Humboldt County, California


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CHARLES SPENCER FAY.—California has always been proud of her stanch, sturdy. native sons, and prominent among them is Charles S. Fay, who was born in Eureka, Humboldt county, September 7, 1875. When but a baby his parents moved to Bayside and here he received his early training and education, attending the public schools of Bayside until fifteen years of age, when he left school to enter the farming business with his father. His father died when he was a young man, so his broad shoulders were well fitted to take up the burden thrust upon them. He first engaged in quarry­ing in the hills above Bayside but remained there only a short time, going north to Chehalis county, Washington, where he located in the town of Hoquiam, and followed different lines of work for one year, but on account of the death of his father he returned to Humboldt county and took charge of the farming business on the home place. His mother, now Mrs. Margaret Nicholson, was a pioneer of Humboldt and makes her home with her son, Charles S. The ranch contained forty-seven acres of good bottom land, all improved and well adapted to dairying and he settled down to the life of an energetic farmer, and on this ranch he has become one of the successful young men of the community, always alert for improved methods and equip­ment, and striving to make the place homelike for his mother. He is a mem­ber of Anniversary Lodge No. 85, Arcata, I. 0. 0. F., and of the Encampment and Canton of Odd Fellows, and also of the Rebekahs. He has always been active in all movements for the upbuilding of the community, and is well liked and highly respected.

ALEXANDER JOHANSON.—Tracing his lineage back through the years in Sweden, of which country he is a native, Alexander Johanson finds among his forbears many men of more than ordinary qualities of mind and heart, men who took high rank in the affairs of their country as sailors, sol­diers, and financiers. His own father was an officer in the Swedish navy, and saw many years of service under the flag of his native land. Mr. Johanson himself embodies the finest and best of the qualities that have distinguished his ancestors, and has also acquired the most sterling virtues of the land of his adoption. He has strength of mind and body, intellect,.tenac­ity of purpose, industry and enterprise, and these qualities have carried him through many difficult situations, and over many serious reverses and disap­pointments in business. The first ranch which he purchased in the Eel river valley, using money that he had saved little by little from his wages as a farm hand, was washed away by that treacherous stream, at present only seven acres of the original sixty-two remaining, and these will go within a year or two. This property was highly improved, with family orchards, a comfortable residence, barns and other out-buildings, and had been pur­chased for a permanent home. The loss was severe, but the courage of the man was not destroyed, and he has since retrieved his success, now owning two splendid ranches in the vicinity, with fine herds of cattle and milch cows.

Mr. Johanson was born in Smaaland, Sweden, March 26, 1860, the son of Johan August Nilson Nordstrom and Sophia (Ryberg) Nordstrom, both of whom are still living in Smaaland, at the age of almost eighty years. There were ten children in their family, of whom Alexander was the third born. Of the others, one died in infancy, the rest growing to maturity, and scat­tering over three countries to find their homes. Two of the brothers live in Germany, one in Sweden, while two brothers and three sisters reside in the United States, two of the sisters making their homes in Chicago, and one in Oregon, while the brothers are . both living in California. Alex. Johanson passed the days of his childhood at the family home in Smaaland, attending the public schools until he was sixteen years of age. He then went to Schleswig, Germany, where he found employment for several years. While there he met with an accident which seriously injured his right knee, and which has been a decided handicap throughout the succeeding years. He was then obliged to give up his position, and, on the advice of physicians, learned shoemaking, as that trade could be followed without further injury to the injured limb. He served an apprenticeship of three and a half years at this trade and be­came a skilled workman, remaining during this time in Schleswig. In 1884 he determined to come to America, and on May 28th of that year he set sail from Hamburg to New York, and thence came by rail directly to San Fran­cisco. He again. took boat from San Francisco to Eureka, and later located at Ferndale, where he was employed by M. P. Meng, boot and shoe dealer at that place, remaining in this connection for three and a half years. The marriage of Mr. Johanson took place at Ferndale, in November, 1886, and united him with Miss Meta Jensen, a native of Schleswig, Germany, who had come to America in 1885. In 1888 Mr. Johanson went into the Bear Ridge country and entered the employ of Thomas Hansen in order to learn dairy farming. The following year he came back to the Eel river country and rented the Crowley ranch of forty acres, just east of Ferndale. For twelve years he continued to rent, and in 1901 he purchased his first ranch property at Pleasant Point, this being the place that was washed away by the high waters of the Eel river. He also purchased a ranch of one hundred eighty-four acres on Cannibal Island, four miles west of Loleta, which he has always rented out. His present place, consisting of forty acres near Waddington, he purchased four years ago, and has since made his home there. The property is in a high state of cultivation, and is one of the attractive ranches of the district. Mr. Johanson milks a herd of twenty-six cows at the present time, and is also engaged in diversified farming.

Both Mr. and Mrs. Johanson, as well as their children, are well and favorably known in their part of the county. There are five children in the family, three boys and two girls, all natives of this county, where they have been reared and educated, and where they have a host of warm friends. Of these the eldest, Mary Sophia, is a graduate of the Ferndale Business College, and is now residing at home with her parents ; August P. is a dairy rancher at Grizzly Bluff ; Alma is a graduate of the Normal school at Arcata, class of 1914; while Clarence and Harry are still in public school. Mr. and Mrs. Johanson are both faithful members of the Lutheran church, in which they were reared and confirmed in the mother country. In his political views Mr. Johanson is a Republican, and is always keenly interested in the issues of the day, especially when they in any way directly affect the welfare and progress of his home community. He is progressive and wide-awake and is always ready to support any movement for the betterment of the community and general public.

OLIVER SWANSON was born near Engelholm, Skaane, Sweden, June 26, 1849, and there he spent the years of his boyhood upon his father's farm until 1871, when he came to the United States. While the transcontinental railroad had been completed some time before, the system was still far from perfect and he spent two weeks between New York City and San Francisco. Arriving at San Jose, in the Santa Clara valley, he found employment with a threshing machine crew and followed the outfit into different parts of the valley. In a short time, however, the threshing had been completed and he left the valley, returned to San Francisco, took passage on a boat that landed him at Crescent City, Del Norte county, after six days of buffeting with a storm. It had been his intention to locate near Eureka and so he walked the one hundred miles between the two towns. The trip was one of great hardship. No roads had been laid out and a stranger experienced the greatest difficulty in traveling from one point to another through a rough, unpopulated country, but finally Mr. Swanson reached his destination. Soon he found work on a farm near the Eel river. Carefully hoarding his earnings, he was able in a few years to rent land and engage in the raising of grain and potatoes, an undertaking at first including a quarter section, but later limited to eighty acres.

On leaving the farm Mr. Swanson found employment in the Hookton warehouse in Humboldt county. When Fields Landing had only two houses he went to the new town, where for four and one-half years he held the agency for the Eel River & Eureka Railroad, besides operating a hotel and carrying on a general store. In 1904 he became proprietor of the South Park Hotel in Eureka and in 1909 he helped to build the new race track, which he operated under a lease until 1914, when he sold his South Park interests. Since that time he has engaged in farming one hundred sixty acres on Table Bluff, thus returning to the business in which he first engaged upon coming to the Eel river section. He thoroughly enjoys his work, for he loves to see things grow. In politics he voted with the Democratic party, but his participation does not include candidacy for local offices. June 26, 1876, he was united in marriage with Miss Sarah J. Tierney, who died in Eureka in 1909. Two of their children, John S. and Oliver D., likewise have passed away. There now survive two daughters and one son, namely : Marie J., wife of Louis Buhall ; Pura Jane, wife of F. W. Seymour ; and Charles F. Swanson, M. D., a practicing physician in Milford, Utah.

CHRISTIAN SCHRODER.—The honor of being a passenger on the first train that crossed the continent to California belongs to Christian Schroder, who dates his identification with the west from the year 1869 and who since 1876 has made his home in Humboldt county. Like many of the men from his native land of Denmark he became a sailor in youth and visited the principal ports of the world during the years of his life on the high seas. Inured to hardships and privations in the discharge of his duties as a sailor, he was well qualified to endure the trying experiences incident to army life, and his service in the Civil war, beginning in 1861 and continuing until after the fall of Richmond, reflected credit upon himself and upon Company B, Forty-third Illinois Infantry, in which he served throughout the entire war. After his arrival in San Francisco he found employment in the liquor busi­ness and followed the same line of work for many years after coming to Eureka in 1876. During 1895 he moved across the bay to Samoa and built the residence now occupied by himself and family.

For a number of years Mr. Schroder kept a record of all. the vessels com­ing into Humboldt bay and he has always taken an active part in the shipping interests, one of his specialties having been the chartering of a tugboat and the conveying of parties to the deep-sea fishing headquarters off Cape Mendo­cino. His knowledge of the best places for fishing and his success in securing large catches have made him desired by fishing expeditions looking for a guide. Since coming to the county he has been a member of Col. Whipple Post, G. A. R. At St. Louis, Mo., in 1865, he married Miss Mary Inman, a native of Alabama. She was for fourteen years the postmaster at Samoa, a position now filled by their adopted daughter, Annie Hogan. In addition to this daughter they reared an adopted son, Fred Hogan, now filling a re­sponsible position as chief engineer of the steamer Tamalpais.

FREDERICK H. HOLM.—Among the honored pioneer names of Hum­boldt county there is none more respected than that of Holm, the late Hans Peter Holm being one of the men who in an early day gave of his strength and manhood to carve a new state from the wilderness, and today his son and heir, Frederick H. Holm, is proving a worthy son of a splendid sire, and occu­pies a place of prominence in the community where he lives, the family home for many years being at Hydesville. Here Mr. Holm owns a fine farm of one hundred eighty-five acres on which he resides. He is prominent in the local affairs of the city and county and is regarded as a man of unusual ability and power.

A native of California, born in Eureka, Humboldt county, December 6, 1886, the son of Hans Peter and Catherine (Petersen) Holm, young Mr. Holm has been reared and educated within the confines of this county and has passed practically his entire time here. His father was a native of Denmark, born April 10, 1841, and was a shoemaker by trade. He came to America when he was only twenty-one years of age, and after five months spent in New York and New Jersey, he came to California in the spring of 1864, locating for a time in .Haywards, Alameda county. Later he came into Humboldt county and engaged in the sheep business with much success, his ranch being on the Mad river, and for twenty-five years he continued in this line, becoming one of the most prominent stockmen of the county, and amassing a large fortune. He also, during these years, bought the ranch near Hydes­ville which was his home place for so many years, and on which he was residing at the time of his death, August 11, 1914. The development of the county owes much to the enterprise and progress of this pioneer farmer, one of his achievements being the demonstration of the adaptability of this section for the raising of cherries. He planted three acres to this fruit, the first to be planted in the county, and sold the product of his orchard some­times for as much as seventeen cents per pound. He married Catherine Petersen, a native of Denmark, at Eureka, and of their union were born two children : Harry, who died in infancy, and Frederick H., the present honored citizen of Hydesville. The mother is still living at Hydesville, at the age of fifty-nine years.

Frederick H. Holm passed his childhood on his father's farm, attending the public schools at Hydesville, and after graduation, taking a course at the Eureka Business College. He has been engaged in farming for the greater part of his life, and now has one of the most attractive places in the vicinity. He was married in Hydesville, September 28, 1911, to Miss Wilma Jewett, a native of Corning, Tehama county, the daughter of W. E. and Malvina (Rice) Jewett, born in Michigan and Ohio, respectively. Her parents farmed in Tehama county and in 1893 located at Cuddeback ; the mother died in Hydes­ville and the father resides with Mr. and Mrs. Holm.

Mr. and Mrs. Holm have one child, a daughter, Lenore. They are well known in Hydesville where they have many friends and acquaintances. Mr. Holm is prominent in fraternal circles, being a member of Hydesville Lodge No. 250, I. 0. 0. F., and also of Hydesville Encampment No. 59, and has been through all the chairs of both orders. His father was also a member of these orders and took a prominent part in their activities for many years. Both Mr. and Mts. Holm are members of the Rebekahs and Mrs. Holm is a member of the Christian church of Hydesville.

HIRAM HENRY.—In Humboldt county there will be found a large number of people of Canadian descent and among these families is the Henry family. Born at Magundy, York county, New Brunswick, April 17, 1858, Hiram Henry attended the public schools of the district. He is the son of Francis Henry who was also a native of New Brunswick, where he followed the business of farming and worked at logging during the winters. He moved with his family to Polk county, Minnesota, in 1873, and there engaged in farming, taking a homestead of one hundred sixty acres near East Grand Forks in the famous Red River valley of the north, but in 1876 he came to California and located at Bayside, Humboldt county, where he followed the lumber business, in which undertaking he was very successful, but at the time of his death, September 7, 1907, he had retired from all active labor, leaving the management of his affairs in the capable hands of his son Hiram. His wife was Phoebe Davis, likewise a native of New Brunswick,"and there they were married, October 28, 1856, and Mrs. Francis Henry is still living on the ranch of her son Hiram.

Hiram Henry remained in Minnesota when his parents came west, for one year following the lumber business, but in 1877 his father sent for him to come to Humboldt county, so he came forthwith. He was first employed in the woods logging for Frank Graham, but later he took up the stock-raising and farming business for himself, at first only leasing the land but later returned to the home place on the death of his father. Aside from ranching, he engaged in carpentering, at Bayside, and also in the buying and selling of horses, in which venture he was very successful. With his family he now resides on the old home place at Bayside. He is a member of the Inde­pendent Order of Foresters and the K. 0. T. M. and in politics is a stanch Republican and is also a member of the Christian church. He was married in Sacramento, July, 1907, to Mrs. Margaret (Doyle) Anderson, a native of New Brunswick. Mr. and Mrs. Hiram Henry are highly esteemed citizens and are interested in all that tends to uplift the community.

CALVIN HENRY REAVES.—A resident of California for forty years, and for much of that time located in Humboldt county, Calvin Henry Reaves is one of the best known of the pioneers, and is a highly respected and esteemed citizen of Blue Lake at the present time, having given up active business life within the past few years. Previous to that time he was en­gaged in farming and, at an earlier period, in the lumbering industry. He has seen Blue Lake grow from a wilderness into a thriving little city, and a place of importance in the county.

Mr. Reaves is a native of Iowa, having been born near Davenport, Scott county, July 3, 1854. His father was William B. Reaves, a native of Indiana, born in 1817. He followed farming in Iowa and Illinois for the greater part of his life, and was thrifty and prosperous. He died at Independence, Kansas, in March, 1872. The mother was Elizabeth (Stafford) Reaves, a native of Pennsylvania, who was married in Scott county, Iowa, in 1847. She died on a farm in Iowa. She was the mother of five children, of whom Calvin was the fourth in order of birth.

When Calvin H. Reaves was about ten years of age his father removed from their home at Davenport, Iowa, to Henderson county, Ill., where he grew to young manhood. Here he attended the public schools in the Pleasant Valley district until he was sixteen, when his father again moved. this time going to Kansas, living in several different sections of the state. In 1872 the father died, and young Calvin was obliged to leave school and go to work. For a few years he was employed on the neighboring farms, in stock-raising and farming. It was in 1875 that he determined to seek his fortune in the larger field offered by California, and accordingly came west, arriving in San Francisco in March of that year. He went from there to Humboldt county, going first to Eureka, and later securing employment on a ranch on the Arcata bottoms. Later he removed to Gold Bluff and for a time was in the employ of the Gold Bluff Mining Company, working in the mines. He continued with this company for two years, when the ownership changed and he returned to Blue Lake, which was then known as Scottsville. Here he accepted a position with Frank Graham, and went to work in the woods. In 1883 he was one of the carpenters who built the mill for the Graham, Chandler & Henderson Company, and for twenty years Mr. Reaves remained in the service of this company, being for the greater part of the time engaged in the woods, in the logging department. A few years ago he resigned his position and has since then been living quietly at his home in Blue Lake.

The marriage of Mr. Reaves took place at Blue Lake, September 18, 1878, uniting him with Laura Lovina Merriman, a native of Missouri, born in Holt county, December 23, 1856. Both Mr. and Mrs. Reaves are well known in Humboldt county, where they have many friends. Like her husband, Mrs. Reaves is a California pioneer. Her father was Samuel Merriman, a native of Ohio, born May 25, 1825. After attending school a few years he took up the tailor's trade and followed this line of work for the greater part of his residence in the east. In 1857 he came with his family across the plains to California, locating in the San Joaquin valley, twenty-two miles east of Stockton. Here he engaged in farming for a number of years. In 1865 he removed to Healdsburg, Sonoma county, and again took up farming. Mr. Merriman had never farmed until he came to California, but his ability and industry supplied the lack of experience, and he was very prosperous. Later, in 1866, he moved with his family to Humboldt county, making the trip overland on horseback, nine days being consumed in the journey. Arrived here, he rented the Nixon ranch and engaged in farming. In. 1869 he took up a squatter's claim in the Blue Lake district, consisting of one hundred sixty acres, and moved his family onto the property. Here he built a comfortable home, and lived with his family until the time of his death. He cleared and improved one hundred acres of the land, and proved up on the claim. From time to time he purchased other sections of land, and owned several hundred acres in and around Blue Lake at the time of his death, which occurred in October, 1897. Mr. Merriman was one of the early pioneers of the county, and a man who fully realized the splendid future of the county in every respect. He was highly esteemed in the community as a man of sterling qualities, industrious, progressive and reliable. His wife was Miss Nancy Courtney, a native of Pennsylvania, born October 22, 1820, and died at Blue Lake in October, 1892. She was the mother of ten children, and was the companion and true helpmeet of her husband.

Although so much of the life of Mr. Reaves has been spent in the woods, he is well informed on all questions of the day, and is actively interested in all that pertains to the welfare of his home city. He is a Republican in politics, although he has never been actively a participant in the affairs of his party. He is progressive and wide awake to all that concerns the good of the city, and his influence is always found on the side of social betterment and municipal upbuilding.

JEREMIAH DALE.—A pioneer of California, who came to this state in 1854 with only fifty cents in his pockets, and who is now the owner of a ranch of three hundred fifteen acres in Humboldt county, Jeremiah Dale may be said to have achieved more than ordinary success in his long and energetic life. Born in Clarion county, Pa., August 20, 1834, he was the son of Daniel and Elizabeth (Evans) Dale, the father having been born in Pennsylvania in 1806 and died in 1850. The first sixteen years of the life of Jeremiah Dale were spent upon the farm of his father, who was both farmer and miller. Four years after his father's death, the son made the trip to California, coming by way of the Isthmus of Panama and securing work in the mines at Prairie City, on the American river, at Rough and Ready on Deer creek, and then at Iowa Hill, Placer county. He accumulated what seemed to him a small fortune and which enabled him to return to Pennsylvania, in 1858, where he married Sarah Callihan, a native of Clarion county, Pa., and the daughter of George and Rebecca (Bostaff) Callihan. During the Civil war the couple made their home in Virginia, where Mr. Dale acted as a home guard, espous­ing the Union cause.

