the ground before thoroughly ripe, a fault particularly noticeable in the Gravenstein. He has brought out a seedling of the Northfield which has all the good qualities of its parent. By his experiments he has demonstrated that the Northfield apple is immune to scab. The discovery of this fact is of great importance, opening as it does the possibilities of breeding a family of varieties circumventing one of the greatest obstacles to successful apple culture in many sections. It has been pronounced by one of the best food concerns as being the best apple for canning of all known varieties. Some ordinary varieties of apples, such as the Gravenstein, Wagner, Spitzenburg, Hyde King and Roman Beauty, have also been found to thrive here.

Over one hundred varieties of forage plants, grasses and clover have been included in Mr. Etter's experiments in that department, in which he has kept in close touch with the activities of the United States department of agriculture. In this line his results have shown that the large white clovers of southern Europe are particularly well suited for the needs of the dairy section of Humboldt county, inasmuch as they have a large growth during the winter.
At present he is conducting extensive experiments with nuts, mostly English walnuts, chestnuts and filberts, some of which grow so well here that they should find a place among the staple crops of the county.

But it is as an expert authority on strawberries that Mr. Etter excels. In this field it is no exaggeration to say he is without a peer—a "plant wizard" whose achievements are bound to revolutionize many phases of the strawberry industry. The Ettersburg family of strawberries originated by him has distinctive characteristics never before attained in the production of strawberries. The perfection of the best varieties has been reached only through years of painstaking observation and practical demonstration at each step, a task whose magnitude may be guessed at when we are told that besides working with all the leading old varieties he has created thousands of new hybrid varieties. These experiments have been conducted with various objects in view, multiplying the difficulties of the work in proportion to the results sought. But the new types are so far superior to the old, not only in quality but in abundant crop returns for labor expended, that it is only a question of time when they will entirely supersede their less thrifty ancestors. This family of strawberries has been created on a completely new line of ideas, hence the great difference from the species generally found under cultivation. Cultivated varieties have been blended with wild stock of known superiority and embodying the qualities desired, among them two species classed as Fragaria chilensis, though widely different in type—the Peruvian Beach or Sand strawberry and the Cape Mendocino Beach strawberry, secured in varying types all the way down the Pacific coast from Cape Mendocino to Patagonia, South America. The sand dunes of this coast from Alaska to Patagonia have all contributed parent stock, and the regions around Cape Mendocino, Point Arena, Ano Nuevo (Cal.), Callao (Peru), and Chile and Patagonia, have been ransacked and given up their treasures to Mr. Etter, who has found the hardiness and vigor he sought in the plants of the cliffs and dunes, subject for countless generations to drouth, exposure to rains, changes of cold and heat, overcoming and surviving sterility of soil, alkaline conditions and adversities of all kinds. The Beach strawberries, although producing an exceptionally fine flavored fruit, are of such extreme hardiness that they exist and thrive when through privation and sterility all other plants fail to maintain themselves. The wood strawberry in varying types indigenous to the coast of California, and the wild Alpine strawberry from Europe, are other wild species he has crossed with cultivated plants, and the resultant new species in quality and quantity of fruit surpass anything heretofore known.

Keeping in mind the various uses of berries for the market, Mr. Etter has now a number of established varieties evolved by infinite pains and judicious selection from all the kinds he created, each with its own merits, and though he does not hold out any promises which cannot be substantiated he is able to recommend all of them for cultivation in this climate. These include half-blood Beach berries, the Rose Ettersburg berry, five sister varieties which are one-quarter each Cape Mendocino Beach, Peruvian Beach, California wood and the ordinary type, and two recently perfected varietiesBeaderarena and Trebla. The Beaderarena is a mixture of Point Arena and the Beaderwood, possessing all the characteristics of the foliage of the Beach types, a very distinctive and high quality, bearing large sized berries and exceedingly productive. But the Ettersburg Trebla is the marvel among all these. For flavor, color, firmness and size it is all that could be desired, and is so individual in appearance that unless seen could hardly be imagined even by a grower of ordinary types. Without irrigation a plant has produced three quarts of the choicest berries in six weeks' picking, twenty-five thousand quarts to the acre in a season. With irrigation this can be increased possibly to forty thousand quarts per acre, as the plants would be made to bear throughout the summer, under favorable conditions.

The Ettersburg berries have a variety of flavor which has usually been considered impossible of attainment, and Mr. Etter regards some of his accomplishments in this respect as novelties which will be welcomed by some and of indifferent value to others who do not care for banana or cherry taste in berries. The Rose Ettersburg is particularly fragrant. All the varieties will thrive in soil more sterile than that required for ordinary strawberries, and some are particularly adapted for growth in clayey soils or other peculiar conditions. Their strong, leathery foliage helps to resist the heat and drouth, and the berries have been left on the vines for as much as ten days after ripening without spoiling: This length of life in warm weather and under exposure to rain is a valuable quality indeed, as they may be left unpicked with no danger of loss, and the vines hold up well, keeping the fruit off the ground. Some kinds are very valuable for canning, as they may be cooked without loss of color and without breaking, while others are delicious dessert berries. All the product of the strawberry beds, fruit or stock, is packed under Mr. Etter's personal supervision.
Dr. Bitting, in charge of the exhibit of the American Canners' Association in the Palace of Horticulture at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, after a careful examination of Ettersburg Strawberry No. 121 and the Ettersburg Trebla, has pronounced them varieties of the very highest merit for canning purposes, in fact being in a class by themselves. The No. 121 is a direct cross between two wild species, i. e., Cape Mendocino Beach and the Wild Alpine species from Europe. It is so exceedingly hardy that it is perfectly capable of growing wild and producing immense crops of the finest of berries where ordinary varieties would not thrive to advantage even under careful cultivation. This variety has been found capable of growing and thriving on soils heretofore considered almost worthless for any known agricultural purpose. It would even seem that the net revenue gained by the cultivation of this berry on this type of land would in a few years be sufficient to buy outright any acre of land devoted to agricultural purposes in the state. The above varieties have met a long-felt want by canners in supplying a berry with an indelible color which does not fade after the fruit is canned.

The Ettersburg Trebla strawberry is such a radical breaking away from the hereditary type in structure and other characteristics of fruit that Mr. Etter sees in it the beginning of an entirely new and distinct type of strawberry. These varieties will exceed all others in crispness, solidity, intense color and special characters necessary in the production of the highest class of prepared products such as canned, preserved, glaced, Marischino, etc.
Though Mr. Etter has been self-taught in his life vocation, he has followed it along strictly scientific lines, learning by direct contact with his work rather than from books, yet despising nothing that the great teachers found worthy of record in their labors. His wonderful work has only begun to be appreciated, but the many who profit by its results will carry down the story of his service to mankind written in the book of nature.
Mr. Etter is a member of the California Nurserymen's Association, of the American Pomological Society, and president of the Ettersburg Farm Center, one of the livest of all the branches of the Humboldt County Farm Bureau. His interest in the last named, and his very effective efforts in the promotion of its welfare, are another proof of the unselfishness of his activities, which have been the means of attracting widespread attention to this one-time neglected portion of northwestern California.

ETTER BROTHERS.—The bare fact that there is a settlement called Ettersburg in the Mattole river district six miles west of Briceland, in southern Humboldt county, where the Etter family have been settled for more than twenty years (although the representatives were located in the county since March, 1876), will indicate that its members have been active and respected citizens of their community. But it does not convey any adequate idea of what they have accomplished, either for themselves or for their chosen home. They are a numerous family, nine sons and one daughter of Benjamin Etter, the progenitor of all of the name in this region, still surviving—and all in Humboldt county. Each and every one has given such a good account of himself that the county has come to expect things of them as a matter of course. George B., Fred J., August A. and Albert F. Etter are in partnership under the firm name of Etter Brothers, whose operations are especially along the lines of fruit growing and evaporation, plant breeding and lumbering. For individual achievements and originality, particularly in the field of horticulture, Albert F. Etter is the most widely known, and his work is commented on in the personal article which appears in this volume. However, he carried on his experiments primarily in the interest of the business of Etter Brothers, each of the four partners looking after that branch for which he is best adapted. Fifty of the eight hundred acres they own are in fruit, apples and strawberries, the rest being valuable timber and pasture land.

Benjamin Etter, father of this most interesting family, was born and reared in Switzerland, where he learned the painter's trade. In young manhood he came to the United States, the promised land of many a European emigrant, and for a few years lived in Missouri, where he farmed. He entered the United States service during the Mexican war and fought to its close. Returning to Missouri, he remained there until he came out to California in 1850, going up to Chicago, whence he started the overland journey, which ended in Siskiyou county, Cal. After mining in that section four years he went back to Chicago, in 1854, and thence again to Missouri, where he lived another ten years, from 1856 to 1866. During that period he was engaged in various pursuits, including farming. Meanwhile he married, his wife, Wilhelmina (Kern), being a native of Germany, brought to this country when one year old, and a resident of Missouri up to the time of her marriage and for several years thereafter. When Mr. and Mrs. Etter came with their family to California in 1866 they set out from Sainte Genevieve, Mo., for St. Louis, and proceeded via Chicago to New York City by railroad, Erie canal and the Hudson river. Arriving at Aspinwall (now Colon) they crossed the isthmus by rail to Panama, where they took passage on a steamship to San Francisco, continuing thence by steamboat to Sacramento, where the family stayed a few days, until the father could go to Eldorado county and buy a farm. They settled at Latrobe, that county, where Mr. Etter was occupied principally at farming, though he also mined. In March, 1876, he came up to Humboldt county with his father, and located on the Eel river, buying the tract of twenty acres where he resided ten years, then sold and purchased forty acres on Eel River Island, upon which he resided until his death, in 1889, at the age of sixty-seven years. His wife outlived him many years, until 1913, reaching the age of seventy-eight. Of the thirteen children born to them two died young, and another at the age of nineteen years. The rest still survive : Louise, who is unmarried and lives with one of her brothers ; Emil J. ; Henry J.; George B. ; Fred J.; Albert F.; August A.; Frank X. and Louis S., twins ; and Walter E. All reside at Ettersburg but Emil and Frank, who live in Upper Mattole.

Emil J. Etter was born January 6, 1861, and lived at Sainte Genevieve, Mo., where his father had a farm, until his sixth year, when he accompanied his parents to California. He well remembers the various stops and incidents of the long journey. Though he was given public school advantages he began to work early, helping with the farm duties at home, and in his boyhood he saw considerable of mining. Remaining with his father until twenty-four years old, he then rented a place, and after ten years or more came over to the Mattole district in 1896, settling on the property he has since occupied. It consists of four thousand acres, and he is engaged principally in raising cattle, making a specialty of grade Durhams. Ordinarily he keeps from one hundred and fifty to two hundred head. They are dual purpose cattle, and he does a considerable dairy business, owning an eighteen-inch Case separator, which he operates by gas power, having a gasoline engine of ten horsepower. For ten years he has also been doing threshing. He owns the Evarts ranch, which he bought, about five miles up from Petrolia, and operates that land as a stock ranch. On his home place he has a good family orchard, but has not attempted to raise any fruit intended for the market. Public affairs have interested him sufficiently to draw him into service as a school trustee, and he is a Democrat on political issues. In 1888 he married Miss Minnie Shallard, a native of Switzerland, who came to Humboldt county with her widowed mother when nine years old. Six children have been born to this marriage : Mary is the wife of Vernile Shinn, and mother of two children, Evelyn and Minnie (Mr. Shinn is proprietor of the Shinn resort on the Upper Mattole) ; Joseph, Gertrude, Charles, Benjamin and Raymond are at home.

Frank X. Etter, another son of the late Benjamin Etter, is a cattleman in the Upper Mattole section, owning seven hundred acres of land. In 1904 he married Miss Dora Hill, daughter of George R. Hill, and their family consists of four children : Alma, Donald, Keith and Francis.

George B., Fred J., August A. and Albert F. Etter, the four sons of Benjamin Etter constituting the firm of Etter Brothers; about twenty years ago homesteaded land in the Upper Mattole river district west of Briceland, a mountainous portion of Humboldt county which by reason of its inaccessibility was long regarded as practically worthless. But they were young and had little capital ; that is, in money. Time has proved that their industry, perseverance and intelligence were all-sufficient for success ; and having made a fortune partly in occupations hitherto considered unprofitable here, they have demonstrated that this once unfruitful region is capable and worthy of cultivation and the production of first quality fruits in abundance, there being no finer strawberries in the market today than those developed and propagated at the Etter experiment grounds. Forty acres of the eight hundred now owned by Etter Brothers are planted with choice varieties of apples. Ten acres are in strawberries, to which more attention is devoted in the sketch of Albert F. Etter, who has charge of the horticultural work. The rest is in pasture and timber lands, the latter including large groves of tanbark oak, most of which they are conserving for future exploitation, and fir from which they obtain a valuable output of lumber. The economy and thrift of their old world blood and training have combined with American push to produce prosperous conditions in the midst of a once unpromising territory. With characteristic thoroughness they have provided all the essentials for the conduct of their diversified operations, right on the grounds, facilitating and condensing the work by eliminating unnecessary handling with its consequent delays, and preparing the way for further developments as they become feasible. Thus they have erected a steam sawmill with machinery large enough to saw logs four feet in diameter, and have a planing mill in connection, and they have turned out splendid dimension lumber for bridge building and other equally important uses on contract. All the boards and other lumber they have required for the construction of their own dwelling houses, barns, evaporating plant, and the other structures which have sprung up on their property as occasion necessitated or expansion justified, have been made in their own mills.

Probably the most notable work done on this place, in view of its relation to progress and importance from the horticultural standpoint, is in the breeding of plants, Albert F. Etter having supervision of this department. His work in the propagation of strawberries, the production of new varieties and experiments with those of established merit, will no doubt secure his name a permanent place in the history of fruit culture ; but it will not rank far ahead of his achievements with apples, forage plants, grasses and clover, and when Humboldt county and all northern California are ready to do more in the way of intensive agriculture, as they must to keep up with growing needs, their best orchards will be the result of his years of investigation and experimentation. The Etter Brothers have put up a large evaporating plant, at present devoted entirely to handling the product of their forty acres of apple trees—another instance of commendable foresight which is typical of all their work. The choicest ripe apples are treated by an improved system of drying known as the "Like Fresh" process, and the brand of dried fruit produced is superb.

The talents of each of the four brothers associated as Etter Brothers are employed in the line for which he is specially fitted by experience and natural endowment. August A. and George B. Etter look after the stock and horses, transportation and farm work. Albert F. Etter conducts the evaporating plant and cannery, and superintends the horticultural department. Fred J. Etter is particularly clever as a machinist and superintends the sawmills and responsibilities of that nature. The youngest brother, Walter, though not formally a member of the firm, is identified with its operations, being a capable engineer and mechanic, helping to run the engines and saws, blacksmith shop, donkey engine, etc. In fact, all the members of the family cooperate harmoniously, though the five outside of the firm conduct their farms individually. The holdings of the nine brothers in the Mattole valley aggregate over eighty-seven hundred acres.

THOMAS VANCE.—It is a far cry from Maine to California, but such was the call that brought Mr. Vance to the far west over forty-seven years ago. His earliest recollections, however, are of a home in Nova Scotia, his birth having occurred there, in Colchester county, October 23, 1828. Nova Scotia was also the birthplace of his father, John Vance, who passed the greater part of his life as a farmer in that country, his earth life coming to a close when he had reached the advanced age of eighty-nine years. Of the parental family of ten children Thomas Vance was the youngest and is the only one living. As his father was a farmer it is but natural that he should also become familiar with the calling, and indeed this early training became the ground work of his success in the same line in after years. In the schools adjacent to his boyhood home he received his educational training, which, with his experience on the home farm, constituted his equipment for the duties of life that lay before him.

When he started out to make his own 'way in the world farming appealed to Mr. Vance very strongly, in the first place because it was the only thing with which he was familiar, and in the second place because it was the only thing that offered at the time he most needed it. Thus it followed that he continued farming in Nova Scotia until 1865, that year marking his removal to Maine. In Aroostook county he settled upon a farm which he purchased and continued to make his home until the attractions of California could no longer be resisted. March 17, 1868, marks the day on which he left the Pine Tree state, and his residence in Eureka, Cal., dates from May 15 of the same year. More fortunate than many who have made this cross-country journey he was met by a relative, his brother John having preceded him to the west and become established in business. As proprietor of a sawmill he was doing a good business and was able to give the younger brother employment. As soon as the latter became familiar with the business he was placed in charge of the mill and for over twenty years he continued in this capacity. At the end of this time he gave up active business life altogether and has since lived retired in Eureka, now making his home at No. 635 Fifteenth street, with his daughter, Mrs. McCullough.

In Nova Scotia Mr. Vance was united in marriage with Elizabeth Miller, a native of that country, who died in Eureka August 5, 1913. Six children were born of this marriage and of them we mention the following : John died when four years old ; Mary Jane died when two years of age ; James E. was accidentally drowned_in Humboldt bay ; Cassie, Mrs. Jenson, passed away in Eureka ; William died in July, 1913 ; and Annie Belle, Mrs. McCullough, with whom Mr. Vance makes his home, is the only living child. In the loss of wife and children Mr. Vance has indeed suffered deeply, but his later years are being filled with all of the joy and comfort that it is possible for his only remaining daughter to bestow. In his religious faith Mr. Vance believes in the tenets of the Presbyterian denomination, and in his political belief he is a Republican.

A. L. FRITZ.—There is no industry that has done more to bring Humboldt county to the front than dairying, a business that has been completely revolutionized in methods since it was started in the county. Where formerly the milk was skimmed from pans and churned by hand, it now passes through power separators and churns, or is otherwise manufactured into condensed, evaporated or powdered milk, thus placing milk upon the market in various forms. When he came to Humboldt county Mr. Fritz brought with him valuable experience in the dairy business gained in the east, and this has contributed in no small degree to the success which he has enjoyed throughout his career in the west.
On his father's side, A. L. Fritz, of Loleta, comes from an old Pennsylvania family of German descent, while his mother was a member of a Southern family of English ancestry. Both parents are still living on the home farm at Lexington, N. C., where- Mr. Fritz was born in 1877, his parents being William and Jane (Grimes) Fritz. Of the family of eight children, A. L. Fritz is the fourth oldest, and received his education in the public schools of his home, after which he was apprenticed to the machinist trade for the usual term of training, removing in 1897 to Sheridan, Ind., at which place commenced his association with the condensed milk industry, in which he has been interested continuously since that time. His first connection with the business was as engineer at the Indiana Condensed Milk Plant, where he learned the manufacture of the product in all details and in 1899 was placed in charge of the plant. It was a new industry and Mr. Fritz took up the experimental part of the business from the start with practical energy and ability, being later sent by the company to Ontario, Wayne county, N. Y., to install a condensed milk plant at that place, and likewise one at Lexington, Ohio, spending in all five years with the company. After severing his connection with them and spending a couple of years in hunting and fishing in the northwest, Mr. Fritz was employed by the American Milk Products Company of Chicago, as manager of the Illinois plant of that corporation, which he rebuilt and changed from a creamery to a condensed milk plant, continuing there as manager when the company became one of the plants of Libby, McNeill & Libby. After having spent five years in this work, Mr. Fritz was transferred to Union, Ill., to become manager .of the company's plant at that place, where he remained for a period of eighteen months, being then transferred to the plant at Loleta, Cal., as manager. This branch was established many years ago, but in 1909 Libby, McNeill & Libby took it over, added to and enlarged it and brought it up to its present high standard as a large and extensive establishment, manufacturing all kinds of condensed milk, including evaporated milk, with a combined capacity of about five hundred cases per day ; of powdered milk about three thousand pounds are manufactured per day ; and butter about two tons a day, the milk being obtained in large part from the lower part of the Eel river valley, stations for collecting the same being located at Newburg and Ferndale. The plant employs about fifty people, and much of its product is shipped to the islands of the Pacific coast by way of San Francisco.

Though much of his time is of necessity taken up by his business responsibilities and the furthering of the interests of the company with which he is associated, Mr. Fritz yet finds time for the enjoyment of fraternal interests, he having been made a Mason in Orion Lodge No. 358, at Union, Ill.

HARRISON MAVEL MERCER.—From the time of his arrival in Eureka in 1873 until his death, November 10, 1909, Mr. Mercer was an important factor in the business history of the town, keeping constantly in touch with its progress, witnessing its growth in many directions and recognizing its needs in others. Prior to removing to the Pacific coast he had lived in Maine, where he was born in Calais and where during young manhood he had engaged in lumbering in the woods extending back from the St. Croix river. Throughout the entire period of his residence in Eureka he gave his attention almost wholly to contracting and building, in which he gained an accuracy, expertness and efficiency that gave permanence to all of his work and satisfaction to all of his customers. After he had been associated with Messrs. James Simpson and Close successively in the taking of contracts, he founded the Mercer-Hodgson Construction Company and later organized the Mercer-Frazer Construction Company, both of which were leading agencies in the material upbuilding of Northwestern California. Many of the most substantial homes and stores were erected under his supervision, but that by no means represented the extent of his contracts. Besides erecting the Electric Light building and remodeling the Sequoia hospital, he built many of the wharves on the water front, did the construction work on the jetty on Humboldt bar and had numerous contracts for bridges and tunnels as well as track-laying on the Northwestern Pacific Railroad. The nature of his work attested his skill. Every contract was given his close personal supervision and unskilled, unreliable work was never permitted. Therefore he was a force for durable construction work and a factor in the permanent upbuilding of the county.

A sincere faith in the future of Humboldt county led Mr. Mercer to take an active interest in the Eureka Chamber of Commerce and the Humboldt Club, while his interest in the fraternities caused him to assist in the organization of the local lodges of Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias. Because of being a charter member, his interest in these two fraternities was particularly keen. He served four years as a supervisor of Humboldt county and filled the position faithfully and well. While never a partisan in politics, he kept well posted concerning matters pertaining to the welfare of our country and the prosperity of the nation. A representative of the best in American citizenship, he lived up to a high ideal in public and private life and made his influence felt throughout the community for its moral uplift. Twice married, the death of his first wife left him with two children. John and Maude, the latter now Mrs. Fairfield, of Oakland. The son married Mabel Zane, of Eureka, and is a business man of this city. The second marriage of Mr. Mercer united him with Clara L. Finch, a native of Fort Atkinson, Wis., and a member of a family that had charge of the erection of many handsome residences in Milwaukee during early days. Her father, Charles B. Finch, a veteran of a Wisconsin regiment in the Civil war and a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, came to California in 1875 and settled in Humboldt county. Although a carpenter by trade, he took up agricultural pursuits in the west and for many years farmed near Eureka, where he died in 1910.

The only child of the union of Mr. Mercer and Clara L. Finch was a son, Clarence M., born at Eureka on the 22d of February, 1882, and primarily educated in the Eureka schools. After he was graduated from the Healdsburg high school he matriculated in the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, where he took the complete course of lectures and was graduated with an excellent standing. During 1913 he went to New York to have the advantages of a post-graduate hospital course in that city. After beginning to practice the medical profession in Eureka he established domestic ties in 1909, through his marriage to Miss Grace Richmond, a native of Ohio. Besides his private practice he acts as physician to Sequoia hospital at Eureka and already is being recognized as a talented young physician whose future holds out promise of professional success. The Humboldt Club has his name enrolled on its membership list and he is also connected with the Loyal Order of Moose.

WILLIAM EDWARD MICHEL.—A thoroughly competent man and one who enjoys the entire confidence of his employer, employes and patrons is W. E. Michel, who is in charge of the livestock and packing house interests of the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia, Cal. There is not one of his customers who would not gladly deal with him again. He is the buyer of all the cattle, hogs and sheep to supply the four stores and to feed the army of about three thousand workers connected with the great Pacific Lumber Company.

Mr. Michel comes from some of the leading American families. His father, Dr. William M. Michel, whose native state was Virginia, was a nephew of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston of the Confederate army. The Johnston family was one of the "F. F. V.'s" ; the well-known writer, Mary Johnston, author of "To Have and To Hold" and other novels, is a member of this family. Mr. Michel's branch of the Michel family is traced back to King Robert Bruce of Scotland. His father served several years as a surgeon in the Southern army, and after the close of the Civil war as surgeon in the government navy. Later he came to Humboldt county, Cal., and was connected with the Round Valley (Mendocino county) and the Hoopa (Humboldt county) Indian Reservations. At the close of his term of service as doctor at the Hoopa Reservation, he moved to Ferndale, Cal., where he engaged in the general practice of medicine and also ran a drug store for several years. He was accidentally killed by the breaking of a banister railing at a ball game in Ferndale, dying several weeks later from the effect of the accident. The mother of Mr. Michel was formerly Miss Lucy Dennis, a native of Virginia. She is now living with her daughter, Mrs. R. D. Porter, at No. 1628 E street, Eureka.

The parents of Mr. Michel had six children, four daughters and two sons. The eldest, Maynard H., is state sheep inspector and resides at Rohnerville, Cal.; Genevieve is the wife of William Smiley, a rancher and dairyman of Carlotta ; Elizabeth is now the wife of R. D. Porter, manager of the Robert Porter estate and director of the Bank of Eureka ; Marian is the widow of Ellis Roberts and resides at No. 1628 E street, Eureka ; Lucy is the wife of Hon. John W. McClellan, of Bridgeville, proprietor of the Casa Loma Ranch (see his sketch) ; William Edward, the youngest of the children, was born in Mendocino county, August 6, 1880.

As a boy Mr. Michel had to work hard. At the age of fifteen he started in the meat market business at Ferndale with Payne & Beck, and has been in the meat market and stock business ever since, ten years in Ferndale and two in San Francisco. His association with the Pacific Lumber Company dates from the year 1907, when he was engaged to take charge of their packing plant. He and Alexander Lamb, Jr., worked together in devising plans for the packing house and refrigerating plant which the company adopted and which are still in use and regarded as one of the most satisfactory systems known to date. In 1910 Mr. Michel was put in charge and ever since has been at the head of the livestock and packing house department. He has made a special study of the animal and meat industry in all its phases, breeding, feeding, buying and selling, slaughtering, refrigerating, cutting, making lard, sausages, salt pork and other meats, curing, smoking, retaining, etc. It is an unfailing rule with him never to kill for use any animal unless it is free from disease and in good order, and he inspects all animals intended for the block while on hoof.

The Pacific Lumber Company kills enough hogs to provide all the lard consumed and handled by the Eel River Mercantile Company at its four stores located at Scotia, Dyerville, Shively and Field's Landing. Besides this, the company keeps on its cut-over lands about eight hundred head of stockers and feeders. They have six thoroughbred Hereford bulls which they use for breeding purposes, raising approximately two hundred head every year, and they kill twelve hundred annually.

It is almost beyond belief that there are but twenty-two horses employed by this gigantic lumber concern ; yet this is true. Steam machinery is installed for logging, loading and transporting the logs, and gigantic cranes and monorails handle the sawed lumber in units of about two thousand feet each. The horses are used mainly to haul building material to places where the company is building residences for its employes, and erecting other necessary structures.
While a youth at Hoopa Indian Reservation Mr. Michel became convinced that Humboldt county held great deposits of gold-bearing quartz, sulphuret of gold and iron, and at the present time he is largely interested as a stockholder in the Red Cap Mining and Development Company of, Humboldt county. He has studied the mineral wealth of this county and has the utmost faith in its resources along this line, especially in the gold at Orleans Bar.

Mr. Michel was married in 1902 to Miss Adah Davis, daughter of Frank Davis of Rohnerville, a pioneer of Humboldt county. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Ferndale, and Myrtle Encampment at Ferndale ; is a member of the Weeott Tribe No. 147, I. 0. R. M., at Scotia, being past sachem of the tribe; also Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E.

FERNDALE BANK.—The history of. this reliable and conservative banking institution dates back to March of 1893, when it was organized with a capital of $25,000 and the following officers: .Adam Putnam, president; William N. Russ, vice-president ; and J. H. Trost, cashier. Later E. P. Nisson became the vice-president and in July of 1905 F. N. Rasmussen was elected to the office of cashier. The officers of 1914 are as follows: Adam Putnam, president; E. P. Nisson, vice-president; and F. N. Rasmussen, cashier. The three officers together with the following other stockholders serve as directors of the concern: J. H. Ring, F. G. Williams, J. A. Shaw, P. J. Peterson, W. N. Russ and P. Calanchini. The growth of the bank has been healthy, dividends have been paid with unfailing regularity, and now the capital and surplus aggregate more than $100,000. After nineteen years of occupancy of quarters not especially designed for modern banking purposes, in July of 1912 the institution moved its headquarters into the attractive and substantial new building of re-enforced concrete with white tile trimmings, with interior equipment of the most approved and modern type, now occupied by the bank and used exclusively for banking purposes. For twenty years the institution was strictly commercial, but in January, 1913, a savings department was added and this has since become a very important accessory of the main institution.

DAVID PAGE CUTTEN.—The Cutten family was established in Humboldt county during the early '50s by R. D. Cutten, who for many years had many interests in connection with the timber industry and not only operated sawmills and shingle mills near Eureka, but for a time also owned an important ship-building business, continuing indeed until his death as one of the well-known lumbermen of his adopted community. Six children formed his family, namely : David P., who was born in Colchester county, Nova Scotia, August 7, 1850, and joined his father at Eureka in 1868; Edward L., William F., Mrs. Thomas McDonald, Mrs. J. S. Murray and Mrs. Sophia B. Gardner, the latter deceased. Coming to this section of the country at the age of eighteen, David Page Cutten has remained here ever since, meanwhile having large interests in a number of the industries connected with local advancement. For fifteen years he was employed by the John Vance Lumber Company in a clerical capacity and as private secretary, besides acting for a time as superintendent of the interests of Mr. Vance on Mad river. In valuation of timber land he came to be recognized as an expert and authority. For this reason David Evans of the California Redwood Company engaged him to buy large tracts of timber land, depending upon his judgment as to the proper price for the same. In addition he bought timber land for the Dolbeer-Carson Lumber Company.

As one of the organizers of the Redwood Land and Investment Company and as its secretary Mr. Cutten engaged in the buying and selling of timber lands, utilizing for the benefit of the concern his exceptional ability in judging valuations. While filling the office of secretary of the board of harbor commissioners he originated a system of keeping records of exports and imports and prepared the first report concerning the same for the consideration of the board. The first successful system ever compiled by the board may be attributed to his intelligent mastery of the subject of imports and exports. The Samoa Company comprised a party of local men, himself included in the number, who bought six thousand feet of water front and two hundred forty acres of land occupying the present site of Samoa as well as the country adjacent thereto. The company subdivided some of the tract and sold a large number of lots, but later the Hammond Lumber Company purchased the entire property. Another important local enterprise of Mr. Cutten was the organization and promotion of the Dutch Colony, owners of one thousand acres at Fruitland, with one hundred sixty acres of the tract planted to prunes, apples, grapes and peaches. A school was built on the land and other improvements made necessary to the permanent well-being of settlers. Besides other local associations Mr. Cutten has engaged extensively in the buying and selling of real estate and has handled many large transfers of property. Fraternally he belongs to the Eureka Lodge of Elks. Some years after coming to Humboldt county he married Miss Catherine McGraw, daughter of Hugh McGraw, an honored pioneer who assisted in locating and laying out the town of Eureka in a very early day. Mr. and Mrs. Cutten are the parents of three children, namely : Charles Pryde, ex-state senator from Humboldt county and now attorney for the Pacific Gas & Electric Light Company in San Francisco ; Ivy M., wife of B. F. Porter, Jr. ; and David Page, Jr.