In 1864, ten years after his first visit to California, Mr. Dale returned to this state, where he engaged in gold mining in Nevada county for four years and in .1868 settled in Humboldt county. Here he purchased his present large ranch and engaged in farming, stock-raising and dairying, meeting with great success from the first, his farm being one of the most fertile and valu­able in this section. About the year 1890 he leased his ranch, and retired from active life, making his home with his daughter, Mrs. M. N. Weber of Rohnerville.

Mr. Dale is the father of four children, namely : Lola, wife of M. N. Weber, a retired business man of Rohnerville, who was born in Germany January 28, 1831, and came to California in 1852, where he became wealthy by dealing in real estate (he died December 24, 1914) ; Florence, widow of Samuel M. Douglas, of Eugene, Ore. ; Harvey, a resident of Healdsburg, Cal.; and Annie, wife of Jonathan F. Robertson, a prosperous farmer and dairyman of Hydesville, who was in early years employed upon the extensive ranch of Jeremiah Dale in Humboldt county.

Mr. Dale was made a Mason in Mount Carmen Lodge, F. & A. M., at Red Dog, afterward affiliating with Eel River Lodge No. 147, F. & A. M., of Fortuna. He is a member of Humboldt Chapter No. 52, R. A. M., Eureka, and of Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T., as well as Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., San Francisco, and has also taken the Maltese degree in Masonry.

During his many years of residence in Humboldt county Mr. Dale has been known as a man of the best business judgment and honor, who always has at heart the welfare of the community where he lives. The success which his hard-working life has achieved is well earned and he has the honor of being. one of the upbuilders of Humboldt county.

RALPH BIASCA.—Although born in Switzerland, in the town of Lod­rino, Canton Ticino, December 24, 1871, the son of Paolino Biasca, a farmer and dairyman who owned his ranch in the Alps and was engaged in the manufacture of butter and cheese and is still living on the home farm with his wife, Margareta Biasca, the son, Ralph Biasca, is an enterprising and pro­gressive dairyman and stockraiser in Humboldt county, Cal., having lived in this state since the year 1892.

One of a family of seven sons and daughters, of whom six are now living, Ralph Biasca was brought up on his father's farm, where he learned all about butter and cheese making, and received his schooling in the local public schools. In 1892 he came to California, where his brother Moses is now also located, being a dairyman near Ferndale, in which town his sisters Anna and Victoria also reside, the former being the wife of Henry Biasca, the latter the wife of Frank Ambrosini, the other sisters remaining in Ticino, where Amelia is now the wife of Giuseppe Bruga, and Julia makes her home with her parents. Ralph Biasca's first employment after coming to Cali­fornia was at a dairy near Vallejo, Solano county, and there he remained six years, in 1899 removing to Humboldt county and working at a dairy in the vicinity of Ferndale for several years, after which, determining to go into business for himself, he rented a dairy ranch at Arcata with Victor Ambrosini as partner, and continued there for two years, with a herd of forty-five cows. Having dissolved his partnership and sold out his interest, in 1905 Mr. Biasca bought his present place of twenty acres and there now carries on the same line of work, at a later date purchasing a thirty-one acre ranch in and adjoining Ferndale on the north, which he leases for dairy pur­poses. He also leases forty acres adjacent to his home ranch, which gives him a dairy of sixty acres, where he has a fine herd of twenty cows, and also engages in raising barley and other grain. On six hundred acres which he has likewise leased on Francis Creek, one mile south of Ferndale, .he carries on stockraising with the success which has attended his ventures from the first. He believes in land as an investment of the best kind, and by his efforts has now become independent in his chosen line of occupation. He was an original stockholder in the Valley Flower Creamery Company. He is known in political circles as an active Republican, while fraternally he is a member of the Druids.

The marriage of Mr. Biasca took place in Arcata, uniting hi .m with Miss Linda Bruga, like himself a native of Lodrino, her father being Giuseppe Bruga, a farmer in Ticino until his death. Since 1894 her brother, Frank Bruga, has been a resident of California.

RICHARD MILES PARSONS.—Born near Monroe City, Monroe county, Mo., October 26, 1848, Richard Miles Parsons came to California in 1872, locating in Mendocino county, near Hopland. Soon afterward, in part­nership with his brother, Thomas S. Parsons, he bought a stock ranch which they successfully ran for four years. At the end of that time R. M. Parsons bought the interest of his brother and engaged in farming and stock-raising as an independent venture, residing here for many years and making a decided financial success of the undertaking. After disposing of his ranch and stock he came to Humboldt county in 1888, and in 1896 he purchased the drug store of J. N. Shibles, in Hydesville, and since then he has been conducting this business for himself. He is a man of strictly temperate habits, never touching either liquor or tobacco, and the business that he conducts partakes of the same spirit of straightforwardness and attention to detail, with an elimina­tion of all that is not clean, fair and profitable. The stock is kept fresh and up-to-date, and every attention is given to meeting the needs of the customer. Mr. Parsons also has a multitude of other interests, in all of which he brings to bear the same sterling business principles. He is serving his fifth term as notary public, and he also deals in real estate and insurance, being especially interested in the buying and selling of farm lands around Hydesville and of city property.

Mr. Parsons is the son of Clement Parsons, a native of Maryland, who removed with his parents to Kentucky when he was but five years of age, they locating near Lebanon. There he grew to maturity, and was married to Miss Eliza Blandford, who became the mother of his children, eleven in number, and all of them grew to maturity save one, Sylvester, who was accidentally killed in childhood. R. M., the subject of this article, is the youngest of the family, and is one of three living at this time. The father was a farmer, and was for many years engaged in buying horses and mules for the New Orleans market. He died in Missouri in 1865 at the age of seventy-two years. The mother was born in 1800, and after the death of her husband she came to California, where she died in 1878.

Mr. Parsons has been twice married. The first time when he was engaged in farming near Hopland, the bride being Mrs. Martha A. Moore, a native of Missouri. She bore her husband four children, and after a lingering illness of two years, she died in Hydesville, when the youngest child was eleven years of age. The children are all natives of California and are well and favorably known in Humboldt county, where they were reared and educated. They are : Zelma, now the wife of G. F. Baker, a dentist residing in Idaho, where he is president of the state dental board ; James, a student in the medical department of the University of Kentucky, at Louisville, Ky., and also a graduate of the pharmacy school of the University of California, and a licensed pharmacist ; Mable, the wife of R. T. Bryant, a farmer, of Alton : and Ellis, a pharmacist at Crescent City, and a graduate of the school of pharmacy of the Affiliated Colleges of San Francisco. The second marriage of Mr. Parsons was solemnized on April 9, 1911, uniting him with Mrs. Jennie V. Murphy, of Hydesville.

Mr. Parsons has always taken an active interest in all that pertains to the progress of his city and county. He is especially interested in education and has given the members of his family a thorough education, sending them to the higher educational institutions of the state and in the east. They are all scholarly and more than ordinarily intelligent and their father takes a justifiable pride in their achievements. Mr. Parsons has built his business on a solid basis and has always avoided speculations of every sort. He is strictly honest and gives and demands only the fairest of treatment in all business transactions. He is a Democrat in his political affiliations, but has never taken a specially active part in the affairs of his party save as they involved local issues, although he is well informed on all the questions of the day, whether county, state or national.

JONATHAN F. ROBERTSON.--Among the men who have achieved more than the average degree of success mention must be made of Jonathan F. Robertson, of Hydesville, one of the prominently successful farmers of that township and a man of splendid abilities and character. Mr. Robertson has always been a hard worker and the fruits of his industry are now to be seen in the fine farm of three hundred seventeen acres that is his home. The acreage is rented out, but the house and few surrounding acres are retained for a home place, and these form one of the most attractive spots in the vicinity, the greatest care being given to lawns, flowers, gardens, ornamental fences and buildings, all of which are in perfect condition and in architectural harmony.

Mr. Robertson has lived on the Pacific coast for more than forty years, having come to Oregon with his parents and brothers and sisters in 1873, when he was a lad of twelve years. He was born in Freelandville, Knox county, Ind., September 25, 1861, the son of Edward W. and Barbara J. (Crooks) Robertson, the former a native of Ohio, while the mother was born in Indiana. The father lived to be eighty years of age, while the mother died at the age of seventy-six. There were ten children in the family, consisting of nine sons and one daughter, and on their arrival in Oregon in 1873, the father located on a farm near Salem, being five miles from the capital, with a sight of the dome of the state house through the tree-tops. There he owned a tract of four hundred acres, originally all heavily timbered, and this the father and sons cleared and improved, all working very hard. After a time they disposed of the farm and with the proceeds went to Turner, Ore., and bought a flour mill, Jonathan F. helping to run the mill. Later he came to Alton, Humboldt county, Cal., and entered the employ of Jeremiah Dale, who owned an extensive ranch at that place, and is well known as one of the finest of the pioneers of Humboldt county. Here young Robertson remained for four years, and in Hydesville, June 11, 1891, he was married to Miss Annie Dale, a native of You Bet, Nevada county, the daughter of Jeremiah Dale, who is one of the early California pioneers, having come by way of the Isthmus of Panama, in 1854, meeting with many hardships en route. He is a native of Clarion county, Pa., and the son of Daniel and Elizabeth (Evans) Dale. After coming to California he engaged in mining with very good success, his accumulated earnings in four years appearing to him as a small fortune. He then returned to Pennsylvania and was there married to Sarah Callihan, a native of Clarion county, Pa., and the daughter of George and Rebecca (Bostaff) Callihan, both natives of Pennsylvania. During the Civil war they resided in Virginia, where Mr. Dale acted as a home guard, espousing the Union cause. Returning to California in 1864, he spent three years in the mines at Nevada City, and in 1867 came to Humboldt county, locating at his present ranch of three hundred fifteen acres near Rohnerville, where he has since made his home. In 1890 he leased the farm and since then has lived in quiet retirement, enjoying the fruits of his many years of industry.

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Robertson came to Hydesville, where they rented the John Walker farm and engaged in farming and stock-raising ; after running the farm for a period of seven years, they purchased the place, and since then they have made valuable improvements. This prop­erty consists of three hundred seventy acres, and later Mr. Robertson also operated the Dale ranch at the same time, running both for ten years, meet­ing always with the greatest success. During his many years of residence in this vicinity he has won for himself a place in the hearts of the people, both personally and from a business point of view, his integrity and honesty being unquestioned. He is a member of the Ferndale Lodge No. 193, F. & A. M., and Ferndale Chapter No. 78, R. A. M. In his political preferences he is a Republican, although he has never sought political honors for him­self, preferring to serve his county and state as a private citizen. He has always taken an active part in all local issues and is heartily in favor of any movement that tends for the upbuilding of the community and the state.

Mrs. Robertson is a splendid helpmeet for her husband, and a woman of rare poise and ability. She is an artist of much merit and their home is beautified with paintings that are the result of her skill, and which would do credit to many an artist of acknowledged fame. Some time ago Mr. Robertson was the victim of a partial stroke of paralysis, due, no doubt, to early exposure and overwork, and since that time much of the responsibility for the management of the business has fallen upon the shoulders of the wife, but she has been more than equal to the task, and is making a success of all that she undertakes. She is exceptionally popular among her women friends and is well known in social circles in Hydesville.

FRANK G. WILLIAMS.—The president of the Russ-Williams Banking Company of Ferndale was born at Weaverville, Trinity county, Cal., September 15, 1861, and received a common school education in Humboldt county, together with a commercial course in Heald's Business College, San Francisco, where he was graduated in 1882. During young manhood he was a junior partner in the mercantile firm of Russ, Early & Williams, afterwards incorporated, at Ferndale and Bridgeville, and he still holds a directorship in the company, although no longer an active partner in the business. The organization of the Russ-Williams Banking Company, effected in November, 1909, largely through his own capable efforts, has been of permanent benefit to the financial development of Ferndale and community. For the use of the business there is a capital stock of $25,000. The institution has had a steady growth under the efficient management of the following board of directors : Frank G. Williams, president ; William N. Russ, vice-president ; R. S. Feenaty, cashier ; G. R. Williams and George M. Brice. Since Ferndale has been organized as a town, a period of some twenty years, Mr. Williams has officiated in the position of town treasurer and has proved a worthy custodian of the village funds, as well as a progressive citizen in every respect, efficient in aiding measures for the advancement of the community and loyal to the section where the greater part of his life has been passed. Besides being a member of the Native Sons of the Golden West, he is a member of Ferndale Lodge No. 193, F. & A. M., of which he is past master ; Ferndale Chapter No. 78, R. A. M. ; Eureka Commandery No. 35, K. T., and Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S.

Few residents of Humboldt county have been more fortunate in friends or more happy in family and business connections than was Hon. George Williams, father of Frank G. Williams and a native of Lancaster county, Pa., born March 29, 1822, being a son of Thomas Williams, of Welsh paren­tage. The family records show that Thomas Williams died in 1834 at the age of forty-five, while his wife, Elizabeth (Snodgrass) Williams, died in Ohio at the same age. Of their seven children, George was the third in order of birth. After the death of his father he accompanied his mother to Ohio, and when she passed away, five years afterward, he worked out as a farm hand. At the age of eighteen he learned the trade of baker, and while work­ing at the trade he studied medicine for three years, but did not secure his diploma because the gold excitement in California changed his plans. In 1849 he went to Illinois and taught in a country school for three months. During the spring of 1850 he started overland for California, paying $100 for his passage and having besides the duty of driving an ox-team for members of the expedition. According to an agreement previously made with the owner of the team, he availed himself of the privilege of leaving the party at the Green river, at which time and place $50 of his money was refunded. With two of the party he walked the balance of the distance to California and arrived at Hangtown almost penniless. For ten months he worked in a bakery for $5 a day and board. Afterward he mined for perhaps one-half year. In the spring of 1852 he started a bakery at Weaverville, Trinity county, with a capital of $350, and for two years conducted the business, after which he worked as a butcher and then turned his attention to stock-raising, having a large ranch in Hay Fork valley, and running an express stage from the valley to Weaverville. As early as 1856 he drove a herd of cattle to Hum­boldt county and located on Bear river, but soon formed a partnership with Cyrus W. Morrison, whom he left in charge of the stock, himself returning to Weaverville for a period of ten years or more. During 1867 he permanently settled in Humboldt county and for years was one of the prominent men at Hydesville, where he operated a meat market. During three years of this time he served as a supervisor. In 1885 he removed to Ferndale and soon became a large property owner in this town. Twice he was elected an assemblyman in the state legislature. During 1863 he was provost-marshal for Trinity county. In 1857 he returned to Ohio and at Circleville married Miss Mary Anderson, who was born there January 28, 1838. They became the parents of five children, namely : Carrie, who married Hon. G. W. Hunter, judge of the superior court of Humboldt county ; Emma, wife of A. Hewett, of Winnebago, Minn. ; Frank G., of the Russ-Williams Banking Company of Ferndale ; Minnie, wife of W. F. Kausen, a business man of Ferndale ; and Charles Henry, who is engaged in business in Ferndale.

The marriage of Frank G. Williams united him with Miss Georgia Russ. Mrs. Williams is a daughter of the late Hon. Joseph Russ, state senator from Humboldt county in 1878-80, and a member of the general assembly at the time of his death in 1886. During 1880 he was a delegate to the national Republican convention in Chicago. This pioneer of 1849 was born in Wash­ington, Lincoln county, Me., December 19, 1825, and at the age of ten years moved with the family to Belmont, Waldo county, Me., whence at the age of twenty-one he went to .Dartmouth, Mass., and two years later began team­ing and merchandising at Fall River. Returning to Maine he carried on a sawmill and grocery at Appleton for three years. March 15, 1850, he landed at San Francisco after a long voyage around Cape Horn. At White Oak Springs he had charge of a sawmill for two months and afterward he built a bridge across the American river. During the summer of 1850 he and a partner conducted an unsuccessful mercantile business at Volcano, Amador county. Next he drove a herd of cattle to the Yuba river and sold them at a fair profit, this being the foundation of his large prosperity of later years. During the fall of 1852 he drove a herd of cattle to Humboldt county and was one of the first white men to explore the Eel river valley. While here he took up a claim near Centerville. With Berry Adams he bought beef cattle in Sacramento and drove them to Eureka, opening a market there in the fall of 1853. Two years later he went to the Salmon river forks and opened a market. In the spring of 1857 he purchased beef cattle in Oregon, drove them to the banks of the Bear river and opened another butcher shop in Eureka. As early as 1870 he erected the sawmill of Russ & Co., which later became a business of enormous proportions.

At the time of coming to the west Joseph Russ had not established domestic ties. December 17, 1854, he married Zipporah Patrick, who was born in Pennsylvania, a daughter of Nehemiah Patrick, who crossed the plains in 1852 and settled in Humboldt county during the next year. Mr. and Mrs. Russ became the parents of thirteen children, namely : Edward, James B., and Mary E., Mrs. James T. Robarts, all deceased ; Margaret C., who married Rev. Philip Coombe ; Ira A., of Eureka ; Annie J., who married B. F. Harville, of San Francisco ; William N., of Eureka, vice-president of the Russ-Williams Banking Company, of Ferndale ; Georgia, who is the wife of Frank G. Williams ; Edythe J., wife of Harry Connick, of San Fran­cisco ; Bertha and Joseph, Jr. ; and Winifred Estelle and Zipporab, both deceased. In their parentage both Mr. and Mrs. Williams were most for­tunate, for Hon. George Williams and Hon. Joseph Russ were men of remark­able mental powers, of the most devoted loyalty to their adopted common­wealth, keen in comprehension, sagacious in business, efficient in legislation and worthy of a high and permanent place in the annals of Humboldt county.

MRS. ROSE CULLEN GYSELAAR.—By her success in the manage­ment of her affairs, Mrs. Rose Cullen Gyselaar has, since being left a widow, carved out a competency for herself, and is known as an energetic and pros­perous citizen of Eureka, Cal., where for over twenty years she has made her home at the corner of E and Thirteenth streets. Her husband, John H. Gyselaar, was born in Holland, in the city of Amsterdam, went to sea and came around Cape Horn to San Francisco, where he secured employment for a time, after which he started in business for himself in that city, removing later to Eureka, where he became one of the early business men of the place. For some years he was bookkeeper for Peter Prince in the wholesale liquor business, whom he later bought out, continuing in the business until the time of his death. He was known as a liberal, open-hearted man, who spent his money freely and was kind to everyone, giving liberally to deserving enter­prises, to lodges, the city library and to the men in his employ. During the last six years of his life he was an invalid, and Mrs. Gyselaar had the entire care of him as well as of his business interests, his death occurring on October 20, 1906. He was a member of several fraternal organizations, namely, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias and the Ancient Order of United Workmen, and in his political preference was a supporter of the Republican party.