FRANK PETERS.—From the Azores Islands Mr. Peters has come to make his home in Humboldt county, Cal., of which state he has been a resident since the year 1874, never having regretted the change. Coming to this country with almost nothing, in a financial way, he has made for himself a comfortable fortune, and is an enterprising, liberal man, well liked in the vicinity where he resides, and blessed with an able helpmeet who has been an encouragement and assistance to him all along.

Born in Manadas, Isle of St. George, in the Azores, December 4, 1851, Mr. Peters was the son of John and Marie C. Peters, likewise natives of Manadas, where the father was an attorney, both parents now being deceased. Frank was one of nine children, and the oldest of the family, of whom four have come to Humboldt county. John and William, both dairymen, died in this county, and Antone now resides in Ferndale. Mr. Peters was educated in the public schools at his home, remaining in that country until 1871, when he removed to Boston, Mass., securing employment near there in farming and dairying until 1874, when, having heard and read good reports of Humboldt county, he determined to try his fortune upon the Pacific coast. He was joined by two brothers, William and John, and together they came to San Francisco, a journey of fourteen days, arriving there on April 24, 1874. Thence they made a three days' trip on the steamer Pelican to Eureka, in Humboldt county, and from there came by a six-horse stage to Ferndale, which consumed an entire day. Mr. Peters' first employment in this state was at Peter Nissen's Whatcheer ranch on Bear River ridge, which he reached by a long journey afoot by the Wildcat trail, carrying his valise with him. After working for Mr. Nissen one season he was employed by D. A. Spear for eighteen months, after which he came to Ferndale with his two brothers, who had also been working on Bear River ridge. They engaged in digging potatoes at ten cents a sack, but in the same fall the three brothers purchased forty acres of wild land on Coffee creek, paying $600 cash for it, building thereon a cabin and barn. There they remained two winters, during the first winter hunting rabbits, duck and quail, Mr. Peters to this day well remembering the easy and carefree life they led, the hunting providing for them plenty of good hearty food. Improving their ranch, they started a small dairy, John being left in charge while William worked out during the busy seasons, during which time Mr. Peters was employed two years on the dairy ranch of Nat Hurlbutt and five years in the same occupation with others. A period of seven years was spent by him as a woodsman around Eureka in the employ of the Occidental Lumber Company under John Vance and Herman Doe. Then, determining to engage in the dairy business on his own account, in the autumn of 1888 Mr. Peters leased the O'Dell ranch at Capetown, consisting of four hundred fifteen acres, where he conducted a dairy of sixty-six cows, and a year later bought the place, making valuable improvements in the buildings and manufacturing butter for the San Francisco market, continuing there in dairying and stock raising with notable success. In the latter part of the year 1911 he rented his ranch to others and retired from active business, purchasing a residence and three acres of property in Ferndale, where he now lives in the enjoyment of his retirement after a very energetic and industrious career.

The marriage of Frank Peters took place in Eureka, Cal., November 7, 1888, uniting him with Miss Mary Ruther, who was born in Texas, the daughter of Anthony and Mary Ruther. The Ruther family came to Napa county, Cal., via Panama, in 1860, remaining three years ; in the fall of 1863 coming to Humboldt county on the old sailing vessel Metropolis, and made a twenty-four days' journey to Eureka from San Francisco ; and the father then engaged in dairying at Cape Mendocino, and was later proprietor of the Ocean House, and the following year manager of the Centerville House. He then purchased a ranch on Coffee creek, where his wife died some years afterward, after which he sold his ranch and spent his time traveling. The daughter (Mrs. Peters) received her education in the public schools, and is now the mother of one son, Fred Peters. For many years Mr. Peters was trustee of the Capetown school district, and the fraternal associations with which he is connected are as follows: The Humboldt Lodge No. 77, I. 0. 0. F.; the Veteran Odd Fellows Association, both in Eureka, and Humboldt Camp No. 228, W. 0. W., Ferndale.
PATRICK KEATING.—A brief sojourn in Eureka as early as 1887 gave Mr. Keating a very favorable opinion concerning this section of country and he employed the period of his residence in Humboldt county in the building of houses not only at Eureka, but also at outside towns, particularly in Fern­dale. Prior to and after that year's sojourn in California he made his home in Canada, where he was born at Georgetown, Ontario, in December of 1853, and where, on the completion of a common school education, at the age of seventeen years he took up the trade of a carpenter. That occupation he learned in all of its details, acquiring such skill that he was able to secure steady work in his home town, a small place, with only a small amount of building in process of construction. With the exception of the early and brief period of employment in California he remained in Ontario, principally at Seaforth, until 1901, steadily following the business of a builder and officiating for three years as a member of the city council of Seaforth. While living in Canada he was united in marriage with Miss Julia Fitzgerald, a native of County Perth, Ontario, and two children, Joseph and Genevieve, were born of the union. The family are of the Catholic faith and Mr. Keating has been identified with the Catholic Mutual Benefit Association. Another fraternity, the Ancient Order of United Workmen, also has enlisted his sup­port and co-operation.

A goodly number of substantial buildings indicates the character of the work done by Mr. Keating since he came to Eureka the second time. Besides many cottages in Eureka, Ferndale, Fortuna and Loleta, he had the con­tracts for the Lincoln school in Eureka, St. Bernard's Roman Catholic Church, the John Ryan flats and four houses for E. D. Tobin. Among the residences he has built are those of C. D. and J. F. Daly, A. B. Adams, E. F. Reese, J. Nellis, George Molloy, B. Call and B. Callaghan, besides numerous others. A careful workman, skilled carpenter and honorable business man, he is one of our fine types of Canadian-Californians and is counted among the reliable citizens of Eureka.

FRED BAUMGARTNER.—Throughout the entire period of his resi­dence in this country Mr. Baumgartner has followed the trade of a butcher and is now one of the proprietors of the Hurlbutt Market in Eureka. Switz­erland is his native republic, and he was born at Engi, Canton Glarus, October 11, 1857. He received his education in the public schools of his native country, and is regarded by associates as a well-informed man of affairs.

In March, 1881, Mr. Baumgartner came to the United States, going direct to Milwaukee, Wis., and the year following to Stillwater, Minn., where he learned the butcher business. After following his trade there for eight years he came to California in 1890, and here he has since engaged at his trade, first in San Jose for one year, and since 1891 in Eureka, Humboldt County. From 1891 to 1893 he was employed with W. S. Clark, having charge of his slaughter house on Elk river, and afterwards he held a similar position with Frank Hurlbutt, from whom, at the expiration of eight years as a salaried employe, he bought the market in partnership with J. J. Weiss. Since that time he and his partner have devoted their attention to the management of the market, the sale of their product and the supervision of the slaughter house which they own on Elk River. About nine years ago they built a new slaughter house bn Elk River, in which the most sanitary modern equipment is carried in the interests of the market. While Mr. Baumgartner is kept very busily engaged in the management of his department of the business he found time during the summer of 1913 to take his wife, Mrs. Marie (Luch­singer) Baumgartner, also a native of Switzerland, back to their old home, and together they revisited the scenes familiar to their early memories and enjoyed several months of pleasurable reunions with the friends of olden days. Their sons, Fredrich John and Hilarius, had remained in Humboldt County during their absence, and when the parents returned to their family, their home and their western friends, it was with the opinion that California excels other sections of the world as a place of residence and a center.for business enterprises.

LANGFORD BROTHERS.—The ancient and potent laws of heredity, environment and training have made Thomas and George Langford luminous exponents of the principles of integrity and honor and have emphasized the dignity of labor, for these brothers, inheritors of the sturdy traits of the English race, as proprietors of the Eureka boiler works, doing business under the corporate name of Langford Brothers, are very practical industrial work­ers who learned boiler-making as a trade and personally superintend the filling of every order received at their plant. While giving due attention to the executive department of the business, with Thomas as president and George as secretary of the corporation, they give so much of their time to personally superintending the manufacture of boilers and tanks and to the filling of orders for sheet iron work that nothing leaves the plant until it has passed the most searching inspection and is known to be sound. The product is the best that skilled labor, good material and intelligent oversight can turn out. The reputation of the company for a high class of finished product has double-riveted their prosperity on Humboldt bay and has brought them no little outside business, the territory of their orders extending from Port­land, Ore., on the north to San Diego on the south.

Though born in Wales, Thomas Langford was the son of English parents, his birth occurring March 17, 1851, and his education was received in Wales and England. He came to the United States in 1868, taking up the trade of a boiler-maker with the Dixon Manufacturing Company and continued with them five or six years. When he came to California in 1874 he secured em­ployment in the repair shops of the Central Pacific Railroad at Sacramento, from which city the company transferred him to West Oakland, there to repair the ferry boats operated by the railroad. Later the company sent him to Nevada and kept him for a time in the Wadsworth repair shops. On re­turning to Oakland he opened a cigar store and conducted the business for three years, after which he had charge of the Heald boiler works at Vallejo and also engaged in the manufacture of threshing machines. A later con­nection with the Baker & Hamilton Company gave him the supervision of their boiler works at Benicia. During 1885 he came to Eureka with his brother George, whose life history has been much the same as his own, except that he had remained longer with the Central Pacific Railroad in Sacramento, coming direct from that city to Eureka and joining in the purchase of the Rose boiler works at the foot of E street. Under their skilled oversight and personal direction of every job, the business grew and expanded until larger quarters were needed. During 1903 they removed to the foot of T Street on the bay front, where they own a large fireproof corrugated iron building and give employment to fifteen or twenty men in the manufacture of boilers and tanks and in similar lines of manufacture.

Personally the brothers stand high in the community as progressive, hardworking and capable business men, who take a praiseworthy, but not obtrusive, interest in public affairs and in all that tends to promote the permanent welfare of their city and county. Both are members of the Odd Fellows, Masons and Knight Templars. For some years George has been a member of the board of directors of the First National Bank of Eureka. By his marriage to Mamie Harrington, of Sacramento, he is the father of a daughter and son, namely: Mrs. Ethel Essig, of Berkeley ; and George, Jr., a graduate of the State Agricultural College at Davis. Through his marriage to Susanna Jones, now deceased, Thomas Langford is the father of one son, Leslie. The brothers are thoroughly awake to the civic needs of Eureka and lend their aid to any enterprise tending toward the development of public interests.

JOHN PLITSCH.—Among the ranchers of northern Humboldt county, Cal., none holds a higher place than John Plitsch, a pioneer in that district, who located upon his claim in the early days of the county, when there was not even a wagon road through the new land, the settlers traversing it by means of a trail, packing their goods on horseback and either fording or swim­ming the Big Lagoon. Mr. Plitsch is a splendid man, an upbuilder and improver of the country, liberal and enterprising, a person in whose praise too much cannot be said, as is proved by the success which he has had since start­ing out for himself in the New World.

A native of Cologne, in the province of Rhein, Germany, Mr. Plitsch was born November 11, 1862, the son of John Plitsch, a farmer and merchant in that province. The son John was brought up on the farm and received his education in the public schools, after which he assisted in his father's store and on his farm until reaching the age of fifteen years, in the spring of 1878, at which time he made the journey to New York City, remaining there about two years. In 1880 he came to California via the Isthmus of Panama, and in San Francisco he was employed for a time in a meat market, in 1881 remov­ing to Trinidad, in Humboldt County, where he was employed in Hooper's sawmill for two years. When he had saved about $800, Mr. Plitsch pur­chased one hundred sixty acres on the hill at Stone Lagoon, where he engaged in ranching and stock raising, two years later selling the place at a good profit. He then bought two hundred acres in the valley at Stone Lagoon, which he still owns, and this he has improved and brought to a high state of cultivation, converting it into a dairy farm well stocked with high grade milch cows, as well as engaging in stock raising. After getting the ranch well started, he rented the dairy and herd, and for ten years has been giving his time to the work of road overseer of six miles of road in District No. 5. Successful in this as in his dairy enterprise, he keeps up his division in good shape and holds the high esteem of all who know him. In his political interests he is a Republican of the Progressive type, and his religious associations are with the Lutheran Church.

Mr. Plitsch has been twice married, his first wife having been Miss Nellie Foss, a native of Humboldt County and the daughter of J. B. Foss, a pioneer of that county. By this marriage Mr. Plitsch became the father of one child, Alice, who died at the age of twelve years. His second marriage, which occurred in Eureka, Cal., united him with Mrs. Viola (Warner) King, who was born in Josephine county, Ore., the daughter of John and Hattie (Butler) Warner, natives of New York and Pike county, Ill.; they became pioneers of southern Oregon, crossing the plains with ox-teams in the '50s. Mr. and Mrs. Plitsch had two sons, both of whom died in infancy. The two daughters of Mrs. Plitsch by her first marriage are both living in California, Alva, now Mrs. Alexander Tucker, residing at Stone Lagoon, and Ruth making her home with Mr. and Mrs. Plitsch.

HENRY B. HITCHINGS.—The probation officer of Humboldt county, who is filling a most responsible position with the same intelligence, tact and fearlessness noticeable throughout the long period of his service as chief of police at Eureka, claims New Brunswick as his native province and his parents, Andrew and Tryphena (Little) Hitchings, likewise were natives of that same Canadian country. The family came to California during 1869, a year memorable in western history on account of the completion of the first trans-continental railroad. At that time the eldest son, Henry B., whose birth had occurred in Charlotte County, March 9, 1859, was a lad of ten years, old enough to be greatly impressed by the importance of his first trip outside of the limits of his native province. Arrival in Humboldt County brought the family face to face with the privations and pioneer environment of this then sparsely populated timbered country lying between the mountains and the great sea. A millwright, by trade and a skilled mechanic with consider­able ability along every, line of general work, the father found employment with George Vance and for some years also conducted a spar-yard, where he made spars for vessels. He made the first truck-wheels used on the old truck cars that hauled the logs in the lumber camps and did much other work of a similar nature. For two years he served as marshal of Eureka and for a similar period he was a member of the council.

The parental family included five children, namely: Henry B., Sidney, George, Hattie (Mrs. Conant) and Guy. Of these the first was old enough at the time of leaving New Brunswick to appreciate the diversity of scenery en route to California and to enjoy the voyage from San Francisco to Eureka on the famous old steamer Pelican. Immediately after coming to this place he became a pupil in the old Brown school on H Street and for some years he continued in the grammar school during the winter months, while in the summers he worked in the woods or in the mill. Later he became an assistant in his father's spar-yard. For five years he acted as janitor of the old court house, besides filling the position of deputy sheriff under Thomas M. Brown. At other times he earned a livelihood through carpentering. After about eighteen months as a member of the police force of Eureka he was promoted to be chief of police and continued to fill the office with efficiency for thirteen years. Under appointment from the state officers he served as deputy fish and game warden. For a time he was employed with the Western States Gas & Electric Light Company, and on the 1st of October,

1913, he accepted an appointment as probation officer of Humboldt county, since which time he has devoted his attention wholly to the duties of the position. Besides being an Exempt Fireman, he is fraternally connected with the Elks and the lodge and encampment of Odd Fellows. By his mar­riage to Miss Martha J. Brown, a daughter of the late Thomas M. Brown, he became allied with a lady favorably known in Eureka as a charter member of the First Christian Church and a welcomed accession to the most select social circles. Four children form their family, namely : Helen F., Thomas M., Andrew and Idelia.

PHILIP NEEDS.—To those who were privileged to know him, Mr. Needs was not only a splendid type of the typical pioneer of the '50s, to whose energy and perseverance is due a large share of the remarkable development of California, but he was also a man who displayed ability in many avenues of usefulness and rose to a local prominence abundantly justified in the light of his varied talents. Well known for years through his practical interest in local enterprises, his passing, September 8, 1911, was mourned as a distinct loss to the community of his long association and by the friends gained during an identification of fifty years with the progress of Humboldt county. That he should have risen to success, notwithstanding the privations of orphanage and poverty in boyhood, lack of educational advantages and lack of friends to interest themselves in his behalf, betokens the sturdy, substan­tial qualities of his mind. Destiny qualified him to assume responsibility and fitted him for the lines of labor in which he gained prosperity. His life story in fact is one of those biographies that seem to combine the desirable elements of all stories of men who have risen to success and affluence through adversity and trials which would appear insurmountable through any human agency. Self-made in the strictest sense of the word, obtaining his start in business by frugality and thrift, he developed under the pressure of responsibilities until he became a leading man in his community, influential not only because of the great means he accumulated, but also because of the high character evidenced in all his transactions. His credit was good, not merely on account of his large possessions, but on account of his proven integrity.

No memories of parental love brightened the lonely childhood of Philip Needs, who for his first four years was a charge of the overseers of the parish of Lummon, England, where he was born in October, 1828. An aunt and uncle who lived in Berluscom parish took him into their home and as soon as old enough put him to work on a vinegar farm. Later he worked on other farms in England. During 1850 he crossed the ocean to Canada and found employment successively in mills and on farms. The year 1854 found him a pioneer homesteader of Iowa, where he proved up on a claim and then leased the land to tenants, while himself working for wages on near-by farms. Next he worked in a sawmill in Wisconsin and thence returned to Canada, where he remained for three years. A decision to try his fortune on the western coast brought him to California in 1858. After landing at San Francisco in June he went at once to the gold diggings on the Fraser river and later worked by the day on the dry ditch of the Sailor diggings. During 1859 he went to the Puget Sound region, where for two years he worked in the lumber woods and adjacent sawmills.

From his arrival in Eureka in 1861 until his death, September 8, 1911, Mr. Needs continuously was identified with the history of Humboldt County in logging industries and general business activities. By dint of perseverance he rose from poverty to financial prestige. Nor was his sole advance in the matter of finances. It had ever been a source of regret to him that he had received no education. At the time of coming to Eureka he could neither read nor write, but with genuine pluck he set about the task of making up for the deficiencies in schooling, and soon he had an excellent knowledge of the common branches, becoming particularly expert in arithmetic. After the burning of the Ryan mill, in which he had been employed, he entered the Vance mill and later engaged as a sawyer in the Bayside mill until 1872. Utilizing his savings as the capital for a brokerage business, he gave his attention to such interests until shortly before his death. During 1904 he erected the Needs building, a three-story frame building on E and Third streets, Eureka, at a cost of about $25,000, and the oversight of that valuable property he maintained personally until his death. Recognized as a man of financial acumen, he had been selected by depositors of the Randall Bank, Eureka, to settle its accounts upon the failure of the institution, and he discharged that responsible task with excellent success and general satis­faction.

Though Mr. Needs began to earn his own living when but eight years old hard work never apparently impaired his constitution, nor hard experience, his faith in human nature and kindliness of heart. Responsibility at too early an age is not considered desirable, yet the lessons he learned made him self-reliant and industrious, and ready to extend a helping hand to others in the same straits. The necessity for hard work never narrowed his outlook nor made him selfishly zealous in the promotion of his own interests to the exclusion of the rights of others or of his duties to his fellow men, and so he had a full life, enjoying the respect of his associates for his personal qualities as well as for his ability. Except for the office of road supervisor he held no public positions. He was always a Republican in political sym­pathy, but never took any part in the work of the party. Many years ago he joined the Sons of Temperance, and the moral and social betterment of the community never failed to receive his support. During 1871 he married Mrs. Caroline (Griffin) White, of New England ancestry, who died January 19, 1879, leaving one daughter by her first marriage, Nellie, wife of Thomas H. Chope and mother of a daughter, Carrie E. Chope, whose affectionate memories of Mr. Needs prompt this tribute to his character and life.

JERRY QUILL.—The quiet fund of wit, the ability to see the humorous in every situation and the power to look out on life with unfailing optimism. and good cheer, these characteristics of the Celtic race enabled Mr. Quill to endure the privations of early youth in his native Ireland and to surmount the vicissitudes of many discouraging experiences in America, where for a time he engaged as a day laborer on farms in Canada and New York, earning barely enough for the most pressing necessities of existence. With the resolve to seek California there came a great change into the humdrum routine of toil. After crossing the isthmus and sailing to San Francisco in 1859, he spent two years in the mines of Shasta county and then brought his family across the mountains to Humboldt county in 1861. Indians were then very troublesome and outbreaks were common. To protect the women and chil­dren of the party, a ring was made of pack-saddles around them and the men stood guard through all the long hours of the night. The baby son, John F. Quill, rode all through that journey in an apple box, strapped to the back of a mule.

A short time before bringing his family to Humboldt county Jerry Quill had been here on a tour of inspection and had purchased a tract of three hundred twenty acres on Salt river in the Eel river district. It was his intention to establish a permanent home on the place, but the danger of Indian hostilities was so constant that he sold the land and took his family into Eureka for safety. To earn a livelihood he worked in the mill of John Vance. At the end of the Indian troubles he returned to the Eel river district and bought a ranch on Nigger Head, north of Eel river, the improvement and cultivation of which engaged his close attention until he died in 1883. Eleven years later occurred the death of his wife, Julia (Tierney) Quill, a native of Canada. Three sons survive them, namely: James A. and Jerry, both of San Francisco, and John F., the second in order of birth and the only one of the three to remain in Humboldt county.

At the time the family set sail from New York City John F. Quill, who was a native of Albany, that state, was an infant in arms, hence his entire life practically has been identified with the west and with Humboldt county. During boyhood he assisted in the work on the home ranch and later he engaged in the hay and grain business in Eureka for two years. From 1891 to 1906 he owned the Bay livery stable on Third Street, while since 1908 he has owned and operated the Eureka Drayage Company (formerly the Tufts-Davis Drayage Company). Much of the heavy hauling in the town is done under his supervision and in addition he delivers to all parts of the county consignments from the National Biscuit Company, for which he is distributor, and the Hibernian brewery of San Francisco, for which he is agent. Goods are consigned to him direct from various eastern cities. His identification with public and political affairs has been limited to service as deputy sheriff under Thomas M. Brown and as a deputy under County Assessor George Shaw. His leading fraternity has been Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. In establishing a home he chose for a wife Miss Nellie Deering, who was born at Machias, Me., and in 1867 was brought to Cali­fornia by her father, George Deering, who had operated a sawmill in the Maine woods, but after settling in Humboldt county cultivated a ranch of one hundred sixty acres on Table Bluff and a three hundred acre ranch at Bucksport. The family of Mr. and Mrs. Quill comprises six children, all well educated, earnest and capable, filling creditably their chosen positions in life. They are as follows : Florence, wife of P. J. Rutledge, of Eureka ; Harry, secretary of the Humboldt Lumber Association ; Edward, head bookkeeper and assistant manager for the H. H. Buhne Company ; Grace, a teacher in the Washington school, Eureka ; Carl, of Tacoma, Wash.; and Nellie, who is a teacher in the State Normal School at San Jose.

LOREN M. KLEPPER.—The proprietor of the Eureka Marble and Granite Works, who has been a resident of California since the early '90s and of Eureka since 1901, was born in Chicago, Ill., February 28, 1858, and learned the trade of a marble and granite worker in Minnesota, where and in Iowa he followed the occupation for a considerable number of years, first as a worker by the day and then as a foreman. For some time Stillwater, Minn., was his home and occupative headquarters. Upon coming to Cali­fornia he was put in charge of the Colton marble works in the city of Colton, where he remained for a number of years, meanwhile filling contracts of importance that carried him to different parts of the state. The marble work in the Academy of Science building, San Francisco, which cost $25,000 and was the finest work of the kind done there up to that time, represented his intelligent supervision in filling a contract for his company.

Subsequent to a period of identification with the Western granite works at San Jose, in 1901 Mr. Klepper came to Eureka and bought one-half interest with John O'Neil in the Eureka works. At the expiration of six years he purchased the interest of his partner and is now the sole owner. On his removal to Eureka he brought with him his family, consisting of his wife, formerly Mary M. Merrick and a native of Indiana; also their three chil­dren, namely: Mabel, now the wife of W. E. Peacock ; Winfred M., now a student in the University. of California ; and Hazel, a student in the Eureka high school. Since coming to this city Mr. Klepper, has been active in all local movements of importance and has the honor of being one of the organ­izers of the Eureka Board of Trade. His fraternities are the Elks, the Woodmen of the World and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.

The marble and granite yards, located at the intersection of Fifth and Myrtle avenue, Eureka, represent one of the most complete works of the kind on the coast. Originally established by John O'Neil in 1884 and by him conducted alone until 1901, in the latter year Loren M. Klepper bought an interest in the concern and eventually became the sole proprietor. At that time the plant was located near the present site of the Times office, but Mr. Klepper removed to his present place of business and erected a plant with a floor space of 40x130 feet, equipped with the latest approved and most modern stone-working machinery. The dressing and the carving of the stone are done with pneumatic tools operated by compressed air. The plant has the capacity to handle the largest and most complex work, such as is necessary in the building of mausoleums, a line of work in which Mr. Klepper has been very successful. Seven attractive and dignified structures of this kind have been erected by him in local cemeteries. His designs are original and his work expresses the dignity and simplicity nowhere so appropriate as in the City of the Dead. The reputation of the proprietor has brought him cor­respondence from all parts of the state and he makes shipments to various sections of .the coast, filling orders for monuments, tombstones, markers, tablets, curbing and all kinds of cemetery work in foreign and domestic marble or granite. With the exception of the dairy products of Humboldt county, its lumber and shingles, and certain novelties wrought from the redwood burl, it is doubtful if any manufactured local product reaches out into such distant markets as the products of the Eureka Marble and Granite Works.

WILLIAM SLAUGHTER ROBINSON.—Five different states made a home for Mr. Robinson during different periods of his life. In four of them the first twenty-two years of his life were passed, namely: Virginia, where he was born February 4, 1828 ; Tennessee, to which he accompanied his parents at the age of eight years ; Kentucky and Missouri. For a period of fifty-seven years beginning in 1850 and closing with his death at Eureka, March 10, 1907, he lived in California and practically all of that time in Hum­boldt County, so he was thoroughly familiar with early conditions here and with the gradual transformation from frontier isolation to twentieth-century civilization. During the summer of 1850 he crossed the plains with an ox-team, arriving at Nevada City on the 20th of September and at once engaging as a teamster from Sacramento to Shasta City with Joseph Russ as a partner. In a short time he came with a party from Trinity to Humboldt County, where he and Mr. Russ had many exciting experiences in hunting elk in the Wild Cat and Bear river districts. The meat found a ready sale in Eureka and Arcata, so that their hunting expeditions brought them a fair profit. Stirring adventures with black and .grizzly bears in the mountains brought them into constant danger, yet gave them the excitement of the chase so enjoyable to every hunter. It is said that Mr. Robinson was one of the most skilled marksmen in the mountains. His aim was almost unerring and when he started for the mountains with his hunting outfit, it was definitely understood that he would not return empty-handed.

Taking up ranch pursuits in the Eel river valley and developing a stock industry at Bridgeville, Mr. Robinson gradually accumulated two thousand acres of stock range and was one Of the first men in the county to specialize in wool-growing, a department of activity that became fairly profitable under his constant supervision. Throughout all of his adult life he voted the Democratic ticket and gave stanch support to the party principles. On the organization of Anniversary Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., at Arcata, he became a charter member, while afterward he entered Hydesville Lodge No. 250, I. 0. 0. F., also as a charter member. Through his marriage to Lavina Electa Albee, daughter of Joseph Albee, a pioneer of Humboldt county, he became the father of the following-named daughters and sons : Mrs. E. Schreiner, of Ferndale ; Grant, residing in Lewiston, Mont.; Caltha ; Wil­liam A., in charge of the Robinson ranch ; Mrs. Charles Allen, of Montana ; Mrs. Bert Griffiths, of Berkeley ; Gertrude, of Eureka ; Bertha, wife of E. S. Murray, also of Eureka ; and Edward J. Robinson, D. D. S. The youngest child, who like the other members of the family claims Humboldt as his native county, is a graduate of the Eureka high school and of the dental department, University of California, class of 1909. All of his professional experience, with the exception of one year at San Jose, has identified him with Eureka, where he is regarded as an efficient and educated dentist, thor­oughly familiar with the profession in its every detail. His fraternities are the Masons and the Native Sons of the Golden West.

GUSTAVE ADOLPH STRAND.—The city engineer of Eureka is a representative of that remarkable class of native sons of California, who without advantages other than those they made for themselves have risen to prominence and become factors in the permanent upbuilding of their com­monwealth. All of his life has been passed in the west and, while still a young man, already he has had the supervision of some notable pieces of engineering work that tested and proved his scientific accuracy and professional skill. Realizing the inestimable value of thorough preparatory instruction, he endeavored to secure the best technical advantages the state afforded and he left no effort unmade that would lay broad and deep the foundation of his occupative knowledge. The common schools of San Francisco (in which city he was born November 11, 1887) gave him preliminary training in the customary branches, while his special training was had in the. Vander Nail­len Engineering School of Oakland and the engineering department of the University of California at Berkeley. At the expiration of two years of study in the university he was equipped with sufficient knowledge to permit of practical work and from that time to the present he has been identified with important projects calling for engineering skill and proficiency.

The twenty thousand acres in the San Joaquin valley known as the Patterson irrigation project was the first large enterprise to engage the attention of Mr. Strand, who became an engineer there in 1908 and continued for two years in the prosecution of that important work. When he first came to Eureka in 1910 it was for the purpose of engaging in construction work on the Northwestern Pacific Railroad then in process of building. Most important was the contract he filled for the construction of four miles of the road from Camp Grant to McCann's Mills as well as the building of the Thompson Bluff tunnel on the same road. He was also in charge of the opening of Jacoby creek quarries, and furnished the rock for building the United States government jetties at the entrance to Humboldt Bay. Mean­while he served as city engineer of Fortuna for one year. In June of 1913 he was elected city engineer of Eureka by a majority of thirteen hundred, the large vote in his favor attesting his personal popularity as well as the general confidence in his engineering efficiency. Socially he and his wife (who was Miss Lydia Atkeson, a native of Trinity County) have a host of warm per­sonal friends among the people of Humboldt county, to whom their fine traits of character have endeared them. So intense has been his devotion to engineering and so fully occupied his time with the filling of contracts and the making of estimates that he has had little leisure for political activities and he has no fraternal connections aside from membership in the Modern Woodmen of America and the Improved Order of Red Men.

INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL.—Established in Eureka during 1901, the International Correspondence School has developed rapidly under the supervision of Robert Lewis Werner, who in 1908 became general manager of the district comprising Humboldt and Del Norte counties in California and Curry and Coos counties in Oregon, with one sub-agent in Marshfield, Ore., the main office being in Eureka, Cal. In the years of his supervision he has totaled about twelve hundred new students, which is about an average of fifteen per month or one hundred and eighty a year. The agricultural courses are the ones usually preferred, although there have been a goodly number of students in the drafting, surveying, and civil and elec­trical engineering courses. Among local men who have taken the course are Robert L. Thomas, ex-city engineer of Eureka and deputy county surveyor of Humboldt county ; Frank Kelly, chief engineer of the Pacific Lumber Com­pany at Scotia ; Fred Newman, deputy county surveyor ; John Harnett, super­intendent of the Western States Gas and Electric Light Company at Eureka ; and G. A. Strand, city engineer of Eureka; all these being men who are a credit to the county and to the institution in which they prosecuted their studies by correspondence. The manager assists the students in getting a start with their studies and gives them such help as they may need, so that they are not hampered in the course by any lack of understanding of diffi­culties, and undoubtedly much of the success of the work may be attributed to this important feature. One of the chief instruments in bringing about the success and great interest in the work of the International Correspondence School was the organization of the Humboldt County Associated I. C. S.' student body by Mr. Werner. The meetings and associations of this body are an inspiration to students who have become lax and are the means of renewing their interest and spurring them on to ever greater effort in com­pleting their courses.

When Mr. Werner came to Humboldt county in July, 1905, it was for the purpose of acting as agent at Eureka for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, which previously he had represented for two years at Missoula, Mont., and later at San Leandro, Alameda county, Cal. His early life had been spent in Wisconsin, where he was born in Manitowoc County, July 29, 1881, and where he had received an excellent education, later teaching school until he took up life insurance work. Education and temperament qualify him for the duties of manager with the Scranton school, and he is succeeding in a work that is worthy of his greatest energies and highest talents.

The International Correspondence School through its two hundred and thirty-five courses and through its agencies in every part of the world has done more to prepare people for success than any other single agency or institution. The history of the students is a history of success. The leaders of the movement at Scranton, Pa., are receiving grateful letters from every part of the world, telling how their training enabled men in trades and professions to do superior work ; or how young men without employment were trained to get a start ; and how better salaries have resulted from the special studies. Indeed the institution carries specializa­tion further than any other school in existence. The students are not re­quired to study trades or courses in which they are not interested, but they are encouraged to specialize their energies upon the one occupation in hand. The incomparable text books explain every intricate or involved problem. The school of architecture trains men for that enduring and useful occupation, with courses in the kindred subjects of structural engi­neering, structural drafting and concrete engineering, also courses for building contractors, building foremen and masons. Essentially modern is the school of arts and crafts, with its technical training in illustrating and designing, bookcover designs, carpet designs, linoleum and wall paper designs, perspective and architectural drawing and kindred subjects. The school of civil engineering develops splendid technical instruction not alone in that specialty, but is invaluable to surveyors, topographers, draftsmen, bridge engineers, railroad engineers, road masters, municipal or city engineers, designers of water works, sewerage systems and hydraulic power plants. In recent years the school of electrical engineering has attracted many students, for it embraces a complete electrical course and is inval­uable in this age of dynamos, electric lighting and wiring, electric rail­ways and electric traction. Nor is mechanical engineering less important in this era of mechanical development and this school instructs in every department of shop practice, toolmaking, foundrywork, blacksmithing, etc. Courses in refrigeration and gas engines are most important to young men desiring to specialize in such work. There is also a course to instruct chauffeurs in the running and repairs of automobiles and many garage managers have been enrolled in this department. Mechanical drawing in­structs in the draftsman's branch of the mechanical field, where opportunity for employment is excellent and salaries for the proficient quite large. The schools of steam engineering, mines, navigation, commerce, stenography, bookkeeping, banking, pedagogy, commercial English, manufacture of monuments, sheet-metal work and boiler-making, civil service, plumbing, heating and ventilation, chemistry, textiles, advertising, salesmanship, languages, com­mercial law, locomotive running and many others, chief among which is the school of agriculture with all of its subsidiary courses, furnish an opportunity for specialization unequalled in any part of the world or in any previous era of the world's history, giving to the ambitious but unedu­cated young man a chance to reach a position high in the world of thought and activity, with the financial and social standing such advancement ren­ders possible.

LOUIS A. BERTAIN.—There are a number of residents of Eureka of foreign birth who have joined the prosperous colony of merchants and busi­ness men and themselves met with success in this thriving city where room may always be found for progressive workers. To this class belongs Louis A. Bertain, proprietor of the Bertain French Laundry on Myrtle street which he built in 1906 and has since operated.

Mr. Bertain is a native of Verdun, France, born December 25, 1867. He lived in the land of his birth until twenty-four years old, receiving a common school education and afterward working in a cotton factory, for which he later became a traveling salesman. When he came to America, in 1891, he was first at Chicago, Ill., for a short time, thence proceeding to New Orleans, and in 1893 he settled at Eureka, Humboldt County, Cal. For two years he was employed in a dairy. In 1896 he went into the laundry business at Oak­land, this state, carrying on the East Oakland French Laundry for five years, until August, 1901, when he returned to Eureka and for about four years or so worked in a laundry. By this time he had familiarized himself with the prospects in the city and the demand for good work, and felt justified in starting a business of his own, which he did in 1906, building the plant at No. 1610 Myrtle Street which he has since conducted as the Bertain French Laundry. He has equipped his establishment with fine machinery, having the engines and full complement of machinery for a well appointed steam laundry, and the large trade which he has built up fully warrants the ex­penditure he has made. By improved methods and system he has been able to care for the increase of trade, which has been steady from the beginning. Fourteen hands are employed, and in his business he uses an automobile and a delivery wagon. Though Mr. Bertain had to face severe competition, especially at the start, he has kept going ahead undismayed, and as he has prospered by his industry and integrity he deserves the respect he commands among his patrons and fellow citizens generally. Strict attention to business, thorough study of the wishes of his customers and an obliging disposition have won out, and he owns a fine property on Myrtle street, having his home near his business, at No. 1614. He owns the buildings and grounds of both the business and residence locations he occupies.

In 1895 Mr. Bertain married, in Eureka, Miss Eugenia Moine, a native of Belleforte, France, and six children have been born to their union : Louis, Jean, George, Victor, Harry and Alice.

EDWARD L. LEWIS.—The president of the board of trustees of Blue Lake, Edward L. Lewis has been a resident of Humboldt county, Cal., for more than thirty years and during that time has made many friends, and has built up a business and a business reputation that are both valuable assets, both to their owner and to the community at large. His present place of business in Blue Lake is a credit to the city and is one of the best known of the general mercantile establishments in the valley.

Mr. Lewis was born in Smaland, Sweden, January 3, 1861. His boyhood days were passed there on his father's farm and in the vicinity he attended the public schools, graduating from the regular course in 1875. After com­pleting his education he secured a position in the postoffice department of the government, continuing there until he came to the United States in 1881. He arrived at Castle Garden, N. Y., but soon set out for Warren County, Ill., where he entered the employ 'of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad on construction work. In the meantime he was constantly on the alert for information as to the section of the United States offering the greatest oppor­tunities and in 1883 he decided that this place was California. From San Francisco he came by water to Eureka on the City of Chester, arriving on March 15. He at first found employment in the woods with Frank Graham, pioneer lumberman, working on the site of the city of Blue Lake, then thickly covered with trees. He rose gradually from one position to another until he became a foreman.

Mr. Lewis remained in the employment of this company until in 1907, at the time of the great strike. He was then president of the labor union and had been an active and a prominent member since its first organization in Humboldt county. The conditions resulting caused him to sever his con­nection with the lumber company and he went to Blue Lake, there following carpentering, contracting and building for a time. Later he carried on mer­chandising, opening with a small stock of candy and notions. From this beginning he has constantly increased his scope and added to his stock of goods, until he now carries a full line of general merchandise and is doing a profitable business, with a host of friends and his full share of the patronage of the town and community. Aside from his business he has been interested in general farming and has also built about a dozen residences in Blue Lake, most of which he still owns, as well as owning property in Eureka, on the Bay, and in Oregon. Mr. Lewis attributes much of his success to his faithful wife, who has always put her shoulder to the wheel and aided him in every way by her wise counsel and good judgment.

Mr. Lewis is popular among his business associates and friends and is accredited a citizen of sterling worth and integrity of character. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias, an Odd Fellow, a Woodman of the World and a Hoo-Hoo and is influential in each of the several orders. In his political affiliations he is a Republican, and has always been interested in the affairs of his community and in the politics of the state. He is close in the confidences of local party affairs and on several occasions his constituents have shown their confidence in his ability by making him their representative at various party conventions. He is also prominent in city governmental affairs, where he stands for progress and good government and for civic improvement and general uplift. He is a member of the board of city trustees and is president of the board.

The marriage of Mr. Lewis and Mary Emily Coulter took place at. Eureka, July 3, 1887. They have two children, Lucile and Carroll Lewis, to whom they are giving all the educational advantages within their means. Mrs. Lewis is a native of Gilroy, Santa Clara County, Cal. Her father is Benjamin Carroll Coulter, a native of Bledsoe County, Tenn., where he was born July 8, 1832. When but three years of age he removed with his parents to Arkansas territory. He attended a subscription school up to the age of four­teen years, after which he assisted his father on the farm until 1850, when he came to California with his father and brother, locating at Weaverville, Trinity County. Being attracted by the discovery of gold and interested in the mining opportunities in Trinity County they prospected and mined for gold, but failed to meet with the desired success, however, and Mr. Coulter later went into Shasta County, where for four years he engaged in independent ventures in mining. From there he went into Nevada County, where for eight years he followed placer mining, also with indifferent success.

It was in 1860 that Mr. Coulter first came into Humboldt County. His brother was located at Eureka and for a time Mr. Coulter engaged in team­ing and in working in a pack train. In 1861 the Indian wars broke out and he responded to the call for volunteers to fight the Indians, serving under Captain Work. On one occasion, the company was constantly on duty for three months and on many other occasions made short expeditions after the savages.

Following this, in 1863 Mr. Coulter journeyed north into Washington territory prospecting, but again without success, and later he returned to Red Bluff and worked for J. D. Carr & Co. After a short time there he removed to Santa Clara County, and in 1872 opened a general merchandise store, which he sold the following year and engaged in the teaming business. Another trip north followed this, Oregon this time being the objective point, and for a time he looked for a suitable location there. Failing to find what he wanted he again returned to Red Bluff, where for a time he had charge of the Oak Grove House. In 1883 he removed to Humboldt county, locating at Blue Lake, where he has since remained. He purchased land and erected a house for a residence, and in this opened a small store and restaurant, but this he sold and is now living retired. When Mr. Coulter first visited Eureka there was only one street and but few houses, the surrounding coun­try being still principally virgin forest.

The father of Mr. Lewis is Lawrence Lewis, a native of Sweden. born August 14, 1830. At that time there were no public or private schools, the teachers going from house to house and giving their instruction in the homes, and Lawrence Lewis received a good education. During his early life he engaged in farming. Later he entered the service of the government as the first postmaster at Smaland, which position he held until within the past few years, when he retired on account of his age and is now passing the afternoon of his life at his old home.

JOHN PETERS.—From many foreign lands people have come to make their home in California, attracted hither by the success of others as well as by the excellent climate. John Peters, one of the leading business men of Eureka, Humboldt county, where he is well known with his partner, C. W. Widnes, in the firm of Peters & Widnes, as proprietors of the Log Cabin Bakery and also the Eureka Bakery, is a native of Finland, born at Helsing­fors, the capital city of that country, November 25, 1873, the son of Peter Peters, a farmer near that place, and Annie (Olsen) Peters, who still resides at the old home. Later the father became a contractor and builder in Helsing­fors, an occupation in which he continued until the time of his death. Of the five children in the family, three are now living, John being the second youngest and the only one who has made his home in America. He grew up in his native city, receiving his education in the public and industrial schools there, at the age of sixteen years being apprenticed as a baker for three years under his brother Andrew, a councilman. After learning his chosen trade, John Peters traveled through Sweden, Germany and France as a journeyman for a period of eight months, also visiting London and working for a time in St. Petersburg, being an expert baker and confectioner. After returning home to Finland, he took a position with his brother as foreman, where he continued until his brother's death, at which time the business was sold. Mr. Peters then accepted the position of foreman of a large co­operative bakery in Helsingfors, where he remained until enlisting in the Finnish army at the age of twenty-three years, for three years being a member of the Czar's Life Guards, after which period he was honorably discharged. Returning then to his former position, he continued there until 1899, when he went to Australia, via London, on the vessel Austrail, visiting Sydney and then Brisbane, where for six weeks he worked at railroad construction, after which he secured employment in Brisbane as a baker for six months, acting as foreman after the first month's employment. He then came to the United States, on the way spending a year as baker in Vancouver, B. C., coming thence to Seattle, Wash., where he worked at his trade, in August, 1904, arriving at San Francisco, where until the year 1907 he was foreman of the California Baking Company, the largest concern of the kind west of Chicago. For two years thereafter he made a visit to his old home in Finland, and though it was his intention to remain there, he was not satisfied with the conditions there, so returned to San Francisco to his old position as foreman of the California Baking Company. After looking for a suitable location in Washington and Oregon, without success, Mr. Peters in 1911 came to Eureka, Cal., where he started the Co-operative Bakery, meeting with much success in his venture, but on account of his wife's health sold the business and removed to Los Angeles, his wife's death occurring in Monrovia a short time later. Mr. Peters then went to Berkeley, Cal., where he secured employ­ment in the Golden Sheaf Bakery, later starting a bakery in Marshfield, Ore., which he ran for a year, selling it at a profit. Following this he returned to Eureka, where he was employed by the Mulford Log Cabin Bakery. Three months later he bought out that establishment, on February 15, 1915, and has continued it with success since that time. In April of the same year he became associated with C. W. Widnes of the Eureka Bakery, on Fifth street between E and F streets, each purchasing a half interest in the business of the other, and the two are now conducting the largest bakery north of San Francisco. They have made the Log Cabin Bakery at No. 621 Fifth street the manufacturing plant, this being equipped with the latest machinery, on the first floor, which is large and sunny. Mr. Peters' affairs go on like clock­work, large shipments of bakery goods being made to the neighboring towns each day, with an average of one thousand loaves of bread a day, besides which he has a large line of confectionery, Mr. Peters being the manager of the bread department, and Mr. Widnes of the cake department.

The marriage of Mr. Peters took place in San Francisco, his wife having been Lena Maria Ostermark, who was born in Gamle, Garleby, Finland, and died in Monrovia, Cal. They were the parents of one son, John Peters, Jr.  In his religious associations Mr. Peters is connected with the Lutheran Church.

JAMES J. NIEBUR.—California can boast of a more cosmopolitan pop­ulation than any other state in the Union, and many of her people are of German descent. Although a native-born son of California, Mr. Niebur is of German ancestry, being the son of Henry H. Niebur, a native of Hanover, Germany, where he was born October 9, 1832. He first came to America in 1842 with his parents, and, locating in Missouri, attended the public schools, but in 1848 he engaged in mining in the Iron Mountains, later following the stone cutter's trade in the quarries in the vicinity until 1852. In this year, in the company of his brother, he started for the west, crossing the plains by ox-team, bravely facing the dangers attending such a journey. They located first in Oregon, later moving to California where he located in San Mateo County near Redwood, where he found employment in the woods. The following year he became employed by the farmers in the vicinity of Half Moon bay. In 1856, hearing of the advantages of Lake County he undertook a trip to Clear Lake but only remained there one year, leaving to move to Humboldt County, homesteading on a claim of one hundred sixty acres near Mr. Boynton's ranch on the island. Here he engaged in farming until 1861 and here he first enlisted in the army as a volunteer in Company D, Second California Infantry. In 1863 he served at Fort Bragg, Mendocino County, and in 1864 was honorably discharged. He then went to Oregon and enlisted in Company E, First Oregon Infantry, where he remained until 1866, when he returned to Humboldt County and located on a ranch near Ferndale. Here he engaged in the brick mason's trade and this he followed until the time of his death. He was married to Mary A. Dougherty, a native of Ireland, who came to America in 1840, locating in Maryland where she remained a number of years, coming to Humboldt county, California, in 1867, and here she married Mr. Niebur December 29, 1868. Mr. Niebur took up several timber claims near Ferndale where the large mill at Scotia is now located. He took an active part in all political affairs and served as justice of the peace of Ferndale for six years. He was also a member of Anderson Post, G. A. R., and was a very successful man, remaining active until the time of his death in 1906.

James Niebur attended the public schools of Ferndale until eighteen years of age, leaving then to help his father with his many duties about the ranch, remaining at home until he was twenty years old, when he entered the butcher shop of Mr. Patrick where he learned the business, but, on marrying, gave up the butcher's trade and moved to the home place of forty acres where he engaged in farming and dairying for himself. He has a fine dairy of mixed Jersey stock and is at the present time actively engaged in the business and is one of the successful men of the community. In Fern- dale, May 17, 1899, occurred the marriage of Mr. Niebur, being united with Miss Ruby A. Haley, a native of Table Bluff, Humboldt county, and they have two children: James Francis and Alma. Fraternally Mr. Niebur is a member of the Knights of Columbus and Native Sons of the Golden West.

ROBERT JOHNSTON.—One of the most public-spirited men of Hum­boldt county is Mr. Johnston, of Fortuna, who was born in Chickasaw county, Iowa, June 1, 1860, and here he received his educational training in the public schools of the county, and when seventeen years old, left school to live at home with his parents, Robert and Sarah L. (Crowthers) Johnston, the former a native of Ireland and the latter a native of Liverpool, England. Robert Johnston, Sr., was a man who engaged in farming the greater part of his life, and who came from the old country to Iowa and there held the office of county recorder for a number. of years and always took an active part in all political affairs. When he first located in Iowa in 1857, he entered gov­ernment land consisting of one hundred sixty acres, but in later years he moved to Humboldt County, Cal., and here he passed away at Fortuna in 1899. His son, Robert, when eighteen years old, became apprenticed to learn the blacksmith's trade, serving two years and, in 1880, decided to better con­ditions by moving to California, arriving in Sacramento February 1, 1881, where he obtained employment in a blacksmith shop. Later he moved to Humboldt County and locating in Eureka, he again engaged in a local shop for two years. In 1884 he moved to Hydesville and entering into partner­ship with another man, he successfully operated a blacksmith shop for three years, but in 1887, selling his interests in Hydesville, he moved to Fortuna and here purchased the shop belonging to W. G. Hunt, and continued to operate the business until 1902, when he engaged in the livery business and at the present time owns the only livery stable in Fortuna; in connection he also runs a blacksmith shop. In this business he has been very successful and is a man well liked and respected in the community. He also served as school trustee of Fortuna for twelve years. In national politics he favors the principles of the Republican Party, always entering actively into all of its affairs.

Mr. Johnston was married June 1, 1887, to Carrie Emma Smith, a native of Hydesville, and of their union there have been four children: Clyde Roy, Walter Robert, Mabel C., and Edna Evelyn. He has achieved his success only by his own thriftiness and perseverance and no man is better liked or more highly venerated in the community than Mr. Johnston.

JAMES UNDERWOOD.—A native of Oregon, and one of the oldest and most highly respected of the Humboldt county pioneers of today, is James Underwood. He is himself a descendant of one of the very oldest of the early California pioneer families, his father and grandfather having crossed the plains with ox teams in 1853 and thereafter making their homes in California, save for a few years when his father .resided in Oregon. At present James Underwood is engaged in the general merchandise business in Trinidad, where he has made his home for almost twenty years, and is meeting with success.

Mr. Underwood was born in Clackamas County, Oregon, August 3, 1867. He is the son of John and Caroline Elizabeth (Wills) Underwood, both being early settlers in California. His early youth was spent in Oregon, but when he was nine years of age his parents returned to California, locating on the old Underwood homestead on Dow's Prairie, Humboldt County. Here young James continued his attendance at the public schools of his district, on Dow's Prairie, graduating from the grammar course. Later he completed a course in the Eureka Business College. In 1887 he gave up school and started out for himself. During the vacations for several years he had worked in the woods, and now he naturally turned to this familiar occupation and secured employment with the Riverside Lumber Company, remaining with them for five years. The following year he was with the Korbel Lumber Company, and from there .he went to work for the Vance & Ham­mond Company, remaining in their employ for twelve years, and being for the entire time engaged in working in the woods. In the spring of 1907 he gave up this line of occupation and went to Santa Cruz County, where he was employed by the Humboldt Contracting Company for eighteen months.

It was in 1908 that Mr. Underwood returned to Humboldt county and bought out the general merchandise business of W. W. Shipley, at Trinidad, which enterprise he is still conducting with much success. He is owner and manager of the business and has extended and enlarged its scope since taking it over and has materially increased his trade.

The marriage of Mr. Underwood took place in Trinidad, December 8, 1897, uniting him with Miss Martha Watkins, the daughter of Warren and Rose Ann Watkins, and a native of Trinidad, born April 20, 1872. She has borne her husband one child, a son, Warren.

Since his marriage Mr. Underwood has always made his home in Trini­dad, and has been closely associated with public matters of interest for many years. In politics he is a Republican and a stanch party man, and has on numerous occasions represented his party at important conventions. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias, at Blue Lake, and of the local lodge of the Odd Fellows. His success in business is due to his careful and con­scientious application to duty, as well as to his ability, good management and industry.

Both Mr. and Mrs. Underwood are descended from splendid old pioneer stock. The mother of Mrs. Underwood, Mrs. Rose Ann Watkins, is the oldest settler in Trinidad at the present time. She is a native of Vermont and came to Humboldt County in 1863 and has continuously resided here since that time. She has witnessed many changes in the country, and her tales of the early Indian troubles are full of interest, having lost none of their thrills through the intervening years.

The father of Mr. Underwood was John Underwood, a native of Indiana, born in Parke County, September 13, 1831. When he was three years of age he removed with his parents to Illinois, where they lived for a short time, later moving to Missouri and locating near St. Joseph, Buchanan County. Here he attended the public schools up to the age of seventeen years, and for a few years after that continued to live at home with his parents, helping his father on the farm. Later he went to New Mexico where he engaged in teaming and freighting, making the trip from Fort Leavenworth to Santa Fe during the Mexican war (1848-1849). Returning after a time to his home in Missouri, he made the long journey across the plains to California with his parents, in 1833. They left their home on May 10, and were five months in making the trip, using ox teams all the way, and arriving at Redding, Cali­fornia, in October. From there they went to Hayfork, from which point they were obliged to complete their journey on mule-back and with pack-horses across the Coast range to the coast itself, finally reaching Arcata after a hard and perilous journey.

The father of John Underwood, and the grandfather of the present respected citizen of Trinidad, was William Underwood, a native of North Carolina, born in 1800. The mother was Matilda Colcleasur, born in Ken­tucky in 1804. Her marriage to William Underwood took place in Indiana in 1822. William Underwood was a hatter by trade but for many years he followed the occupation of the farmer, both in Illinois and in Missouri, as well as after coming to California. Immediately after arriving at Arcata he took up a government claim of one hundred sixty acres on Dow's prairie where he followed farming until the time of his death, December 5, 1875. He is remembered now by but a few of the oldest settlers, but the property is still known by his name. His wife died December 28, 1889, on the home place, which is still in the possession of the family.

Shortly after the family was established on their Dow's prairie ranch, the son, John Underwood, went to Gold Bluff where he secured employment and where he remained until 1859. In June of that year he moved to Oregon, locating in Marion County, where for a short time he engaged in farming. Later he took up a government claim in Clackamas County and again engaged in farming and stock raising. While living there he was married to Caroline Elizabeth Wills, a native of Des Moines county, Iowa, born November 12, 1846. She was the daughter of James Wills, who crossed the plains to Oregon in the early days. From this union have come seven children, of which the present honored citizen of Trinidad is the third born. They are : Matilda, now deceased; Milburn Gipson, also deceased; James Andrew ; William Thomas, deceased ; John Jackson, of Orange county ; Fred Wills, and Norman Owen, both farmers at McKinleyville.

John Underwood continued farming in Oregon for a number of years, meeting with much success. It was in 1876 that he returned to California, locating on the home place in Humboldt County, as the death of his father the previous year had left the mother without protection and the farm with­out a manager. He has continued to reside on this ranch on Dow's prairie since that time, having charge of his mother's affairs until the time of her death. When he took over the property it consisted of the original one hun­dred sixty acres, only partly improved; he cleared the balance and put it in shape for farming, in which line he is now engaged. Forty acres of the place have been sold, leaving only one hundred twenty acres at the present time.

John Underwood is the only old pioneer at present residing on Dow's prairie, and many and interesting are the accounts that he is able to give of the days long gone by. He was living here during the worst period of the Indian troubles and during one summer served actively with the troops that were out to quell the marauders.

Mrs. John Underwood is also one of the early pioneers of this section. Her father was James Thomas Wills, a native of North Carolina, born June 12, 1812, and her mother, Elizabeth Wills, was a native of Virginia, born May 30, 1815. They crossed the plains in 1853 to Oregon, at the same time that the Underwood family was making the crossing, to California. They located in Clackamas County, Oregon, and remained there until the time of their death.

JOHN ALBERT THEODORE WYATT.—Jacob Riis often said that he was a better American than any native-born citizen of the Republic, be­cause, while the native had no choice in the question of selecting his country, he, Riis, came to the United States because he knew perfectly well that it was the most wonderful country on the face of the earth, and made his selection deliberately and intelligently. And, following his deductions, one would be obliged to say that John Albert Theodore Wyatt is a citizen of the same class, for after spending a quarter of a century wandering over the face of the earth, first in the English navy, and later as mate on a merchantman, visiting strange ports and journeying afar into many lands, he came in 1865 to Humboldt county, still as a sea-faring man, fell under the spell of the locality, and forsaking his former calling, settled within its generous confines, .and never since that time has been beyond its boundaries. For most of this time he has followed farming and stock raising and has met with appreciable success. He is now living retired from active life, and is spending his declining years in his pleasant home in Arcata, where he resides with his family.

Born in Ludwell, Wiltshire, England, October 1, 1838, Mr. Wyatt attended the public schools until he was sixteen, when he joined the navy, and was assigned to the drill ship Victory as a recruit, where he remained until he was twenty-one years of age. After his time of service had ex­pired he sailed on the merchant vessel Queen of the Lakes, making several trips to India and the islands of the East, to South America, and was for some time in Mediterranean ports. After this he shipped on various mer­chantmen for a period of eleven. years, again visiting many parts of the world. The last of these trips brought him to San Francisco as second mate, under Capt. Adam Sedwick, arriving in September, 1865. Here he remained for a year and a half, working in and around the ship yards and in the coasting trade to Puget Sound, and then accepted a berth as first mate, this time on the Old William Arctic, bound for Humboldt Bay. Arrived here, he determined to give up the life of the seaman permanently and locate in Humboldt County. Without effort he secured employment at the Vance sawmill, where he remained for some time, being later transferred by the company to Eureka. After a number of years Mr. Wyatt gave up lumbering and renting a ranch at Bayside, from Stillman Daby, for a term of five years, he engaged in farming. This was the first venture of the erstwhile sailor as a tiller of the soil, but he was clever and industrious, and his efforts brought just returns. The high tide waters from the bay, however, caused him much trouble, and he was at last forced to give up this place, afterward renting from William Carson, on a three-year lease, and continuing his former occu­pation. Prospering again in his farming enterprise, he purchased fourteen acres from Carson, at Bayside, cleared the land, which was heavily timbered and covered with heavy brush, and later opened a store on the highway which he fronted. This latter undertaking did not prove successful, and eventually he traded both the store and the acreage for a tract of one hundred seventy-seven acres on Kneeland Prairie, all of which was unimproved. It was the work of many months, even of years, to clear this tract and bring it all under cultivation, but this Mr. Wyatt did, and engaged in farming and stock raising with splendid success, this being his home for twenty years. In 1903 the Kneeland Prairie property was sold, and another ranch of one hundred seventy-five acres on Fickle Hill was purchased. This was held until 1913, when it was also disposed of, and Mr. Wyatt moved into Arcata, where he owns a handsome home.

Mr. Wyatt was married in Eureka April 21, 1877, to Miss Nancy War-field, a native of Morgan County, Ill., the descendant of an old Southern family resident in Illinois since 1827. Mrs. Wyatt was reared near Jackson­ville, Ill., coming to Humboldt County, Cal., in 1876. Since locating in the county Mr. Wyatt has made many friends and is recognized as a man of ability and worth. He has never been interested in political matters, although he is identified closely with matters of local interest, otherwise his attention is centered almost wholly on his business interests.

Since locating here in 1865 he has not been outside of the county, finding here those things which satisfied him, and after his many years of roving, being well content to call Humboldt county home, and proud to be classed among the California pioneers, and to have done his share in the development and upbuilding of his community.

MARSHALL PATRICK.—Crossing the plains with his parents and five brothers and sisters in 1852, when he was but a babe of three years, locating first in Sacramento, where the family home was devastated by the great fire of 1852, and later journeying by wearisome stages and by devious ways, through rugged country where there were no wagon roads, and even the pack trails were rough and dangerous, Marshall Patrick came to the Eel river valley in 1853, where his father had taken up a claim of one hundred sixty acres of land, and on which he established his family. Here the chil­dren of this dauntless pioneer couple were reared near where Marshall Patrick resides today, amid the scenes of his childhood. He has witnessed the trans­formation of the wilderness into a land of beautiful homes and flourishing towns and villages. He has seen the perilous mountain trails give way to wide roads and winding boulevards as smooth as a floor. He has watched the slow transformation of the modes of travel from the ox-team and pack­horse days 'down through the varying changes of wagons, light carriages, rail­roads and now the swift automobile. He himself trudged many weary miles through the wild woods to the little log school-house, while the children of this generation are gathered in stately structures of wood and stone. Mr. Patrick has seen varying changes in his own fortunes as well, but he has never yet regretted the turn of the wheel of fortune which brought him to California, and today the welfare of his adopted state is as dear to him as ever.

His father, Nehemiah Patrick, was born in Wyoming county, Pa., June 1, 1813. He attended the schools of that locality for a short time and then took up the blacksmith's trade. His wife, and the mother of his chil­dren, was Jane Daily, also a native of Wyoming County, Pa., born June 6, 1817. They were married in Pennsylvania in 1835, and for several years fol­lowing Mr. Patrick engaged in farming there. In 1843 he removed to Illinois, locating in Whiteside County in the northern part of the state near Rock River and eighteen miles from the Mississippi river. Here he engaged in farming and blacksmithing with appreciable success. There were few settlers in that locality and the means of travel were very cumbersome, there being no bridges, all rivers being crossed, by ferry boats. The lure of the far west was penetrating all the land and the reports of opportunities in California and Oregon were so flattering that Mr. Patrick determined to remove his family and settle on the Pacific coast. Accordingly in 1852 the perilous trip was accomplished, the party leaving their Illinois home on May 4, and reaching Sacramento October 15.

Having seen his family comfortably established in Sacramento, the father set out to look after the location of Spanish grants, and it was while he was away that the great fire of 1852 swept over Sacramento, leaving them home­less. Mrs. Patrick and her brood were far from helpless, however, and managed to save everything but the stove. Their possessions were then piled in the wagon and hauled to a place of safety, where the family encamped for two weeks. Later they left Sacramento and traveled overland to Hum­boldt County. There were no wagon roads and everything had to be packed over the trails on horseback, this being the only means of transportation for man or goods. The trip was made by way of Weaverville and across the mountains to the head of Mad river on down to Arcata, and from there to Eel river valley by way of Table Bluff, up the Slough to Salt river, finally arriving at Centerville, these last stages being made by water, and the last stretch to the ranch again by pack-horses. The father had taken up a pre­emption claim of one hundred sixty acres, part timber and part prairie land and started farming, besides running a blacksmith shop. Later, in 1858, he built a saw-mill on Price creek and engaged in lumbering, but with indif­ferent success, and sold his interests in a short time. The farm, however, proved to be a good one, and the family prospered.

Mr. Patrick was the first man to set out an orchard in his locality and one of the first in the entire valley. He planted an extensive orchard to apples and cherries and again was very successful in their culture. He acquired much property, owning several hundred acres in the Eel river valley and much range land around Mattole, this being well stocked with cattle and horses. The Patricks were among the first to establish a home in this section of the county and are remembered as real pioneers of an early day. The children were Giles, Zipporah, Bingham, Marshall, Mary and Josephine, all of whom are well known in Humboldt County. Mrs. Patrick was a de­voted mother and a truly wonderful woman of the pioneer type, strong, resourceful and kindly. She died in 1884.

Marshall Patrick was born in Whiteside County, Ill., March 1, 1849. His early life, so far as his own recollections were concerned, was centered about the farm in Eel river valley. He attended the Grizzly Bluff schools until he was eighteen, and lived at home working with his father on the farm for a number of Years. After the death of his father he bought a part of the home place and engaged in dairying and farming. Later he sold this property and purchased a ranch of eighty acres all improved. He also took up land in the Mattole section and engaged in cattle-raising on the range, but with only partial success, and here also he met .with severe loss by range fire which swept away practically all of his property in this location. He then returned to Grizzly Bluff and went to work on a ranch, where he received an injury from which he recovered only a short time ago. At present he has retired from active business and makes his home in Wadding­ton. Mr. Patrick is well known and highly esteemed by his associates. He is a member of the Masons and the Knights of Pythias, and is a Republican in politics, being for many years closely associated with the affairs of his party.

WILLIAM ALBEE ROBINSON.—The name of Robinson has for many years been associated with the most extensive farming and stock-raising interests of Humboldt county. The founder in this state, William S. Robinson, the father of William A., was a man of great strength of character, pronounced experience and business ability and well fitted for the large respon­sibilities which came to him. The death of this popular citizen, in 1907, when in his seventy-ninth year, is still recalled with expressions of regret by his numerous friends and business associates. He was born in Virginia but passed his early manhood in Tennessee and Missouri. His changeful youth had well prepared him for whatever of vicissitudes he might encounter and the term self-made applied to him in its truest sense. In 1850 he crossed the plains with ox teams, to California, and in 1854, in company with Joseph Russ, crossed the mountains to Humboldt County and located at Arcata, coming here from Sacramento Valley. Strongly outlined against the history of this part of California is the career of W. S. Robinson, who at the time of his decease was one of its wealthy residents, having accumulated a vast property numbering two thousand acres. He married Miss Electa L. Albee and to them were born nine children, of whom William A. was the fourth, his birth occurring in Arcata, June 19, 1869. The mother is still living, making her home at Eureka, where she is a member of the Congregational church.

As a boy William A. Robinson studied in the public schools of Bridgeville and, on the completion of his education, assisted his father in the manage­ment of the home place. In 1902 he assumed entire charge of the ranch, giving his attention for many years to the raising of sheep. In 1911, having disposed of his sheep, he began cattle-raising with desirable results, soon gaining an enviable reputation in the business world, devoting the entire ranch to the raising of cattle and fattening them for the market. While he had the influence of his father to aid him in starting out, yet it may be said of him that, even without such influence, his own perseverance, wise judgment and common sense would have brought him prosperity and prom­inence.

In politics he is a Democrat, while fraternally he is a member of Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. Mr. Robinson was married in 1907 to Miss Florence Knowles, a native of Mendocino County, this state, and they have one daughter named Elizabeth. Always interested in the cause of education, Mr. Robinson has for many years been a member of the board of trustees of the Bridgeville school district, serving as clerk during the entire time, and the school house is the same he attended his last few years of school.

ALBERT MAURICE DINSMORE, D. D. S.—The president of the Ferndale Chamber of Commerce, who is also proprietor of the Dinsmore jewelry store at this place as well as a dental practitioner of experience, is a member of a pioneer family of Humboldt county, where he was born at Rio Dell, February 23, 1879, and where he received public-school advantages. An early desire to enter the dental profession led him to matriculate in the dental department of the University of California, where he took the regular course of lectures, graduating with a high standing in 1904. Meanwhile, in order to assist in defraying the expenses of the university course, he had taught school for ten months in his native county. On returning home from the university he opened a dental office at Ferndale, where later he became a charter member of the Chamber of Commerce and in 1909 bought out the jewelry business of R. H. Edwards, now conducted under his own name. With his wife, who was Cavy E. Miner, a native of Petrolia, Humboldt county, he has a high social standing in the community. His fraternities are numerous and include the Knights of Pythias, Native Sons of the Golden West ; Ferndale Lodge No. 193, F. & A. M. in which he is past master ; Ferndale Chapter No. 78, R. A. M., in which he is past high priest ; Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T., and Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., of San Francisco.

The founder of the Dinsmore family in Humboldt County, the late John Owen Dinsmore, the grandfather of Dr. Dinsmore, was born in 1816 on the banks of the Kennebec river in Maine and died at his western home June 21, 1891. In early life he engaged in logging and lumbering, but the failure of his health caused him to go from Maine to Texas in 1846 and for a few years he taught in the south. Improved by the change of climate, he returned to Maine and remained there until the discovery of gold in California caused him to come to the west. At the end of the first year he went back as far as Illinois and bought a farm in Knox County, where an uncle lived. Soon he moved to Henry county, same state, where he met and married Margaret J. Davis, a native of Indiana, born April 1, 1832, but from infancy a resident of Illinois.

The second trip of John Owen Dinsmore to California was made in 1859 in company with his brother, Bradbury, Mrs. Dinsmore and the three children remaining on the Illinois farm. Coming direct to Humboldt County and locating at Iaqua, he engaged in the cattle industry, but the depreda­tions of the Indians forced him to move his cattle nearer the coast on the Mattole river. In the fall of 1860 he sold the stock and returned overland to . Illinois. During May, 1861, accompanied by his family, he came west, land­ing in Humboldt County on the 4th of September. During some of his over­land trips he acquired a tract of land in Kansas and that property he still owned at his death. After two years as a renter in Humboldt County he purchased one hundred sixty acres on the Eel river. It necessitated long years of the most arduous toil for him to reclaim and improve the land, but it is now as valuable as any farm in the county. In politics he was prominent in local Republican affairs and served for two terms as supervisor. Of his eight children Thomas died in infancy and William, a very influential rancher, died at the age of forty-eight. Wallace became an attorney at Marysville. Harriet, Mrs. M. P. Hansen, settled on a ranch near Alton. Clara married George Cooper, and Mrs. Dinsmore, after the death of her husband, made her home on the Cooper ranch. George died at seventeen years and Sophia in infancy. Harold became manager of the old homestead for his mother, and inherited forty acres of the tract as his individual property.

William Dinsmore, son of John 0. and father of Dr. Albert M., was born in Henry county, Ill., August 29, 1855, came to California when about seven years of age, lived on the home farm until his marriage at the age of twenty-one and then settled at Rio Dell, Humboldt county. Six years later he bought one hundred thirty acres and moved to the new property, thirty acres of which he planted in apple trees. The orchard has been considered one of the best in the county and its value was largely due to the care of the original orchardist in selecting the best varieties of trees. For some years. William Dinsmore served as school director. His fraternities were Eel River Lodge No. 147, F. & A. M., of Rohnerville; Ferndale Chapter No. 78, R. A. M.; Hydesville Lodge No. 250, I. 0. 0. F., and Hydesville Encampment. At his death, June 7, 1903, he was survived by his wife and five children, Albert M., Fred A., George E., Elsie and Mabel L. Mrs. William Dinsmore was Annie, daughter of Joseph and Bertha (Thompson) Rolley, natives respectively of England and Pennsylvania. In 1844 her father settled in New York City and found employment in the butcher's trade. Going as far west as Grundy County, Ill., he bought raw land and engaged in farming. The year 1874 found him in California, where he bought one hundred sixty acres near Fortuna, Humboldt county. Dairying became one of his specialties. A man of splendid physique, six feet and two inches in height, and weighing one hundred and eighty pounds, he continued active up to the very hour of his death, which occurred (the result of hemorrhage of the brain) in February of 1896. In politics he voted the Republican ticket. He was not long survived by his wife, whose death occurred in March, 1897, when she was sixty years of age. Ten children had been born of their union, namely ; Edward, who died at twenty-one years ; Annie, mother of Dr. Albert M. Dinsmore and widow of William Dinsmore ; Frank ; William Walter ; Minnie J., wife of Frank Legg ; Mary E., Mrs. John E. Hosier ; Albert ; Gertrude, now Mrs. Frank L. Parker ; George T., attorney of Eureka and in 1902 elected a member of the state legislature ; and Charles. All established homes at Fortuna, with the exception of the three last-named, who settled at Eureka. George T. Rol-ley attained wide prominence through his election in 1903 as supreme rep­resentative of the Supreme Court of the Foresters of America.

GEORGE RUSSELL HILL.—One of the old-timers in the Upper Mattole valley is George Russell Hill, who has resided there for over forty years, and at his present home for the last thirty years. He has a valuable little fruit and stock ranch about a mile south of Upper Mattole post office, on the opposite side of the river, and has been so successful in the growing and evaporation of prunes that he has helped to give the Humboldt county product in that line a reputation equal to any. His principal interests, however, are in general agriculture and stock.

Mr. Hill may well be proud of the record of his family in the west. His father came to the Pacific coast across the plains in 1845, several years ahead of the gold discovery. Russell Taylor Hill was born in Tennessee, and died in Idaho when about sixty-five years old. His life was full of adventure typical of the times. He first settled at Lebanon, Oregon, moving down to Cali­fornia when gold was discovered and living in this state a number of years. He had married in Oregon, and after deciding to settle in California brought his family hither. Like many another attracted by the mining possibilities, he found his fortune in quite another line, being engaged mainly as a stock­man, buying and selling cattle, and as a drover. For several years he lived in Suisun, Cal., moving thence when his son George R. was seven years old to Idaho, where he built a toll road into Idaho City, where he also engaged in butchering, raised stock, and led the life of a genuine frontiersman. He married Adelaide Cheadle, a native of Michigan, who also came west by the plains route, and they had a family of nine children, four of whom survive at this writing. The mother lived to the age of seventy-four years.

George R. Hill was born December 24, 1855, at Suisun, Cal., where the 'first seven years of his life were spent. He was next to the youngest of his parents' family, and is the only one living in Humboldt County. He obtained his education in the public schools, and during his youth and early manhood saw a great deal of the northwest, living at various places in California, Idaho and Oregon before settling down in the Upper Mattole district in Humboldt county. As an expert sheep shearer he was never at a loss for occupation, following that calling, starting in the Sacramento valley, whence working north each year up into Oregon, Washington and Montana, being thus en­gaged more or less for thirty years. When a youth of eighteen years he came from Oregon to Ferndale, Humboldt County, and at the age of twenty-one he came to Upper Mattole and took up a claim ten miles from his present place in the mountains. Thirty years ago he settled on his present property, a tract of twenty acres about one mile up the river from Upper Mattole, and his varied experiences with stock have helped him in his successful opera­tions here. He is best known as a stockman and farmer, but his success in growing prunes has also gained him some reputation. He evaporates large quantities by drying them on trays in the sun, and the excellence of his product shows that as good prunes may be raised in Humboldt County as the famous Santa Clara variety or any other of popular renown. His indus­try and other substantial qualities have brought him the esteem of all who know him, and he is considered one of the best citizens of his neighborhood. Politically he is with the Progressive party.

On December 24, 1881, Mr. Hill was married to Miss Bertha Jane Roscoe, daughter of Wesley Horton Roscoe, one of the prominent old settlers of the Upper Mattole district, and a family of five children was born to this union Dora M., now the wife of Frank Etter, a ranchman residing in the Mattole valley ; Edward E., cashier of the Loleta Bank at Loleta ; Lulu A. and Georgie A., living at home ; and Winifred, who is engaged as a teacher at Fortuna, this county. Mrs. Hill died August 20, 1895, and while Mr. Hill was called upon to mourn the loss of a devoted helpmate after a comparatively short wedded life, he has found great comfort in his children. He and his daughters have a comfortable home on the ranch, and no family in the vicinity is more highly respected.

ROBERT EDWARD BYARD.—A descendant of one of the old pio­neer families of California, and himself a Native Son of the Golden West, Robert Edward Byard is today one of the most respected citizens of Hum­boldt county, and at Korbel, where he has made his home for a number of years, he is held in high esteem by his fellows, both among his business asso­ciates and his friends and acquaintances. He is at present foreman of the Jackson, Everding & Graham Company's mill at Korbel, having held this responsible position for more than twelve years, and is considered one of the foremost men in the community. His business integrity and high moral principles have won for him the respect and confidence of the community, and also of his workmen and of his employers.

Mr. Byard is a native of Humboldt County, having been born at For­tuna, December 20, 1870. He passed his boyhood at Fortuna, attending the public schools there and later taking a business course in Eureka, graduating from the Eureka Business College in 1890. In that year he started out for himself, registering as a lumberman, and soon accepting a position as tally-man with the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia, remaining in their employ for a year. Afterward he went to work for John Vance as tallyman for the Pioneer Lumber Company and for eleven years held a position with this same company, ultimately becoming foreman. It was in 1902 that he accepted his present position of foreman of the Jackson, Everding & Graham Company's mill at Korbel, and removed with his family to his present home.

Mr. Byard is a citizen of the highest type. He is a Progressive Repub­lican in politics, but has never been actively associated with the affairs of the party. He is, however, truly progressive in the broadest sense of the word, and every movement that has for its object the moral and social betterment of the community is certain to receive his instant and hearty support. He is a member of the Lincoln Lodge K. of P., Eureka, having united at the time of his residence there. Mr. Byard is also a member of the Methodist church, and besides taking an active part in church work, is prominent in the Christian Endeavor society and other religious societies.

The marriage of Mr. Byard took place May 17, 1893, uniting him with Miss Florence Snow, daughter of William Snow, and a native of Missouri, born in 1873. She came to California with her parents in 1885, locating in Humboldt County, where she has since made her home.

Mr. Byard himself is the son of one of the oldest pioneer families in Humboldt County. His father, George Augustus Byard, is a native of Maine, born March 15, 1835. When very young he left home to follow the fortunes of the sea, in this following in the footsteps of his forebears, his father having been a sailor all his life and the son of a sailor. He followed the sea for a period of nine years, from the time he was fourteen until he was twenty-three. In October of 1858 he left Boston on a sailing vessel bound for the Cali­fornia coast, rounding the Horn, and arrived in San Francisco in the spring of 1859. At this time he gave up the life of a sailor and went to work in the woods of Marin County, later engaging in the wood business for himself. In 1865 he removed with his family to Humboldt County and for the first two years worked for George A. Kellogg in the woods. In 1867 he pur­chased a farm at Fortuna, where he resided until his death, March 3, 1915, and was for many years engaged in dairying and diversified farming, own­ing one of the best farms of the valley. He had been interested in the political affairs of the country all his life, was a stanch Republican in his political affiliations and was progressive and well informed on all questions of public interest, both local and national.

Mr. Byard's mother was Agnes Ingram, a native of Ireland, born in County Armagh, August 20, 1841. She came with her parents to America in 1848, locating first in Illinois. By way of the Isthmus the family came to California in 1860. Miss Ingram was married to George Augustus Byard in San Francisco, December 25, 1862. She bore her husband eight children, several of whom are now prominent citizens of this locality. She passed away August 20, 1891.

WARREN L. HADLEY.—The old Hadley ranch on the Mattole river, about a mile above where the Upper Mattole post office is now located, is one of the oldest settled tracts in this part of Humboldt county, and the members of the Hadley family are among the most respected residents of the neighborhood. Warren L. Hadley has become very well known all over this section, particularly as mail driver, in which capacity he acted until the route from Upper Mattole to Briceland was discontinued, August 1, 1914. Like his father, Alfred Augustus Hadley, he is also keenly interested in local politics, and he is one of the members of the Mattole brass band organized in 1913.

Alfred Augustus Hadley was one of the earliest settlers in the Upper Mattole country. A native of. Ohio, he was raised in that state and in Indiana, where he began to teach school, when only eighteen years old, a fact which indicates that he had been enterprising enough to take advantage of his educational opportunities. His adventurous disposition was manifested early, for he was mining in Mexico in the forties, and came to California in the early fifties, mining in the hills back of Merced for a time. Then he came up to Humboldt County and settled on the Mattole river, on the side opposite Upper Mattole post office, where he improved land and prospered. He had at least the average share of hardships and dangers to combat. On several occasions he had fights with the Indians, and one time had his leg broken and was badly disabled, but he did not lose his grit or courage, and though his companions had fled, he drove off the savages single handed with his six-shooter, with which he was an expert. His valuable service to the Repub­lican party won him a place on the county central committee for many years, and he served a long period as justice of the peace.

Mr. Hadley was married here to Miss Annie Rouch, who was born in the Eel river valley, and eleven children were born of this union: Albert A., a blacksmith by trade, resides at Wheatland, Cal.; Rosa is the wife of R. R. Landergen, a teamster, of the Honey Dew district in the Upper Mattole territory ; William T. S., a lawyer by profession, is also engaged in ranch­ing in this section, being now the owner of the old homestead ; Warren L. is mentioned below : Ida M. died unmarried, she and her sister Mary being drowned in the Mattole while out boating ; Isaac Clay is a ranchman on the Hood river in Oregon ; Grace, unmarried, lives on the old Hadley ranch with her mother ; Frank S., also unmarried, lives on the home ranch; Mary was drowned with her sister ; Nettie, Mrs. Ornbaum, taught school in Lake county for a time ; Gussie is married and living in Oakland, Cal. The father of this family died at the age of seventy-eight years, being accidentally killed while riding horseback.

Warren L. Hadley was born April 6, 1868, on the old Hadley ranch along the Mattole River, where he grew to manhood. He has been familiar with ranch work from boyhood, but his specialty has been sheep shearing, at which he is an expert, having sheared as many as one hundred fifty-eight in a day of ten hours. For several years he followed this business almost exclu­sively, traveling over Idaho, Oregon and Montana as well as various parts of his own state, especially the Sacramento valley. He has taken out tanbark on contract, and is a thoroughly reliable teamster, having driven the mail from the Upper Mattole country to Briceland until the route was abandoned, in the summer of 1914. At present he is carrying on general ranch work, renting the three hundred acres he operates. His active, outdoor life has made him robust, and he is thoroughly capable and trustworthy, his intelli­gence and energy making him valuable to the community. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias at Petrolia, and in politics has followed in his father's footsteps, being one of the most efficient workers in the local ranks of the Republican party. He has served repeatedly on the county central committee.

When the Mattole brass band was organized in 1913 Mr. Hadley was one of the nine members, and now serves as secretary and treasurer of the organization, of which Emil Sund is leader and R. N. Holman president. The players have the following parts :• R. N. Holman, B flat bass ; Earl Shortgen, Jean Landergen, E flat altos; F. S. Hadley, tenor slide trombone; W. E. Thrapp, valve tenor trombone ; W. L. Hadley, B flat baritone; Robert M. Hadley, B flat cornet; Frank Luce, tenor ; Frank Blatz, bass and snare drums ; Emil Sund, E flat cornet. The band is in great demand at Fourth of July celebrations, picnics and other gatherings.

In Garberville, September 19, 1895, Mr. Hadley married Miss Ella R. Wood, who was born at Garberville, Humboldt County, daughter of James E. and Laura (Webb) Wood. Eight children have come to this union : Robert McKinley ; one that died in infancy ; Rose M. ; Crystel M.; Alfred J. ; Her­bert S. ; Warren Lincoln, and Ervin A. Mrs. Hadley's mother was born in California ; her father's native state was Illinois, and he became a pioneer stock-raiser at Garberville, Cal., where he died ; the mother now resides at Rohnerville.

LEWIS J. STONE.—As one of the leading carpenters and builders of Waddington and vicinity, Lewis J. Stone is well and favorably known. He has erected churches, schools, creameries and especially residences, many of the handsomest homes in Waddington, Ferndale, and in fact throughout the• southern half of Humboldt county, being testimonies to his skill and handi­craft. He has been a resident of Humboldt county since 1891, and has been actively engaged in the pursuit of his trade since coming to this part of the country. He is a progressive, clear-sighted man, demanding and giving a square deal at all times and in all places. He and his family are highly respected throughout the county, and wherever they are known receive the most honorable mention.

Mr. Stone is a native of Wisconsin, having been born at Waukau, Winnebago county, Wisconsin, December 5, 1860, the son of John and Sarah (Pack­ard) Stone. His father was a native of Vermont, and enlisted in the Union army during the Civil war, meeting his death during that troubled period. The mother was a native of Ohio, and is still living near Waukau, Wis., at the age of seventy-five years, making her home with her daughter. There were but two children in the family : the present respected citizen of Wad­dington, and an elder sister, Jessie, now the wife of John Lefivre, a farmer, residing at Waukau, Wis. The mother married a second time to Morris Gay, a farmer of Wisconsin, and one child was born of this second union, a son, Eugene. Lewis John Stone grew to young manhood on the farm of his step­father, attending the schools in the district and assisting with the labor and responsibility of the home place, remaining thus until he was twenty years of age, when he commenced to work out on the neighboring farms for wages. When he was twenty-three years of age he commenced to learn the carpenter's trade, and later went to Hope, Steele County, North Dakota, where he took up and improved a government claim, also working at his trade. He remained in North Dakota from 1882 until 1891, at which latter date he came to Cali­fornia, locating at Waddington, where he has since made his home.

Mr. Stone has been twice married, his first wife having died many years ago. She was Miss Beatrice Slingsby, of Waukau, Wis., and their marriage was solemnized in 1884 at that place. Of this union were born six children, four daughters and two sons, all of whom are well and favorably known in Humboldt County, where they were reared and educated. They are: Elizabeth, wife of John Downs, head wood chopper in the lumber woods, and residing at Sterling, Tehama county (they have two children, Elizabeth and John, Jr.) ; Beatrice, wife of Joseph Goff, of Ferndale, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this work ; Gay, wife of Gustavus Jasper, the editor of the Beacon, at Fortuna, and present candidate for the state assembly (they hav one child, Cedrick) ; Alice, wife of Peter McCabe, tanner, of Portland, Ore. (they have one child) ; Eugene, who works on a ranch in Humboldt county ; and John, aged fourteen, who is still attending school.

Quite apart from his prominence in the commercial life of the county, Mr. Stone is well and favorably known in his home community in fraternal and political circles. He is a man of much strength of character and has formed many warm friendships. He traces his genealogy back to a sturdy old line of English ancestry, which, according to a recently published accredited work, declares that the Stones first settled in America in 1638, establishing their homes near the now historic site of Guilford Courthouse. They took an important part in the early history of the colonies and later in the history of the States. Mr. Stone is a Republican, and is always intensely interested in all questions that pertain to the general welfare of the country, and to the future development of Humboldt county in particular. He endorses whatever tends toward the upbuilding of the community, such as educational advancement, good roads, etc. Mr. Stone is also a Master Mason, and takes an active part in the affairs of the local lodge. His second marriage occurred December 4, 1905, uniting him with Miss Lillian Lee Steward, of Sonoma County, California.

JOSEPH A. FITZELL.—As senior member of the firm of Fitzell Broth­ers, of Van Dusen township, the operators of a large ranch of five hundred eighty acres which belongs to their father, Joseph A. Fitzell is well known through this section of the county and is very highly esteemed. Associated with him is his younger brother, Frank Lester Fitzell, both being natives of Eureka, the latter born January 22, 1890, and the former January 6, 1889. They have been in charge of the ranch for a number of years, taking entire charge of it in 1908, and are making a very decided success.

Mr. Fitzell spent his boyhood in Eureka, where he attended the public school, and then for five years worked in his father's drug store there. His brother served a like apprenticeship in the business world for four years. Their father is Charles R. Fitzell, a successful druggist of Eureka, owner and manager of the Fitzell Drug Company, on F street. He is a native of Iowa, born at Cedar Rapids, December 15, 1860. His father, Joseph Fitzell, was a successful general merchant at Cedar Rapids, and in 1873 he removed with his family to California, locating at Eureka. The son, Charles R., received a grammar school education in Eureka, and later for a period of six years he was in the employ of F. A. Week, who at that time was prominent as a druggist in Eureka. In 1880 he entered the Department of Pharmacy, at the University of California, at Berkeley, graduating in 1883. Returning to Eureka he took charge of Mr. Weck's drug store for a period of four years and then bought out his employer and has since conducted the business him­self. He married Miss Mary D. Weck, the daughter of F. A. Weck, and of their union nine children were born, as follows : Bertha ; Joseph A., the sub­ject of this article ; Frank L., partner with Joseph in the management of the ranch at Blocksburg ; Laura ; Susan; Charles ; Mary ; Alfred; and Edward. At present Mr. Fitzell, Sr., resides in a comfortable home on Fourteenth and M streets, in Eureka. Mrs. Fitzell's family is one of the oldest and most highly respected of the early pioneer families of Humboldt County, and her parents are still living in San Francisco.

Since taking over the management of their father's ranch, Joseph A. and Frank L. Fitzell have made many improvements and have greatly extended their business venture. They raise principally grain, hay and hogs, with some cattle and horses. They fatten and sell on an average of one hundred head of hogs per year, and they also breed a high grade of Belgian horses. They are both sportsmen of a high order and deer and other game are plentiful in their region. Their ranch is a model of care and enterprise and speaks well for the ability and industry of Fitzell Brothers.

HORACE C. ANDERSON.—A native of Hydesville and the son of one of the oldest and most highly respected pioneer families of Humboldt county, Horace C. Anderson has spent his entire lifetime in this county, being for the most part engaged in business in or near Hydesville. For the past seven years he has been in the threshing business, owning a twenty-four cylinder Buffalo-Pitts separator, and a traction steam engine. He is also prepared to saw wood and to take care of such other odd contracts during the season when there is no work in the threshing line. He owns extensive farm property in the vicinity of Hydesville, and is one of the prosperous and progressive men of the county.

Mr. Anderson is a native of Humboldt County, having been born near Hydesville, October 15, 1884, the son of Jasper and Eleanor (Case) Anderson. His father, a native of Des Moines, Iowa, came to California when he was a young man, engaging in farming and dairying in this county for many years. He is now operating his large ranch at Hydesville. The mother, a native of Oregon, came to California in girlhood. She became the mother of seven children, four sons and three daughters, six of whom grew to maturity, Horace C. being the eldest. He grew to manhood on his father's farm, attending the district school and learning at an early age to bear his share of responsibilities of the home place. For some years he engaged in farming and stockraising on his ranch comprising one hundred and ninety acres, all improved, located near Hydesville. However, he now has the place rented so as to devote his time to looking after his other interests. In the spring of 1915 Mr. Anderson opened the Rio Dell, lime quarries three miles above Rio Dell, where he is engaged in grinding which is used largely by farm­ers for fertilizing their lands. The undertaking is proving a success, and as the need demands it he is increasing the capacity of his plant.

Mr. Anderson owns a comfortable residence in Hydesville, where he made his home until the spring of 1915, since which time he has made his home and headquarters in Eureka. In addition to his activities as a farmer and in connection with his threshing machine business, Mr. Anderson has been engaged in general contracting and has built several miles of heavy roads in the Van Dusen section of Humboldt county, which were completed in a satisfactory manner.

The marriage of Mr. Anderson was solemnized in 1908 at Alton, the bride being Miss Nellie Hansen, the daughter of H. J. and Mary E. (Smith) Hansen, born on the island of Falster, Denmark, and Eldorado county, Cal., respectively ; they were married in Hydesville. By trade Mr. Hansen was a blacksmith, a business which he followed in Hydesville for many years. After selling out his shop he purchased his present ranch at Alton, where he and his wife reside. Of their three children Mrs. Anderson was the youngest and was born at Alton, where she was reared and educated. Both Mr. and Mrs. Anderson are popular and well known not only in their home, but throughout Humboldt county. Mr. Anderson is a member of Hydesville Lodge No. 250, I. 0. 0. F., of which he is past grand, is a member of Hydes­ville Encampment No. 59, and with his wife is a member of Hydesville Rebekah Lodge No. 98, of which Mrs. Anderson is past noble grand. In 1910 Mr. and Mrs. Anderson were delegates to the Grand Lodge of Odd Fellows and Rebekahs at Fresno.

HECTOR ALBERT NELSON is one of the pioneers of Humboldt County, of which he is also a native, and is the son of one of the oldest pioneer families of the county. His father and mother both came to this section of the state at an early day, and here their home was established and their family born and reared. Mr. Nelson at present resides on the old home place, where he was born and where he grew to manhood. He has made a decided success of his undertakings and as a prosperous farmer is well known and highly esteemed in Arcata and the surrounding country.

Mr. Nelson was born in the old Nelson home, Arcata Bottoms, January 17, 1864, and his boyhood days, and in fact most of the years of his life, have all been passed in or near Arcata, where he has a host of life-long friends. He received his education in the public schools of Arcata, and later attended Heald's Business College in San Francisco, where he was graduated in 1885. After completing his studies he remained at home, working for and with his father on the home place until the time of his father's death, which occurred March 6, 1896. Since that time he has himself conducted the farm, following the line that had interested his father, namely diversified farming and dairying.

This home place is a ranch of eighty acres and is all in a splendid state of cultivation, and is one of the best cared for places in the valley, as well as one of the best improved. When he first went into the dairying business Mr. Nelson had a herd of fifteen cows, which he has since increased to forty head. He has given careful attention to the details of the work and has met with appreciable success in his business. His property is constantly increasing in value, as are also his stock, while each year improvements are added to the farm, which in themselves enhance its value.

The marriage of Mr. Nelson with Miss Angie Maria Brown took place July 28, 1907. Mrs. Nelson is the mother of one child, a son, Frederick Morris Nelson, who is the pride of his father's heart. Mrs. Nelson is the daughter of an old pioneer family of California, and was born in Petaluma, Sonoma County, August 25, 1875. She received her education in the Petaluma public schools, graduating first from the grammar schools and later from the high school. Her parents eventually removed to Humboldt County, where she met and was married to Mr. Nelson.