The marriage of Miss Rose Cullen with Mr. Gyselaar was celebrated in San Francisco in 1892. Mrs. Gyselaar is a native of Ireland, having been born at Dernyesnaar, County Cavan, the daughter of Charles and Bridget (Mc­Govern) Cullen, who were farmers there, and whom she visited five years ago, since which time her father has died, though her mother is still living. Of the twelve children in the family, eleven are living, Mrs. Gyselaar being the sixth in order of birth. When only nine years of age she came to San Fran­cisco with her brother Frank, attending school in that city, and at the age of twelve years removing to Eureka, where the brother had located, her sister, now Mrs. Kate Gurty of San Francisco, accompanying her, and here her marriage with Mr. Gyselaar took place. After her husband's death she disposed of his business, and since has employed her time looking after her own investments and other interests. She is fond of Eureka, her adopted home, believing that there is no better place in the world as to climate• or the achieving of success than Humboldt county, and she is well qualified to judge in this matter, since she has had the privilege of extensive travel in many parts of the United States and the British Isles, as well as points of interest on the continent in Europe, on one occasion visiting Oberammergau, where she witnessed the original rendition of the Passion Play. Her one daughter, Rose F. Gyselaar, who was educated in the public schools, the Los Angeles state normal school and at the Eureka business college, is, like her mother, a person of culture and ability, and was the companion of Mrs. Gyselaar upon many of her travels. Politically, Mrs. Gyselaar is a stanch Republican, and her religious associations are with St. Bernard's Catholic Church of Eureka. Like her husband, she is enterprising and is continually making liberal con­tributions to charities and deserving people, and her kindliness is much ap­preciated, she being much loved for her aid to those who have been less for­tunate. However, all her benevolence is carried on in a quiet and unostenta­tious manner.

HENRY COX.—A resume of the careers which are contributing to the best interests of Humboldt county would be incomplete without due mention of the earnest efforts of Henry Cox, one of its oldest residents and at the present time successful merchants. For thirty-eight years he has been promi­nently identified with its growth, contributing his share toward building up its mercantile and industrial prestige. He has conducted his affairs so ener­getically and wisely that at the present time he is one of the large property owners in this part of the state. In addition to his interest in the general merchandising establishment of Henry Cox & Son, he owns the blacksmith shop, the Bridgeville Hotel, the livery stable of the place, numerous residences and one hundred four acres of highly improved land, formerly known as part of the Barnum estate, and which he purchased in 1912. The store is well stocked with merchandise in demand by a cosmopolitan population, and father and son are meeting with merited success.

Like many of the best residents of Humboldt county, Henry Cox was born at St. George, New Brunswick, April 20, 1852, and it was there his father, George Cox, during his lifetime a farmer and lumberman, lived and died. His mother, formerly Mary A. McDoal, also claimed New Brunswick as her place of birth and by her marriage with George Cox became the mother of seven sons and four daughters, of whom Henry was the fifth. He remained with his parents, working as woodman, until at the age of nineteen he decided that his future prospects lay remote from home surroundings, and his first independent means of livelihood was employment in the woods of -Maine. Later he went to Minneapolis, Minn., and for two years found work in the lumber camps at the headwaters of the Mississippi. We next find him en­gaged in the silver quartz mine of Belleville, Nev., which he left seven months later, coming to Humboldt county in 1876 and working for various lumber companies around the bay. Afflicted with asthma, he was advised to go to the mountains and in order to restore his health he took up a homestead and timber claim on the south fork of the Eel river, near Garberville. He cleared the farm property of timber and brush and as the years passed instituted many improvements. Here Mr. Cox resided until his removal into Briceland, where he ran the Briceland hotel for a year. On taking up his residence at Hydesville, he became proprietor of a hotel at that place and conducted the same with profit until he became interested in Bridgeville property, where he removed in September, 1909. The seven children born to • Henry and Maria Jane (Coffron) Cox are : Clara, the wife of Robert L. Thomas, for many years city engineer of Eureka ; Minnie V., Mrs. Charles Driesbach, who makes her home in Bridgeville ; George Henry is junior member of the firm of Henry Cox & Son, and of whom mention is made elsewhere in this volume ; Gertrude E., Mrs. Martin Croghan, residing in Bridgeville ; Clarence William, who married Miss Halcyon Wigton, is assisting his father ; Anita and Harold T. Mrs. Cox was a native of Wesley, Me., and came with her uncle, Ellis Coffron, to California when she was eleven years of age (in 1877), and made her home in Eureka and Bayside until her marriage to Mr. Cox, October 24, 1881. She is the daughter of Thaddeus and Elvira (Elsmore) Coffron, natives of New Brunswick and Maine, respectively. The mother died in Wesley and the father still resides in Maine.

JAMES D. HENRY BROWN.—It is difficult for the present generation to realize the marvelous changes that have taken place in California since the discovery of gold in 1849. Accustomed to rapid growth and stupendous development which ofttimes change a wilderness into a thriving city within so brief a period of time that one feels certain Aladdin and his fabled lamp must be near, yet this change carries to the mind of the young no adequate conception of that other and greater change which transformed the slopes of the Sierra Madres and the Coast range, not only from a wilderness in a purely physical sense, but which has altered the character of its civilization as well. This fact can only be comprehended by such men as James D. Henry Brown, who being one of the early pioneers, coming into the new gold fields when the rush was wild and the excitement keen, lived through such scenes as will never again be enacted on the continent of North America, and scarcely on the face of the globe. The life in the mining towns was wild and lawless ; adventurers and men of unrestrained passions, with only a lust for blood and gold, had rushed from all over the world into the placer mines. Fortunes were made and lost in a day and a night. Gambling was the lure on every hand ; vigilance committees often strove in vain to enforce law and order. In many parts of the state the Indians were hostile, skulking in the shadow of the woods while the farmer followed his plow or herdsman tended cattle, or again stealing upon the peaceful cabin in the woods where the wife and mother cared for her babes.

It was through such scenes as these that Mr. Brown passed, being him­self in many a sharp engagement with the Indians, having his cattle driven off from the very shadow of his cabin, his barn burned, and the lives of him­self and family menaced. In his search for gold he penetrated the mountain regions, was overtaken with his party by a severe snow storm, and out of a total of sixty only a handful escaped, they being forced to kill their pack mules for food, and make their way across the mountains on foot. Fire and flood swept over the place where he had erected his home and he was left desolate. Still, with the unfaltering courage of the pioneer, the builder of empires, he struggled on, and in the end wrested from the new land a home and a fortune, which he is today enjoying at his home in Arcata.

Born at Quincy, Ill., January 8, 1830, the childhood of Mr. Brown was passed on his father's farm, and his education received in the public schools of his neighborhood and in Quincy. After completing school he assisted his father on the home place, and was later apprenticed to a blacksmith, spending four years in the mastery and practice of his trade. The restlessness of the age was in the air, however, and in 1850 he left home and joined a party bound for California. They crossed the plains with ox-teams, coming by way of Salt Lake City and the Mormon stations, down Carson river to the now famous Hangtown, leaving Quincy (Iii.), April 23, and . arriving at Hangtown, August 8. Remaining for a short time in that bustling mining center, Mr. Brown then went to the Cosumne river locality, where he en­gaged in placer mining for a few months. On January 23, 1851, he came into Humboldt county with a party of twenty-six. They landed at what is now Eureka, but at that time there was only one unfinished house to mark the site of the present city, this being owned by a man named Britt. It was raining and the party being without shelter, they paid the enterprising house­holder twenty-five cents each for the privilege of sleeping under his roof, on shavings spread on the floor. On the following day they chartered a scow and were taken across the bay to Arcata (then Union Town), where they found lodgings with a man named Campbell, who owned four or five shanties. Here they remained for perhaps a week, when six of the party determined to move on to Big Bar, in Trinity county. They were able to purchase but one horse in Arcata, and so the majority of the outfit must necessarily be packed in by the men themselves. Being one of the youngest members of the party, some forty pounds were allotted as the share of young Brown, and this he carried on his shoulders from Arcata to Weaverville. Arriving in Weaverville, they engaged in mining for a short time, and on February 15th left that point and located on Salmon river, where they continued their search for gold. The weather was extremely bad, and they were finally forced to turn back to Trinity. A heavy snow storm overtook the party, which numbered sixty in all, and all perished save a group of six men of which Mr. Brown was one. It was on this occasion that they were obliged to eat their pack-mules and carry their own outfits out of the mountains, suffering almost unbearable hardships on the trip. Arriving at Trinity, Mr. Brown remained there until September, 1851, at which time he went down to San Francisco, and from there set sail for South America, locating eventually in Greytown, Nicaragua, where he opened a hotel, which he successfully conducted for thir­teen months.

There was no land like California to this young adventurer, however, and in 1853 he returned to San Francisco, going from there to Hangtown, where he again engaged in mining. Later that same year he went into Humboldt county and went to work in the lumber camps, where he soon opened a black­smith shop in Eureka. The following year he sold his interests there and removed to Kneeland Prairie, where, in partnership with Albert R. Hitchcock, he engaged in stock-raising and general farming. In 1859 he again moved, this time going to Elk river country, where he continued his occupation of farming and stock-raising. At this time the Indians were particularly trouble­some, and on several occasions marauding parties swept down on the set­tlers, driving off their cattle, destroying property and killing many un­protected families. Men worked with their guns within reach of their hands, and slept with them beside their pillows. Mr. Brown was always foremost in the avenging party of white men who never failed to follow the trail of the savages and inflict deserved punishment, and although he was engaged in many a sharp skirmish, it is a noteworthy fact that he escaped without even a scratch. After a few years on the Elk river this restless pioneer sold his interests there, which then consisted of a fine ranch of two hundred ten acres, one hundred of which he had cleared and put under cultivation, and moved to Samoa, where he again followed the occupation of farming and stock-raising. Later he spent ten years in Oregon, locating on a farm at Jacksonville, after which he again returned to Humboldt county, settling on a ranch on Mad river, which he had purchased some time before. Here he erected a tiny log cabin and for forty years followed the life of a fisherman, sometimes leasing a part of his fishery to others, but generally keeping his entire preserve for himself. He has within recent years retired from all active occupations, and is living quietly in Arcata, enjoying the fruits of years of honest toil. His wife, who was his companion on many of his wanderings, died several years ago, and he is now alone save for his children, several of whom are living in and around Arcata.

Mr. Brown is the type of man who is fast passing from the stage of action, and when once they have gone, there will never again, on this conti­nent, at least, be another generation like them. They are the product of an earlier civilization, their characters shaped by the conditions under which they lived and the hardships through which they passed. They are to be honored while they are yet with us, and deeply and reverently mourned when they are gone.

FRANK J. CUMMINGS.—One of the well known educators of Cali­fornia, and one whose work has always been of an especially high order, is Frank J. Cummings, now of Ferndale, where he is engaged in farming. For many years, however, he was actively engaged in the profession of teaching, and has held positions of trust and influence in some of the largest schools of the state. Everywhere that he has taught he has made many friends, and his standing in the profession is exceptionally high. Since taking up farming he has met with much merited success, and has brought the same carefully trained mind to apply upon all farm questions that he formerly employed to solve the problems of the school room.

Mr. Cummings is a native of California, having been born in Petrolia, Humboldt county, May 24, 1871. His father was Lewis J. Cummings, a native of Indiana, born February 21, 1832, and his mother was Elizabeth Miner, a native of Ohio, born June 16, 1841. In 1850 the father came to California in company with his father, Josiah Cummings, and a brother, Amos, driving a herd of cattle across the plains from Wisconsin, and locating near Placerville. They lost a large number of their cattle in crossing the plains through the raids of the Indians, who never lost an opportunity to kill and drive off their stock. Although bringing the herd of stock with them, they really came to California in search of gold, and accordingly they took up a claim and engaged in mining for two years, in which they were very successful. In 1852 Lewis J. Cummings returned to his home in Janesville, Rock county, Wis., going by way of the Isthmus of Panama. He made the trip across the Isthmus on foot, walking the distance in three days, and again taking passage to New Orleans, and thence up the Mississippi to Wis­consin. While there he was married to Elizabeth Miner. Mercantile pursuits occupied his attention until the call came from the anti-slavery men of Kansas to the people of the north to come and help make Kansas a free state.

They responded and located on a farm in Linn county, Kans., and there Mr. Cummings took part in the struggle, which was bloody at times, but which resulted in bringing Kansas in as a free state. In the early '60s he again crossed the plains with ox-teams, bringing his wife and her brother, Cyrus Miner. They first went to Walla Walla, Wash., and after a year made their way to Marysville, Cal., where Mr. Cummings teamed for two years. He then came with pack mules over the mountains to Humboldt and took up a claim at Petrolia, which he cleared and improved and upon which he followed stock-raising until the time of his death in 1901. The mother is still living, making her home in Eureka with her daughter, Mrs. J. S. Burnell.

The boyhood days of Frank J. Cummings were spent on the farm in Petrolia, where he attended the public schools and then attended the N. S. Phelps Academy, at Eureka, from which he was graduated in 1889, and that same year was given a certificate to teach in the public schools of the state. His first school was in Phillipsville, where he remained for three and a half years. Then followed a year and a half in the McDermott school district.

It was in 1894 that Mr. Cummings first came to Ferndale and taught the Grant school on the island, remaining there three and a half years. In 1897 he gave up teaching for a time and entered Stanford University, at Palo Alto, where he specialized in history and economics, being graduated in 1901. He then accepted a position in Fresno county, as principal of the grammar schools at Fowler, where he remained for a year, then returning to Humboldt county to accept the position of principal of the public schools of Fortuna, remaining for a year. Following this he went to Eureka, where he filled the position of teacher of history in the high school for five years, and for the two follow­ing years he taught history in the high school at Sacramento. The Union High School at Ferndale then secured his services as principal, and he re­turned to Humboldt county to make it his permanent home. Later he gave up teaching, and in the fall of 1911 he moved onto his present home place, where he is engaged in general farming and dairying, making a specialty of the latter. He has been very successful in this new enterprise, and has a fine line of registered Jersey stock, of which he is justly proud.

Since becoming a farmer, Mr. Cummings has taken a great interest in all that pertains to the dairy business, and is an active factor in the Ferndale Cow Testing Association, and has been president of this organization for two years. He was one of the prominent organizers of the Humboldt County Dairymen's Association, and is secretary of the association at the present time. He is a director at large of the Humboldt County Farm Bureau which directs the activities of the farm adviser.

Mr. Cummings is also popular in fraternal circles, being a member of Fortuna Lodge No. 221, I. 0. 0. F., in Eureka, of which he is past grand. He was made a Mason in Ferndale Lodge No. 193, F. & A. M., of which he is past master. Although a man of many activities, Mr. Cummings has been vitally interested in local questions of general welfare and has been a factor in securing many local improvements. He was instrumental in securing the rural free mail delivery service for the island, and has been associated with other similar public movements. He is a Republican in politics, and is the central committeeman from his district.

The marriage of Mr. Cummings took place in Ferndale, November 16, 1902, uniting him with Miss Christine Nissen, also a native of California, hav­ing been born in Humboldt county August 19, 1878, on Bear river ridge. She is the daughter of E. P. and Maria (Hynding) Nissen, well known Humboldt pioneers, having resided in this county for many years. To Mr. and Mrs. Cummings have been born four children, Loyd, Ellis, Keith and Merle, all attending the local schools.

Both Mr. and Mrs. Cummings enjoy the friendship of a wide circle of friends. Mr. Cummings has always been especially energetic and active, and is acknowledged as one of the leading men of the community in which he lives. He is up to date in all his farming methods, and is well informed on all the latest scientific phases of farm life and agriculture. His success has been pronounced, and is certainly deserved.

MINNIE F. DUKES.—A woman who through her own exertions and good management has acquired valuable property which she manages per­sonally, directing all the work of her several places and not being afraid of hard labor or of working together with her employes on the farm, is Mrs. Minnie F. Dukes, a perfect type of the new woman, a strong moral character and a storage battery of energy.

The maiden name of Mrs. Dukes was Cook, but upon her mother's second marriage she took the name of her stepfather, Thorington. She was born at St. Helena, Cal., and grew up near Lakeport, Lake county, in the same state. On March 29, 1892, she was married to Albert Dukes and has two children, Elizabeth E. and Cynthia M. In 1898 they located in Humboldt county, remaining two years at Metropolitan, when they came to Price creek, in Grizzly Bluff district, engaging in farming and stock-raising. Her mar­riage did not prove a happy one, her husband not providing for her, so she started out herself to bring order out of chaos. Despite the fact she started without a dollar she put her shoulder to the wheel and was not discouraged, but set about bravely and industriously to improve her property, adding to it by lucky speculations and wise management. In this way, entirely by her own efforts, she has now reached prosperity. At the time of her separation from her husband, in 1912, Mrs. Dukes bought his place of eight and one-half acres of the N. G. Dukes estate, to which he had fallen heir, and came into possession also of a one-quarter interest in eighty acres on Price creek of the same estate. To this she added twelve acres formerly known as the Della Dukes Price place, besides which she has become the owner of seventy-nine acres of the Charlie Drake place which she bought from Albert Dukes, and a four-acre ranch with a nine-room residence and barns at Fortuna, Cal., known as the Bartlett place, and also five acres in Fairfield, Solano county.

Besides being occupied with the management of her property, Mrs. Dukes has many and wide interests in the outside world. She is the lady who has been chosen to take charge of the Humboldt county exhibit of canned and preserved fruits at the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco in 1915, for which position she is unusually well qualified, since for the past five years she has served as sole judge of the canned fruit department of the Ferndale District Fair and has the highest recommendations signed by the Board of Directors of said fair, namely, C. T. Schriner, president; J. A. John­son, S. Comisto, George M. Brice, H. C. Blum, W. B. Alford, M. L. Clausen and R. H. Smith, secretary. Mrs. Dukes is the first member of the Women's Board of the Panama-Pacific Exposition, Humboldt County Auxiliary; also the first woman to hold membership in the Humboldt County Farm Bureau. She is one of the three lady members of the Republican Central Committee of Humboldt county ; is a member of the Unity Circle, Women of Woodcraft, No. 173; the Court of Honor, and is a charter member of the Companions of Foresters No. 1084 at Ferndale. Her religious affiliations are with the Methodist Episcopal Church, she being a member of the church of this denomination at Ferndale.

JOHN EVERTS.—Though now well along in the eighties it is only a little more than a year ago that John Everts withdrew from active participation in business matters to spend his days in retirement at Petrolia. He has been living in that vicinity for forty-five years, in California for fifty years, and his long life has spanned a wonderful era in the world's development. The growth of his adopted state, her emergence from primitive to modern conditions, would be an experience to fill any life. Yet he has seen more—the transformation of the world by the introduction of rapid transportation facili­ties and still more rapid means of communication has taken place in his day. Moreover, he may feel that he and his family have played more than a minor part in the realization of these wonders. For he comes of wonderful stock, his mental and physical vigor at the age of eighty-seven being quite typical of his family. Intellectual strength and force of character have combined with longevity to make a noted race, whose representatives in every genera­tion have been in the van of progress, commanding the unqualified respect of their contemporaries, and leaving to posterity unspoiled the traditions of a long line of honorable ancestors.

The Everts family is of English blood, and after settling in England its members took their place among the leading men of the times. The late Senator Everts of Vermont was of this stock. The great-grandfather of John Everts came to this country from England, where his progenitors had long been among "those having authority," of aristocratic birth and high position. In the New World a number held office under the English government, and when the Revolution broke out they remained loyal to the mother country, hence they had to move north across the St. Lawrence into Canada or be court-martialed. Others of the family fought in the war on the Colonial side. Roswell Everts, grandfather of John Everts, was an army officer under the English government, and his son, Elisha Everts, father of John, lived and died in Ontario, Canada. He was considered the best farmer in all his section, owning a valuable property, fenced off into ten-acre tracts. Elisha Everts married Margaret M. Kelley, daughter of Maj. Gen. Martin Kelley, who fought in the British army during the Revolution ; he was of Irish origin. Fourteen children were born to Elisha and Margaret M. (Kelley) Everts, two dying in infancy, while eight sons and four daughters reached maturity.