The parents of Mr. ,Nelson are both from the other side of the Atlantic, his father being a native of Denmark, while his mother was born in Germany. The father was Christian Nelson, who was born in Denmark, July 7, 1822. He attended the public schools of his native village but a short time, as both his parents died when he was a small lad. At an early age he decided to become a sailor, and for about fourteen years he followed a sea-faring life. He came first to San Francisco in 1854, and from there sailed up the coast to Trinidad. At this time he had determined to give up the sea and for a time he worked in a sawmill, and later spent some time in the mines, remain­ing at Gold Bluff for about two years. Then he was farming at Little River Bridge, but in 1862 was driven out by the Indians, so in the fall of 1862 he came to Arcata and purchased eighty acres of bottom land, which at the time of purchase was unimproved. This was later cleared and brought into a high state of cultivation, and has since then been the home of the family. The mother of Mr. Nelson was Augusta Bayreuther, born in Saxony, Germany, February 10, 1832. She came to California by way of the Isthmus, making the trip directly from Germany. She was married to Mr. Nelson, Sr., in Humboldt county in 1858. Their union was blessed by four children, three of whom are still living. The aged mother is still living on the old home place where her children were born and reared and which holds for her so many happy memories. •

Mr. Nelson is a man of keen interests in all questions of the day, is well informed and broadminded and decidedly liberal in his views. He is a Republican and is interested in all the affairs of his party, both locally and in matters of state and national policy, although he has never been actively engaged in politics.

MADS P. HANSEN.---This thrifty farmer and business man of Rohner­ville township is a citizen of whom Humboldt county may well be proud. A foreigner by birth, and without advantages of friends or money when he settled here, he has worked his way to a position of affluence and high standing by reason of his substantial qualities, shown in his good citizenship as well as in the management of his personal affairs. Mr. Hansen was born July 29, 1847, in North Schleswig, Germany, son of M. P. and Elizabeth (Hoist) Hansen. He was reared in his native land, and had excellent educational advantages, so that he was well trained for the practical work of life before he left home.

In 1869 the young man came to the United States, and for four months lived in Illinois, but he decided on California the year of his arrival in this country, and has remained here ever since. The first four years of his resi­dence in this state he was employed as a laborer near Oakland, meantime gaining a knowledge of the language and familiarity with American customs. In 1873 he came thence to Humboldt county, and the same year located the property in Rohnerville township where he has since carried on farming on his own account, having one hundred twenty-nine acres of valuable land. He has been successfully engaged in general agriculture, but has made a specialty of dairying, keeping about forty cows the year round, and finding a steady market for the milk and his other products. As opportunity has offered he has turned his attention to other undertakings, in which his good judgment and business capacity have been equally apparent. He owned three acres of land in the village of Alton, which he platted in town lots, and he has also acquired commercial interests there, owning the only store and the only livery stable in the place, both of which he conducts with commend­able enterprise. Mr. Hansen's ambition and progressive disposition have gained him a place among the most active residents of his locality. All who have had dealings with him testify to his absolute honesty and unquestion­able methods, which have established him thoroughly in• the confidence of his fellow men wherever he is known. He has taken an intelligent interest in the welfare of his township, especially regarding public school facilities, which .he regards as highly important, and he gave excellent service to the township in the position of school trustee. He was nominated for the office of supervisor, but defeated. In politics he has been a Republican, and he has taken part in the local campaigns, wielding considerable influence in his neighborhood, where he has done good work for the party. Socially he is an Odd Fellow, holding membership in Hydesville Lodge No. 250.

Mr. Hansen was married to Harriet Dinsmore, a native of Illinois, daugh­ter of the late J. O. Dinsmore. They have had a family of four children, namely : John A., who lives in Yuba county, this state; Winifred, deceased ; Christina M., Mrs. Nathan Hauck ; and George.

FREEMAN ART.—The development of a large establishment out of the small business established in Eureka in 1906 is attributable to the capable efforts. of Emma B. Freeman, the founder and present proprietor of the studio and a woman whose intense love of the beautiful and picturesque in nature led her in early childhood to follow the bright-plumaged birds to their hidden haunts in great trees ; to study the flowers as they bloomed uncul­tivated and often unseen along the wayside ; and to watch the changing cloud in the sky and every phase of scenery that allures the possessor of an artistic temperament. When she decided to develop her remarkable natural talent and to make drawing, painting and photography her life work, she selected Humboldt county as the spot best adapted to her occupative duties. The results proved that her selection was not amiss. It has been her privilege to tour practically every portion of northern California, taking with her a complete outfit of photographic necessities or a drawing and painting outfit. With these she has made pictures of the sun-kissed seashore, the isolated mountains and the dense forests. A special atmosphere of romance seems to envelop these reproductions of picturesque spots and even a most casual glance at the large assortment of local pictures displayed in her studio proves her to be a true lover of nature and an expert in photography.

A visitor to the Freeman art store on the corner of Fifth and H streets, Eureka, finds much to interest the mind and awaken the admiration. Beside the thousands of views taken in every part of the county there are many redwood novelties and Indian baskets, all but the latter manufactured on the premises, as well as art leather goods, artistic souvenirs and an assortment of material for the framing of pictures. Every branch of photography is in evi­dence, including copy work, enlarging of pictures, and scenic and commercial reproductions, together with the usual forms of portraiture.

Emma B. Freeman's portrait work is now being sought by publishers. Recent issues of Collier's, Leslie's, Sunset, Outing and other publications are using her prints. Her artistic studies of the native Indians are being ordered not alone from different parts of the United States, but from other countries. The State Library at Sacramento has commissioned her to place with them her entire collection of Indian pictures; so that with her local work she is adding fame to northern California as well as winning the deserved honor that comes to herself as a true artist.

Singularly fortunate has Mrs. Freeman been in interpreting the scenic grandeur of Humboldt county in a series of photographs that have attracted wide and favorable attention from art critics and connoisseurs and that afford gratification to her friends who possess the utmost faith in her artistic abilities. It is indeed a source of general gratification that there is an artist within the county capable of reproducing local scenic beauties and thus making it possible for the entire country to understand and realize the landscape attractions that make this section one of the most picturesque spots in the west.

FRANK L. CAIN.—As assistant postmaster of Alderpoint, and the first bona-fide resident of the now thriving little town, Frank L. Cain has taken a prominent part in the affairs of the community since its beginning, and is today one of its most influential residents. His name is indelibly associated with the fame and fortunes of the North-Western Pacific Railroad, whose advent into this region is responsible for the birth of the new town, through the fact that the "golden spike" which marked the completion of the line was driven at "Cain's Rock," a landmark which was named for him on account of its being located at a point in Eel river where Mr. Cain home­steaded in 1898. The opening of the North-Western Pacific Railroad, which formally occurred on October 23, 1914, marked an era of great importance in this part of California, and Alderpoint, which had been a prosperous little town during the period of construction, has since grown into a place of com­mercial importance, and promises to be one of the prominent county towns.

Mr. Cain is a descendant of an old pioneer family of great prominence in California, he being a nephew of ex-Governor Burnett, the first American governor of California, through his maternal ancestry. His mother was Elizabeth Burnett, familiarly known by her family and intimate friends as "Betty Burnett," and was an own sister of Peter H. Burnett, the aforemen­tioned governor, and an aunt of Judge Albert Burnett, of the appellate court at Sacramento. His father, Robert Cain, a native of Kentucky, was a man of means, but lost much property during the Civil war. He had moved to Platte City, Mo., many years before, and died there in 1869, at the age of seventy-six years. After his death his wife came to California in 1875 with her children, with the exception of Emmett, who remained in Missouri. The family located at Cloverdale, and later removed to Williams, Colusa county, where she died in 1883, at the age of sixty-five years. Mr. and Mrs. Cain, Sr., were the parents of four children, all sons, and all well known residents of California at this time, with the exception of Robert Emmett, the second born, who resides in Oklahoma, where he is engaged in farming. Of the other sons, the eldest, Burnett, resides in Los Angeles, where he is a prominent contractor and builder; Frank L. is the subject of this sketch ; and Henry M. is a contractor and builder in Los Angeles. The mother was married to Dr. Ware May before her marriage to Mr. Cain, and by the first union was the mother of six children.

Frank L. Cain is a native of Platte City, Mo., born January 12, 1854, and there grew to maturity, receiving his education in the local public and high schools. After coming to California with his mother in 1875 he worked on various ranches in Sonoma county, being employed by the month, and later engaged in the sheep business in Sherwood valley, Mendocino county, where he owned a thousand head of sheep in partnership with his brother-in-law, Oliver Todd. Later he disposed of his interests there and went to Los Angeles, where he lived for four years, from 1882 to 1886. He then returned northward, locating at Cloverdale, and engaged in the cattle business on the Crigler ranch, a property of two thousand acres, raising both cattle and hogs, and meeting with success. After a time he disposed of his interests there to good advantage and went to Fort Bragg, Mendocino County, where he pur­chased and improved a place, which he later sold, and then came to Humboldt County, where he has since resided. In 1898 he homesteaded a ranch of one hundred and sixty acres on Eel river, this being the property located at Cain's Rock, of golden spike fame, and at that time Blocksburg was the nercst.postoffice. In 1910 Mr. Cain sold this ranch. He came to Alderpoint in 1907 and bought two lots, building a residence and a small barn, in which he kept four stage horses for the Helmke Stage Company. At this time the surveys for the North-Western Pacific Railroad were being run, and from this small beginning the town of Alderpoint has grown to its present promis­ing proportions, with a growing population and prosperous business district which supplies the tributary country. When the postoffice was instituted in 1909 Mr. Cain was made assistant postmaster, and has occupied this position continuously since that time. He is a Democrat in politics and takes an active part in the affairs of his party, being especially interested in all questions of local importance, in which he takes a leading part. He has served in various capacities, being a member of several election boards, and also having served as judge of elections. He is a man of high moral integrity and is honored and respected wherever he is known.

CRAIG R. THOMPSON.—A resident of Humboldt county for more than fifty years, and today one of the most influential and enterprising citizens of the new town of Alderpoint, Craig Rickey Thompson is well known as a rancher of means and ability and also as a contractor and builder, this latter occupation being the one that he is following at the present time, although he still owns his splendid farm of three hundred twenty acres near Alderpoint. He was one of the first men to build in Alderpoint when this thriving little city sprang up on the line of the new North-Western Pacific Railroad and has been instrumental in promoting many enterprises that have been beneficial to the town. He has erected a handsome two-story residence of logs, where he makes his home, and which is one of the especially attractive places of the town. His work in contracting and building has prospered and he has erected a number of very attractive homes in Alderpoint, while not neglecting his business elsewhere. He is very influential politically and takes an active part in the affairs of his party, he being a stanch Republican. He is now serving as deputy sheriff of Humboldt County, having received his appointment under Sheriff Redmond of Eureka. In all matters of local or county import, Mr. Thompson is ever in the lead, and his hearty support may always be counted upon for any movement which stands for progress and upbuilding.

Mr. Thompson is a native of Missouri, born in St. Clair County, June 30, 1857, the son of John and Mary Ann (Nelson) Thompson. Both his parents were natives of Pennsylvania, where they were reared, educated and married. After their marriage they removed to Iowa and later to Missouri, where they were engaged in farming, being very prosperous. In 1860 they crossed the plains with ox teams and arriving in California they located near Sacramento City. Their trip across the plains was made by way of the Salt Lake route and occupied four months. In 1861 the family again moved, this time settling on McDermott's prairie, at the confluence of the Van Dusen and Eel rivers, in Humboldt county. There Craig R. grew to young manhood, he being but a babe of four years when the family came to Humboldt county, and since that time this has been his home, although he has spent some time in Oregon, Idaho, and other parts of California. His father Owned a large ranch near

Boise, Idaho, and another near Oregon City, Ore., and for a number of years he was employed on one or the other of these properties. From Oregon he went into Lake County, Cal., and later on to Ventura County. In 1870 he returned to Humboldt County and located near Rohnerville, where he farmed for a time and also engaged in stock raising. There were eight children in his parents' family, of which he was the sixth born. They are : Hugh J., who resides with his brother, Craig ; Martin, who died recently at the age of sixty­-two years, in Humboldt county ; Margaret J., deceased, but was the wife of D. E. McKee, of Mendocino county, and the mother of nine children ; John F., engaged in the barber business in Alderpoint ; Howard, a rancher at Alder-point ; Craig Rickey, subject of this sketch ; Robert, a rancher in Potter valley, Mendocino county, is married and has three children; Abraham Lincoln, residing in Alderpoint. Both parents are deceased, having passed away in Potter valley, Mendocino County, the father at the age of eighty-seven and the mother at eighty-two.

Mr. and Mrs. Thompson, who was Miss Sadie Anna Burgess before her marriage, were married in December, 1889, in Blocksburg. She was born in Douglas City, Trinity County, the daughter of George W. Burgess, of Blocksburg, who is also represented in this work. Mr. and Mrs. Thompson have six children: Augustus, Edith, Gaston, Vina, Clara and Ellis, all of whom are still residing at home. Mr. Thompson came to Blocksburg in 1884 and purchased a farm which he conducted for eight years, this property now being owned by George W. Burgess. In 1903 he came to Alderpoint and engaged in the contracting and building business. The family own two acres in Alderpoint where they reside, in addition to the farm near there: He is acknowledged to be one of the leading men of the county as well as of Alderpoint and vicinity, and is a man of more than ordinary worth, integrity of character and business judgment.

ALBERT L. PATTON.—A son of one of the early settlers in Van Dusen township, Humboldt county, Cal., is Albert L. Patton, a deservedly popular man of more than usual worth. His father, Walter Milo Patton of Iowa, came to this district twenty-seven years ago. He was married in California to Sarah M. Cobble, a native of Ohio, and was the father of eight children. They made their home on the Rohrborough ranch in Humboldt county, which the father leased for several years and later became foreman of the same ranch, his death occurring in 1909. His son Walter is today foreman of the same ranch which his father formerly managed.

Albert L. Patton, the eldest son of this early settler in the county, was born at Scott's Valley, Lake county, Cal., September 28, 1875, his early years being spent in Round Valley, Cal., until he came with his parents to Hum­boldt county in 1889, where he makes his home today. Besides owning a ranch, Mr. Patton attends well and faithfully to the duties of road overseer, his district extending from Poll Gates to within three miles of Blocksburg, including fourteen miles of mountain road, and it is the concensus of opinion that his are the best kept mountain roads in the county. Mr. Patton engages in general farming and stock-raising on his own ranch of eighty acres, besides eighty more which he rents from his mother, who is the present owner of the father's estate of two hundred forty acres, which still remains undivided. In 19C0 Mr. Patton married Miss Cora Shields, who is a native of the state of Idaho but has spent most of her life in Humboldt county, whither she came with her parents when a child. A daughter and son have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Patton : Gladys and James. In his political views Mr. Patton is allied with the Republican party. He was elected constable of Van Dusen township, for a term of four years, entering upon the duties of that office January 4, 1915. Always interested in the cause of education he is serving as trustee of Alderpoint school district.

JACOB M. KEES.—In 1850 there came west across the plains Andrew Kees, a carpenter and builder and a native of Pennsylvania, with his wife, Zerelda (Fry) Kees, whom he had married in St. Louis, Mo., and their five children, of whom the youngest was Jacob Kees, who had been born in St. Louis, December 2, 1848, and was to become one of the early settlers in Humboldt county, Cal.

The family of Mr. Andrew Kees settled in Albany, Ore., in the Willamette valley, in the autumn of 1850. In 1860 they removed to Walla Walla, Wash., and there the son Jacob attended the public schools and later Whitman Seminary. The mother died in Oregon at the age of forty ; the father married a second time, having two children by his second wife. He is now deceased, his death having occurred in Oregon.

The father was a stockman, keeping about five hundred head of cattle, and the son Jacob started out for himself in the cattle business, doing fairly well, though he suffered severely in the panic of 1870, when he was obliged to sell his cattle at ten dollars per head, receiving the money in greenbacks which were at that time worth only sixty cents on the dollar. He then took up a homestead of one hundred sixty acres in Umatilla county, Ore., and a preemption of one hundred sixty acres adjoining and devoted his time to farming, which he continued for a number of years. While living in Oregon he ran a threshing machine of twelve horse-power for fourteen years ; and it was in Oregon, as a grain farmer, that he made most of his money.

Sixteen years ago Jacob Kees sold one and one-half sections of land in Oregon and removed to Humboldt county, Cal., mainly on account of his health. He came to Blocksburg, Cal., driving a team of horses, with his family and effects, overland by wagon. Here in Humboldt county he was burned out seven years ago, everything he owned being swept away by fire, he having no insurance. At present he owns a general purpose ranch of one hundred twenty-five acres well located on Larabee creek, a half mile north of Blocks-burg, in Humboldt county, which he has improved and named Maple Dale Farm. Here he has dwelt for a number of years, being an enthusiastic booster of the county, where he is a member of the Blocksburg Farm Center and for four years held the office of Justice of the Peace. Mr. Kees has demonstrated the fact that both tobacco and hops of the first quality can be successfully raised in Humboldt county.

Mr. Kees' wife was Miss Mary Frances Galloway, born in Omega, Nevada county, Cal., the daughter of James Galloway of Ohio, who came to California during the mining excitement of 1852, and Harriet (Schooling) Galloway of Missouri, who, after the death of her father, Joseph Schooling, in Missouri, came overland to Grass Valley, Cal., with her mother, whose maiden name was Margaret Wilson. Mrs. Kees was raised in Oregon and lived in Yamhill county when she married Mr. Kees, and they have had three children, two living and one deceased : Lelah D., who married Dr. Stephen Fleming of San Francisco and has two children, Marion and Lelah Rose ; and Olive, who married George W. Cox, a rancher of Blocksburg, and has one child, Laura May.

WILLIAM O. PERRY.—Descended from early pioneer families, and himself an early pioneer of California, William 0. Perry is one of the best known of Humboldt county ranchers, and one of the most highly respected. He is a native of Sonora, Tuolumne county, Cal., born February 28, 1855. His father, Stephen B. Perry, was a native of St. Louis, Mo., and his mother was Margaretta L. Sutton, of Illinois. After his marriage the father started from Peoria, Ill., in 1852 and came across the plains to California with ox teams, locating in the mines of Tuolumne county. Later they removed to Sacramento county, where the father followed ranching for a number of years. After a time they again moved, this time going into Humboldt county, where they passed the remainder of their lives, the father passing away at the age of fifty-three years, and the mother living to be sixty-three. There were seven children in their family, of whom the subject of this .sketch was the second born. They are all well known in California, and especially in Humboldt county, where they were reared and educated. They are : Viola, deceased, who was the wife of E. J. Robertsan, of San Francisco; William 0. ; George 0., attorney at law, in San Francisco; Ella, now the wife of L. H. Wheat, residing at McCanns mill, Humboldt county ; Alva, now the wife of D. F. Noonan, residing in Oakland; Ethel, Mrs. Jensen, residing at Shively ; Ida, the wife of George G. Curless, manager of the Z. Russ & Son Company's ranch at Blocksburg.

When William 0. Perry was a boy of eighteen years he was engaged as mail carrier and delivered the mails across the mountain trails long before there were any wagon roads or regular traffic, the country through which he rode being wild and dangerous. He met and married Flora Curless, the daughter of Biar Curless, a California pioneer, who came to Blocksburg in 1869 and died there at the age of seventy-seven years, and whose sketch appears elsewhere in this edition. After his marriage Mr. Perry engaged in ranching, paying particular attention to the raising of sheep and cattle, having as many as fifteen hundred head of sheep and one hundred head of cattle at one time. He was exceptionally successful, but wishing a change of location he disposed of all his interests and removed to New Mexico, but he returned to Humboldt county at the end of eighteen months and has been more than content here since. He now owns a handsome property on the road between Alderpoint and Blocksburg, which he has improved and keeps in splendid condition. He homesteaded this property in 1890, and also bought land adjoining.

Mr. and Mrs. Perry have four children, all natives of Humboldt county, where they have been reared and educated. They are : William 0., Jr., a stock-buyer, residing at Ferndale and married to Miss Ethel B. McRae, and the father of two children : Glenn and Everett ; Clara, now Mrs. E. 0. White, of Trinity county, and the mother of four children : Beulah, Lois, Wilbur and Helen ; Albert, a stockman of Humboldt county ; and Flora L., residing at home. Both Mr. and Mrs. Perry have many relatives in Humboldt county, Mrs. Perry being a member of the Curless family, which runs through four generations in this section, and is well known throughout the county. In his political affiliations Mr. Perry is a Democrat and takes an active interest in all that pertains to the welfare of the community, being well informed and a judicious and clear-headed thinker, giving his support to the men and meas­ures that in his opinion are best fitted for public service.

ROBERT O. DICKSON.—Mr. Dickson is prominently identified with the banking interests of Loleta, being president of the Bank of Loleta, also postmaster, which office he has held for twenty years, having served since 1894. He was born in Colchester county, Nova Scotia, August 15, 1867. When only thirteen years old his parents died, and having a brother in Hum­boldt county he was desirous of joining him and accordingly set out for the west, 'arriving in Humboldt county in 1882, where he attended the Phelps A cademy. He then lived on the ranch belonging to C. C. Dickson, but when twenty years of age he started out for himself and his first employment was as clerk in the store of the Pacific Lumber Company, at Scotia, where he remained three years. He was then offered the position of manager of the store belonging to John Vance at Mad river, where he remained for two years, then going to Loleta. Here he purchased a half interest in the store owned by a relative, W. F. Dickson, who had operated the store since 1888, and the firm became known as Dickson & Dickson. This was the first mer­chandise store to be opened in Loleta, and at the time of purchase he assumed the active management of the business. In 1910 he was among the men who opened the Bank of Loleta, the first and only bank in the town, organized with a capital of $25,000. The present board of directors is as follows : R. 0. Dickson, president ; W. F. Dickson, vice-president ; E. E. Hill, cashier ; H. C. Hansen and John Hoist. Mr. Dickson is still interested in the general mer­chandise business and also is postmaster. He owns ten acres of land in Porterville, Tulare county, planted to orange trees and is the owner of a dairy farm in Oregon, consisting of three hundred twenty acres of valuable land. He is a charter member of the Odd Fellows, is a member of the Wood-Men of the World, in which lodge he has passed all the chairs. He favors the principles of the Republican party, and enters actively into all matters pertaining to the good of the community. He is a citizen of whom Loleta is proud and is one of her leading men.

Mr. Dickson was united in marriage with Margaret Gibson, a native of Hydesville, Humboldt county, Cal., their marriage taking place November 26, 1899. One child has blessed their union, Catherine.

BIAR CURLESS.—Prominent among the early pioneers of Humboldt county, and a man who for more than forty years resided on his ranch near the present town of Blocksburg, and was especially well known and highly esteemed in that part of the county, was the late Biar Curless, whose death September 3, 1911, came as a great shock to his many friends. He came to Humboldt county in September, 1869, and homesteaded the place at Blocks-burg which was thereafter his home. He earried the unique distinction of having crossed the plains three times in as many years, but finding no place where he desired so much to reside as in California. During his entire life­time Mr. Curless took great pride in his farm and surroundings and also was equally interested in the affairs of the community, making the concerns of the public weal his personal interest.

'Mr. Curless was a native of Indiana, born January 20, 1834. On reaching man's estate he removed to Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where in 1855 he was mar­ried to Miss Lovina D. Shaw. Four years later, in 1859, he and his family Started across the plains to California, driving cattle and other stock before them. The trip was made via the Salt Lake route, and after reaching the coast region the party turned down the valley to Los Angeles. So far they had not found what they felt they wanted, and so, in January, 1861, they again started across the plains, this time by way of the southern route, with Texas as their objective point. Hearing on their way of the fall of Fort Sumter and the breaking out of the Civil war, they abandoned their project, and turning northward, eventually reached Omaha, Neb. A week later they again turned westward, making their third trip across the great plains, and on their arrival in California they settled in Placerville, where they continued to reside for nine years. They then came into Humboldt county, taking up a homestead on September 26, 1869, near what is now Blocksburg, and on which Mr. Curless resided at the time of his death, forty-two years later.

Mr. and Mrs. Curless became the parents of seven children. They are : Mrs. Flora Perry and Talburt Curless, of Blocksburg-; Albert Curless, of Fruitland ; Paul Curless, of Mendocino county ; George G. Curless, of Blocks-burg ; Mrs. Rose Langlin, of Fortuna ; and Henry Curless, of San Bernardino county.

The widow, Mrs. Lovina Curless, made her home with her son, George Curless, who then resided in Eureka, after the death of her husband ; and it was there that she passed away, February 4, 1912. She was born in New York, October 10, 1836, and was past seventy-six years of age at the time of her death. She was married to Liar Curless, September 11, 1855, and from that time until the time of his death she shared the fortunes of her energetic husband, crossing the plains with him three times, in 1859, 1860 and 1861, and being in every sense a true helpmeet in the days of the pioneer life. She was a woman of ability and worth and is remembered by many warm friends.

CHARLES W. SEFFENS.—Prominently identified with the lumbering interests of Humboldt county will be found Mr. Seffens, vice-president of the Eel River Valley Lumber Company, of Fortuna. He is one of California's native sons, having been born in Dutch Flat, Placer county, October 3, 1867, and removed with his parents when a child to San Jose. He attended the public schools of San Jose and San Francisco, starting out in life for himself as a clerk in a grocery store in San Jose, where his parents had purchased a ranch.. While attending school he found employment, during the summer months, on the neighboring ranches, and when eighteen years of age he entered the employ of the Southern Pacific Railway, remaining with the rail­road for seven years, working up from fireman to engineer. In 1892 he first came to Humboldt county and found employment as bookkeeper and cashier for the Eel River Valley Lumber Company, and in 1901 he was made manager of the company, which position he still holds. The Eel River Valley Lumber Company was established in 1884 by E. J. Dodge and has been in operation for over thirty years. Mr. Seffens has also been vice-president of the com­pany for a number of years. He has also been clerk of the school board of Fortuna for the last twelve years ; is financially interested in Porter & Hansen Company, undertakers, in Eureka, and is a member of the Fortuna Lodge, N. S. G. W.; also the Eureka Lodge of Elks. He is a man of high standing and influence in the county and his success is due entirely to his own per­severing efforts.

Mr. Seffens' father, Charles Seffens, was raised in Ohio and while there followed the trade of stone mason, but in 1848 he joined the historic band of Argonauts in their terrible journey, filled with hardships, across the plains to California in search of gold. He located first at Dutch Flat and engaged in mining, and also built a hotel in the vicinity. Two years later he re­turned to Ohio, and, accompanied by his wife, returned to California via the Isthmus of Panama, locating in Dutch Flat, where they remained until their removal to San Jose in 1868 ; he died in 1872. Mrs. Seffens was the first white woman to take up residence at Dutch Flat, Placer county.

JAMES CAROTHERS.—Living quietly on his little farm of forty-three acres on the state highway, on the Eel river, about four miles south of Dyerville, is James Carothers, one of the earliest of California pioneers, having crossed the plains with his father, Thomas B. Carothers, in 1853 and settled in Petaluma, when he was but four years of age. His mother had died at their home near Danville, Ill., and the little lad later lived with an uncle and aunt at Petaluma until he was thirteen years of age, attending school there. Mr. Carothers has been a resident of Humboldt county for nearly fifty years and many are the friends who have known him all their lives. He finds his greatest enjoyment in performing on the old-fashioned accordion and is especially popular as a musician for impromptu dances and harvest festivals, and other neighborhood affairs where dancing is a favorite amuse­ment. His property, lying as it does on the state highway, is very valuable, especially as it is beautifully located and heavily timbered, save for a few acres where he raises vegetables and fruit. In the vicinity of his home he is familiarly known as "Jimmie" Carothers, and his kindheartedness and con­siderate friendliness have endeared him to all who know him, and their name is legion. His residence is a quaint little house barely perceptible from the road, and here he dwells apart, being a living example of Bolton Hall's "Three Acres and Independence."

Mr. Carothers was born near Danville, Ill., November 26, 1849, the son of Thomas B. and Susan (Morton) Carothers, his father being a native of Ohio, born in Brown county in 1821, and his mother a native of Wisconsin. The father never remarried after the death of his young wife, and there was a close bond of companionship between him and this only son. In 1868, when he was nineteen years of age, young Mr. Carothers came to Humboldt county, arriving in Rohnerville on June 10. Ten years later, in 1878, when the land was opened up for settlement, he took up a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres, of which his present ranch is a part. He proved up on this property and later sold off parcels of it until he now has only forty-three acres left. In addition to this Mr. Carothers is one of the heirs to a ranch of one hundred sixty acres of splendid land near Terre Haute, Ind., which was the estate of an uncle, now deceased. He is also his father's sole heir and considerable cash came to him from his father's estate. The elder Carothers took up a homestead, a part of which is at this time owned by Louis M. Burnell, an attorney of Eureka, which "Jimmie" sold after his father's death. Three acres of his home place he devotes to the cultivation of fruit, principally apples, and various garden vegetables, the remainder being heavily timbered with redwood. Mr. Carothers is esteemed as one of the real pioneers of the community, a man who has retained amid the hurry of modern civilization the simplicity and straightforwardness of a day gone by, living his life in quiet peacefulness amid the beauty of his surroundings.

WALTER MERTON CHURCH.—A native of Humboldt county, Cali­fornia, having been born within its generous confines considerably more than half a century ago, and through all the years of his manhood having been a resident of this same county, and actively engaged in business enterprises which have tended to develop its resources and promote its financial standing, Walter Merton Church may well claim the honored title of California pioneer, while his county and state may well be proud of his record and of achieve­ments in his chosen fields of endeavor. Mr. Church, now in the prime of life, is one of the substantial members of society in his community, and his influence is always exerted for progress and social betterment. For more than thirty years he has been a prominent member of the Knights of Pythias, having passed through all the chairs. For twenty years he has been an equally influential member of the Woodmen of the World, while for an equal period of years he has been a Mason of Royal Arch degree. In business and social circles Mr. Church is also well known, and in the Methodist Episcopal Church, where, with his family, he is a member, he is actively associated with the church work.

The father of Walter Merton Church was Lemuel Church, who was also well and favorably known in Ferndale and throughout Humboldt county generally, he having been a resident of that section for over a half century. Mr. Church, Sr., was a native of Rhode Island, born in August, 1827. During his younger years he followed the trade of cabinet-maker in his native state, but finally enlisted on a merchantman and for many years followed the fortunes of the sea, making many long voyages, and at one time being on the water for twenty-seven months. At another time he had an exciting voyage on a whaling vessel in northern waters. After his marriage the roving life of the sailor lost its charm for him and he settled for a brief time in Rhode Island, later moving to Humboldt county, Cal. Here he took up land at Grizzly Bluff and engaged in farming and stock-raising. The grain-raising industry was then fast growing in importance, and he purchased a threshing machine, which he and his son operated for a number of years, and which was always in great demand. Dairy farming after a time, however, claimed his entire attention and he continued to reside on the home place until the time of his death, April 27, 1897. Mr. Church, Sr., was an exceedingly active and industrious man throughout his entire life, and was esteemed as one of the successful and enterprising men of his community, where he had many friends and admirers.

Walter Merton Church was born April 27, 1859, soon after the family located at Grizzly Bluff. After completing the public schools there, he attended the Eureka Seminary, finishing there in 1879 and, returning to the farm, assumed his share of the labor and responsibility under the direction of his father, for several years, the farm and the operation of the threshing machine completely filling the time of both father and son. May 27, 1891, young Mr. Church was married to Miss Kate Newman, and started out in life for himself. Mrs. Church was the daughter of A. J. Newman, who was engaged in the hardware business in St. Helena, Napa county, the daughter being a teacher in the public schools there.

In his home, as well as in matters of business, Mr. Church has been crowned with success. His wife is a charming woman of education and culture. She is a native of Des Moines, Iowa, born February 21, 1859, and came to California with her parents when but a young girl. The family settled in St. Helena, where she was married to Mr. Church. They became the parents of two children : Joseph Newman and Mary Rebecca. Mrs. Church died at Grizzly Bluff, May 16, 1906.

Shortly after his marriage Mr. Church rented his father's place of one hundred sixty acres, at Grizzly Bluff, and engaged in farming and dairying. Mrs. Church was a helpmeet to her husband in the truest sense of the word, aiding materially in the establishment of the new home.

When the creameries were built at Grizzly Bluff and on Eel river, Mr. Church became financially interested in them. He remained on the home place of one hundred acres at Grizzly Bluff, which he still owns but leases. In March, 1908, he engaged exclusively in the creamery business, taking charge of the Eel River Creamery for the Grizzly Bluff Creamery Company, and of which he is still manager. Another of his enterprises was a grist mill at Grizzly Bluff, built by his father, and which the son operated for a number of years.

BURR PEYTON McCONNAHA.—Among the many young business men who are making Humboldt county a center of wealth-producing activi­ties, and one whose great number of such activities, nurtured by his hand and fostered by the skill with which he does everything that he undertakes, makes him of especial prominence in his community, is Burr Peyton Mc­Connaha. This rising young man (in reality he has already "risen," but as he is not yet by any means through with his progress upward the present participle is necessarily used in connection with him) has done many things for the good of his county and state, in the way of developing natural re­sources and fostering natural industries, and there are yet many more which he is planning to do. Quite naturally he is making a name for himself, and much wealth, but these are but the just reward of such service as he is rendering, and for all that is diverted into his own coffers, an appreciable amount goes into the purse of his many employes, and out into the general circulation through many natural channels of distribution. For the indus­tries with which Mr. McConnaha are most intimately associated are those which make raw material into finished product, and which create activity and wealth where before there were neither.

A native son of California, Burr Peyton McConnaha was born in Arcata, Humboldt county, July 3, 1870. He attended the public schools here for a short time, and when sixteen years of age started out for himself. For a few years he engaged in teaming and hauling in and around Arcata, and then went to work in a shingle mill as a packer. In 1902 he made his first inde­pendent business venture, owning and operating a stage line from Trinidad to Requa City. He was successful in this venture and after a few years he extended his interests by the purchase of a livery business in Trinidad, operating this in connection with the stage line. This livery business, formerly the property of John Flaherty, proved a profitable investment, and he remained in active management thereof up to 1909, when other interests demanded his attention, and he placed it in the charge of a paid manager.

It was during this year (1909) that Mr. M'cConnaha first became actively engaged in farming. In connection with his brother, Clarence J. McConnaha, he purchased a farm consisting of three hundred fourteen acres at Martin's Ferry, on the Klamath river, and engaged in stock-raising, and later in general farming and dairying. One hundred acres of this ranch have now been brought under a high state of cultivation, and an experiment in the extensive culture of walnuts is now being tried out there. In 1912 two hundred walnut trees were planted, and the result is being watched with much interest by orchardists in this section of the state. The brothers also own and operate a sawmill in this same region, while in Trinidad they built, in 1910, a shingle mill which is one of the most modern and up-to-date mills in the county. In connection with the shingle mill they also own and operate an aerial cable line which runs from the mill into the woods.

Mr. McConnaha is also in partnership with this same brother (Clarence J.) in several other undertakings, prominent among which may be mentioned a general merchandise store in Trinidad, which since 1909 has been known as the McConnaha Brothers Company, and which is one of the largest, most prosperous and well stocked houses of its kind in the county. These brothers are also associated in the livery business which Mr. McConnaha has owned for so many years, and in the stage lines which are operated in connection with it. Since the advent of the automobile as the most popular stage coach, Mr. McConnaha has caught the spirit of the times and with his usual enter­prise has equipped his line with four high-powered Pierce-Arrow autos, three auto trucks and three Ford cars. The routes are from Trinidad to Crescent City, seventy-five miles, and from Trinidad to Orleans Bars eighty miles, being both a passenger and mail route. The livery stable has been remodeled into a garage with modern equipment for the care of motor cars, and is a boon to autornobilists. In the division of the labor B. P. McConnaha has entire supervision of all the outside interests, including farms, general real estate investments, lumbering interests, cable line, and the purchasing of material and supplies of logs for sawmill and shingle mill, while the younger brother attends to the inside interests of the partnership.

Since taking up his residence permanently in Trinidad, Mr. McConnaha has been identified with all matters of civic concern, and is a power in the community. He stands at all times for social uplift and for municipal im­provements of a substantial character and permanent worth, and all legisla­tion which tends to place business on a firm footing. He is a Democrat, and has been for years keenly interested in politics and a faithful supporter of the policies of his party. He is a charter member of the Knights of Pythias of Blue Lake ; he is a member of the board of trustees of the city of Trinidad, and is also the city treasurer.

The marriage of Mr. McConnaha to Miss Grace Dell Pinkham occurred in Arcata, May 8, 1902. Mrs. McConnaha is a native of Humboldt county, born in Arcata. Their home is one of the delightful residences of Trinidad, where Mr. McConnaha is recognized as one of the most successful young business men. He is progressive, industrious and enterprising, and his native county does well to do him honor.

FRANK W. BELCHER.—The foremost fire insurance man in Eureka, in which enterprise he has but followed in the footsteps of his father, is Frank W. Belcher, to whom the terms efficient, honest, popular, successful are frequently and justly applied by his fellow citizens. He is a native of Eureka, and has spent his entire lifetime here, being variously engaged in business, and always successful and highly esteemed. He is not only popular in a business way, but is also prominent in local musical, church, and in social circles.

Mr. Belcher was born in Eureka, March 30, 1872, his father, Peter Belcher, being one of the Humboldt county pioneers, and for many years a prominent resident of Eureka. The young Mr. Belcher received his education in his native city, attending grammar and high school, from which he was duly graduated and entered the old Eureka Academy, and finally the busi­ness college, to complete his education, after which he entered his father's office and there learned the rudiments of the fire insurance business, and also became an expert accountant. Later he became assistant cashier of the Sav­ings Bank of Humboldt county, which position he held for ten years with much credit to himself.

Peter Belcher is the pioneer fire insurance man of Eureka, and during his long term of years in this business he built up a large and profitable patronage, at one time representing twenty-seven fire insurance companies, besides several life insurance and bonding concerns. He sold his interests to Porter & Brooks in 1906, and his son, the subject of this sketch, bought the business of this firm in 1911, and has since that time conducted it along the lines that his father found so profitable. Among his principal fire insurance companies are the Fireman's Fund of San Francisco, the Pennsylvania of Philadelphia ; North British Mercantile, of London ; Atlas Insurance Com­pany, of London ; Aetna Fire Insurance, of Hartford, Conn. ; Springfield, of Springfield, Mass. ; Hartford, of Hartford, Conn.; Phoenix, of Hartford, Conn.; and the Scottish Union National, of Scotland. In life insurance he repre­sents the Provident Life and Trust Company ; in marine insurance, the Fireman's Fund; in accident insurance, the Travelers of Hartford, and the Standard of Detroit ; and in bonding companies he has the Aetna Liability Company. In addition to his. extensive insurance business he also makes loans on various securities at the lowest rates of interest.

For many years Mr. Belcher was one of the leading factors in the musical life of Eureka. He possesses a beautiful high baritone voice, and sang in the Episcopal Church choir, being a member of that denomination and one of the vestrymen. He is also an influential member of the Sequoia Musical Club and of the Choral Club of Eureka.

In fraternal circles Mr. Belcher is also more than ordinarily prominent. He is an influential member of the Masons, Elks, and Eastern Star. In politics he is a Republican, and is keenly alive to the welfare of the city, supporting all that tends toward civic progress and social and municipal betterment. Mr. Belcher is possessed of a pleasing personality, and the ability to make and hold his friends who are legion. He is a genuine booster for his home city, and has done much for its development and improvement.

ISAAC BERTI.—Due credit should be given to young men who come to this country from distant lands—not only different in language but in customs and ways of doing business and carrying on industries, and who despite this handicap, make a success of their chosen callings. Such a man is Isaac Berti, who was born in Lodrino, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, Octo­ber 17, 1869, the son of Alexander and Maria Bruga, who were farming people in the Alps region. The father died April 1, 1910, aged seventy-four, while the mother's death occurred in 1880, when only forty years of age. Of their nine children, six are living, all being in Ticino except our subject and a brother Gus, who also lives in Humboldt county.

Isaac was brought up on the farm and received his education in the public schools. From a lad he learned farming and dairying. He had at various times heard good reports from California of better wages and condi­tions, so when eighteen years of age he concluded to come to California. On December 28, 1887, he left his home and kindred and friends, for Havre, France, where he took the steamer "Normandie" to New York City, and thence to San Francisco, arriving January 20, 1888. He came on to Eureka immediately and at once found employment working at dairying at Fern­dale and later on Bear River ridge. He became foreman of the West Point ranch at Capetown, a position he filled acceptably for four years, and from there came to Petrolia, in September, 1907, when he leased his present place, the Willow Glenn ranch of 708 acres, on the north fork of the Mattole river, about one and one-quarter miles above Petrolia, which he is devoting to general farming and stock-raising, making a specialty of dairying. His herd of sixty milch cows is of high-grade Durham stock, and has been carefully selected for quality as well as quantity of milk. He has a gas engine which furnishes the power to run his separator and churn in his creamery ; the butter is made into squares and also packed in kegs, and is shipped to Eureka and San Francisco, under the brand, "Willow Glenn Creamery Butter," and has become well known in the Eureka and San Francisco markets for the sweetness and excellency of its quality. Aside from dairying he is also raising cattle and hogs, and has made a decided . success of his farming operations.

Mr. Berti was married in Ferndale April 1, 1904, being united with Miss Sophia Biasco, who was also born in Lodrino, Switzerland. She is the daughter of Isaac and Lucia (Ambrosini) Biasco. The father was a painter and decorator and spent many years in Paris, France, working at his trade, in which he excelled. During these years he also owned a farm in Lodrino, where the family resided ; he died in 1906 ; the mother is still living ; she was the mother of two children, Mrs. Sophia Berti, and Alfred, who is postmas­ter, and also farming, in the old home place.

Mr. and Mrs. Berti have four children : Charles H., Mary L., Elsie L., and Alexander Isaac. Politically Mr. Berti is a Republican. He is public-spirited and liberal, and is well and favorably known as a man who is always ready to help any enterprise or movement that has for its aim the upbuild­ing of the community or the betterment of its citizens.

JOHN WELLINGTON KEMP.—Interest in California aroused through the discovery of gold proved the cause of the migration hither of John Wel-: lington Kemp, who was born at Mt. Holly, Rutland county, Vt., March 30, 1831, and came via the Isthmus to California at the age of twenty years. Like many of the newcomers of that period he tried his luck in the mines. During 1851 he had considerable experience (little of it profitable, however) in the mines at Mud Springs, El Dorado county. The mines of that section of the state engaged his attention for several years. During 1854 he came to Trinity county and mined on Oregon Gulch near Weaverville. Eventually selling out his mining interests, he bought cattle in Sacramento county and drove the herd over the mountains to Humboldt county. At the time of his arrival in 1857 there were few white settlers and they were greatly hampered in their work by the depredations of hostile Indians.. Nor was he more fortunate than they, for Indian raids caused him the loss of practically his entire herd of cattle. Later on, with the cessation of hostilities, he settled at Grizzly Bluff and took up dairying and general farming. Not only was he a pioneer dairyman of the Eel river valley, but in addition he was one of the first to develop the possibilities of the industry and engaged as manager of the Grizzly Bluff creamery. The resources of the land and their development owed much to his optimistic identification with their early history.

On leaving the farm during the early '70s Mr. Kemp came to Ferndale and embarked in the butcher's trade, which he followed for ten years, mean­while gaining the patronage of all the people in his section of the county. After selling out the meat business he engaged for two years in driving a stage between Ferndale and Eureka. To his efforts was due much of the clearing of the land around Ferndale, for he labored tirelessly in cutting down the forest trees, getting out the stumps, leveling the land and preparing it for cultivation. Meanwhile he had become the owner of a ranch at Wadding­ton and to this property he removed, clearing and improving it and devoting it to the dairy business. For ten years he devoted himself assiduously to the cultivation of the tract of one hundred acres and meantime he was suc­cessful in enhancing its value through his wise supervision. As a pioneer dairyman of the valley beginning away back in 1859, he was more successful than many. Care in the choice of cows, the care of the milk, the churning of the cream and the marketing of the butter in those early days (which was packed in kegs and carried over the mountains to \Veaverville) contributed to his prestige as a skilled and scientific butter-maker and dairyman. Eventu­ally he sold his Grizzly Bluff ranch to his oldest son, Clement L., who now operates the property with continued success.

Various organizations have had the benefit of the active association of Mr. Kemp. For ten years, under Sheriffs Bull and Brown, he served as a deputy sheriff and constable, and in that time he proved himself fearless in the administration of the law and equal to any emergency that might arise. On the organization of the Pioneer Society he became one of its first members and he was also one of the early members of Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., in Humboldt county. His family consists of his wife, Aroline Nelson (Hatch) Kemp and the following children : Lillian, wife of Frank Matthews; Mrs. Elmira Runnell ; Daisy, a teacher in Humboldt county ; Clement L., a rancher ; Mrs. Josephine McAllister, Charles and John, all residents of Hum­boldt county. Mrs. Kemp was born in Fall River, Mass., and came to Cali­fornia in 1859, joining in Humboldt county her father, Cutler Hatch, a forty-niner. In his native Massachusetts Cutler Hatch was born at Brook­field and had learned the trade of woolen manufacturer and had been superin­tendent of a mill at Fall River until the lure of gold led him to leave his home in the fall of 1849. Coming via the Horn, he landed in San Francisco in February, 1850, and at once began to mine. In company with Thomas Dix, Joseph Russ and Slaughter Robinson he came to Humboldt county in 1852 and took up land near Grizzly Bluff on Eel river. For years he lived on the same place, where he was joined by his family in 1859. When old age forced him to relinquish arduous toil he sold the property and removed to Ferndale, where he died at eighty-one years. In politics he was a Republican and for sonic years served as justice of the peace and also one term as associate judge of Humboldt county. In religion he was identified with the Methodist Episcopal Church. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Hannah B. Gunn and was born at Wendell, Mass., died in Ferndale at the age of eighty-six.

Of their eight children only two came to California, namely : Aroline, wife of John Wellington Kemp, of Ferndale ; and Hiram H. Hatch, who was the well-known hardware merchant of Ferndale, until his death in 1910. He was one of the pioneer hardware merchants in Eel river valley, starting with a wagon through the county, carrying also samples of agricultural implements. Later he built a store in Ferndale and began with a small stock, which in time grew to large proportions. Since his death Mrs. Kemp is the owner of the store and is continuing the business under the firm name of The Hatch Hardware Company, being assisted by her son, John E. Kemp, and they are conducting the business on the same line as her brother, the late H. H. Hatch.

WALTER W. PATTON.—The foreman of the Rohrborough stock ranch, one of the largest cattle and stock ranches in southern Humboldt county, Cal., is Walter W. Patton, an industrious and successful young man and one well liked in the community where he lives. This ranch, which is owned by J. S. Rohrborough of Covelo, consists of seven thousand acres upon which about three hundred head of cattle and a flock of two thousand sheep are raised.

Mr. Patton comes to this work with peculiar fitness, since his father was formerly the foreman of the same ranch which his son today manages so efficiently. Walter Milo Patton, the father, was a native of Iowa and a pioneer settler in Van Dusen township, to which he came twenty-seven years ago. He was married in California, his wife being Sarah M. Cobble, a native of Ohio, and they became the parents of eight children : Viola, now the wife of J. E. Lownes of Ukiah ; Albert L., a road overseer and owner of an eighty-acre ranch in Van Dusen township on the Blocksburg and Alderpoint road ; Etta, who married Thomas Murphy, the owner of a ranch near Blocks-burg ; Roy, who resides at Alderpoint and married Lulu Kindred ; Walter W., the subject of this sketch, born July 9, 1882, at Covelo, Mendocino county; Lizzie, the widow of Frank Stansberry, and living at Ukiah ; Dotty, now the wife of Philander Shields, residing at Ukiah ; and Inez, who died at the age of seventeen. At the time of his death, in July, 1909, at the age of sixty-six years, the father was the owner of two hundred forty acres, still undivided and held by his widow who makes her home with her son Walter.

Walter W. Patton was brought up on the ranch he now manages, receiv­ing his education in the public schools of the district. From a lad he rode the range and became accustomed to caring for horses, cattle, sheep and hogs. So, on the death of his father, he was selected as foreman. He was married in Blocksburg, February 26, 1904, being united with Miss Maybelle Kneeland, born at Blocksburg, daughter of George and Ella (Wilson) Kneeland, born in Boston, Mass., and Griggsville, Ill., respectively. The father came across the plains in the early days, and returning was married in Illinois, coming back to California and engaging in stock-raising in the vicinity of Blocksburg until his death. Mr. and Mrs. Patton have three children : R. Simeon, Fay Marline and Blanche Iola. In his active and industrious life Mr. Patton's wife is proving herself an efficient helpmeet toward the success and popularity of her husband in the community where they have made their home.

ERNEST M. DURNFORD.—From faraway Nova Scotia, with its cool climate, long twilights and pleasant English manners, to the rugged, un­settled portions of northern California is a long journey, as well with regard to the difference in life and customs as to distance and time taken in traveling. E. M. Durnford, a well known and highly respected citizen and official at Blocksburg, Cal., is of Nova Scotia birth, his father, Robert Durnford, having been an Englishman engaged in farming there, where he married Margaret Keleher. The father died when his son was only seven years old, the boy having been born March 7, 1861. The mother with her four children (W. T. Durnford, now in business in San Francisco; E. M.; John K., in business in. Eureka, Cal. ; and Robert F., a stage driver living at Blocksburg) came to California in 1869 and settled in Eureka.

The life of E. M. Durnford is what may be called that of a self-made man. His education was received in the public schools in the neighborhood of his early home in California, and since the age of eleven years he has made his own way in the world, his first employment being with the lumber com­pany of Joe Arbuckle at Arcata, Cal. At the age of eighteen he began to drive the stage from Hydesville to Blocksburg at a date when there were no trains or street car conveniences in the district, and he has followed this occupation for a period of eighteen years, having been employed in this capacity by Bullard & Sweasey, J. L. Sanderson & Co., and Miller Brothers. For sixteen years he has held the office of constable in and for Van Dusen township, Humboldt county, and he has been for the last eighteen years road overseer on the county road from Blocksburg to Mill Creek, in both of which offices his practical commonsense and steadfastness of purpose aid much in his success. In his political interests he upholds the Republican party, and is a man well liked and greatly respected in the community where he resides.

The marriage of Mr. Durnford with Miss Clara Lovell took place in Blocksburg. Mrs. Durnford was born in Covelo, the daughter of H. S. Lovell, a pioneer undertaker of that place. Mr. and Mrs. Durnford have had seven children : Ernest A., a bridge builder residing at Alderpoint, his wife having been a Miss Kindred ; Leona, the wife of K. C. Kilburn, an electrician of Eureka ; Margaret, who married J. L. Flora, a farmer in Blocksburg, and has one child, Gerald ;- Lucile and James L. reside with their parents ; Dorris, who died in September, 1914, at the age of eleven years ; and Lovell, who also lives at home.

LEW V. SMITH.—Of those men whose duties bring them into daily contact with many business people of Eureka, Lew V. Smith is probably one of the best known, and though his residence in the city has covered com­paratively few years he has a wide acquaintance and a steadily growing list of friends. Mr. Smith is manager at that point for the Western Union Tele­graph Company, and it is notable that he has been with that company from the time he commenced work, as a messenger boy, at the age of fourteen years. His promotions have been won by efficient service, and all who have been brought in contact with him in business relations will testify that they have been deserved. As telegraph operator and manager he has been sta­tioned at various places in the west and southwest, gaining a diversified experience.

Mr. Smith is a native of Massachusetts, born February 7, 1885, at Wor­cester, son of George Smith, who was a printer by occupation. The father is now deceased. The boy had the excellent public school advantages afforded in the east, and pursued his studies into the high school, obtaining a sub­stantial foundation for his lifework. When fourteen he went west, to Colo­rado, and began work at Colorado Springs, that state, as messenger boy at the Western Union office. In his spare time he studied telegraphy and before long was given work as an operator. His first position as manager was at Manitou, Colo., and he was only eighteen years old at the time. After a little over a year at that location he was sent to Texas, doing a year's work at Amarillo, after which he became manager at Wichita Falls, that state, for a short time. When twenty-one years old he was placed in the Denver office, from there was transferred to Lead, S. Dak., in 1906, as manager, and re­mained at that point for a year and a half. Thence he changed to Sheridan, Wyo., as manager, and was also at Santa Cruz, Cal., for a year and a half before coming to Eureka, in 1911. He has been manager of the office here since, with such thorough satisfaction to its patrons that he is considered efficiency itself in his line. Mr. Smith's exceptional ability and devotion to all the duties intrusted to him have received substantial recognition from his company, and his manifest intelligence has made him a valuable representa­tive, emergencies and extra responsibilities developing his best qualities. At Eureka, which is a center for many important business operations, the expert service he has given, combined with a capacity for doing things at the most favorable time, has brought him a well-merited popularity among all his associates. He is no less respected among personal friends and acquaintances, his high character expressing itself in good citizenship and the most cordial relations with all who come in contact with him. The office is at No. 335 E street.

Mr. Smith was married:I. Miss Ella Duncan, of Colorado Springs, Colo., and they have two children, Harold and Warren. They reside at No. 1132 Myrtle avenue.

JOHN WILLIAM COPPINI.—Though a native of Switzerland, John Coppini has been connected with the progress of California since 1885, hav­ing in that period of time seen great changes and improvements in the new and rapidly growing state. For the year 1885, which is only a recent date in the histories of other states of the Union, constitutes a part of the earlier history of California, where many towns have sprung up and the older ones advanced materially since that date, and where regions that were then wheat fields and poppy fields have now become beautiful and prosperous cities.

Coming from a European country famed for its beauty and romantic scenery, Mr. Coppini brings with him to America memories of snowy mountains, blue lakes and hillside pastures of the Alps region, where his birth occurred in Campo, Canton Ticino, May 27, 1868, his father, William Coppini, being a farmer and dairyman of that country. The son received his education in the public schools of his native land until reaching the age of sixteen, at which time he determined to try his fortune in California, of which place he had read and heard many good reports since many of his country­men had come hither to make their homes and to carry on the occupation of shepherd and dairyman which they had learned in boyhood in their native land. So Mr. Coppini started out for himself alone, coming to San Fran­cisco, Cal., when only a boy, in October, 1885, going also to Santa Cruz and to Davenport Landing, Cal., the same county, where for four years he was employed on a dairy farm. Then, hearing of Humboldt county as offering better opportunities for working men, he set out for that part of the state, arriving there in August, 1889. For four years he was employed in dairies at Point Kenyon and other places, his marriage occurring in Ferndale, the same county, in 1894, and uniting him with Miss Augusta Friesman, a native of Butte county, Cal., and daughter of John Friesman, who was born in Germany and became one of the pioneers of California. After his marriage, he started in business independently, renting a ranch of one hundred acres where he carried on the business of dairying ; but the low price of butter, which then sold for only ten cents a pound, put him out of business, leaving him in debt likewise. For a while thereafter, Mr. Coppini was employed by others, but in 1896 came to the Island on the Salt river, where he rented the Merchant ranch of forty acres and applied himself to independent dairy work once more, continuing there for six years, at the end of that time purchasing his present place of thirty acres of bottom land situated on the Ferndale road, where he is engaged in the dairy business, having stocked his place with fine fullblooded Jersey cows and two bulls of the same breed, being now the owner of some of the finest thoroughbred Jersey stock in the county, and well known as a breeder of fullblooded cattle of this stock, besides raising hay, clover, carrots and beets upon his land.

Prominent in the Dairymen's Association and the Jersey Breeders' Asso­ciations of both Humboldt county and California, he was active in bringing about the defeat of the grading butter bill, and as a director in the Ferndale Cow Testing Association, having also contributed articles on the subject of the dairy industry to local papers and journals. Progressive in spirit and active in many ways that tend to the betterment of the locality where he has chosen to make his home, Mr. Coppini is an Independent in politics, and among fraternal circles holds membership in the Druids, the Knights of Columbus, the Woodmen of the World, and with his wife in the Worthen of Woodcraft. They are the parents of five children, namely : Agnes, who is now bookkeeper for the Central Creamery Company ; Josephine, who attends the Arcata Normal School ; Edith, a pupil at the Ferndale high school ; abel ; and Leo William.

FRED B. BARNUM.—Versatile ability is generally regarded as a for­tunate acquisition, and so it is when each accomplishment is thoroughly mastered and made to redound to the will of its possessor, as is true in the case of Mr. Barnum. In any one of the activities in which he is interested he might well be content to confine his energies, and at the same time make a financial success, but such is his ambition that he cannot be circumscribed or confined to one line of business. Besides being interested in the real estate business, which included the laying out of large tracts of land in close prox­imity to Eureka, he is also a stockholder and a director in the Humboldt Times, and recently he was appointed secretary of the board of harbor com­missioners at the Port of Eureka.

It is fitting that all of the successes and honors that have fallen to Mr. Barnum should have been his portion, for as a native of Eureka he always has her best interests at heart and has lost no opportunity to demonstrate that fact. He was born here February 17, 1873, the, son of Gorham New­berry Barnum, who was born in New York state, where he was early in life deprived of his father by death. Subsequently the mother became the wife of A. L. Pardee, and it was following this that the family came to Cali­fornia, the voyage being made by way of Panama. The party reached Cali­fornia without any incidents worthy of special mention, finally reaching Humboldt county, and in the same year, 1851, locating in Arcata. Here Mr. Pardee attempted to settle down to ranching, but the Indians were exceed­ingly troublesome and much of his time and strength were devoted to sub­duing the foe and making a safe abiding place for his family. When he was sixteen years old, Gorham N. Barnum went with a pack train in the capacity of bell boy, and from this humble position he rose to be captain of a mule train of his own, packing between Arcata and the Indian reservation at Hoopa, in the service of the government. Altogether he followed packing for many years, first as just related, and later in Eureka, and finally he re­tired from business entirely, now making his home in San Diego. His wife was in maidenhood Laurana Moore, a native of Missouri, who came with her parent's across the plains about the year 1857. Her father, Rufus Moore, settled in Arcata, but while in Siskiyou county attending to his mining inter­ests he was killed by the Indians. After his death his widow became the wife of James Coulter and now resides in Eureka, at the age of eighty-three.

Six children were born of the marriage of Gorham N. and Laurana (Moore) Barnum, three of whom are living, and of these Fred B. Barnum is next to the oldest. Eureka has been his life-time home. After com­pleting his studies in the public schools he took a course in Phelps' Acad­emy, after which he set about in earnest looking for an opportunity to make practical application of his knowledge. The first opening that presented itself was with the Eel River and Eureka Railroad Company, as freight clerk and relief agent, a position which he accepted and filled with efficiency for four years. Following this he filled a similar position with the Pacific Coast Steamship Company in Eureka, and this also he filled for four years, Having confidence in his ability to undertake and manage a business of his own, he opened a stationery and news stand on F street under the firm name of Nichols & Barnum, a business which was continued profitably and amic­ably for nine years, the business and good will then being sold to F. 0. Moll.

Since 1908 Mr. Barnum has been engaged in the real estate and insur­ance business in Eureka, a business which is proving profitable beyond his expectations. Among the undertakings with which he has had to do may be mentioned the Argyle Park addition to Eureka, which he laid out, financed and sold off, a large venture, but one which he was thoroughly competent to handle successfully. He also owns another tract which he intends to dispose of in the same way at some future time. In addition to the real estate busi­ness he is a stockholder and a director in the Humboldt Times, a news organ of the highest repute in Eureka. A crowning honor came to Mr. Barnum in June, 1913, when he was appointed by the harbor commissioners of the Port of Eureka as secretary of the board, a position which his many splendid qualities adequately qualify him to fill with satisfaction.

Mr. Barnum and his family occupy a fine residence at No. 1436 C street, Eureka, which he erected and which is presided over by his wife, whom he married in this city and who before her marriage was Miss Jessie Dickson, a native of San Francisco. Three children have been born to them, Charles, Fred and Lorene.

In 1894 Mr. Barnum became a member of the Eureka fire department, being attached to Company No. 2, and later he became foreman of it. Other honors came to him in 1902 when he was elected chief of the city fire depart­ment, an office which he filled for two terms. He retired as chief but still continued with the company in the ranks, and for the past seven years he has served as treasurer of the department. Fraternal affairs have also claimed a portion of Mr. Barnum's time and thought. He was made a Mason in Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., and he is also a member of Hum­boldt Chapter No. 52, R. A. M., Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T., Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., San Francisco, as well as Oakland Consistory. Mrs. Barnum is identified with the affiliated order of Eastern Star, being a member of Camilla Chapter, and she is also a member of the Native Daugh­ters of the Golden West. In addition to the lodge affiliations above enumer­ated Mr. Barnum is a member of Humboldt Lodge No. 77, I. 0. 0. F., and in his political views is progressive in the best sense of that word, standing ready and anxious to support any candidate whose interests are coeval with those of the citizens in general. Mr. Barnum is still a young man, with a record of splendid accomplishments, and it is only safe and just to predict an equally brilliant future for the years that are before him.

GEORGE ADELBERT KELLOGG.—Among the business men who have "done things" to bring reputation to Humboldt county, George A. Kel­logg has a distinct place of honor for the reason that he has throughout his entire business career occupied public or quasi-public positions, and in each of them has shown those qualities of capacity and reliability that have earned him the respect and esteem of the community. Mr. Kellogg has passed most of his life in California, and since 1870 has been a resident of Humboldt county. His participation in its development has not been confined to his work as a business man, for he has the honor of being the first auditor of the county, and has been the secretary of the oldest commercial organization of the county continuously since January, 1896, and he has filled other posi­tions with the same efficiency which makes him so valuable in his present associations.