John Everts was born October 5, 1827, in the County of Dundas, On­tario, and the scenes of his earliest recollections are in Canada. His edu­cational advantages were poor because of the condition of the country at that time, but his home training was of the best and he had plenty of prac­tical experience, though agriculture during his boyhood was conducted very differently than now. He has cut grass with the old-fashioned sickles or reap hooks, and hay with the scythe ; cradled and bound grain by hand ; and flailed hundreds of bushels of grain. The changes in the cultivation of the soil which have taken place in his time have been so radical as to be almost unbelievable. When sixteen years of age, the boy went to Rome, N. Y., where he entered the employ of Deacon Pierce, who had the contracts for putting in the locks on the Sugar river, necessary for the operation of the Erie canal. Giving evidence of aptitude for business, he was soon made gen­eral agent and entrusted with the purchase of all the supplies for Mr. Pierce's horses as well as other necessaries. After three years at Rome he returned to Canada, where he found a position as traveling salesman for Persons & McGee, hardware merchants and foundrymen at Merricksville, Ontario, for whom he spent two winters on the road. In 1864 he made up his mind to move to California and that year came to Yuba county, this state, with his wife and child, settling near Marysville. For two years he ran a threshing machine, and then for a time turned his attention principally to the raising of turkeys, in which he was so successful that he cleared $5000. During this time he bought other flocks of turkeys and at all times had two thousand on hand. He drove a flock of turkeys from Marysville to Virginia City, Nev., where he disposed of them. In August, 1869, he came up over the mountains to Humboldt county and bought a preemption right on the Mattole river, and here in this district has since made his home. Though he had to work hard for years, and with varying success in the earlier period of his residence here, he kept at it, following the cattle business steadily, and meantime acquiring more land as his means permitted, until his holdings totaled sixteen hundred eighty-three acres. He carried on the dairy business, raised hogs and cattle extensively, and also raised large numbers of horses, principally Clydes­dales. So he continued, in spite of his advancing years, until October, 1913, when, having sold his farm, he moved into Petrolia, where he and his wife are enjoying the results of their strenuous life, in comfortable retirement. Though Mr. Everts was suffering from chills and fever when he moved hither from Yuba county he speedily recovered in this climate, and had excellent health until 1911, when a slight stroke of paralysis incapacited him temporarily. His success as a stock raiser, in all branches, has been one of the factors which contributed to the development of that industry in the Mattole district, and has had a permanent effect in establishing a business now classed among the valuable resources of this part of Humboldt county. As a citizen Mr. Everts has clung to the high ideals of a worthy ancestry, and no resident of the valley is held in greater esteem.

On March 19, 1861, Mr. Everts was married, near Kempville, Ontario, to Miss Margaret M. Miller, who was born near what is now Cardinal, Ontario, daughter of James and Elizabeth (Clements) Miller, who were the first to settle in that part of the province. Her ancestors lived along the St. Lawrence river, her father's people on the Canadian side, her mother's in New York ; the country from Ogdensburg to Waddington, N. Y., was an unsettled wil

derness when the Clements family settled there. They were of Scotch-Irish origin, the Millers of Irish extraction. After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Everts settled down in the township of Matilda, in Dundas county, Ontario, on the north bank of the St. Lawrence, coming to California in 1864. Of the two children born to their union, the son died in infancy, while the daughter, Mary E., reached the age of eighteen years. Mr. and Mrs. Everts are extremely fond of children and several besides their own have been made mem­bers of their home circle. Frank Moore, whom they took into their family when he was a lad of fourteen, died of heart failure, dropping from his horse while crossing the river when bringing in beef cattle ; he was then twenty-one years of age. Jennie Olander, who is a daughter to them in every sense of the word and upon whom they look in that light, came to them when she .was fourteen years old. She resided with them until her marriage to Richard L. Adams, and now makes her home near Petrolia. She has two children, C. Everts and Richard Lewis.

Mr. and Mrs. Everts have always been identified with the devout Chris­tians of the community, and they are prominent members of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Petrolia, which Mr. Everts has served in the capacity of trustee and recently as a member of the building committee, during the construction of the attractive little house of worship just completed by the congregation. His duties have always been performed with the strictest regard for the wishes of his fellow members in the church, who are keenly appreciative of his unselfish devotion to their interests.

AMBROSE NICHOLS FOSTER.—With the exception of the first nine years of his life, which were passed within the boundaries of Maine, Mr. Foster has always lived in California and naturally cherishes a deep loyalty for the institutions of his adopted commonwealth. Particularly has he been interested in the progress of Humboldt county and of Eureka, the center of his business enterprises, the chosen home of his mature years and the object of his patriotic devotion. Patriotism is an attribute inherited from a long line of American ancestors closely connected with the early history of Maine, where his maternal grandfather, William Holway, was one of the greatest shipbuilders of his day, attaining, indeed, a reputation in his line unsur­passed by any other builder along the entire Atlantic seaboard. The father of Mr. Foster was Albert Keene Foster, a native of Washington county, Me., and from childhood an expert in the trade of logging. As a young man he was very skilled with the axe and scarcely less capable in estimating the value of lumber or the amount of material contained in a certain acreage. During 1872 he made his first trip to California, returning to Maine a short time afterward. When he came west the second time he was accompanied by his family and established a home in Eureka, where he followed the trade of carpenter and builder. With E. C. Mowry in 1883 he purchased the old Richardson planing mill on Third and B streets and there turned out the sash, doors, exterior and interior finishing; used in the building up of Eureka. Besides building the old academy in Eureka and other buildings of more or less note, he and his partner erected and owned the Grand hotel. Fraternally he was connected with the Knights of Pythias. For some years prior to his death in 1911 he had lived in retirement from active business cares ; his wife bore the maiden name of Margaret Holway and is still living, rugged and well preserved, at the age of eighty-five.

The only living child of Albert Keene and Margaret Foster is Ambrose Nichols Foster, who was born in Washington county, Me., November 14, 1867, and has lived in Humboldt county since 1876, receiving his education in local schools of Eureka and learning the trade of carpenter and lumberman under the oversight of his father in the mill and in the erection of houses. For some time he engaged in the building business for himself, having among his most important contracts those for the Eagles building and the Carnegie library. Later he formed a partnership with James Willison under the title of the Willison & Foster Construction Company and this firm rose to promi­nence among the leading concerns of the kind in the entire state. Among their principal contracts in this county may be mentioned those for the build­ing of the county jail, Fern bridge across Eel river, the L. F. Puter residence (one of the finest in Eureka), the school at Hydesville and the Fort hotel at Fort Seward. In addition Mr. Foster drew the plans for the schools at Alton and Fieldbrook, for he is of superior ability in designing as well as in construction. In 1914 they dissolved partnership and Mr. Foster continued in the general contracting and building business in Humboldt county. He has just completed making and installing the hardwood booths and cases in the Humboldt county exhibit at the Panama-Pacific exposition at San Fran­cisco. In 1914 he also built a cabinet shop and planing mill on Fourth and A streets, Eureka, for the manufacturer of house finishing lumber, and among other jobs built the Minor theater and three stores for Mr. Minor in Arcata "and the Jerry Millay residence in Eureka. His fraternities, the Elks and Knights of Pythias, receive from him cordial cooperation in plans for the community welfare or philanthropic work. Through his marriage to Mary F. Wood, a native of Humboldt county, he is the father of Mildred, A. Keene, Elizabeth, Clarissa S., Thaddeus, and Edward. Mrs. Foster is a daughter of Lewis K. and Clarissa Sidney (Hanna) Wood and has been a lifelong resident of Humboldt county, where her father held an eminent position by reason of having, with a comrade, been the first white man to discover Humboldt bay from the land side. That memorable event occurred December 20, 1849, during an expedition that had taken the party of explorers across the moun­tains and through privations and hardships of a most formidable nature. For years Mr. Wood engaged in farming near Arcata and much of his leisure was devoted to the writing of a pamphlet explaining the particulars in regard to the discovery of the bay, this task having been taken up by him in order that future generations might be fully informed concerning a discovery so important, marking, as it did, a new chapter in the annals of Humboldt county.

CHRISTEN ESKESEN.—As the genial proprietor of the American Hotel at Ferndale, Humboldt county, Christen Eskesen is well known, not only throughout the county, but to the traveling public who come this way. Both he and his wife are pre-eminently fitted for host and hostess of a hotel and take great delight in making their guests comfortable. Mrs. Eskesen is an excellent cook, and her management of the dining room and kitchen is unexcelled, the table of the American Hotel being acknowledged to be one of the best in Humboldt county, with but few equals and no superiors.

Mr. Eskesen is a Dane, born at Ballum, Schleswig-Holstein, then Den­mark, but now Germany, April 25, 1870. His father, Eske Eskesen, was a butcher at Ballum, where he is still residing. His mother, now deceased, was Christine Sorensen. The present honored citizen of Ferndale was the fifth in a family of nine children, all of whom grew to manhood and womanhood, although but three are now living, these being Mr. Eskesen and the two youngest members of the family. Educated in the Danish schools. and confirmed in the Lutheran church, Christen Eskesen worked on various farms in his native province until he was eighteen years of age, when he determined to seek his fortune in the lands across the sea. Accordingly, in 1888 he sailed for America, coming directly to Eureka, Humboldt county, Cal., where an older brother, Hans Eskesen, was already located. Here he engaged as a farm hand, working by the month at Hydesville for two years. He came to Ferndale in 1895 and conducted the Ferndale restaurant for several years, meeting with much success.

In Ferndale, June 28, 1904, Mr. Eskesen was married to Miss Jennie Goble, a native of Rock Island, Ill., and the daughter of Ephraim and Sarah (Harmer) Goble, born in Kentucky and West Virginia respectively. From Rock Island the family set out for the west in 1868 in an ox-team train of thirty-eight wagons, ending their journey in Humboldt county, where the father carried on farming. Both parents are now deceased. The Goble ancestry can be traced back to the historic Mayflower.

It was in 1898 that Mr. Eskesen purchased the American Hotel, which he conducted alone up to the time of his marriage, and for the success which has since come to him he gives ample credit to his wife, for not only has the enterprise prospered, but today the hostelry ranks as one of the best in the entire county. Mr. Eskesen also has the agency for the Carnation auto­mobile and is very much interested in advancing the good roads movement.

Both Mr. and Mrs. Eskesen are exceptionally popular in Ferndale, where they occupy a prominent place in the general social and fraternal affairs of the town. Mr. Eskesen is a member of the Odd Fellows and together with his wife is also a member of the Rebekahs. Mr. Eskesen has been through every chair of the I. 0. 0. F. in Ferndale Lodge and is one of the most influential members. In Rebekah circles his wife is equally prominent, having been through all the chairs and also served as representative to the Grand Lodge on five different occasions. In civic and other local affairs both Mr. and Mrs. Eskesen always take a prominent part. They are progressive and wide-awake to all that pertains to the welfare of the town and are ever ready to work for those things which will advance the best interests of the com­munity.

HON. HANS CHRISTIAN NELSON.—From his native land of Den­mark, a desire to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the new world brought Matthias Nelson to California and to Humboldt county as early as 1874, but he did not at that time decide to remain permanently ; on the other hand, after a considerable period of employment in the redwoods he returned to the old country and resumed the work in which he previously had been interested. During the residence in Tondern, Schleswig, Germany, of himself and wife, Annie M. (Bosen) Nelson, a son, Hans Christian, was born October 25, 1886. Two years later the family came to California and the elder Nelson again sought employment in Humboldt county, where he has since been a steady worker in logging camps and lumber mills. For some years he has made his home at Field's landing in this county. The son was given the best educational advantages his own indefatigable energy and determination, aided by the means of his parents, rendered possible, and after he had completed the studies of the Eureka high school he matriculated in Stanford University. During 1910 he was graduated from the pre-legal de­partment of the institution with the degree of A. B. and in 1912 he cornpleted the studies of the law department, receiving the degree of Jurum Doctor. Meanwhile he had been a leader in the Phi Beta Kappa and chair­man of the committee having charge of the movement tending toward student control and student self-government. During his last term of study he acted as an assistant in the law department and thus gained an experience of great value to him in later activities.

The necessity for self-support had led Mr. Nelson, during vacations in Humboldt county, to seek employment in lumber camps and mills and in this way he was enabled to go through the university. Manual work in the forest of sempervirens of Humboldt county developed the thews of his muscles and trained him in a knowledge of nature, so that after his graduation he opened an office in Eureka and was well equipped mentally and physically for a life of professional success. From the very beginning of the progressive movement he has been in sympathy with its principles. November 5, 1912, on the progressive Republican ticket he was elected to represent the second district in the fortieth state assembly. During his service as assemblyman he was chairman of the committee on public morals and a member of the following committees : Fish and game, insurance, judiciary, revision and printing, university, and revision of criminal procedure. In January, 1914, when A. W. Hill was appointed district attorney upon the death of Kenneth Newett, Jr., Mr. Nelson was appointed deputy district attorney of Humboldt county. Upon Mr. Hill's reelection he was continued in office and is still giving his best efforts. Since April, 1914, he has been serving as local referee and representative of the Industrial Accident Commission of California and as such his duties are to take testimony and adjust claims between employers and employes in the county.

November 6, 1913, in Eureka, occurred the marriage of Mr. Nelson, uniting him with Miss Esther Jones, a native of Eureka, the daughter of Warren Jones, a pioneer business man of the city. Well read in the law, vigorous in mind and young in years, Mr. Nelson faces a promising future, whether devoted to professional labors or to public service. As assembly­man he has gained a broader and more accurate view of state needs, while a growing practice is giving him an enlarged experience in legal technicalities. Through membership in the Press Club of San Francisco he is kept in touch with metropolitan society of journalistic circles, while the Humboldt Club enlarges his acquaintance among the people of his home county. In fraternal relations he is identified with the Masons of the blue lodge, chapter and Eastern Star, while in addition he is connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Eureka Lodge of Elks.

OLUF KARLSEN.—Varied and interesting experiences have been ac­corded Mr. Karlsen, in his life which has been spent in such widely separated regions as Norway, California and the Sandwich Islands, and by his talents and business activity he has made profitable use of every situation in life wherein he has been placed.

Beginning life in far distant Norway, where his birth occurred in Chris­tiania, on September 23, 1856, Oluf Karlsen received his education in the public schools of the capital city of his native land, after which he was ap­prenticed to learn the trade of plasterer, at which he continued until 1880, when he made preparations to remove to the Sandwich Islands. At Christiania he took passage on the sailing vessel Beta for the voyage around Cape Horn, which covered a period of three and one-half months. Arriving in the Sandwich Islands, he found employment on a sugar plantation, where he remained until 1882, when he came to San Francisco, going thence to Whites­boro, Mendocino county, Cal., in March, 1882, where he was employed in the Salmon Creek Lumber Company mills. In May of the same year he removed to Eureka, Humboldt county, and was employed as gas-maker in the gas works, later becoming fireman on several different tugs on Humboldt bay. Removing to San Bernardino, Cal., in September, 1887, Mr. Karlsen con­tinued in the occupation of gas-maker for two months, later following the same line in San Diego, for a short time. Mr. Karlsen's life of faithful toil has been varied by two interesting and enjoyable visits to his native country of Norway, his first trip thither having been in the year 1888, October of which year saw his marriage in his home city of Christiania to Miss Julia Olsen, also a native of that city. Returning to Eureka with his bride, he established his home and has resided here ever since, continuing to be actively engaged in business. He was employed as fireman and oiler on the old steamer Hum­boldt and as fireman in different mills. Purchasing an interest in the Pioneer Fish Market on Second street, Eureka, he ran this business for seven years, in 1907 going into the hotel business with the purchase of the American Ex­change Hotel, at Eureka, since then continuing in the hotel business at No. 322 First street, having become well known in his chosen business and popu­lar among the citizens of Eureka. His second trip to Norway took place in 1914, at which time, being a member of the Norden Singing Society, he took part in the rendering of Songs of the North at the Jubilee Udstilling (Exposition) in Christiania, celebrating Norway's one hundred years of independence, this society also having sung in many other important cities in Norway. On this trip, from Portland to New York, they gave fifteen con­certs. In his California home, Mr. Karlsen was one of the organizers of the first singing society of Eureka, the Norden Singing Society, in which he has taken an active part ever since as a bass singer. He is a member of the Eureka Aerie No. 130, F. 0. E., and was chairman of its board of trustees, until his resignation, for a period of five years, and during this time the Eureka Eagles' Home, one of the finest lodge buildings in the state, was completed. He is also a charter member of the Ancient Order of Foresters.

To Mr. and Mrs. Karlsen have been born six children : Carl, Einar, Ralph ; Myrtle, now Mrs. Rose of San Francisco ; Emma and Irene, all of whom, except Mrs. Rose, reside in Eureka, where their father is well and favorably known as one of the enterprising and liberal citizens.

BENJAMIN FANEUIEL PORTER.—Tireless energy and a resolute spirit have enabled Mr. Porter to advance step by step from the time when, a lad of twelve ignorant of life and the world, he began to earn his own way by illy-paid, humble work, up to the present time, when he is efficiently dis­charging his duties as assistant general manager of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad, with headquarters at Eureka. To a large extent he may be denom­inated self-made, yet he owes much to the inheritance of splendid mental qualities from a long line of southern ancestors and to the heritage of the honorable and even eminent record of his father, an attorney, who for many years served as a jurist on the supreme bench of Alabama. Withal that the family was intellectually preeminent, in the days of their prestige the south was stinted in money and they suffered the handicap of poverty, so that Benjamin F., who was born at Tuscaloosa, Ala., April 15, 1842, was obliged by force of circumstances to become self-supporting at an age when schooling was desirable, and in November of 1854 he became connected with railroad­ing. In the following years he rose rapidly. After service as flagman for an engineering expedition he served as foreman of construction work on the Tennessee & Coosa River Railroad from February, 1860, to December, 1862, and was foreman of construction and conductor of work trains on the Mobile & Great Northern Railroad from January, 1862, until the close of the Civil war in the Confederate service, detailed into government transportation depart­ment, continuing after the close of the war. In 1865 Mr. Porter became assistant agent at Greenville, Ala., for the Mobile & Montgomery Railroad. From October, 1868, until December, 1869, he was superintendent of con­struction for the Selma & Gulf Railroad. From January, 1870, to December, 1873, he was passenger conductor on various roads in Alabama and Mis­sissippi.

After having been interested in other lines of business for a period of twelve years, in January, 1887, Mr. Porter became superintendent of track-laying from Maricopa Junction to Phoenix, Ariz., on the main line of the Southern Pacific Railroad. In July of the same year he was promoted to be roadmaster, a position which he filled with the efficiency characteristic of him in every responsibility of business. From January, 1898, to December 1, 1902, he was general superintendent of the same road. He then resigned to accept the position of general manager of the San Francisco & Northwestern Railroad at Eureka, the road having been taken over by the Santa Fe from the Eel River & Eureka Railroad. Later the interests of the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe on the northern coast were consolidated as the Northwestern Pacific and Mr. Porter became assistant general manager. January 1, 1915, on ac­count of age and physical infirmities, he was honorably relieved from service on a pension, after a continuous service with the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe of twenty-eight years. During the last few years he has been very active in the building of the connecting link between Eureka and San Fran­cisco, and on October 23, 1914, the day the line was completed, he saw the fruits of his labors. Mr. Porter is a member of Humboldt Club. During the period of his residence in Arizona he was prominent in the Elks and the Masons of Commandery and Shrine degrees. By his marriage to Miss Mary E. Thomas, who was born in Mississippi but reared in Alabama, he has three sons, young men of recognized ability and high promise, viz.: Walter K., manager of the Porter-Hansen Undertaking Company at Eureka ; Ben­jamin F., Jr., now with the Bayside Lumber Company ; and Joseph R., at present in the office of the United States Engineers at Eureka.

EDWARD FOSTER PETTINGILL.—The trade of ship-joiner which Mr. Pettingill learned at the port of Machias in his native state of Maine, he followed for many years both in the east and the west, besides for a brief period with the Alaska Fur Company in Siberia. He came to California in 1875 and found employment at his trade in San Francisco, from which city he came to Eureka in 1876 and a year later returned to San Francisco, where he followed ship-building until 1881. In that year he was with the Alaska Fur Company on Behring and Copper island in the Russian possessions for about nine months, returning to San Francisco, and in the spring of 1882 returned to Eureka, where he again secured a position in the ship-building yards of H. D. Bendixsen. With the exception of a period of employment in charge of the dry docks on an island in the Puget Sound he has continuously lived in Humboldt county. He devoted twenty-five years of steady work to the ship-building industry as foreman of the. finishing department in the Bendixsen yards and at the expiration of that time turned his attention to the building of houses and to specializing in interior finishings. An unusual degree of skill has been manifest in all of his work and much that was done years ago still retains the substantial and satisfactory appearance of its first construction. After the first three months of the building of the Bank of Eureka he was given full charge of that important contract. Other important contracts were in connection with the Federal building and the residences of L. F. Puter, William Carson and David Evans.

The marriage of Mr. Pettingill united him with Miss Eloise Scott, who was born in Auburn, Cal., of an old Southern family. She was reared in Eureka and received an excellent education in private schools. Three children were born of the union, namely : Clarence S., deceased ; Russell Edward, who married Roberta Parks and lives in San Francisco ; and Allan D. Mrs. Pettingill is a daughter of the late D. Clinton Scott, the pioneer dentist of Eureka and a man of considerable prominence in the early history of the town. Having given his attention closely to occupative duties, Mr. Pettingill has had neither leisure nor inclination for political affairs, nor has he been interested in fraternal societies aside from being a member of Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., of which he was master in 1901.

HENRY FREDERICK HARBERS.—Actively associated with the creamery interests of Humboldt county for a number of years, Mr. Harbers is probably one of the best known men in the vicinity of Ferndale. He is of German birth, having been born in Oldenburg, Germany, September 22, 1858, and is the son of John B. Harbers, also a native of Oldenburg, Germany, who was engaged in the milling business. After attending the public schools for a number of years, Henry F. decided to come to America. Leaving Bremer­haven on a steamer for Baltimore, Md., he landed in May of 1875, and imme­diately proceeded to Henry county, Ohio, where he obtained employment on a farm, remaining for four years, then moving to Washington county, that state, where he continued to follow farming. Being desirous of visiting his parents and the scenes of his childhood in Germany he returned there in 1880 and remained two years, returning to the States in 1882. He came direct to Humboldt county, Cal., where he had a brother, J. B. Harbers, at Ferndale, at which place he arrived in August, 1882, and engaged in farming and dairying for himself on the Hill ranch. This ranch he entered as a home­stead and improved it and also, in 1886, purchased his home place of twenty acres of highly cultivated land near Grizzly Bluff and continued in the dairy­ing business, still retaining his old homestead. Prior to 1891, before the creamery was built, the farmers had to make their own butter, but after the creamery was put into operation matters were greatly simplified for the farmers. In 18% the Grizzly Bluff Creamery was destroyed by fire, but it was immediately rebuilt. Being offered the position of bookkeeper at the creamery in 1904, Mr. Harbers accepted, but as at first the volume of busi­ness done by the creamery was not large enough to occupy all of his time, he still continued to manage his dairy. The business grew to such an extent, however, that in a few years his entire time was devoted to the creamery, and for the past three years he has been secretary and manager of the Grizzly Bluff Creamery Association, which is now the oldest in operation in the county, the average output a year being 750,000 pounds of butter. It has grown from its modest beginning with a capital of $11,000 to its present pro­portions.

Since 1886 Mr. Harbers has been a member of Ferndale Lodge No. 220, I. 0. 0. F., of which he is past grand master, and is a member of Humboldt County Veteran Odd Fellows Association. Politically he is a Democrat. He has always taken an active interest in educational matters, serving as a member of the board of trustees of Grizzly Bluff District for several terms, and is now a member of the board of trustees of the Ferndale Union High School, to which he devotes considerable time and his best efforts. In 1909 he was one of the organizers of the Ferndale Cow Testing Association and was one of the original board of directors, and president of it one year. He is an active member of the Humboldt County Dairymen's Association.

Mr. Harbers was married at Port Kenyon, November 19, 1890, being united with Miss Matilda Blohm, a native .of Washington county, Kan., and the daughter of Herman F. Blohm, a native of Oldenburg, Germany. Mr. Blohm was a veterinary surgeon for a number of years in Germany and in 1870 he moved with his family to Kansas and then, in 1881, to Humboldt county, Cal., where he continued to follow his profession until 1897, when he removed to Santa Cruz county, where he now makes his home.

Of the union of these two fine families there are five children, Otto Henry, Harry B., Raymond F., Leland G., and Henry R., the latter now deceased. Mr. Harbers is a progressive, public spirited citizen and a man well liked by all in the community in which he resides.

MARTIN P. PETERSEN is the owner of one of the largest dairy ranches in the Eel river section and has devoted practically the whole of his life to the study of dairying and farming in general. He was born April 10, 1861, near Tondern, Sleswick, Denmark, but later a part of the German Em­pire. He received his earlier educational training in the public schools of Germany, and when fifteen years of age began to work on farms in the neigh­borhood of his home. Having a brother, Christian, in Humboldt county, Cal., who had written glowing accounts of the opportunities here, he decided to come to America and join him. In July, 1878, he came direct to Humboldt county and located in Ferndale, where he found employment on the ranch of Jacob Rasmussen, remaining with him for two years. In 1880 he moved over to Bear river ridge, and for the following three years was employed on the ranches of the farmers there. Returning to Eel river valley, he entered the employ of Peter Nissen, but in 1884, desiring to go into business for himself, he leased a ranch from G. M. Robarts and actively engaged in dairying. This ranch consisted of one hundred acres of dairy land and Mr. Robarts furnished him the stock, milch cows at the time being valued at only $25 a head. During the five years that he leased the property he was quite successful, and hearing of fine land to be had in the district surrounding Loleta, he.went there in 1889 and again leased a ranch for a term of five years, but this venture proved a failure. He then returned to Eel River Island and purchased one hundred fifty acres of farm land, thirty acres being under cultivation. He set to work clearing the remainder and rendering it suitable for dairying pur­poses. In a few years he purchased one hundred ten acres adjoining the. original property and at the present time this ranch of two hundred sixty acres, all bottom land, is one of the largest on the island and adjoins the new Fern bridge. It is well improved with suitable buildings erected by him. His dairy is installed with Sharpless milking machines. When Mr. Petersen first engaged in dairying he had only twenty-five head of cows and now he is the owner of a herd of ninety head of the finest milch cows in the county.

Mr. Petersen was married in Ferndale in October, 1889, being united with Miss Bothilde Petersen, also a native of Sleswick, Denmark. She died in June, 1913, at the age of forty-six years. She was the mother of six children, as follows : Hans, Theresa, Annie, Petrea, Frode and Lille, all remain­ing under the paternal roof. Mr. Petersen is a member of the Dania Society, of which he is past officer, and a member of the Independent Order of For­esters of America, and he is also a member of the board of trustees for Salt River District. In national politics he favors the ideas of the Republican party, and he is also a devout member of the Danish Lutheran Church. His success is due to his own untiring and unceasing labors and his fine ranch stands as a fitting monument to his faithful perseverance.

MRS. ARRABELLE HAZELWOOD FALOR.—A native of Kentucky, having been born on a farm near Greensburg, Green county, July 27, 1862, Mrs. Arrabelle Falor has been a resident of California since 1884, having located in Humboldt county in June of that year, and having since that time made this county her home. Since the death of her husband several years ago she has continued to live on the home place, and for a time managed it with much success. Recently she has leased the land, but continues to make the place her home. Living with her is her son, Leland.

The girlhood of Mrs. Falor was spent in Kentucky, where she attended the public schools of her district. Her father having died when she was a child, she was raised by her grandparents on the Hazelwood side. She re­mained with them until she was twenty-one, and then came to California with her sister and brother-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. John Dolson, and located with them in Arcata, Humboldt county. For a time Mrs. Falor (then Miss Arra­belle Hazelwood) was the housekeeper on the old Falor ranch, and on March 27, 1885, was married to Albert Allen Falor.

Albert Allen Falor was born in Hoopa valley, Humboldt county, Cal., June 6, 1860, the son of Milo and Caroline Falor, both well known California pioneers, and for many years residents of Humboldt county. They came to Arcata in an early day and purchased ninety acres of bottom land, upon which they engaged in dairying and farming. Here their son was reared, and here he received his education in the grammar schools, assisting his father on the farm in his spare time and during vacations. Their united efforts brought them success and father and son continued to manage the farm until the father's death, when the son took charge, continuing to conduct it along the lines that had been followed before. The property, which at the time of its purchase was unimproved and heavily timbered, is now under a high state of cultivation and is in splendid condition for farming. Aside from his business interests and his success as a farmer Mr. Falor commanded the respect and confidence of his neighbors and fellow citizens and was regarded as a man of ability and worth. In politics he was a Re­publican, but he was never actively associated with the affairs of his party.

His death occurred at the home place, January 5, 1907. Since his death Mrs. Falor has resided on a ranch of ninety acres a mile north of Alliance, leasing the home ranch for a dairy.

The parents of Mrs. Falor were well known in Kentucky. Her father, John Hazelwood, died in that state when Mrs. Falor was a very small child. Her mother, Clarissa Warren, was born in Green county, Ky., June 16, 1834. By her marriage to Mr. Hazelwood five children were born, four of whom are living at the present, three daughters and one son, Mrs. Falor being the second youngest. She is the mother of two children, Clarissa Bell, now Mrs. James B. Johnson, living in Fieldbrook, and Leland Lenore, residing with his mother.

The Falor family is one of the oldest and most highly esteemed pioneer families of Humboldt county. Both father and son were men of sterling character, industrious, energetic and trustworthy. They were important factors in the early development of the county and are remembered with greatest respect by those who knew them.

EDWARD B. PETERSEN.—The dairying interests of Humboldt county are managed chiefly by men of Danish descent, they being farmers and dairymen by instinct, and being industrious, their farms are models. Among these men of the Eel river valley Edward B. Petersen has established a fine dairy farm and it is indeed a model for all to copy. He was born near Rodkiobing, on the island of Langeland, Denmark, August 17, 1880, and there he attended the public schools of the district. His parents, Jens and Maria Petersen, came to America in the fall of 1892, and first located in the town of Union Grove, Racine county, Wis. There Edward attended school for a short time, familiar­izing himself with the English language. He then obtained employment on the neighboring ranches, doing general farm work, his first position being with John Clague, in whose employ he remained for two years. Later, in the fall of the year 1895, he decided to come to California in the hope of bettering conditions, and settled in Marin county, where he again followed dairy­ing. In a short time, hearing of the wonderful opportunities in Humboldt county, he came to Eureka and was employed in the Excelsior mill, but seeing greater opportunities in the occupation of dairying he again returned to that branch of farming and was employed on the dairy ranch of John Nielsen, where he continued for six years.

Having married about this time, he determined to engage in the business for himself, for this purpose renting forty acres of land. Subsequently he purchased the property, and this is now the home place, all under a high state of cultivation. He has made every modern improvement on the place, sparing no expense in making it one of the finest small ranches in the vicinity. He is a member of the Dania Lodge, W. 0. W., at Ferndale, and is a stanch Progressive Republican, but has not entered actively into political affairs, preferring to devote his entire time and energies to his ranch.

Mr. Petersen was united in marriage November 27, 1906, with Lillian Currey, a native daughter of California, having been born in Stockton, Cal., the daughter of Thomas and Margaret Currey. Mr. Currey was born in County Donegal, Ireland, in February, 1836, and came with his parents to Philadelphia, Pa., where he learned the harnessmaker's trade. August 24, 1861, he enlisted in Company A, Sixth Pennsylvania Cavalry, serving in the Seven Days battle, and was taken prisoner at Hagerstown, Md., and confined in Libby prison. Afterwards he was transferred to Belle Isle, where he was detained ten months. He was honorably discharged in 1863. In 1866 he came to Petaluma, Cal., remaining for a year, then lived in San Francisco until 1878, when he located at San Rafael. He married Margaret Thompson, a native of Scotland, by whom he had six children, Mrs. Petersen being the second youngest. Of the union of Mr. and Mrs. Petersen there are two chil­dren, Arleene Katherine and Edward Clifford. Mr. Petersen is an energetic, industrious young man, one whose success in business is due to his own unceasing and untiring labors.

FREDERICK M. HELMKE.—As president and general manager of the Helmke Mercantile Company, of Blocksburg, Frederick M. Helmke is one of the most influential men in this part of the county. He is a native of Cali­fornia and the son of one of the well known old pioneer families. For several years he has been owner of the Helmke Mercantile Company, and conducts a general merchandise business' at Blocksburg and at Fort Seward ; for years he conducted a stage line which ran as an auxiliary to the larger cor­poration. Mr. Helmke commands confidence and respect wherever he is known, and is thoroughly familiar with every detail of his business and is also particularly well fitted by temperament and disposition for the manage­ment of large mercantile enterprises. In both his stores he maintains a high standard, both for quality and service, nothing but the best being offered for sale, and all transactions are absolutely "on the square." He is a man of great energy, a booster for the community as well as for his own business. The older residents are glad to find in him a strong resemblance to his late father, who for many years conducted the business.

Mr. Helmke is a native of Sonoma county, born at Fisk's Mill, January 2, 1870, the son of Martin Frederick and Arabella (Shone) Helmke. The father, who followed the sea from a boy, was a native of Germany and came to America when a young man. In 1851 he came around Cape Horn to San Francisco on a sailer and first drifted into the mines. Later he operated saw­mills at Timber Cove and Fisk's mill, then built the first sawmill on Green­wood creek, at the present site of L. E. White Lumber Company's plant at Greenwood, and shipped the lumber from Cuffey's cove. At the same time he purchased considerable land at Bell's Landing, now known as Westport. The financial depression of 1877 and 1878 caused him to suffer severe reverses, and in 1878 he came to Blocksburg and bought out the interests of Simon Sweet, who owned a general merchandise store. From 1878 to 1905 Mr. Helmke, Sr., conducted the business which bears the family name, in the latter year disposing of his interest to his son (who had been his partner since 1898) and retired to Berkeley, where he died, June 9, 1909, at the age of seventy-nine years. He is well remembered throughout Humboldt county, and the greatest compliment that one of the older residents can pay to the present head of the Helmke Mercantile Company is to say that he is like his father. The mother is a native of Wisconsin, descended from Welsh ancestry. She now makes her home in Santa Rosa.

Frederick M. Helmke was eight years of age when his parents moved to Blocksburg, where he attended school until he was fourteen, then starting out in the world for himself. By hard labor at various kinds of work he earned enough to go through Heald's Business College, San Francisco, where he was graduated in 1889. When he left home at the age of fourteen his father gave him $25, and when he came back in 1897 he returned to his father the same identical $25 that he had received thirteen years before. At that time his father gave him a half interest in the mercantile business at Blocks-burg, and from then until 1905 they operated under the firm name of F. Helmke & Son. In 1905 the father retired, the son purchasing his interest and paying a handsome price therefor, in remembrance of the gift of the interest in the business a few years previous, which had made this transaction possible. In 1911 the business was incorporated under the firm name of the Helmke Mercantile Company, with an authorized capital of $75,000, and an actually paid-in capital of $38,000. The branch business at Fort Seward was started in 1911, this being known as the Helmke Mercantile Company, Store No. 2. Both houses are doing a large and profitable business, and are selling an extensive line of general merchandise, handling practically everything needed in any community.

For sixteen years, in addition to the mercantile business, the firm con­ducted an auxiliary enterprise in the nature of a stage line which operated from Harris to Carlotta, via Blocksburg, making daily trips, and conveying the mail as well as passengers. This business was one of great importance and kept Blocksburg in close touch with the surrounding towns. The Helmke Stage Line was abolished June 1, 1915, on account of the through mails being carried by the new railroad.

The marriage of Mr. Helmke occurred in Oakland in 1894, uniting him with Miss Mina Janssen, a native of that city. Of their union have been born two children, namely Rae Frederick and Guy Martin. Both Mr. and Mrs. Helmke have many friends in Blocksburg. Mr. Helmke takes an influential part in the fraternal life of the county, being a member of Eel River Lodge No. 147, F. & A. M., at Fortuna, and Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. He has rendered valuable service as a member of the school board at Blocksburg, and has served on the grand jury. He is a consistent Republican and a mem­ber of the executive committee of the county central committee. In all local affairs he is on the side of progress, standing for the general betterment and upbuilding of the community.

PETER JOHANSEN.—An example of the opportunities afforded by Humboldt county to men of tireless energy and sagacious judgment is found in the successful activities of the vice-president of the First National Bank of Arcata, a native of Germany, born May 21, 1868, and from 1887 a resident of the United States and of Humboldt county. Having no means with which to embark in any occupation demanding capital, he leased a small tract of land and bought a few cows. Hampered by poverty, compelled to endure privations and hardships, in a strange country far from the scenes beloved of his youth, he took up the battle of life with resolution and industry. Little by little he began to be known as a farmer of intelligence and a German ‑ American of splendid force of character. His resolute efforts to win inde­pendence brought him the confidence of associates and, in the end, the object of his early ambition. On a tract of forty acres near Ferndale he maintained a herd of twenty mulch cows and managed the dairy so capably that it became the source of considerable profit. By degrees he increased his herd until he had eighty cows in the dairy. Meanwhile there came to him a keen knowledge of the needs of proper marketing of the products of the dairy. Study of the matter caused him to found the Capital Creamery at Ferndale and in this he owned a one-half interest up to the time of removing to Arcata.