Eli Davenport Kellogg, father of the subject of this sketch, was born September 21, 1826, at Lansingburg, near Troy, N. Y.; and was left an orphan at an early age. Going to Philadelphia, he there learned the trade of shoemaker, but soon decided to go further west. In 1846 he moved to Illinois, settling in Boone county, about seventy-five miles west of Chicago. There he rented land and followed farming until 1859, in which year he brought his family to California. They made the trip across the plains, and settled in Trinity county, where Mr. Kellogg again engaged in farming. In 1870 he moved to Rohnerville, Humboldt county, Cal., and bought an interest in a saw and grist mill, of which he was manager for several years. Disposing of his interest in this establishment in 1882, he moved to Lincoln county, Wash­ington, where he invested in some railroad land, meanwhile acting as timber inspector for the Northern Pacific Railroad, which was then being built through the Spokane country.

Returning to Humboldt in 1884, he became the first station agent of the Eel River & Eureka Railroad (now the Northwestern Pacific) at For­tuna, which position he held until the fall of 1888, when he was elected As­semblyman to represent the southern district of Humboldt in the state legis­lature. At the expiration of his term of office he returned to his land in \Washington and again resumed agricultural work. When he felt that his ad­vancing age made it necessary for him to give up farming, he sold his prop­erty and returned to Humboldt county in 1902, locating at Eureka, where he has since made his permanent home. By his able management of his business affairs and noteworthy public service Mr. Kellogg made a name for him­self in Humboldt county. He held many minor public positions, filling them with a credit to himself and benefit to the public ; and was always a faithful worker for any cause that would advance the interests of the community in which he resided.

On Christmas day of the year 1848 Mr. Kellogg was married to Miss Margaret Jane Passage, who, like himself, was a native of New York state, having been born in Genesee county on November 28, 1831. Her family was among the early settlers of the state and was well and favorably known there. To .1\ Ir. and Mrs. Kellogg were born four children : Jay A., who was engaged in the real estate business in Seattle, -Wash., until his death in 1910; George A., the subject of this sketch ; Edward L., a business man and oyster farmer of Seattle, and Olive May, at home.

George A. Kellogg was born at Bonus Prairie, Boone county, Illinois, on March 24, 1853. With his father and family he came to Trinity county, Cal., in 1859, and in 1860 they settled in Hay Fork valley, where he received his early education in the public schools. Coming to Humboldt county in 1870, he passed the succeeding year at St. Joseph's College near Rohnerville. In 1873, when he was in his twentieth year, he began teaching in the district schools here, and followed the profession for about eight and one-half years, the last four as principal of the Rohnerville schools. In 1882 he was elected auditor and recorder of Humboldt county, the first incumbent of that office (its duties having been previously performed by the county clerk), and his services were so acceptable that he was retained in that position for four successive terms of two years each. After his retirement from office in February, 1891, in recognition of his qualifications for statistical and form work he was engaged by the Humboldt Chamber of Commerce to prepare and publish a pamphlet covering the productions and exports of the county, which was the first work of the kind undertaken by the Chamber. M. Kel­logg acted as secretary while engaged in this work, which was completed in the last three months of 1891.

In January, 1892, he became bookkeeper and office manager for John Vance, who was then seriously ill. And after the death of the latter in the following month, Mr. Kellogg assisted in closing the extensive Vance estate, continuing in this employ until May, 1894.

In January, 1896, he was chosen secretary of file Humboldt Chamber of Commerce, which position he has ever since filled. And as such official he has taken a prominent part in all the activities of the Chamber, in many of which his services were invaluable. Mr. Kellogg is notable for his ability and accuracy in statistical work, and his fame in this direction is not confined to the limits of his home county. The great number of years he has been in this work has enabled him to gather up facts and figures along almost all lines of interest in county business and affairs, and he is generally regarded as an encyclopedia in these matters, open and free to all inquirers.

In 1897 he assisted in the organization of the Shingle Manufacturers' Association of Humboldt county, becoming its first and only secretary and manager. This association was very successful, and brought the shingle business of the county out of the slough of despond where it was languishing, placing it on a firm and substantial basis. In 1903 the association was reor­ganized as the Pacific Redwood Shingle Company, Mr. Kellogg continuing as secretary and manager. The business was continued with the same un­varying success, and by 1907 the yearly output of shingles in this county was more than double what it was when the association began, with much more profitable and stable prices. In that year the legislature of this state passed the "Cartwright Act," a rather drastic anti-trust law, and after a thorough investigation the consensus of legal opinion being that the opera­tions of the company were in conflict with some of the provisions of the law, it was decided in January, 1908, to go out of business; and thereafter the activities of the company were confined to disposing of the large stock of shingles accumulated in its drying yards at Stockton, Cal. This accom­plished, the company was disincorporated in October, 1911. In conducting the affairs of these two companies, Mr. Kellogg • was associated with the leading business men of the county—men of such high standing and unim­peachable business and moral character that their confidence is a compli­ment of certain quality. They appreciate thoroughly the part Mr. Kellogg played in the advancement and development of the enterprise, and having had every opportunity to observe his career, their good-will and esteem are the best evidences of how thoroughly they have approved of him in all his relations to the community.

On December 31, 1877, Mr. Kellogg was married to Miss De Ette Felt, daughter of Dr. T. D. Felt, of Rohnerville. Three children have been born of this marriage : Georgia D., Adelbert D., and Pearl E., the last named having been married in September, 1912, to Ernest W. Pierce.

Mr. Kellogg has always been active in local politics as a member of the Republican party, whose interests he has promoted whenever possible. In fraternal connections he is an Odd Fellow and an Elk; being a member of Eel River Lodge No. 210, I. 0. 0. F., of Mt. Zion Encampment No. 27, I. 0. 0. F., of Rohnerville Rebekah Lodge No. 81, I. 0. 0. F., of the Veteran Odd Fellows Association of Humboldt county, and also of Eureka Lodge No. 652. B. P. 0. E.

DUNCAN CAMPBELL.—Descended from a good old Highland Scotch family, and himself a native of Canada, Duncan Campbell is yet a pioneer of California and of Humboldt county, having come west and settled here in 1879. Since that time he has been engaged principally in the lumber business, and is a thorough woodsman. At the present time his home is in Blue Lake, where his family resides in one of the handsomest homes in the thrifty little city. Mr. Campbell himself is in charge of the work of felling trees in the various camps of the Northern Redwood Lumber Company, and has held this responsible position for the past nine years.

Mr. Campbell was born near Guelph, Wellington county, Ontario, Canada, April 15, 1859, and he received his education in the local schools. His parents removed to North Carolina when the son was but thirteen years of age and his teens were passed in Guilford county, that state. Here also he attended school, and worked on the farm with his father. For four years father and son farmed together, and in 1879 the family decided to make a trip west to establish a permanent home in California. They came to Humboldt county, rented a tract of land and farmed together for a year. At the end of that time Mr. Campbell, Sr., had decided that he did not care to make his home in California and returned to North Carolina in 1881. The son, however, liked The west and determined to remain. That year he worked for Bill Carson in the woods, remaining in his employ for two seasons. On May 24, 1883, he accepted a position with the Chandler, Graham and Jackson Company, at Blue Lake. At first he worked in the woods, chopping and felling trees, re­maining in this department for eight years. In 1905 he took charge of this department of the work for this company in all their lumber camps, and since that time has occupied :this position. In the number of years that he has been employed by this company Mr. Campbell has proved himself to be an able and trusted employe. He is well liked by his associates and especially by the men who work under his direct supervision.

Aside from his business associations Mr. Campbell has many friends. He 'is a member of Humboldt Lodge No. 77, I. 0. 0. F., at Eureka, the Knights of Pythias at Blue Lake and of the Eagles in Eureka. He is a Republican in politics but has never been especially active in political affairs.

The marriage of Mr. Campbell took place in Arcata, September 26, 1888, uniting him with Miss Doe L. Dodge, a native of California, born in Humboldt county, February 9, 1869. Mrs. Campbell is the mother of three chil­dren, namely : Laura Louise, George M., and Donald.

The father of Mr. Campbell. was a native of Scotland, having been born in the Highland district in 1817. He was Robert Campbell, and came to Canada with his parents when he was very young. For a time he attended the public schools of his district, but gave this up at an early age to engage in farming with his father. In 1872 he removed to North Carolina, locating in Guilford county, and again following the occupation of farming. After his trip into the west and his brief 'residence in California he returned to North Carolina, where he resided until the time of his death, in 1885, living during this time on the old home place in Guilford county. His wife, and the mother of the present prominent citizen of Blue Lake, was Matilda Tarswell, a native of England. She came to Canada with her parents when she was a young girl, and there met and married Robert Campbell.

HERBERT W. HAMILTON.—In the comparatively brief period of his residence at Eureka, Herbert W. Hamilton has done as much as any one citizen of this wide-awake place to advance her to a foremost position among the progressive coast cities. He settled here twelve years ago, and has • extensive lumber interests in the vicinity. Though he cannot be classed among her old residents he is entitled to he ranked with the most public-spir­ited men who have chosen this point for their headquarters, for he has given reliable proof of his interest, in his willingness to cooperate with all who have the welfare of the town at heart. His ability in the management of his own affairs is sufficient promise of what might be expected of him in any under­taking ; and he has not disappointed the confidence of those who have called upon him for services of various kinds. His removal to the city was an acquisition to its citizenship in every respect.

Mr. Hamilton's father, W. C. Hamilton, was also a successful lumberman. He was a native of Lyme, N. H., and in 1855 moved to Wisconsin, where he acquired extensive lumber interests, becoming a member of the Hamilton-Merryman Company at Marinette, where he did business the rest of his life. He died in 1899. His wife, whose maiden name was Mary T. Weed, was born at Marion, Conn., and they were the parents of six children. Herbert W. Hamilton is the only one of the family living in California. Born July 27, 1866, at Fond du Lac, Wis., he obtained his early education in his native state, attending public school. At the age of eighteen years he entered Phillips Academy, at Andover, Mass., and was a student for three years at that insti. tution of acknowledged excellence. For the two years following he was clerk in a bank at Antigo, Wis. He was then sent west to Leadville, Colo., where he represented the Hamilton-Merryman interests in the White Cap Mining Company for a period of four years. Returning to Wisconsin, he became interested in the manufacture of paper at Marinette and remained there until his removal to Arizona, where he engaged in ranching for six years before he came to California, twelve years ago. He has since been established at Eureka, his principal business interests being in connection with the Hamilton Land & Lumber Company, of which he is vice president, and with the Holmes Eureka Lumber Company, of which he is a director. Both are Eureka organizations, and the former has extensive holdings of timber lands in this region.

Mr. Hamilton's friendly interest in the city of his adoption has been manifested in many practical ways. The magnificent residence property at No. 2526 J street which he built and occupies with his family shows how sincere his liking is, and the many social attachments he has formed are evidence that he has found congenial companions as well as attractive sur­roundings. Moreover, he has participated heartily in various local movements since he became acquainted in the city, chief among which may be men­tioned the Chautauqua.

Mr. Hamilton married Miss Ida A. Matteson, of Eureka, Wis., whose intelligence and social qualities make their home an attractive center in the life of the community. They have four children : Staar A., Mary Esther, Francis D. and Mabel.

DILLON D: PEACOCK.—A representative of that large class of American mechanics and workmen who by sheer force of superiority of mind, intellect and ingenuity, coupled with patient industry, have put America fore­most among nations in providing human luxuries and necessities, is Dillon D. Peacock, a self-made man in the truest sense of the word. He began to be self-supporting when he was fourteen years of age, and since that time has forged steadily ahead, never shirking a responsibility and never faltering in the faithful execution of a trust. The disadvantages which curtailed his educational progress and thrust him thus early upon an uncaring world have seemed not to be such serious handicaps after all, for he has turned them rather to his good through the splendid development of his character and mind. At an early age he commenced to work for the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, and soon was placed in charge of the water supply in the southern Minnesota division, where he made a decidedly satisfac­tory record. Since coming to California he has been engaged principally in mechanical engineering and construction, in both of which lines he is especially proficient. He owns two threshing separators and has been en­gaged in threshing all over the Eel river valley, being one of the best known men in this line in all of Humboldt county. He is well and favorably known among the grain men and also among the creamery men, he having installed the machinery in many of the leading creameries of the county. He is also an authority on the building and construction of evaporators and dryers for casein, a valuable by-product of the creameries. He built the first evapora­tor ever used in Humboldt county, and is now regularly connected with the Grizzly Bluff Creamery Company as head machinist. Mr. Peacock makes his headquarters at present in Waddington, where he conducts a machine shop in addition to his other interests.

A native of New York state, Mr. Peacock was born in North Elba, Essex county, June 10, 1860, the son of Joseph and Typhena (Osgood) Peacock. The father was in delicate health, and there was a large family of seven children, three daughters and four sons, Dillon D. being the sixth born. For a few years he was allowed to attend school, but family conditions were such that at fourteen he stopped school permanently and went to work. His first teacher was former Governor Markham, of California, and Mr. Peacock recalls many interesting incidents in connection with the early life of this distinguished man. In 1866 young Peacock came west to Minnesota and grew to manhood in Sherburn, Martin county. There he commenced to work for the railroad company, for five years being in the employ of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway as tank man. Eventually, however, he determined to continue his journey to the westward, and on December 17, 1883, left Minnesota for California, arriving in San Francisco on December 24, and from there going to Table Bluff. For a time he was employed by Mike Fitzsimmons and later chopped wood in the redwood forests until the fall of 1884, when he became interested in the threshing business, and has so continued since, having owned and operated a threshing outfit for more than twenty years. He owns two Case separators and a Rice engine, and during each season threshes from fifty thousand to seventy-five thousand bushels of grain. His record for the largest yield per acre threshed is one hundred forty bushels of barley to an acre.

The marriage of Mr. Peacock occurred in 1890, uniting him with Miss Annie Clegg. Of their union were born three children, two daughters and a son. Edith is the wife of Stanley Gow, of Eureka ; Ella is Mrs. E. A. Sims, of Ferndale, and the mother of one child, Leona; and George is with his father.

Quite aside from his business popularity Mt. Peacock is an influential figure in fraternal circles of the county. He is a veteran Odd Fellow and a member of the Ferndale lodge and also of the Encampment. He has been through all the chairs of the Odd Fellows, and has taken twelve degrees in that order. He belongs to the Rebekahs and takes an active part in all the affairs of these organizations. Another order with which he is affiliated and in which he takes a prominent part is the Knights of Pythias.

During his long residence in Humboldt county Mr. Peacock has invested in real estate and now owns property at Waddington. In his home in Wad­dington he has many interesting relics, he being especially interested in fire­arms, of which he owns a very valuable and unique collection. There are guns and pistols of practically every period, among them some of great age. and obsolete types, and others of strictly modern make, with the latest devices and attachments. Mr. Peacock is especially popular with the patrons of his business and also with the creamery men of the valley. He is progressive and up to date in his views on public questions and is always in favor of progressive movements along the lines that make for the future welfare of the general public. He has given his children good educational advantages, and with them he is at all times a great favorite. He is an advocate of the "simple life," enjoying the wholesome pleasures and quiet joys of the life which surrounds him, but nevertheless living a very useful and profitable life, filled with good deeds and true intents and purposes.

FRED A. HARRINGTON.—The Punta Gorda lighthouse, eleven miles south of Cape Mendocino, on the Humboldt county coast, has been in charge of Fred A. Harrington since the station was established, May 15, 1911. His efficiency is hardly to be wondered at, as he has been familiar with the work and its responsibilities from boyhood, his father, Fred L. Harrington, being the third oldest man in the lighthouse service in the California district, No. 18. His earliest ancestors were sailors, out of the port of Boston, owned packets, and were associated with historical events as well as business activ­ities in the colonial period. Mr. Harrington's great-grandfather came to America in the early part of the eighteenth century, and fought in the Revo­lutionary war.

Benjamin Harrington, grandfather of Fred A. Harrington, was born in Vermont, and brought his family to California in 1852, settling at San Fran­cisco. He was a stonemason and did construction work for the government, at Fort Winfield Scott and on Alcatraz Island.

Fred L. Harrington was born in Massachusetts, and was but a child when the family settled in California. When a youth he entered the navy, at the Mare Island yard, but bought his discharge from that branch of the service to join the army when the Civil war broke out and served faithfully to the close of the struggle. Returning to civil life after the end of the war, he was variously engaged until he went into the lighthouse service in 1882, taking the Cape Mendocino station for a few years. In 1885 he became first assist­ant at Point Montara, transferring from there to Piedras Blancos in 1886, and in 1888 to Trinidad, when promoted to keeper. He has been there con­tinuously since, and though seventy-one years of age (1914) is still filling the position with his customary care and punctilious attention to his duties. Mr. Harrington married Miss Josephine Evans, daughter of George W. Evans, a pioneer veterinary surgeon of San Francisco, who came to that city in 1862. Mr. and Mrs. Harrington have four children.

Born January 1, 1877, at San Francisco, Fred A. Harrington is the eldest child of his parents. Much of his boyhood and youth were passed at Cape Mendocino and Trinidad, and he completed the course at the grammar school of the latter place, graduating therefrom. For two years during his man­hood he was employed in the Emporium, at San Francisco, in 1898 returning to Trinidad and taking the position of second assistant at the lighthouse there under his father. He resigned after a year and went to Fresno, where he was in the employ of the Griff en & Skelly Packing Company, packers of raisins and fruits, remaining with that concern two years, during which time he be­came foreman. He gave up this work to reenter the lighthouse service, being assigned to Fort Point, where he began his duties August 15, 1900, and stayed for eight months. He was next appointed first assistant on Alcatraz Island, transferred to the Point Reyes station in 1903, and in 1905 to Table Bluff, Humboldt county, where he was first assistant until he assumed his present position, in 1911. The Harringtons are well known in their district and have the reputation of being thoroughly intelligent and trustworthy, the kind of public servants whose vigilance and fidelity are the foundations upon which the efficiency of the whole scheme of protection for shipping rests.

Mr. Harrington has two assistants, A. M. Speelman and W. P. Holmes.

The station is No. 84 of District No. 18, and is located one mile southeast of the point, in latitude forty degrees, fifteen minutes north, longitude one hundred twenty-four degrees, twenty-one minutes west. It has a light and a fog signal, the former being white, seventy-five feet above mean high water, giving a series of two flashes every fifteen seconds ; the incandescent oil vapor-lamp is of thirty-seven thousand candle power. The fog signal is a •first-class air siren, giving a blast of two seconds' duration and is then silent for thirteen seconds.

In 1903 Mr. Harrington married Miss Edna M. Hunter, who is about as familiar with the lighthouse service as her husband, her father, Pascal M. Hunter, having long been a keeper. He died at the Punta Gorda station April 6, 1912, after many years of faithful work. Mrs. Harrington shares the high esteem in which her husband is held by his superiors and by all who known him. They have two children, Jesse V. (now twelve years old) and Donald L. (eight years old). Mr. Harrington is a member of the Knights of Pythias lodge at Petrolia.

GEORGE ROBERT GEORGESON.—Eureka and indeed all of Hum­boldt county may be congratulated upon such citizens as Mr. Georgeson. In the course of a remarkable, career as a real estate operator he has not only forged his way to a leading position among his fellow men as his ability and force of character have won recognition, but his activities have been so indis­putably helpful in the development of local interests that his initiative and influence are regarded as invaluable in the promotion of any enterprise. His achievements mean more than the broadening of his own operations or the outlet of his own increasing capital. They are vitally important to the wealth and progress of the whole community.

Mr. Georgeson is a native of Scotland, born November 29, 1865, at Burnside, in the Shetland Islands. His father, John Georgeson, was also born there, and when a youth of fourteen years went to sea. Later he tried his fortune in the gold fields of Australia, where he accumulated a competency, after which he returned to Scotland and established himself in business as a merchant, carrying on business into his old age. He was born about 1840, and his wife, Catherine (Watt), was a few years his junior. They had a family of twelve children.

George Robert Georgeson had ordinary school advantages, attending until he was sixteen years old. Then he started out to earn his own living. He engaged in the shipping of shellfish to London, on his own account, and by the time he had followed that business two years had saved enough to take him to America. Meantime, being ambitious, he had continued his studies at night school, appreciating the value of education. He came to this country in April, 1883, and settled at once in California, though he was so short of funds that he arrived at Eureka, Humboldt county, thirty dollars •in debt be­cause of the expensive railroad journey from coast to coast. During the next few years he held clerical positions in various stores in the town. In 1892 he commenced on his own account, opening a real estate and insurance office, and from that foundation has developed one of the most important businesses of the kind in the county. He has done a large general insurance business, and at various times has had other interests, but his time now is devoted principally to his real estate transactions, which have reached such magni­tude that he is regarded as one of the authorities in his line on land and general property values in this region. He deals extensively in city, country and timber lands, has negotiated some important deals in redwood timber, and has accumulated a vast amount of improved city real estate, his holdings at Eureka including the "Grand Hotel" property. He purchased the latter in October, 1902, and with his customary foresight began to lay plans for placing it on a profitable basis, building the hotel and owning a half-interest in it for some years, eventually becoming sole owner. The site covers half a block near the commercial center of Eureka. Another of his properties, the Georgeson building, which he erected in 1903-04, is desirably located at the corner of Fourth and E streets, and is a substantial four-story structure, the first four-story building to be put up in Humboldt county. It has solid eight-inch plank walls. It is of modern construction and conveniently arranged, being provided with elevators and other appointments for the comfort of tenants, and is devoted entirely to stores and offices.

Though Mr. Georgeson has handled so many large real estate deals he has made his fortune in the business as an investor, not in speculation. His judgment and appreciation of values are best understood in the light of this statement, as he made a remarkable success in his principal line, acquiring a large capital within a few years. As he accumulated means he became in­terested in other enterprises, and he has been able to assist many promising ventures to substantial footing. In fact, his broadness and the liberality of his opinions have been the means of gaining favor and encouragement for a number of ventures deserving of support, and if he has prospered thereby he has also enabled them to make headway which might have been impossible otherwise. His unselfish spirit and thorough honesty have gained him the approval of the best element in the community. He was one of the origin­ators of the Eureka Land and Home Building Association, of which he is half-owner, and he was one of the earliest promoters of the Humboldt Pro­motion and Development Committee, his familiarity with land and land values, and the possibilities of various locations, being of inestimable value to both these concerns.

A year after he engaged in business for himself Mr. Georgeson took the position of agent for the Wells Fargo Express Company at Eureka and superintendent of the company's affairs in Humboldt county, and in .1896 he became ticket-agent for the Pacific Coast Steamship Company, continuing to serve in both capacities until a few years ago, when he relinquished the duties because of the pressure of his increasing private affairs.

Mr. Georgeson has been active in public affairs in his city and county for a number of years, and has taken advantage of the opportunities his own business has opened to him for serving his fellow citizens from time to time. In the course of his real estate operations and building he has been able to influence the trend of development in the town especially, and his wisdom has been recognized in many plans directed by his foresight and sincere desire to do the best for his community. He was especially interested in the 'establishment of the Carnegie Library, and was a member of the committee appointed to solicit the subscription of twenty thousand dollars from Mr. Carnegie. He has also served as one of the trustees of the chamber of com­merce. Socially he holds membership in a number of local organizations, be­longing to the Humboldt Club ; to the Odd Fellows, Fortuna Lodge No. 221, and Mount Zion Encampment No. 27; and to the B. P. 0. E.

On July 9, 1892, Mr. Georgeson was married to Miss Alice W. Randall, who was born at Eureka, daughter of A. W. and Lydia F. Randall, and they have had a family of five children, one dying in infancy. The survivors are : Lloyd W., who has graduated from the University of California and intends to take up the study of law ; Vira, now a student at the University of California ; Clair Jean, and Roberta.

RICHARD SWEASEY.—It would be difficult and perhaps impossible to name any enterprise of civic value that has lacked the cordial cooperation of Richard Sweasey, whose personal history has been associated closely with the, material growth of Eureka. A resident of Humboldt county from the age of thirteen years, he has witnessed the slow but steady advancement of the past half century or more and has been a helpful factor in community devel­opment. Varied have been the business enterprises receiving his practical assistance and sagacious support, including within their scope steamship building, mercantile pursuits, agriculture, dairying, banking, and, indeed, every form of industry that goes toward the upbuilding of the coast country.-Although a native of Indiana, born on Christmas day of 1843, he is practically a Californian in all else but birth. His ideals are those of the west, his inter­ests are centered in this section of the country, and all of the associations from childhood bind him to the community of his present residence. The family has been identified with the Pacific coast ever since the discovery of gold. His parents, Hon. W. J. and Esther (Croucher) Sweasey, were natives of England and spent their early married life in Indiana, but the mining ex­citement brought the father across the plains in 1850 and in 1852 he served as a member of the California state legislature as a representative from San Francisco county. After his removal to Humboldt county in 1856 he repre­sented this county as a member of the state constitutional convention. For a number of terms he served as county supervisor from the Eureka district and until his death he continued to be active in public affairs. Surviving him are two sons and a daughter, Thomas W., Richard, and Mrs. Henry Axton.

The mercantile business at Eureka, the management of the farm near Hydesville, the building of a number of sailing vessels and all the other lines of development work that engrossed the attention of the elder Sweasey en­listed the intelligent assistance of the son Richard, who has been a progressive promoter of local advancement ever since the eventful year of 1856, when, with his father and about five other families, he came overland from San Francisco via Healdsburg. The oldest son, Thomas, went ahead and guided them through the mountains over much the same route now followed by the overland trail until they came to near the present site of Fort Seward on Eel river. There a raft was built from redwood logs on which they ferried the river. After this on their way down they forded the river many times until they arrived at Eagle Prairie, the present site of Rio Dell. This was the first white settlement after leaving Healdsburg, and from it they blazed the trail into Humboldt county from the south, the father bringing the first wagons that came over the mountains into Humboldt county. Much of Mr. Sweasey's life has been given to ship-building and he still acts as president of the Humboldt Steamship Company. Aside from launching several sailing ves­sels, he assisted his father in the building of the steamer Humboldt, and man­aged the vessel for twenty-one years. The second steamer Humboldt, which now runs between Seattle and Alaskan ports, was also built by them. Doubtless no work done by Richard Sweasey has been of greater importance to the permanent welfare of Humboldt county than his development with eight others and the building of the Eel River and Eureka Railroad. The Sweaseys were also among the founders and original stockholders of the Humboldt County Bank, the first bank in the county.

Richard Sweasey has been active in the improvement of the agricultural interests of Humboldt county, in the development of the Sweasey Dairy Farm of three hundred acres two miles east of Eureka, where he owns and main­tains a herd of blooded Guernsey milch cows, one hundred and twenty-five in all, of which at present seventy-five form the dairy. The original stock, brought in by him from Wisconsin and New Jersey, had the distinction of being the first Guernsey cows in the entire county and they proved popular from the first, both on account of their large size and also by reason of being valuable milk and butter producers. Had Mr. Sweasey no other work to his credit besides the building up of the dairy ranch, he might well be regarded as one of the most progressive and helpful citizens of his county, but the dairy business has been only one of his many important undertakings. In company with H. L. Ricks he installed the original water system in Eureka, which they afterwards sold to Thomas Baird and which is now owned by the city. In this city he also owns a livery stable. Besides being a member of the city council for a number of years he served as the first city treasurer under the city charter. For three terms he served as chairman of the board of supervisors and during that time the corner-stone of the county court-house was laid with appropriate ceremonies.

On the evening of the organization of the Fortuna Lodge No. 221, I. 0. 0. F., Mr. Sweasey was initiated into the order, besides which he is a life member of the Pioneer Society, the Humboldt Club and the Elks. His mar­riage united him with Annie M. Wilson, a native of the state of Maine, and a daughter of George D. Wilson, a pioneer of 1853 in Humboldt county. Both Mrs. Sweasey and her father were interested in religious work from early years and she has been a generous contributor to the erection of two houses of worship in this city. Born of their marriage were three children, two of whom are living. The daughter, Lena G., married Harold B. Gross, M. D., a leading physician of Eureka. The son, Frank R. Sweasey, is a rising attorney in San Francisco.

W. E. WASMUTH.—One of the up-to-date industrial establishments in which Eureka and Humboldt county take just pride is the Humboldt Laundry, at the head of which is W. E. Wasmuth, of Eureka, who has one brother and one sister interested with him in its ownership and operation. The laundry has the reputation of being one of the largest as well as most excellently equipped on the Pacific coast, supplying employment to a number of opera­tives and convenient service to a large circle of patrons. For modern appoint­ments, cleanliness and expert work it has no rival among plants of its size, and few superior anywhere. Mr. Wasmuth has built up the large business from a modest start to pretentious proportions.

The name of Wasmuth has been identified with this section from the days when Humboldt formed a part of old Klamath county, P. W. Wasmuth, father of W. E. Wasmuth, having been one of the very earliest settlers in this region. He was born in Stockholm, Sweden, of German parentage, during war times, and came to the United States in 1852, the same year settling at Martin's Ferry, Klamath county, where he engaged for a time in placer gold mining. Having prospered and accumulated some capital, he moved to Orleans, then in Klamath county (now Humboldt), and engaged in business as a storekeeper. He was a man of strong character and influential among his fellow citizens, and having been well educated (he had studied for the ministry) he was an available candidate for offices requiring such training which many lacked. Before the division of the county he served as county clerk and county treasurer, doing efficient work in both capacities. He built a mill which he owned in partnership with "Jim" Graham and the late T. M. Brown, former sheriff of the county. Mr. Wasmuth married Rosa Behr, who was born in Alsace, then a French province, and six children were born to this union : P. W. (1st), who (lied in infancy ; W. E., Rosa A., P. W. (2nd), Ida E. and Charles F. The mother died when her son W. E. Wasmuth was fourteen years old.

WI. E. Wasmuth was born in Humboldt county, August 29, 1874, and in 1883, when a boy of nine years, accompanied his parents to Arcata. At that time he began working on a ranch in this county. When fourteen years old he entered the employ of his uncle, J. H. Bloemer, who established the Union Laundry at Arcata and is still running it, and he has continued in that line of work ever since. Coming to Eureka, he worked in a laundry here for a time, until he went to Crescent City to undertake business on his own account, renting the premises in which he conducted the Crescent City Steam Laundry, of which he made a decided success. Following this venture he became an employe in the Palace Hotel Laundry, San Francisco, where he soon attained the position of foreman, also acting in that capacity at the Eureka Laundry, in these connections learning the details of the business thoroughly, particularly the commercial and executive end of the work.

Returning to Humboldt county on a vacation, Mr. Wasmuth saw an opening in the line he desired, buying out the Jackson Store Laundry, which he removed to its present location. As his prosperity enabled him, and as he has felt competent to undertake more responsibility, Mr. Wasmuth has bought out other laundries, three in all, and the large frame building at the corner of Sixth and C streets, Eureka, was built as the increase of business demanded larger quarters. It is sixty by one hundred ten feet, two stories in height, and equipped with all the modern machinery for turning out first-class laundry work known to the trade. It is fitted with a twenty-five-horse­power engine, electricity, centrifugal wringers, starcher, dryers, steam presses for flannel garments, collar machine, etc., the investment in building and machinery amounting to twenty-five thousand dollars. No pains have been spared to make the equipment most efficient, and the competent system adopted in the operating department is well supplemented with the business­like methods of the office and outside arrangements, all of which coordinate to an unusual degree. Every employe is expected to be an expert, and to be retained in this establishment is a sufficient recommendation of capability. The plant is light, airy and very attractive in its spotlessness. Mr. Wasmuth's brother and sister work with him, and to this cooperation no doubt may be attributed the remarkable smoothness of operation which characterizes every branch of the work. At present the wet-king force consists of twenty-eight people, and two teams are employed; and during the busier seasons as many as forty-five hands are employed, besides two teams and three wagons. Such a record entitles the Wasmuths to recognition among the pro­gressive business people of the community, where they have not only found their own opportunities, but have become a large factor in the activities of the city. Personally, they are citizens of the highest character, worthy de­scendants of an honored early settler of this region and keeping the name alive in the most creditable associations.

Mr. W. E. Wasmuth was married in Eureka to Miss Nellie Freeman, who was born in Lake county, Cal., and they have had a family of four children : Ruth, William, Charles and' Marie.. Mr. Wasmuth built his residence at No. 1422 B street in 1906, and he also owns a two-hundred-acre ranch on Lawrence creek, where he expects to make a specialty of the breeding of thoroughbred Poland-China hogs. Socially he holds membership in the Native Sons of the Golden West and in the B. P. 0. E.

THOMAS KEMPER CARR.—The county auditor of Humboldt county was born at Hay Fork, Trinity county, Cal., May 15, 1860, and is a son of the late John Carr, a pioneer of about 1850, and Delilah Carr, who came to the state in 1852. Frontier life in all of its aspects became familiar to the family. The country was sparsely settled, neighbors few, ranches destitute of im­provements, and the conditions paralleling those of all outposts of civiliza­tion. The schools of Eureka were perhaps better than might have been expected of a period so early in the county's development. When Mr. Carr completed the grammar grade he had finished the course of study that now comprises the second year of high school and definitely in his mind there had been planted a desire for additional knowledge, a sense of proportions and a realization of the need of accuracy in every business pursuit. The mental equipment with which he•left the grammar school was perhaps little inferior to that of boasted graduates of higher institutions of learning today, but with a modest appreciation of -his own 'limitations he endeavored through the following years to acquire additional information in every line of thought and activity. Educated to a love of country and an affectionate devotion to his commonwealth, he served for seven years as a member of the National Guard of California, being in what is now the Naval Reserve. Military ser­vice, however, was not his only means of proving his patriotism, for in addition he has been a promoter of the common good, an upbuilder of worthy enterprises and a believer in the great ultimate destiny of county and state. Such citizens form the bone and sinew of local advancement and are at the basis of our national progress.

After leaving school' Thomas Kemper Carr was employed as tallyman on vessels and in the sawmills of Eureka, besides which for twenty-one years, during a part of each year, he was employed as deputy in county offices. For parts of two years he served as deputy auditor and recorder under County Auditor Kellogg ; for seven years he engaged, at times, as deputy under County Assessor \Arallace ; for ten years he was deputy under County Tax Collector Crichton ; for one year he acted as deputy under County Clerk Haw, and during parts of other years he was deputy assessor under Connick and Bell. The first steady employment in county work came to him under County Auditor Howatt, with whom he remained for four years, giving such acceptable and efficient service that in November, 1910, he was chosen for the office of auditor and was again elected as. auditor in November, 1914. A total of about twenty-eight years (only seven of which, however, have been full time) indicates the nature of his services to the county. While he is a Republican, he is not a partisan and numbers many friends in the ranks of the local Democracy. While he has been giving the best of himself, his fullest energies and most exacting accuracy to details of office, others have grown prosperous in business or on farms and now stand high in financial circles. Such, however, has not been his fortunate fate. The county has taken of his strength and greatest mental and physical efforts, giving nothing in return but a living, so that like the majority of county officials the world over he has little of permanent benefit to show for the laborious toil and exacting duties of a county office. His reputation for accuracy has followed him from one office to another. In his seven years of service as deputy audi­tor and auditor, his work has been absolutely correct, as experts have testi­fied and so the reports have been made to every grand jury for the last seven years. The duties of auditor are varied and at times complicated. His experience has given him the opportunity to become one of the best-posted men in county affairs in Humboldt county and, while familiar with every office, he gives it as his opinion that the office of auditor is one of the most difficult to fill.

The Carr family is of Irish lineage and was established in America two generations ago by the parents of John Carr, who took him from Ireland to Canada when he was two years of age. Later he came to the States. The discovery of gold caused him to drift to California, where he met and married Delilah Turner, a native of New Jersey. Fraternally Thomas K. Carr is connected with the Native Sons of the Golden West, the Eagles, the Modern Woodmen of America and the Royal Neighbors, a branch of the Woodmen. In addition he is identified with the subordinate lodge and Encampment branch of Odd Fellows, as well as the Canton branch and Rebekah branch, and has passed through most of the chairs in the order with the exception of those in the Rebekah branch. The Humboldt Club has his name enrolled among its members. While not directly connected with any religious organ­ization, he is in sympathy with the doctrines of the Baptist Church. His first marriage took place March 19, 1883, and united him with Mary G. Nick-. erson, daughter of W. H. Nickerson, of Fairhaven. May 25, 1911, he was united in marriage with Mrs. Florence A. Bast, daughter of Jeremiah Dough­erty, of Rohnerville, Humboldt county, and the widow of George Bast, by whom she has two children, Mildred Bast and George Wilbur Bast. By his first marriage Mr. Carr is the father of four children, namely : Lloyd Vernon Carr, who married Alida Crocker ; Hazel G., now Mrs. Joseph M. Hinman ; Elizabeth DeEtte, now Mrs. E. B. Sandelands ; and Nell Elise, who married John Brubaker, of Salt Lake.

CHARLES R. SMITH.—The variety of occupations which Humboldt county offers to the enterprising and thrifty, combined with her remarkable climatic features, has attracted a sturdy class of agriculturists and those con­templating the purchase and development of farm lands, for they not only have the prospects of success in raising crops, but the assurance of a good market where other industries are profitably prosecuted. The adaptability of southeastern Humboldt county, and particularly the Eel river district, for fruit growing, is becoming known through the results which those who have attempted fruit raising have attained, and none has done more in the way of affording practical examples of her possibilities in this line than Charles R. Smith, of Alderpoint. A Wisconsin man, of German extraction, he came here some twenty odd years ago, and in 1895 took up a homestead which now forms part of his valuable ranch of five hundred fifty acres. Now he is reckoned among the 'substantial, well-to-do farmers of his section, having by his own exertions acquired a good property and made excellent headway in his farming operations.

Mr. Smith was born July 26, 1861, near Oshkosh, Wis., son of Henry and Harriet (Hales) Smith, the father a native of Germany, the mother of England. They were Wisconsin, and Henry Smith is now living in Sacramento at the age of eighty-four years. He followed the trade of mason and bricklayer besides farming in his active years. C. R. Smith is the eldest of the four children born to his parents. His childhood and youth were passed in his native state, and from an early age he was familiar with work in the timber regions, a training which has proved very valuable in the improvement of his present property. For twelve months he was employed in the woods near Waupaca, Wis., as chopper, logger and teamster. Upon his removal west he located first in Montana, for two years working as a market gardener at Boulder, that state. In 1892 he came to Humboldt county, Cal., and for a time was at Hydesville, in 1895 taking up a homestead of one hundred sixty acres, now included in his five hundred fifty-acre ranch situated a mile southeast of Alderpoint, in southern Humboldt county. Mr. Smith has given all his time to the improvement of this ranch, but it is his accomplishments in the line of fruit raising which are most notable and of particular importance to the locality. He has cleared a tract of twelve acres, which he has planted to various kinds of fruits, peaches, apples, walnuts, cherries, almonds and a number of fig trees, as well as grapes. His trees are from one to seven years old, and his apple trees in bearing are remarkably thrifty, but it is his peach crop that deserves particular mention. In fact, he has the reputation of producing the finest peaches in northern California, Elbertas, which show exceptional qualities as to size, color and flavor. There is a demand for all he can supply.

Mr. Smith has erected suitable barns and other outbuildings on his farm, and there is also a comfortable dwelling, which he intends to replace with a modern structure before long. In the year 1911 he built a cottage at Alder-point, the first house completed at that place, and also a commodious livery barn, which he rents for that purpose.

In all his enterprises Mr. Smith has had the competent cooperation of his wife, who has proved her capability in many ways. June 15, 1911, he married Miss Ellen Mathison, who was born at Fortuna, Humboldt county, the eldest of the eight children born to her parents, Nis and Mary (Petersen) Mathison, born in Slesvig, Germany. They came to California before their marriage and were united in Sonoma county about 1874. Later they came to Humboldt county and in the fall of 1875 came to Blocksburg, where they became farmers and where Mr. Mathison died. He helped to build the over­land road. The mother resides near Alderpoint with her son Fred. In the neighborhood of Fort Seward Mrs. Smith located a homestead upon which she proved up, and also took up a timber claim, owning both as the result of her own efforts. A woman of excellent personal qualities and kindly dis­position, she has not only been a helpmate in the best sense of the word to her husband, but a good neighbor and friend to all with whom she has been brought into contact. By his former marriage, which took place in Wiscon­sin, Mr. Smith had two children : Walter F., an experienced horticulturist, who engaged in ranching near Alderpoint ; and Hattie E., Mrs. Greene, whose husband is bookkeeper and cashier at the Sacramento office of M. P. Fuller & Co.

JAMES WILLIAM HENDERSON.—For forty-five years Eureka num­bered among her residents the late James William Henderson, who settled here in 1865, after sixteen years of the experiences and adventure which fell to the lot of those who braved the dangers of life in the uncivilized days of the west. When he settled down to business he proved himself as capable and courageous as in the more spectacular activities of his early life, so much so that for years no one challenged his title as the leading citizen of Humboldt county. Mr. Henderson had been impressed with the attractions and advan­tages of Eureka some years before he came to make his home in the city, • and from the time he took up his residence here until his death was one of its most zealous spirits, putting his own means into city and county property and doing his utmost to develop local resources. His own investments being so heavy, it was but natural he should desire to promote the improvements necessary to insure the stability of their values, but his enterprises to that end always benefited others as well, and he never kept on the safe side of the market himself by lack of respect for the rights of others. He operated extensively in real estate, was one of the organizers of the first bank in the county, had other banking interests later, took a hand in the development of the oil lands in the county, and for ten years before his death conducted the Humboldt Bay Woolen Mills, a manufacturing plant which has afforded profitable occupation for a number of industrial workers. It would be diffi­cult to summarize his work, however, as his capital and energy flowed into many channels, carrying good indirectly as well as directly, so that it would be hard 'to tell where his influence ended.

Mr. Henderson was of Scotch ancestry, his early antecedents moving from their native country to the North of Ireland to escape religious perse­cution. John Henderson, his grandfather, emigrated from the North of Ire­land to America, and his father, Edward Henderson, was born in New York state and passed all his life there. By occupation a farmer, he made a good living for himself and family and was a well respected man in his neighbor­hood. He was an active member of the Episcopal Church and took consid­erable part in such work. Politically he was originally a Whig, later a Dem­ocrat, and he entered heartily into party work in his state, taking keen en­joyment in the campaigns. Mr. Henderson married Martha Jopson, a native of Wales, and they became the parents of six children. Mr. Henderson died when about seventy-five years old, his wife living to be ninety. She, too, was a devout member of the Episcopal Church.

James William Henderson, the eldest child of the family, was born on a farm in St. Lawrence county, N. Y., June 9, 1828, and he received his educa­tion in the local public schools and at Potsdam Academy, in his native county. His early life was spent on the farm, and he was the first of the family to leave home, having started for the west in the spring of 1849. The lure of the mines was irresistible, and he set out to make the trip overland. Reach­ing Council Bluffs, Iowa, he went north from there and spent the summer in Minnesota. In the fall he went down the Mississippi river, stopping at St. Louis, where the first railroad convention held in the west was then in session, endeavoring to devise ways and means of constructing a railroad to the far west. The principal speakers were Daniel 'Webster and Stephen A. Doug­las, and Mr. Henderson stayed over for the privilege of hearing their argu­ments. Then he proceeded down the river to New Orleans, where he bought a ticket to San Francisco via Panama, the fare being one hundred eighty dol­lars. He reached his destination in February, 1850, without available funds, and his first experience was typical of the times. A young man he had met during the ocean voyage loaned him thirty-five dollars and they went together to the Middle Fork of the American river, where they were quite successful in their search for gold on the Spanish bar. It was not long before Mr. Henderson was able to repay the thirty-five dollars, and he and his "friend in need" were congenial companions. In the winter of 1850, Mr. Henderson returned to San Francisco, remaining until spring, when he made a trip by steamer to Portland, Oregon, to buy, produce for shipment to San Francisco. Upon his return he bought an assortment of merchandise at auction and shipped it to Portland. 'Then for a time he was at the mines on the Feather river, but did not do well there, and went back to San Francisco for the winter. In the spring he went to the Spanish bar again, and much to his satisfaction had better success than before, buying a claim for six hundred dollars which he sold for eight hundred after taking out ten thousand dollars worth of gold. This was his last mining venture. In 1852 he made a trip back east, visiting his old home in St. Lawrence county, N. Y., and after spending a few weeks there went out to Illinois and Iowa, where he bought a band of horses which he drove across the plains. This undertaking turned out very profitably, as he was able to sell at an average price of eight hun­dred dollars a team, the horses having cost him one hundred dollars apiece. The result was so encouraging that he went east again in 1853, this time purchasing both horses and cattle, which he drove across the plains and kept near Sacramento for a year before selling them. In 1855 he made another trip, to Missouri, where he bought one hundred mules which he succeeded in getting to the coast country without serious accident or loss, keeping them for a year near Stockton, until they were in such fine condition that he obtained top prices for them.

By this time Mr. Henderson had concluded to go into the stage busi­ness, and in the fall of 1857 he established himself at Petaluma for that pur­pose. He carried on an extensive business from that point for six years, hav­ing the first overland stage line in northern California. Although he did not drive, he had to take the responsibility for all the losses, which were some­times considerable, highway robberies being frequent in those days and the Indians to be reckoned with ; one night they killed ten of the horses and burned a large supply of his hay. Besides the above business, Mr. Hender­son had the contract for carrying the overland mail between San Francisco and Weaverville, Trinity county, a distance of four hundred miles, part of which had to be made on horseback. While at Petaluma he also engaged to some extent in the stock business and ran a livery in partnership with Mat Doyle. He first visited Eureka in 1860 on some matters pertaining to his mail contract, and the impression he gained then was so pleasing that when he disposed of his stage line he decided upon this place for his home, settling here in 1865. Mr. Henderson began to deal in land about the time of his removal to Eureka, and for many years he held the record as the largest individual dealer in real estate in the county. He acquired fifteen thousand acres of sup­posedly valuable agricultural land, and at the same time bought large tracts of timberland, on which he realized handsomely, paying a dollar and a quar­ter an acre for it, and selling at five dollars. He owned different tracts from time to time, buying and selling, and in 1890 disposed of five thousand acres at twenty-five dollars an acre. He retained a ranch of ten thousand acres, which he leased, and several smaller tracts of land.

In the southern part of Humboldt county are valuable oil lands, and Mr. Henderson early interested himself in their development, which he found quite different from his anticipations. In 1874 Thomas Scott, the Phila­delphia capitalist, sent him seventy-five thousand dollars for investment in these lands, and he set about placing it to the best advantage. But although there were plenty of areas where oil seeped from the ground profusely, boring did not produce sufficient quantities for commercial purposes. Mr. Henderson prospected in 1875, with no results which justified continuing operations, yet it is almost certain that some way may be devised to obtain the oil, and the heirs to the land, in selling it off, have reserved the oil rights in the deeds.

In 1873 Mr. Henderson was one of the organizers of the Humboldt County Bank, the first institution of the kind in the county, and in 1880 was elected president, holding the position continuously for over twenty years, until January 20, 1904. At the meeting of the directors on that day they presented Mr. Henderson a loving cup inscribed, "Presented to J. W. Henderson by the directors of Humboldt County Bank as a token of esteem, January 20, 1904." It was accompanied by a set of resolutions praising his services to the bank and showing their appreciation of his high personal character. Meantime, in the year 1893, he had taken a prominent part in establishing the Home Savings Bank of Eureka, took an influential part in the direction of its affairs, and in 1901 became president, serving until 1903. In 1900 he founded the Humboldt Bay Woolen Mills Company, and person­ally looked after all the details of construction and equipment, going east to purchase the machinery, and sparing no pains to make the plant a model industrial institution. He was president of the company from the time of its formation, and its conduct constituted the chief interest of his later years. His death occurred July 13, 1910.

The only public office which Mr. Henderson held was that of registrar of the United States land office, in which he served for one term, in 1868. However, he had his father's taste for politics, was a Republican from the time of the Civil war, and for many years never missed a county or a state convention of his party. In 1878 he joined the Masonic fraternity, becoming a member of Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., and he subsequently was received into Humboldt Chapter No. 52, R. A. M.

Mr. Henderson's share in the opening up of Humboldt county to trade and commerce, the life of usefulness he chose among his fellow citizens, and the honorable example he left to posterity, will endear him in the memory of every resident of this section who knows anything of his life work and ambitions. They were unselfish ambitions, for he was broad-minded and liberal, and the success of his personal enterprises was due solely to wise management and almost infallible judgment, combined with indefatigable attention to details and untiring perseverance in the prosecution of his under­takings. He lived to see his dreams realized, for his residence in Eureka extended from pioneer days to modern times, and few men are permitted to have more than a vision of the results of their endeavors. Those who build for the future must do so on faith—must have the imagination which stimu­lates them to effort without hoping to share the rewards.

Mrs. Henderson, whose maiden name was Amelia Josephine Youle, was a native of New York City, and came to California in 1859 with her father, Adam Youle. They were married in 1860, and to this union were born seven children, five sons and two daughters, three of whom died in childhood ; Edward William died in his twenty-fifth year ; Ida is the wife of Ernest Sevier, an attorney, of Eureka ; Alice is a resident of Cloverdale ; George Y., also living in that city, manages the estate and is a director in the Humboldt National Bank, besides being extensively engaged in general farming and stock-ranching. He is also constructing an extensive irrigation system at Xenia, Trinity county, taking water from the headwaters of Dobbyn's creek, sufficient to irrigate a large area.

GIUSEPPE FERRARA.—Known throughout his section of the state as the "Salmon King of Humboldt county," Giuseppe Ferrara is today one of the wealthy and respected citizens of Eureka, and a splendid example of the possibilities offered to the industrious young man by the West. He is now a widower, and resides on Washington street where he has made his home for thirty-three years. He has lived in Humboldt county for thirty-seven years and has been extensively engaged in the fish industry in Eureka, fishing for salmon and other fish in the Eel river, Humboldt Bay and in the Pacific ocean, and also buying from the fishermen ; he has sold to the retail trade in Eureka but his principal wholesale markets have been San Francisco, Sacramento, and other large cities of California. Mr. Ferrara is the pioneer in the fish industry in Humboldt county.

Mr. Ferrara was born in Sicily, Italy, where his father, Peter Ferrara, was a fisherman and fish-dealer, taking cargoes of fish to Rome, Genoa, Venice, and other Italian cities, where they were sold both at retail and wholesale. The father also owned a vineyard where he made wines, shipped and sold his product in the various Italian cities. The young Giuseppe was only eight years of age when he first went to Rome with his father to assist in the care of the extensive shipping and commission business which he maintained there. He remained in Rome but a short time, but acquired much valuable information and experience regarding the conduct of the business during that time, being intimately connected with his father's diversified enterprises. He grew to maturity on his father's farm, where the family resided in peace and prosperity, but in order to escape the arduous military service which his native country exacted of her young men, he determined to come to America. Accordingly in 1870 he set sail, and landed at Boston, whence he proceeded to Philadelphia, where for about two years he was employed in a gas pipe fac­tory. Later he went to Chicago and engaged in making white lead for paint, remaining there about two months. He then went to San Francisco; by way of New York and the Isthmus of Panama, reaching his destination in the spring of 1873. For two years he was engaged in fishing in the Sacramento river, and in 1876 he came to Eureka, where he has since made his home. He immediately engaged in fishing in the Eel river, and has continued to follow this occupation since that time, meeting with success, and accumulating a fortune from the fruits of his industry.

Mr. Ferrara's marriage took place in Eureka, in 1876, uniting him with Miss Henrietta Hammitt, a native of Oregon but now deceased. She became the mother of four children : Jelorma, who died when two years of age ; Peter Elwood, of Eureka, a fish dealer and commission merchant who has succeeded to his father's business, and who is one of the most promising young men of the community today, and whose sketch also appears in this work ; Henrietta, the wife of Charles Perrona, of Eureka ; and Albert Frank, a fish­erman on the Klamath river, residing in Eureka.

During his long residence at Eureka Mr. Ferrara has assisted materially in the upbuilding and development of the fish industry. Through his whole­sale enterprises he has handled much of the product of the small fishermen of the region, and so has kept alive the independent fisherman. His business has grown to large proportions.

Mr. Ferrara, like all native Italians, retains a large place in his affections for his mother country, and he collected an extensive fund for Malta sufferers, contributing largely thereto himself, during the late disastrous earthquakes and famine there. He is now seventy-three years of age, but is still hale and hearty, and is keenly interested in the events of the day.

OTTO DOCILI.—The province of Brescia, in Italy, has sent many of her sons to make for themselves a home in California, whither they have been attracted, many of them, by the good reports of their countrymen returning from California to visit their native land. Among these newcomers from a foreign land should be mentioned Otto Docili, an enterprising young dairy­man of Grizzly Bluffs, Cal., who is making a success of his chosen work in this country.

Born in the city of Brescia, Italy, December 23, 1880, Otto Docili was the son of Louis Docili, a farmer of that country, and grew up on his father's farm at Mura, in the province of Brescia, remaining at home until his removal to California in 1908. Leaving his wife in Italy, he set sail for America, and arriving at San Jose, Cal., on March 6, of that year, he went to work the same day at Loran Station, in Santa Clara county, three months later removing to Modesto, Cal., where he found employment on a dairy. On March 6, 1909, he was employed by George Thompson, at Loleta, in Humboldt county, remaining with him three years, at the end of which time his family joined him and he went to work for Joseph Bonomini, who was in the dairying business, returning, however, to the employ of Mr. Thompson at a later date, after which he worked for a time for 'Wilson Elliot. It is much to the credit of Mr. Docili to state that all these changes were made by him without the loss of a day's time. Finally determining, however, to go into business for himself, in February, 1913, he leased a dairy ranch in Ryan's slough, near Eureka, where he engaged in the dairy business, independently, at the Bel­mont dairy, as he named his place, also running a milk delivery route in Eureka. Selling his lease and route in December of the next year, the fol­lowing January he leased his present place at Grizzly Bluffs, a ranch consisting of one hundred twenty acres of good meadow and farm land, where he has a herd of fifty cows for which he raises his own hay and green feed.

In his political interests Mr. Docili is a Republican, and he is known fraternally in Eureka as a member of the Loyal Order of Moose. At Mura, Italy, in 1904, Mr. Docili married Miss Ottilia Pilotti, and they are the parents of four children : Emma, Arthur, Flora and Lina.

ISAAC MATSON.—A native of Finland, although of Swedish ancestry, and an earnest admirer of the land of his forebears, Isaac Matson is never­theless a loyal citizen of the United States, and one of the most worthy of California's adopted sons. Not only is he a skilled ship-carpenter, but is also a builder of mills, bridges and wharves, and in this line is said to have no superior in Humboldt county. Executive ability and initiative are promi­nent qualifications, and he is exceptionally capable in the handling of large numbers of workmen. He now owns a splendid place in Pepperwood Bot­toms, containing about twenty-three acres of rich, fertile land, which he has under a high state of cultivation.

Mr. Matson was born near Wasa, Finland, November 1, 1865. He worked in the ship yards at Helsingfors and at sixteen years of age was a full-fledged ship-carpenter. He became acquainted with Capt. E. Aslakson, of the Norwegian bark Sunshine, and sailed as his ship-carpenter for a year. He left this vessel at Philadelphia and later shipped as second carpenter on the American full-rigged sailor Hagerstown, on which he sailed around the Horn, arriving in San Francisco March 10, 1883. Soon afterward he went up to Mendocino county and at Whitesboro worked as a lumberman for a year or more. He then went with his employer, L. E. White, to Greenwood, Mendo­cino county, and was there engaged in mill work, bridge construction, railroad and wharf building for about six years. Among other work that he accom­plished during that time wap the building of the wharf at Greenwood, which was a diffi-ult task, well aria successfully completed within a given time. About this time he became acquainted with Cal. Stewart, and while in his employ built three wharves at Bear Harbor and also constructed ten miles of railroad. Altogether he was in the employ of Mr. Stewart for sixteen years, from 1888 until 1904.

The marriage of Mr. Matson occurred at Bear Harbor, uniting him with Miss Bertha Hawley, a native of California, born and reared in Humboldt county. They have seven children living—two, twin daughters, having died when fourteen months old. The living children are : Grover Cleveland, Lillie Queen, Alice T-Telen, Irene, Lloyd, Eleanor and Leonard. After his marriage Mr. Matson bought a place of five hundred forty acres at the head of Bull creek, which he ran as a stock ranch for. three years. Later he sold this property and came to Pepperwood, where he has since resided, his ranch comprising over forty-four acres, devoted to diversified farming and fruit raising.

Mr. Matson is a Republican in his political affiliations, and among other offices has served as election judge. He is keenly interested in educational affairs, and has helped to establish the Eleanor school district, of which he is a trustee.

HON. JONATHAN CLARK, M. D.—Vigorous in mind and body, clear­headed and the possessor of unlimited energy and sound judgment, the late Hon. Jonathan Clark, M. D., a pioneer physician, contributed his full share towards developing the resources of Humboldt county, and was justly styled one of the fathers of Eureka. A native of Crawfordsville, Ind., he was born February 26, 1826, of patriotic ancestry, being a lineal descendant. of Abram Clark, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. At the age of fifteen years Jonathan Clark went to Iowa, where he completed his early education, and after taking a course in medicine received the degree of M. D. Coming overland to the Pacific coast in 1849, he arrived in California in No­vember of that year, and the following four months were successfully engaged in mining. Subsequently taking passage on the brig Reindeer, he arrived at Humboldt Bay June 16, 1850, and immediately began the practice of his profession. Skilful and practical, he gained a wide reputation as a physician and surgeon, and November 1, 1853, was appointed acting assistant surgeon in the United States army. Dr. Clark, under the command of Col. R. C. Buchanan, of the Fourth United States Infantry, was assigned to duty at Fort Humboldt, which was located about two miles from Eureka, in what was then called Bucksport, and where he afterwards owned a large part of the land. While at the fort Dr. Clark had for one of his patients Lieut. U. S. Grant. Favorable mention of Dr. Clark is made by General Grant in his memoirs. June 6, 1863, Dr. Clark was commissioned surgeon of the First Battalion of Mountaineers, California Volunteers, and served under Lieut. Col. S. G. Whipple during the Indian wars of 1863, 1864 and 1865, stationed at Fort Gaston, on the Hoopa Reservation.

Resuming his professional duties in Eureka at the close of the war, Dr. Clark continued in active practice until 1870, when he retired, his large real estate holdings and his other business affairs demanding his entire time and attention. In 1872 he laid out Clark's addition to Eureka, which consists of twenty-four blocks in one of the finest residence parts of the city, selling much cheaper to homeseekers and actual settlers than to speculators. As an enlargement to this addition, he subsequently platted and laid out forty-two blocks. He afterward laid out a second enlargement, platting fifty-nine blocks, or two hundred forty acres in all. Before he had sold any, however, his death occurred and his estate has since been managed by his son, William S. Clark, of whom a sketch may be found on another page of this volume.

Prominent and active in the management of public affairs, Mr. Clark never shirked official responsibilities, but served his fellow townsmen in many capacities with ability and loyal fidelity. He was the first postmaster on Humboldt Bay, being appointed to the position in 1851, and was also the first notary public. In 1855 he was elected a member of the Eureka board of supervisors, and reelected for a second term. In 1857 he was appointed county treasurer. In 1874 he was chosen a member of the common council of Eureka, and reelected in 1876. The same year he was elected to the general assembly, representing Humboldt county, and introduced several bills of importance and served on various committees. Among the bills which he introduced were the following: One for completing the Kneeland Prairie and Round Valley wagon road ; for completing the coast wagon road, leading from Ferndale to the county line, via Petrolia ; and one authorizing the construction of the Grizzly Bluff and Camp Grant wagon road. He was likewise the author of the Humboldt county road law and amended the Klamath county disbursement bill so as to secure an adjustment of the affairs of that county. He was also the author of the Humboldt county hospital law, and procured an amendment to the act incorporating the city of Eureka. He introduced into the house a joint resolution asking for a mail route from Eureka by way of Ferndale to Mendocino county. He served on the state hospital committee ; the committee of public morals ; of commerce and navigation ; and was a member of the centennial committee. As a representative, Dr. Clark was active, cautious and untiring in his exertions to guard the interests of his constituents, his term of service being eminently successful and highly satisfactory to the people of the county. Elected mayor of Eureka in 1878, he served for a term of two years, but declined a renomination to the office. In politics he was a stanch Republican. He was of a commanding appearance, being five feet eleven inches in height, and weighing one hundred ninety pounds. He died in San Francisco March 29, 1884, his death being a cause of deep regret to the town and county in which he had so long resided, and with whose highest interests he had been so prominently identified.

Dr. Clark married, in November, 1855, Maria Ryan, who was born in County Tipperary, Ireland, January 3, 1821, a daughter of Joseph Ryan and a sister of the late James T. Ryan. Joseph Ryan emigrated from the Emerald Isle to New Brunswick with his family during the '30s, locating first in Stanley, and then living for a while in St. John. Removing from that city to Boston, Mass., he carried on a profitable business as a builder and contractor for many years, living there until his death at the age of three score and ten years. Of his family of nine children, Mrs. Clark is the only survivor. Arriving in Eureka July 12, 1854, Miss Ryan soon afterwards formed the acquaintance of the active and highly esteemed young physician, Dr. Clark, whom she afterward married. In the beautiful home erected by the doctor Mrs. Clark still resides. The home grounds, which are among the most at­tractive in the city, cover four blocks. Dr. and Mrs. Clark became the parents of two children, namely : Eliza, who cares most tenderly for her aged mother ; and William S., manager of the paternal estate.

History of Humboldt County California
History by Leigh H. Irvine: Historic Record Company, Los Angeles, California, 1915
Transcribed by Martha A Crosley Graham 17 July 2006, Pages 595-748


Site Updated: 4 December 2009

Martha A Crosley Graham