In the new location Mr. Johansen bought one hundred sixty acres of land and embarked in the dairy industry, which he continued with profit for a number of years. Here' as at Ferndale he became a recognized authority in the marketing of dairy products and in every phase of the industry which brought him financial success. As manager of the United Creameries at Arcata he gave five years of faithful, efficient and satisfactory service to the creamery business at this point, a task for which previous experience well qualified him. More recently, however, he leased his dairy ranch, disposed of his herd of cows and his interest in the creamery. Upon the founding of the First National Bank of Arcata he assisted in its incorporation, and since it was opened for business, in October, 1913, he has been vice-president and general manager, giving practically his entire time to the efficient oversight of a concern undoubtedly destined to be a leading financial factor in this part of Humboldt county. While his wife, who bore the maiden name of Meta Duholm, is like himself a native of Germany, all of their children are Californians and have the distinction of being natives of Humboldt county. They are as follows : Lily, Amos, Peter, Maria, Christine, Christian and Meta.

LEVEN C. ERICKSON.—Among the successful young men engaged in the dairy business, in Humboldt county is Leven C. Erickson, who was born in Manistee, Mich., November 18, 1875, the son of Eli C. and Maria (Jacobsen) Erickson. The parents were natives of Abenrade, North Sleswick, then a part of Denmark, but since 1871 belonging to Germany. In their native country they followed farming, but gave this up to come to the United States, settlement being made in Manistee, Mich., where for ten years the father was employed with a lumber company. The year 1878 witnessed his removal to California, settlement being made in Humboldt county on Bear river ridge, on property known as the Mayflower ranch. A residence of two years on this property was followed by his removal to the Eel river section, where he purchased the old Farrier ranch at Centerville and engaged in farming and dairying up to the time of his death in 1902. Faithful to the teachings of his childhood he was a devoted member of the Danish Lutheran church, as was also his wife, who passed away two years prior to his demise, in 1900, leaving two children, a son and a daughter.

The eldest of the parental family, Leven C. Erickson, was primarily educated in the schools of Centerville, later attending St. Mary's College, Oakland, for a year and eight months, when his schooling was suddenly terminated owing to the death of his father. When he took charge of the home place he had about thirty head of cows on the ranch, which comprised thirty-five acres of bottom land. Realizing that he must have more land to properly carry out his plans he bought seventy-two acres of swamp land and twenty-four acres of hill land, making a total of one hundred thirty-one acres under his control. However, time and experience proved that the land was too low for successful dairying, and to correct this he constructed darns in Russ creek, which diverted the overflow to his advantage, the sediment grad­ually building up his property. It is estimated that in the last ten years the land has been raised over six feet, so that it is now unexcelled as dairy land. Mr. Erickson has eighty head of high-grade cows, and now owns all of the homestead ranch, having purchased his sister's interest in the property. He has built a new residence, thus giving him two sets of buildings on the ranch.

As an evidence of his deep interest in the dairy business, as well as show­ing the confidence reposed in him by his fellow-dairymen, it may be stated that for the past nineteen years he has been secretary of the Ferndale Cream­ery and since 1910 has also been manager, tester and bookkeeper, his knowledge of the business making it possible for him to fill these several offices with ability.

Mr. Erickson was made a Mason in Ferndale Lodge No. 193, F. & A. M., of which he was master for two years ; a member of Ferndale Chapter No. 78, R. A. M., which he served as high priest for three years, besides which he is affiliated with the Odd Fellows and the Woodmen of the World. In politics he is a Republican. In Ferndale, October 30, 1901, he was married to Jennie I. Rasmussen, a native of Humboldt county and the daughter of Jacob Rasmussen, one of the pioneer dairymen of this section, a sketch of whose life and accomplishments may be found upon another page in this work. Mr. and Mrs. Erickson have one child, Harold. Mr. Erickson has been actively associated with all movements for the upbuilding of the community, and is held in the highest esteem throughout the county of his adoption.

ISAAC NIXON MINOR.—A native of Humboldt county, a pioneer, and the son of one of the best known pioneer families in the county, Isaac Nixon Minor has spent his entire lifetime in Humboldt county, save for brief periods when business or pleasure have called him away temporarily. He has been actively engaged in business enterprises of various sorts which have closely identified him with the life of the county and have made him an integral part of the history of this region. For many years he was actively engaged in lumber manufacturing and of late years was manager of the Minor Mill and Lumber Company, until 1912, when they closed down on account of having used up all available timber. However, this leaves him by no means inactive, for he still has large property interests with which he keeps thoroughly in .touch and which he is improving, engaging also in cattle raising. He resides on his farm about six miles above Arcata on the banks of Mad River.

Mr. Minor was born in Arcata, March 12, 1858. Here he spent his boy­hood days, attending the public schools of Arcata, and after graduating from the grammar school, he went to San Francisco to complete his education, graduating from McClure's Military Academy, Oakland, and also from Heald's Business College, San Francisco, in 1875. He then returned to Arcata and, took charge of the stock range of the Redwood ranch, which was owned at that time by his father. Here he remained, successfully managing this extensive property for about three years, or until it was sold to Tom Bair. Following this he had charge of his father's home ranch at Arcata for a year, and then took over the management of another of his father's properties and later farmed for himself a year. In 1884 he gave up farming to engage in the livery business in Arcata, continuing in this undertaking for two years and meeting with much success. He then disposed of these interests and removed to Glendale, where he worked for his father in the Minor Mill and Lumber Company as foreman of the woods, being under the supervision of his father, Isaac Minor. He remained with this company for twenty-nine years, being for the most part in the same department. The last eight years of his service here was as manager of the company, a service which terminated when the mill closed down. He was president of the company when it was dissolved in 1914. During the active days of the mill its capacity was 100,000 feet of lumber and 100,000 shingles a clay, about $25,000 a month being paid out for help, and at times the yard had eight million feet of lumber stacked up. During the time he was in the mill Mr. Minor cleared some five thousand acres of land. Glendale ranch comprises 4,640 acres of land located on the Mad river and is devoted to dairying, breeding Durham and Hereford cattle. The range is gradually being cleared up, giving ample pasturage for a large herd. For many years Mr. Minor was engaged in raising standard bred horses and owned Morosco, which made the best record of any horse at the breeders' meeting in California in 1903.

The marriage of Mr. Minor occurred October 9, 1880, in Arcata, uniting him with Miss Mary Adams, a native of Humboldt county, born in Eureka, February 7, 1863. They have become the parents of two sons, Issac S. and George C., both assisting Mr. Minor on the ranch.

Mrs. Minor is the daughter of Bary Maxwell Adams, a native of Ireland, and born in Belfast, August 2, 1826. He left Ireland and went to Australia during the great gold excitement there in 1846. Arriving in Australia he did not find the conditions as he had expected and so gave up his intention of mining and found employment as a bookkeeper for a cattle firm, remaining there during his entire stay in Australia. In 1850, hearing of the gold excite­ment in California, Mr. Adams resigned his position and immediately set sail, landing in San Francisco that same year, and from there going into Yuba county, where he engaged in mining for himself for a short time. In 1852 he decided to remove to Humboldt county and bought a herd of cattle, which he drove over the mountains, and engaged in stock raising, locating on Bear river. Here he went into partnership with. Joe Russ and engaged in the butcher business in connection with stock raising for twenty years. At a later period he purchased the Three Cabins ranch on Mad river in partner­ship with A. Wiley and engaged in stock raising there for a short time, then disposed of his interest in the ranch and drove his. cattle to the Sacramento valley, where he sold stock for a time. His death occurred September 23, 1888, on his home place near Arcata, he having been retired from active busi­ness for a number of years previous. His wife, and the mother of Mrs. Minor, was Caroline Armstrong, a native of Indiana, born in Indianapolis, April 12, 1840. She crossed the plains with her parents in 1851, taking six months to • make the trip. They located in Humboldt county, where the father, Thomas Armstrong, was one of the sturdy pioneers. He built one of the first houses in Arcata; this being unique in that it was constructed entirely from one tree, all the lumber used being whip-sawed by Mr. Armstrong, and very few nails being used in the building. This house is standing today. When Mrs. Minor's mother came to Arcata the trip from San Francisco required twenty days. She was mauled here to Mr. Adams..

Mr. Minor has been actively engaged in business enterprises in Hum­boldt county for almost forty years, and is well known throughout the county. His efforts have always been of such a nature that they have developed the natural resources of the county, adding to its intrinsic wealth and making it a pleasanter habitat for men. He has been keenly alive to all matters of public interest, and he is a man of broad mind and progressive ideas, always to be found in the vanguard of movements for public welfare and general social betterment. His father, Isaac Minor, is one of the best known men in Humboldt county, and for many years has been prominently identified with the lumbering industry of the state, and also owns much valuable real estate, some of the finest ranches in the county being his.

JOHN ROBERT JACOBSON.—So much of Mr. Jacobson's life has been passed upon the water that he can scarcely be called a landsman, but nevertheless he has an abiding place on terra firma, as his pleasant home in Eureka testifies. For generations the home of the family had been in Sweden, and in Westervik, Smaland, that country, John R. Jacobson was born January 23, 1858, the son of parents who never left the Scandinavian peninsula. The father was an engineer by trade, and it so happened that after the son had completed his schooling he also took up the same trade, and while still quite a youth had a splendid working knowledge of stationary engineering. With this knowledge as his chief asset he started out on his own account when about eighteen years old, in 1876, going to sea on the Norwegian bark Theo­dore. On this vessel he continued for three years, during this time making port in the West Indies and Mexico. Altogether three trips were made to Mexico, where the vessel was loaded with mahogany for England and Scot­land, and on one trip to the Americas, cotton from Savannah, Ga., formed the cargo for Kronstadt, Russia. Another voyage of the vessel was to Rouen, France, on the Seine river, where Mr. Jacobson left the vessel and instead went on board the full rigged English vessel known as the Rock City. On this he made one trip from England to Montreal and return, and then sailed on the German bark Theresa to the West Indies and Florida, returning in due time to the port of departure. The next vessel on which he shipped was the Ocean King, one of the largest American sailing vessels of that day, which left Shields, England, in November, 1880, for San Francisco, via Cape Horn. In just one hundred and thirty-three days from the time of leaving the English port anchor was dropped in San Francisco, March 3, 1881. Whether the resolve was ever taken or not the records do not state, but nevertheless it is a fact that after entering the Golden Gate ocean travel for Mr. Jacobson was at an end. Instead he became interested in the coastwise trade, sailing on various vessels, and his interest in Eureka dates from December, 1881. For two years he sailed out of this city in the coasting trade, and then gave up the business to become proprietor of the American bakery and restaurant on E street. Two years of life on •land and the con­finement of business as compared with the life which he had led for so many Years made him restless for his former. occupation, and as soon as he could dispose of his business he once more sought an occupation connected with the water. In 1885 he took up. steamboating on the ocean, beginning as fireman, and from this he worked up to engineer; and it was while employed on the Santa Maria that the rock for building the St. George lighthouse off Crescent City was taken from Eureka to St. George. Following this he re­turned to Eureka and for some time thereafter he was engaged on the Buhne line of tug boats, following this being connected with the steamer Humboldt for four years. It was on this vessel that he was advanced to engineer, and remained as such on this vessel until she was wrecked off Point Gorda in 1896. After this disaster Mr. Jacobson returned to San Francisco and sailed as marine engineer on the bay and on Sacramento river boats, continuing this until he was given the opportunity to go to Alaska in 1911. During these years he accumulated some means and built a residence in San Bruno, San Mateo county, which he still owns. As engineer of the Unamake he went to the north for the Alaska Packers' Association, an experience which had its compensation, but since returning to California he again came to Eureka and has been contented to remain within close range of his adopted home, in the meantime acting as chief engineer of the Antelope. His experience in Humboldt county has been exceedingly pleasant, he having formed many warm friendships, and he enjoys this country more and finds it more desirable than any other place of his travels. This opinion is shared by his faithful wife and helpmate.

It was after coming to California that Mr. Jacobson formed domestic ties, his marriage in Eureka uniting him with Miss Odine Petersen on December 13, 1884. She was born, reared and educated in Stavanger, Norway, which country she left with a brother and sister bound for the United States, and January 1, 1882, reached Galveston, Tex. The following year she came to San Francisco, Cal., and to Eureka in January of the year following, and it was in the last month of the same year that her marriage occurred. Six children blessed the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Jacobson, as follows : Carl, who died when six months old ; Axel Fredolph, who runs an automobile stage out of Eureka ; Ruby Roberta, Mrs. Madsen, of San Francisco ; Frank P., who also resides in that metropolis ; Marguerite Otellia and Janetta. Besides his membership in the Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association, Mr. Jacobson is affiliated with the Woodmen of the World and the Druids, while Mrs. Jacobson is a member of the Women of Woodcraft. Both are members of the Lutheran Church, in the tenets of which they were reared in their childhood.

THOS. H. PERRY.—During the many years of his association with the insurance business in Eureka the name of Thos. H. Perry has become well known, for few there are indeed who are not familiar with his catchy adver­tising over the signature of "Your fireproof friend Perry." Neither has the name proved a misnomer, for Mr. Perry has been a friend indeed in many instances in which he has written insurance for clients, as well as being instrumental in securing homes for many others, for in addition to writing insurance he also engages in the real estate business.

The history of the Perry family is traced to England, Grandfather Perry being the first progenitor of the family in the United States. He located in Boston, Mass., and there reared his family. Among his children was Thomas L. Perry, born in Boston, and who early in life displayed a taste for the sea. It is related that when a mere lad he went to sea and practically continued upon the water throughout his life, in time becoming captain. In the early '50s as master of a vessel he came around Cape Horn and landed at San Francisco. After remaining in the city for a time he decided to give up the sea and for some time engaged in mining, but the venture not proving as profitable as he had anticipated he gave it up and came to Eureka. Foreseeing a profitable outlook in the decorating business he opened a painting, graining and decorating establishment in the city and followed it with success throughout the remainder of his life, his death occurring in 1887. In his marriage he was united with Mary Riley, a native of Ireland, but who for some time had been a resident of Massachusetts, and is now making her home in Eureka. Of this marriage six children were born, equally divided as to sons and daughters, but one son and one daughter have passed away.

Next to the oldest child in the parental family, Thos. H. Perry was born in Eureka April 26, 1872, and up to the time of his father's death he was privileged to attend the public schools of his native city. This bereave­ment throwing him upon his own resources he began carrying papers for the Daily Humboldt Times and Humboldt Standard, and following this he began to learn the printer's trade in the Times office. After serving his appren­ticeship he worked at the trade for eight years, or until hand work was supplanted by the more rapid work of the linotype machine with which the office had been equipped. It was at this juncture that he became interested in the insurance business, and through his unique method of advertising, to say nothing of the care and precision with which he looks after the details which the writing of insurance involves, he has developed a creditable busi­ness in this line, as well as in the real estate business, which has been added more recently. His office is conveniently located at No. 515 F street, Eureka. In the line of fire and life insurance the following well-known companies are represented : Royal, Connecticut, Sun of London, New Zealand, Michigan Commercial, American Central of St. Louis, Maritime of Liverpool, South­western Surety Company, Northwestern Life of Milwaukee and New York Mutual. He also has the agency for bonding and automobile insurance. The confidence the different insurance companies have in his integrity, fairness and ability is shown by their having him give his personal attention to the adjusting of losses by fire in the case of policies issued through him, a matter which is much appreciated by his clients. For the last twelve years, or since 1902, Mr. Perry has held the commission of notary public.

Various fraternal and social organizations claim Mr. Perry's attention and they in turn benefit by his kindly and pleasing personality. He is a member of Eureka Aerie No. 130, F. 0. E., of which he was financial sec­retary for eight years and treasurer for two years ; Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E. ; Hoopa Tribe No. 146, I. 0. R. M.; Knights of Columbus ; and Humboldt Parlor No. 14, N. S. G. W., and Woodmen of the World. Mr. Perry's name is among the charter members of Eureka Lodge No. 636, Loyal Order of Moose, of which he has been secretary ever since its organization, June 17, 1911. He is also a member of the Humboldt Club.

STEPHEN GIULIERI.—The oldest of a family of five children, of whom all now reside in the state of California, Stephen Giulieri was born in Cognasco, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, June 24, 1855, the son of Dominic, a farmer of that country, and Rosa (Calzascia) Giulieri, both of whom are now deceased. The boyhood of Stephen was spent upon his father's farm, and he received his education at the local public schools, in the year 1874 removing to America, and settling in Marin county, Cal., where for four years he was employed on a dairy farm. In 1878 he came to Eureka on the steamer Pelican. The following three years were spent in the same line of work at Bear River Ridge, in Humboldt county, after which time he was for three years employed in a sawmill, returning, however, to Bear River Ridge for a year in the employ of Mr. Russ, the owner of extensive ranches in that vicinity, and continuing in the dairy business. Mr. Giulieri was for a period of twelve year's the manager of the Mountain Glen ranch. Determining then to start in business for himself, in the year 1897 he removed to Salmon Creek, where he leased the J. M. Tierney ranch for the space of ten years, an estate which comprised an area of one hundred twenty acres, and two years later took in his brother Charles as partner, an arrangement which continued for two years, when he sold his interests in the business to his brother and secured employment himself upon different dairies in the vicinity for a few years. After a year spent thus at Ferndale, and another at Bear River, at which place he was also for two years manager of the Mazeppa ranch, Mr. Giulieri leased sixty-five acres on Cannibal Island, being a part of the Dillon ranch, where he conducted a dairy of forty cows. His present place, which consists of sixty acres located on Salmon creek, he bought in the year 1909, in partnership with his brother Charles, with whom he had formerly leased the Tierney ranch at the same place, and here Mr. Giulieri now makes his home, having built a new bungalow and enlarged and increased the number of buildings and improved the property. The soil consists of fertile bottom land, and he is enabled to raise thereon all the hay and green feed required by his fine dairy herd- of Jersey and Durham cows. In his political interests Mr. Giulieri is a member of the Republican party, for, though the business at his farm occupies much of his time, he yet takes an active part in the upbuilding of the new country where he has chosen to make his home and which is proving such a profitable land in which to reside. Indeed, he may be rated among the old timers in the county, which his steady industry and ability have helped to bring to the front among the counties of the western coast.

W. H. HELLARD, JOHN H. HELLARD.—The first improvements made at Alderpoint were made by W. H. Hellard, of the firm of Hellard & Son, and were in the shape of a two-story hotel building, built in 1911, at the cost of $45C0. This firm, which is composed of W. H. Hellard as senior partner, and his son, John H. Hellard, as junior member, is one of the most enterprising and progressive in Alderpoint, and is doing much for the devel­opment of the town and surrounding country. Both father and son are wide awake to all business opportunities and have diversified interests. They are, besides the operation of the Alderpoint hotel, interested in farming, and. in portable saw mills, and John Hellard is also clerk in the local post office, having held this position since the organization of the office in 19Q9. He is a young man of more than ordinary ability, of strong character, and of exceptionally high business principles. He also possesses those rarest of qualities, sane judgment and common sense.

W. H. Hellard is a native of Kentucky, born at Richmond, September 18, 1852. His father, John Hellard, was a native of Virginia, and his mother was Mary Alsap of Kentucky. His parents were married in Kentucky and there W. H. Hellard passed his boyhood days. There were no educational advantages at that time and he never attended school a day in his life, receiving his instruction in private. When he was twenty-five years of age he went to Arkansas, where he met and married Miss Nancy Bean, a native of that state. For eight years he engaged in farming in Arkansas and then came west, locating near Portland, Ore., where he again followed the occu­pation of farming. In 1896 he came from Portland to Bridgeville, Humboldt county, where he continued to farm, and also became interested in running machinery, being especially associated with threshing machines and portable saw mills. He ran a saw mill ten miles below Blocksburg, and later bought and put in machinery at other mills, under the name of Hellard & Son, Saw and Planing Mills. They made the lumber which they used in the erection of the Alderpoint hotel, and also in the store building which they built there and for their large residence. There are seven children in the family, all of whom are residing at home : John H., the elder, being his father's business partner ; Jesse, Charles, Roy, Viola, Ruby and William.

John H. Hellard, junior partner of the firm of Hellard & Son, is .a native of Arkansas, having been born on his father's farm in Yell county, December 1, 1883. He came west with his parents and for a number of years resided on a farm near Portland, Ore., where he attended school and assisted with the farm responsibilities. He has been his father's business partner since he reached his majority, and has been particularly successful. In their farming enterprises he has assumed his full share of both labor and responsibility and has proven himself capable and industrious. In his work as clerk in the Alderpoint post office he is efficient and obliging, and is well liked by friends and patrons. Fraternally he is a member of Hydesville Lodge No. 250, I. 0. 0. F., and Hydesville Encampment No. 59, I. 0. 0. F., and politically is a Democrat.

EDWIN WEED HAIGHT.—The banking interests of Fortuna have received a strong impetus since the coming of Mr. Haight to the town, and he is now serving as president of the Bank of Fortuna. This bank was incor­porated March 27, 1905, by A. H. Smith, with a capital of $25,000, and Mr. Haight was elected its first president, serving as such ever since. The other officers are A. H. VanDuzen, vice-president ; Fred P. Newell, cashier, and Gordon R. Legg, assistant cashier, and the board of directors as follows : E. W. Haight, A. H. VanDuzen, Fred P. Newell, F. W. Luther, George H. Newell, M. P. Hansen, and George -Williams. This bank is a commercial and savings bank and is regarded as the most substantial financial institu­tion in Fortuna. Mr. Haight was born in Washington, D. C., April 22, 1852. When he was four years of age his parents moved to Iowa, locating in Maquoketa, Jackson county, where he attended the public schools until seventeen years old. He then gave up his schooling to take up the miller's trade, which he followed for three years, after which he was employed in a general merchandise store in his home city for about twelve years. He then decided to come to California and on June 15, 1887, he located in Humboldt county, entering the merchandise store of L. Feigenbaum Co. at Rohnerville, Where he remained in the capacity of bookkeeper for eight years. He then moved to Fortuna, 'and with others he purchased the store and stock of Swirtzel and Williams, and incorporated The Fortuna Merchandising Com­pany, of which he was selected secretary and treasurer,' a position he has held ever since. During this time, in March, 1905,• he was elected president of the Fortuna Bank and since 1912 has been giving it all of his attention. He is also interested with G. W. Williams in a shingle mill at Burnell Sta­tion and in a box factory on Williams creek.

The marriage of Mr. Haight occurred in Maquoketa, Iowa, November 26, 1876, he being united with Belle B. Wise, who was born in Cedar county, Iowa, and they have a daughter, Elma, wife of 0. A. MacDermott of Berkeley. Mr. Haight has been a member of the board of trustees since the town of Fortuna was incorporated, is president of the board of trustees of the Hum­boldt State Normal located at Arcata, and is treasurer of Fortuna Lodge, T. 0. 0. F. Mr. Haight is actively associated with all movements brought forward for the good of the community and is one of Fortuna's leading citizens. He has been a witness of the wonderful growth and advancement of the county and is a progressive, public spirited man.

JOHN C. ALBEE.—Another of the enterprising and energetic young men engaged in farming and orcharding in the Bull creek country, is John C. Albee, a native of Humboldt county, and descended from one of the oldest and most highly respected pioneer families of the state. His father, Uriah T. Albee, was one of the early settlers, having come to California in 1848, around Cape Horn, landing in San Francisco. In 1849 he came to Humboldt bay, thus being one of the first white men to view this beautiful body of water. He was engaged in the logging and lumbering business and did much for the early development of this great industry. The Albee property on Bull creek consists of two hundred twenty-four acres, some one hundred fifty of which are tillable. About forty acres are bottom land. The son, John C. Albee, is at present engaged extensively in the dairy business, in which he is making a decided success. His orchards are among the best in the valley, and the fruit produced is quite up to standard, even in this region of superior apples and other deciduous fruits. He is located up Bull creek road about five and one-half miles from South Fork, the station on the Northwestern Pacific Railroad, and this place has been his home for more than twenty years, having been the property of his father during the latter's lifetime.

John C. Albee was born in Eureka, Humboldt county, Cal., March 4, 1879. His father, Uriah T., being among the first lumbermen of Humboldt Bay and intimately associated with many of the early lumbermen of Eureka and vicinity. In fact, he furnished the logs which were made into lumber and which served to build up the great redwood industry of Humboldt Bay, and was a man of sterling worth, one of the kind who have left their mark upon the county, and who will ever be gratefully remembered. He was a native of East Machias, Maine, and came to California, as before stated, in 1848, around the Horn. He was one of the first gold-seekers at Eureka and later came to Humboldt Bay, where he logged in partnership with David Evans, and later was partner with Dan Newell, at Fortuna, He cut logs where Eureka now stands and logged for William Carson, later going into the Elk river country where he engaged in ranching for a time. He sold his interests there and came into the Bull creek country about 1890. He died in Eureka in 1894. He was unmarried when he first came to California, but later turned to Maine and there married Miss Cornelia Crosby, also a native of Maine. They returned to California by way of Panama, and she was his helpmeet and companion through all the hard pioneer days. She died in Eureka about twelve years ago.

There were seven children in the father's family, three daughters and four sons, John C., the subject of this sketch, being the youngest born. He grew up in Eureka where the father owned land and where the family home was until the time of the father's death. At that time John C. succeeded to the Bull creek property, where he has since made his home. His educa­tion was received in Eureka, where he attended the public schools, and later worked in the woods for the Pacific Lumber Company, at Scotia. He fol­lowed the woods for six or seven years, and then gave up that occupation for his present one of ranching and dairying.

The marriage of John C. Albee and Miss Alma Beatrice Faulkner, daughter of T. H. Faulkner, of Ferndale, took place in Ferndale, December 22, 1909. They are now the parents of one child, a daughter, Priscilla Beatrice. The Albee family is descended from old English ancestry, the American progenitor coming to America during Colonial days and settling in Massachusetts Bay Colony. They were patriots of a high order, and several members of the family fought in the Revolutionary war with dis­tinction, a paternal ancestor, William Albee, a native of Scarborough, Maine, having served eight years in the Revolutionary war, and having held the rank of lieutenant.

Both Mr. and Mrs. Albee are popular in the community, where they take a prominent part in local affairs. Mr. Albee is a member of the Odd Fel­lows, Ferndale Lodge No. 379, I. 0. 0. F., and Mrs. Albee is a prominent member of the Rebekahs, and also a member of the Episcopal church at Fern­dale. Both she and her husband are members of the Farm Center at Dyer­ville: Mrs. Albee is a native of Washington, born at Puyallup. Her father, T. H. Faulkner, was born in Toronto, Canada, and came to Washington, where he married May Hand, a native of England, who came to Washington on a visit. Mrs. Albee was reared and educated in Ferndale, graduating from the local high school. She was engaged in teaching and educational work, and now teaches in the local schools.

ELIAS HUNTER.—The Hunters are a distinctive family. Numerously represented in Humboldt county for over half a century, the name has always been associated with citizenship of a high order, capability, sterling worth and honorable independence. Physically they are noted as a wholesome, vigorous race, large of build and muscular, with characteristic steady eyes and broad foreheads, remarkably active and long-lived. Manly men and handsome women are the rule in their large families, common sense and industry prevailing traits. Walker Sanders Hunter and his brother, John Henry, were the progenitors of the Hunters living around Petrolia, the former being the father of Elias Hunter, whose name heads this article. (For an account of the father, refer to sketch of George W. Hunter, elsewhere in this volume.)

Elias Hunter was born November 30, 1853, in Missouri, and was in his first year when the family came to California. He was in his sixth year when they settled in Humboldt county, and had such common school advan­tages as Petrolia afforded at the time, side by side with the practical advan­tages of training in actual work. He grew up on his father's ranch, and from youth worked industriously, as he does still. After his marriage he operated one of his father's properties for three years, as a dairy ranch, and then bought a place in the Upper Mattole district, prospering there until he sold it, in 1880. He has since resided at Petrolia, where he has a very comfortable home, nicely located in the center of the town. Its appearance is typical of the owner, every square foot of the three lots being used for trees, plants, shrubs or flowers, and Mr. Hunter gives the grounds such excellent care that they are an improvement to the neighborhood. He now acts as stableman at his son's livery barn in Petrolia, and his record for fair dealing makes him as popular in that position as he has always been. He has never taken any part in public affairs except to cast his ballot in support of the Repub­lican party.

In 1875 Mr. Hunter was married in Petrolia to Miss Lucy S. Wright, daughter of Lucian and Lucy (Farnsworth) Wright, and descended on both sides from early pioneer stock of the Mattole valley. Of the twelve children born to this union nine are living, namely : Ellis, of Petrolia, is a business man and landowner ; James E., a clerk in Brizard's store at Arcata, married Kate Fielding and has six children ; Claude is unmarried ; Rosa is the wife of R. B. Poole, a dairyman, near Astoria, Ore. ; Walter, of Petrolia, a teamster, married Miss Katie Wright, and they have two children; Irma, who is un­married, is in the employ of Jesse Walker, near Petrolia ; Clara is the wife of Stephen Gouthier, a ranchman of Humboldt county, and has one child ; William is a clerk in the Hart & Johnson store at Petrolia ; Austin, ten years old, is living with his parents. Mrs. Hunter is a Seventh Day Adventist in religious belief.

EUPHRONIUS COUSINS.—Back to a remote period in the American colonization of Maine may be traced the lineage of the Cousins family, whose members in successive generations gave unstintingly of their lives and labors to the permanent development of that rugged country. Among them all, however, none gained greater distinction in his own locality or became more widely known throughout the entire state than the late Euphronius Cousins, a native of Hancock county, Me., and for years during young man­hood the owner of a shipyard near Ellsworth. From a small beginning he developed a great shipyard and the vessels that were launched from his yard sailed the high seas to every port of the world, sturdy and stanch in the midst of every storm, their substantial construction bearing mute testi­mony to the integrity and intelligence of their builder.

To so great a ship-builder as Mr. Cousins the Pacific coast offered oppor­tunities too great to be turned aside. When he came to California in 1865 he settled in Eureka and straightway built the first shipyard here on land owned by William Carson. Later with Joseph Russ he built Cousins' Mill on Gunther Island and engaged in the manufacture of lumber, also operat­ing the shipyard from 1871 to 1883, in the latter year selling out to David Evans. The latter changed the name to the Excelsior Mill. Associated with Charles H. Heney and E. J. Dodge, he organized the Eel River Valley Lumber Company of the Eel river valley and for ten years he devoted his splendid energies to the varied interests of lumbering. He built the mill and named the place Newberg Mills. After selling his lumber business he engaged in min­ing in Arizona for three years and then returned to Eureka. Later he was pre­vailed upon to construct a shipyard in Aberdeen, Wash., in which were built the Coronado (named by his wife), the Eldorado and the S. W. Slade, when death overtook him and ended his career of usefulness. Among the vessels built in Cousins' Eureka yard were the May Queen, Western Belle, Joseph Russ, Mary E. Russ, Maggie Russ, Ruby Cousins, Lillebonne and Hesperian. The Lillebonne, one of his stanchest craft, received its name from Mrs. Cousins' birthplace in France. While still actively engaged in ship-building at Aberdeen, Mr. Cousins died June 9, 1901. His strong per­sonality had impressed itself upon the pioneer citizenship of the west and his success as a ship-builder gave permanent prestige to his name. For many years he was agent of the Bureau of Veritus and inspected all the • foreign boats that entered the harbor and only resigned when he went to Aberdeen.

Busy as was Mr. Cousins in affairs of business and the construction of ships, he was never too engrossed with private affairs to refuse co-operation in progressive measures for the general welfare. A man of generous impulses, his very generosity to public-spirited projects enhanced his devotion to his chosen community, although necessarily reducing his personal income in a material degree. Although years have passed since his removal from Eureka, his influence is still apparent in the history of the town which he helped to develop and which always had his loyal support. Throughout his entire life he gave allegiance to the Democratic party, but took no part in public affairs aside from casting his ballot for the candidates and measures put forward by the Democrats.

His first marriage was solemnized in Maine and united him with Miss Sophia Blaisdell, a native of that state. Of the five children born of that union, two sons are living, George W. and I. Howard, both of Eureka. Some time after the death of his first wife he was united with Melanie Lalouette, who was born in Lillebonne, France, a town which contains a ruined castle built by William the Conqueror. Mrs. Cousins was married in San Francisco and came to Eureka in 1880. Since the death of her husband she has owned and occupied the family home at No. 1121 G street, where culture and artistic taste are apparent in the neatly-kept grounds and attractive interior furnish­ings. The walls of the residence are adorned with beautiful oil paintings, which invariably attract admiring comments from.gilests and friends. Upon inquiry strangers learn that these represent the genius of Mrs. Cousins as an artist and give expression to her talent in delineating and reproducing scenes of outdoor life.

HANS D. BENDIXSEN.--The foremost shipbuilder on Humboldt Bay, Cal., Hans D. Bendixsen, was noted for his efforts in the upbuilding of this part of the country, as well as. of the Pacific coast merchant marine. Mr. Bendixsen came to California in the old days, via Cape Horn, and found employment in Turner's shipyard, at San Francisco, until the year 1868, at which time he came to Eureka, Humboldt county, where he proved himself a most enterprising and valued citizen.

Born in Thisted, Jutland, Denmark, on October 14, 1842, Mr. Bendixsen was the son of Consul F. C. and Mariane (von Mehren) Bendixsen, both members of well-to-do families of high station in Denmark. After his con­firmation Mr. Bendixsen was apprenticed to the shipbuilders' trade in Aalborg for two years, following which he was employed in the same line for another two years in Copenhagen, after which he went to sea as a ship carpenter. After a trip to Brazil he came to San Francisco in 1863, and after some time spent in San Francisco, removed to Eureka, Cal., where he entered the employ of E. Cousins' shipyard, remaining there two years. He then began shipbuilding independently at the foot of L street, a place which was later known as Mathews' shipyard, the first vessel he built being the Fairy Queen, a topmast schooner, others following, by name, Maxquila, Silva, Alvena, Mary, John McCullough, Jane L. Stanford, Humboldt, Alaska Flyer, Nome City, John Palmer and scores of others. In the thirty-three years he was engaged in ship construction he built one hundred thirteen vessels of all classes, all having a high reputation for encountering heavy seas and for general seaworthiness. From Eureka, Mr. Bendixsen removed his shipyard to Fairhaven, on the peninsula, and though at different times meeting with severe business losses, his plant once being entirely destroyed by fire, he courageously began anew and continued with calm determination, and each time made a success, liquidating all debt with one hundred cents on the dollar. In 1901 he sold his shipbuilding plant for a snug fortune, netting him close to a quarter of a million of dollars, his good credit having made it possible for him to retrieve his fortunes after each of the disasters which had threatened to destroy his business. Besides his shipbuilding, he also owned an interest in many vessels.

A prominent member of the Masonic order, Mr. Bendixsen rose to the thirty-second degree of the Scottish Rite Masons, being also a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. His first marriage, which was of but short duration, united him with a lady from the vicinity of his old home in Denmark. On January 20, 1880, occurred his second marriage, uniting him with Miss Emma Taegen, who was born at Emmerich am Rhein, and to whom Mr. Bendixsen gave much of the credit for his success. The death of Mr. Bendixsen took place on February 12, 1902, the body being taken to the old home at Thisted, Denmark, where the funeral took place in May of that year. Since that time his widow has made several gifts to the place of his birth, erecting there a magnificent and expensive monument and giving money for the support of the needy of that town.

FEDELE GUGLIELMINA.—For over twenty-six years Fedele Gugliel­mina has been following the dairy business in Humboldt county, and his early training among the Alps mountains in Switzerland has combined with favorable conditions in this region to win him success in the line which has been his life work up to now. His prosperous career speaks well for the land of his birth and for the land of his adoption. Reared in a region noted for the productiveness of its herds, he became familiar with the care of dairy cattle from boyhood. But he was ambitious for greater returns than the intense competition and small areas of his own country made possible, and settled in the new world, which has indeed proved a land of promise in his case. His irrepressible activity and energy did not abate in the least when he found working conditions better, and his industry and cheerful perse­verance have been well rewarded, as his present circumstances show. More­over, his upright life has gained him the respect of all his neighbors and asso­ciates. The eight-hundred-acre property which he leases and on which he conducts a large dairy, lies three miles northeast of Petrolia, on the Cape-town road, beautifully located in an opening of the Coast range, and is appro­priately named Buena Vista ranch.

Mr. Guglielmina was born September 10, 1865, in Cavergno, canton of Ticino, Switzerland, a beautiful mountain district in the Maggia valley on the Italian border. His father, Joseph Guglielmina, was a dairyman and cheesemaker in comfortable circumstances ; he married Mary Balli, and four sons were born to them, of whom Fedele is the youngest. As a lad he had the advantages of the public schools, and practical training in dairy work. at the same time,, learning the care of cows and goats and the making and handling of the products. When eighteen years old he decided to try his fortune in America, sailing from I-Iavre, France, on the Labrador, in Novem­ber, 1883, and landing at New York City. He proceeded west immediately, coming through to California, and located in Marin county, where he found work readily, hiring out by the month on dairy ranches. With the thrift to which he had been accustomed from childhood he managed always to save part of his earnings, and before long had enough to justify him in start­ing out for himself. In 1889 he made a trip to Switzerland to visit his parents and friends. While there he was married and three months afterward re­turned to America, this time coming direct to and locating in Humboldt county. During the first two seasons he was employed on dairies in the vicinity of Ferndale, then, having saved some money, he determined to en­gage in business for himself. He leased a fifty-acre ranch on Coffee creek and ran a dairy of thirty cows, remaining on the place for six years. Next he leased a ranch of sixty acres on the island near Ferndale, where he continued in dairying one year. Later he rented the Woodland Echo ranch on Bear river ridge, where he had a dairy of seventy-five cows and made butter which he shipped to San Francisco. Three years later he gave this up and leased the Spicy Breezes ranch of eight hundred acres on Cape Mendocino and for seven years conducted a dairy of one hundred cows. In 1908 he leased the present place, the Buena Vista ranch, which is ideal for dairying purposes and under his careful management has been very profitable. Seventy milch cows comprise the dairy herd, and the principal product is first-class dairy butter, which is put up in one-hundred-pound kegs for the lumberwoods trade, bring­ing ordinarily from twenty-five to thirty-two cents a pound ; the usual quan­tity is twelve thousand pounds annually. A gas engine furnishes power for the separator and churn. About fifty calves are raised yearly, some kept to replenish the home herd and the rest sold when from three months to one year old ; besides, about eight cows are sent to the block each year. Mr. Guglielmina's two sons are assisting him faithfully with his work.

Mr. Guglielmina was married in Cavergno, Switzerland, to Miss Josephine Beltrami, who passed away December 30, 1913, at the age of forty-seven years, her death being caused by heart disease. Three children were born to this union, Silvio Joseph, Lena Helen and Albert Clemerde. Mrs. Guglielmina was a faithful helpmate, and the daughter has been devoted to her home and of great assistance to her parents, her father especially appreciating this since his bereavement. He has never aspired to office nor taken any active part in politics, but gives his support to the Republican party. He and his family are members of St. Joseph's Catholic Church in Petrolia. He is liberal and enterprising and always ready to give of his time and means towards any movement that has for its purpose the upbuilding of the community and betterment of its citizens. His worthy ambition and the success of his honorable career are points that young people would do well to emulate.

GEORGE W. HUNTER.—About half way between Upper Mattole and Ettersburg is the home ranch of George W. Hunter, a member of the well known family of that name which has been associated with the development of this part of Humboldt county from the days of its first settlement. The Hunters are a family of distinctive traits and have been numerously repre­sented in the county for over half a century.

Walker Sanders Hunter, father of George W. Hunter, was born in Mont­gomery county, Mo., and followed farming in that state until 1854, when he brought his family across the plains to California. Like many other emi­grants, they made the trip in wagons drawn by oxen, the journey taking about six months. They arrived in the Mattole valley in Humboldt county the year mentioned, but the Indians being very troublesome, they went on up to Shasta county, where Mr. Hunter mined for about five years, near the little town of Buckeye and in sight of Mount Shasta. Returning to Humboldt county in June, 1859, he bought land in the Mattole valley, settling about two and a quarter miles from Petrolia, where he owned two claims, aggregating about eighteen hundred acres. He acquired large mercantile interests as well, his fortune at one time amounting probably to $100,000. But the mercantile venture, in which he had a partner, turned out unfortunately, and he lost $60,000. But he did not forfeit his integrity or honor, or his propensity for work, and his reputation and standing did not suffer with his loss of fortune. Seventeen years ago he returned to Missouri, where he has since lived, at Alarshall, Saline county, now (1914), at the age of eighty-five, spending his days in peaceful retirement, in the enjoyment of excellent health.

Mr. Hunter married Miss Nancy Bellamy, also of Missouri, who died at . Petrolia in 1893, aged sixty-six years. They had a family of ten children : Elias, who lives at Petrolia, is mentioned fully elsewhere; Pascal M., who died in April, 1912, at the age of fifty-six years, was lighthouse keeper at Punta Gorda, Cal. (he left six children) ; Eliza Ann, now a resident of Petrolia, has been twice married, her second husband being Robert Watson, who is deceased (she has five children) ; Melissa died when fifteen years old; Ange­line is the wife of -Walter A. Scott, formerly of Humboldt county (where he served as supervisor), now of Seattle, Wash., and has three children living; Elvira is the wife of Barney McDonough, a rancher, of Corning, Tehama county, Cal., and has a family of six children; Maggie, also of Corning, is married to Francis Muller, a ranchman, and has twelve children ; George W. is mentioned below ; Edward is a ranchman in Tehama county ; Thomas, who is a resident of Chehalis, Wash., is a widower with seven children.

George W. Hunter was born October 23, 1866, near Petrolia, where he was reared and educated. He has been a representative Hunter in his home life, and in his relations to the community, having brought up a large and self-reliant family, and having himself succeeded by hard work in attaining substantial standing and comfortable means through his own efforts. His principal interests as stockman and farmer are on the place where he resides, a tract of six hundred forty acres on the main road between Upper Mattole and Ettersburg, adjoining which his son Ray has taken up one hundred sixty acres as a homestead. George W. Hunter also owns one hundred sixty acres four miles south of Petrolia. Mr. Hunter has handled his ranching operations carefully, and though he has had to work hard he has had his reward in his continued prosperity and in the progress his children have made.

Mr. Hunter was but nineteen years old when he was married, near Petrolia, November 1, 1885, to Miss May Ellingwood, of Ferndale, who was then seventeen. She is the daughter of Giles Warren and Alice J. (Bishop) Ellingwood, both of whom were born near Eastport, Me. From there they came to California around Cape Horn on a sailing vessel to San Francisco in 1857. Settlement was first made in Santa Cruz, where Mr. Ellingwood followed ranching, after which for a time he worked at his trade of cooper in the Spreckels sugar refinery in San Francisco. In 1879 he came to Ferndale and erected a cooper shop, making a specialty of the manufacture of butter kegs and fish barrels, and won the reputation of being the best cooper in the county. Mr. Ellingwood died in Oakland in 1906, and his widow passed away in Eureka in 1909. Of the six children born to them Mrs. Hunter was next to the youngest. She was born at Santa Cruz and was educated in the schools of San Francisco and Ferndale.

Twelve children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Hunter, viz. : Levina, wife of Harry Schaffer, a tailor, of San Francisco (she taught school in Hum­boldt county and at San Francisco prior to her marriage) ; Dora, wife of Oscar Smith, an employe of the Union Iron Works, residing at San Francisco ; Ray, now twenty-four years old, who has acquired a homestead of one hun­dred sixty acres adjoining his father's place ; Ira, who owns eighty acres in the Mattole valley ; Donald ; Grace ; Russell and Blanche, twins ; Clara ; Myrtle ; Lewis, and Madge. They are promising young people, healthy in mind and body, and appreciative of the efforts the parents have made to afford them proper home environment and educational advantages. Mrs. Hunter has been an exceptionally capable helpmate and her husband at­tributes his prosperity to her practical encouragement as well as to his well directed labor.

JOSEPH STOCKEL, SR.—Tracing his ancestry back through a long line of sturdy German stock, and himself a native of Strass, Bavaria, Germany, born January 11, 1851, Joseph Stockel, Sr., is a true son of his /father, sober, industrious, and frugal, giving his best effort to any endeavor to which he puts his hand, and meeting at all times with a more than ordinary meed of success. He is now the owner of much valuable property in Humboldt county, including some very valuable town property at Shively, where he makes his home ; a ranch of thirty-six acres at Shively, with $10,000 worth of improve­ments; a stock range of one hundred sixty acres on Bull creek ; a homestead of one hundred sixty acres on Prairie creek ; a timber claim of three hundred twenty acres on the south fork of the Eel river, and a residence property on Harris street, in Eureka. His place at Shively is principally given over to the raising of fruit and vegetables, there being about fifteen acres of care­fully selected varieties of various kinds of fruits, which he retails in Eureka, making the Eureka place his headquarters during the fruit season.

The father of Mr. Stockel, likewise Joseph Stockel, was a farmer in Bavaria, and served in the German army. His mother was Mary Rugger, also of Bavaria, both parents being now deceased. There were six children in their family, four sons and two daughters, Joseph being the first born. His mother died in 1859, when he was but eight years of age. He attended the. common schools until he was fifteen years of age, and then was apprenticed to a carpenter and joiner, and at nineteen had mastered his trade, and for a year traveled over Germany as a journeyman. In 1871, when he was but twenty years of age, he left his native land for America, coming to West Chester, N. Y., where he took employment for a short time on a farm. He soon found employment more to his liking, however, in a furniture factory at Williamsburg, N. Y., where he continued until December 25, 1871, when he traveled westward to Chicago. This was soon after the great fire and there he found employment as a carpenter, working mostly in and around the great stock yards, where he became well acquainted with such historic characters as Old Hutch, P. D. Armour, the Swifts and Nelson Morris.

It was in 1874 that Mr. Stockel first came to California, locating in San Francisco, where he found work at his trade. Later he came up to Humboldt county, arriving in Eureka in 1876, and has since that time made his home in this county. He at first purchased a horse and wagon and drove through the country, buying and selling farm produce, and later conducted a peddler's wagon throughout the county. In 1881 he preempted a timber claim on the south fork of the Eel river, near where U. S. Grant Myers now lives, and improved the same, planting an orchard and erecting buildings. Later, in 1885, he homesteaded one hundred sixty acres on Prairie creek. He had much trouble over the title to this last place, it being claimed by a mining company on account of the splendid water right which it commanded, and it cost Mr. Stockel several thousands of dollars and years of litigation to secure a clear title to it. This property he also improved, and still owns. While living on this homestead he was married, in Eureka, January 29, 1891, to Miss Catherine Hassler, a native of Gross Sonnendeich, Schleswig, Germany, the daughter of John and Gescha (Caslen) Hassler. Mrs. Stockel's parents were born in Schleswig, Germany ; the mother died there ; her father came to America, and died in Eureka. Mrs. Stockel came to Humboldt county in May, 1889. Soon after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Stockel became proprietors of the Phillipsville store and ranch. After their children grew to school age, as the educational advantages in this section were very poor, Mr. Stockel decided to locate at Shively. Accordingly he came to this place and bought a part of the old Shively estate, where he has since made his home. He has erected many buildings in Shively, including several store buildings, a two-story hotel building known as Stockel's Resort, and several cottages which he rents to workmen and their families.

Mr. Stockel stands high in the municipal councils of Shively, and while accredited as a Republican, he always supports what he believes will accom­plish the most good for the general public. .He has served in various capacities in local political matters and his judgment is always respected. He is a keen business man and a born salesman and has prospered exceedingly in all that he has undertaken; he, however, gives no small degree of credit for his success to his faithful wife, who has always given him her wise counsel and able assistance in all of his undertakings and ambitions.

In 1913 Mr. Stockel made a visit to his old home in Bavaria, and traveled extensively throughout Germany, visiting all the larger cities and seeing all the points of interest throughout the Fatherland. He also visited many of the larger cities in the United States and Canada, visiting the east and south on his trip to Germany, and coming through Canada and down the west coast of the United States on his return journey. Arriving home, he enthusiastically declared Humboldt county to be the garden spot of them all. Mr. and Mrs. Stockel have six children, all natives of Humboldt county, where they are being reared and educated, and where they are well and favorably known. Of these, Martin is residing on the home ranch, which he assists to manage ; Andrew is in Fresno; Joseph, Jr., is on the home ranch; Frank is employed on the state highway ; Katie and Ida, the only daughters, are also residing at home, the latter graduating from the Eureka business college in 1915.

JOHN EWING KANE.—Another of the substantial farmers of the Blue Lake region in Humboldt county is John Ewing Kane, who for thirty years has been a resident of the county, coming here when he was scarcely twenty-one, and since that time making his home within the confines of Humboldt county. For much of the time he has been associated with the lumbering industry, but for a number of years past he has been engaged in farming, and today he owns one of the most highly improved ranches in the valley, and is known as one of the prosperous farmers of Blue Lake.

Mr. Kane is a native of Ireland, having been born in Ballycastle, County Antrim, April 11, 1864, the son of Daniel Kane, a farmer. Early in life the son became familiar with farm-life, as his duties on the ranch com­menced when he was a mere lad. His early education was received in the public schools, but at the age of sixteen he gave up school and went to work with his father on the farm. The conditions were not to his liking, however, and when he was twenty years of age he determined to seek his fortune in the land across the sea, where there' were greater opportunities for the man who was not afraid to work. Accordingly he came to Ontario, Canada, in 1884, and for a year followed the life of the farmer in that region. At the end of the year he again moved westward, this time coming to Eureka, Humboldt county, Cal., arriving in March, 1885. At first he se­cured employment with the Dolbeer-Carson Lumber Company, and after several years of the mill work was promoted to the position of head-sorter. Two years later he went to work for John Vance in the mill on Mad river, remaining until 1890, when he entered the employ of Isaac Minor as head of the sorting department. Two years following he was with the Excelsior Company at Freshwater, and in 1898 returned to work for Mr. Minor at Glendale as head swamper.

After several years at Glendale Mr. Kane transferred to the employ of Pollard & Dodge at Newburg, where he remained for some time, and then was with the Northern Redwood Lumber Company for eight years.

During all these years in the woods Mr. Kane had been accumulating a fund for the purchase of a farm, it being his greatest ambition to own a tract of land in this region. In 1912 he was enabled to purchase the place which has been his home ever since. This is a tract of forty acres of im­proved land, all under cultivation, besides which there is an apple orchard of ten acres, all in bearing. At the time of purchase there was a large house on the place, but little else. Mr. Kane has erected a large barn and other outbuildings and in other ways improved the property. He is at present engaged in dairying and is meeting with much success. He started with only twelve mulch cows, but has since continued to increase his herd. The ranch is acknowledged to be one of the best in the community, and under the present skilful management is proving very profitable. Mr. Kane's long experience in the woods makes his services in demand with lumber companies and he is now head swamper with the Northern Redwood Company in the Korbel woods.

Mr. Kane has many friends throughout the valley, especially among the men with whom he has worked for so many years in the forests and the mills. He is a Republican in politics, but has never been especially active in political affairs. He is progressive and up to date and well informed on all current topics. He was made a Mason in Arcata Lodge No. 106, is a member of Humboldt Chapter No. 52, R. A. M., and of, Arcata Chapter No. 207, 0. E. S., also of No Surrender Loyal Orange Lodge No. 143, I. O. R. M.

Mr. Kane was first married to Mary Redmond, who was born in Ireland• and was a sister of the present sheriff, Robert A. Redmond, of Eureka. She died on January 28, 1903, leaving six children: Bessie, Mrs. McBride of Fieldbrook ; Sadie, bookkeeper for A. Brizard Company, Arcata ; Alexander, fireman for the Northwestern Pacific Railroad and residing in South Bay; James, managing the home ranch ; and Jennie and Bernice. Mr. Kane's second marriage, in Eureka, united him with Miss Jane McMillan, a native of Ireland, who came to Eureka in 1904.

LEON BAKER.—A native of Warren county, Pa., and born in Colum­bus, February 3, 1859, Leon Baker has been a resident of Humboldt county, Cal., since 1912. For the greater part of his life he has been' engaged in merchandising and has been very successful in his undertakings. For the last few years he has been retired from active business, and is living quietly at his home in Blue Lake, enjoying the fruits of many years of industry.

Mr. Baker received his early education in the public schools of Columbus, attending the grammar and high schools until he was seventeen years of age, at which time he went to work in a general merchandise store, remaining in this position for two years. When he was nineteen he went to Lincoln, Neb., and took up the trade of harnessmaker, working at this for four years and becoming very proficient in all the details. Later he started in business for himself, opening a small hardware store in Lincoln in 1882. Starting on a small scale, Mr. Baker builded on a firm foundation, and gradually enlarged his stock of goods, and in a short time he owned one of the best establish­ments in Lincoln, with a splendid trade both for his hardware enterprise and his harness shop, his reputation as a skilled harnessmaker being well known throughout the community.

When Mr. Baker first came to Lincoln it was a town of from eight thousand to ten thousand inhabitants, and his business grew with the city (now something like fifty thousand inhabitants). His sons still have charge of the business which their father established, which is today one of the large concerns of Lincoln. In 1908 he incorporated his business as the Baker Hardware Company, of which he is president. In 1912 he retired and moved to Blue Lake. In 1914 he was elected a member of the board of city trustees and is giving his time to improvement of the town. He has lately been elected president of the Humboldt Federated Commercial Bodies.

The marriage of Mr. Baker took place in Lincoln, Neb., May 20, 1885, uniting him with Miss Maggie Wittmann, a native of Ripley county, Ind., born November 2, 1862. She has borne her husband five children, three daughters and two sons: Mary, Mrs. Frost, of Opportunity, Neb. ; Lewis W., manager of the store in Lincoln, Neb.; Susie H., Mrs. Eugene Fountain, of Arcata ; Marguerite, violinist in Minor Theater, Arcata; and Walter J., at home.

Mr. Baker is the son of Lewis Baker, a native of New York, born in Freedom, March 31, 1833. His paternal great-grandfather, Captain Stuart, served in the Revolutionary war. He attended a private school for a time and when he was ten years of age moved with his parents to Columbus, Pa. When a young man he went to work in the oil fields of that vicinity, they being the first to be developed in that section of the state. In 1880 he started in business for himself, opening a general merchandise store and later adding a hardware department. He continued to conduct this business until 1901, when he retired from active life, and is enjoying the declining years of his life in rest and quiet. He has always been actively interested in the affairs of his community and especially in questions of public welfare. He is a Republican in politics, and has been closely associated with the affairs of his party, and at one time was assemblyman in the state legislature of Penn­sylvania.

The father of Mrs. Baker was Joseph Wittmann, a native of Germany, born in 1837, and a harnessmaker by trade. In 1859 he came to the United States and followed his trade here, locating first at Ripley, Ind. For eleven years he followed his trade of harnessmaker and saddler, during a part of this time also carrying a hardware stock in connection with his other lines. In 1870 he moved to Lincoln, Neb., which was then a very small place, Mr. Wittmann being one of the pioneers of the city, and there as in Indiana he followed his trade with good returns. He was a Democrat in politics and was always interested in the affairs of his party. He passed away in 1904, having for the previous few years been retired from active participation in business and political affairs.

DAVID MILTON RAMSEY.—No childhood memories have survived the flight of years with greater vividness than those of Mr. Ramsey in con­nection with the trip to California in 1853 from Missouri, where he was born in the city of St. Louis, August 24, 1844. Almost before time had begun to be measured for him, his father had died and the mother had married again, so it happened that he came with his stepfather to the west, enduring the hardships of the voyage via the Isthmus of Panama, then crossing to the Pacific on muleback, and lastly traversing the broad expanse of water to San Francisco on the John L. Stevens, one of the old vessels then in use. The family settled in Sierra (now Plumas) county, and the stepfather, a man of energy and business aptitude, carried on a large mercantile establish­ment at Warren Hill, besides conducting two branch stores at other points in the same county. One of his most important enterprises was the buying of gold dust for the Wells Fargo Express Company.

David M. Ramsey attended local schools until 1858, after which he became a student at Durant College, Oakland. After completing his college course, he joined his parents who had in the meantime moved to the ranch at Cloverdale, in Sonoma county, after leaving the mining regions. This was a part of an old Spanish grant and embraced one-half square mile of bottom land, together with four hundred fifty acres of pasture land. Few settlers had preceded him into the solitudes of that section. Over broad ranges his cattle wandered unmolested and he found cattle-raising, with the subsidiary occupation of hog-raising, a source of fair profit. However, the isolation from other farmers, the distance from markets and the proximity of hostile Indians caused the family to dispose of their large holdings and remove in 1866 to San Francisco, where the son David secured a position in the postoffice and also became a member of the Military Band, also taking a course in a business college, while in that city.

Coming to Eureka in 1899, Mr. Ramsey for five years acted as local agent for the C. P. Doe Steamship Company, since leaving which position he has been associated with the Humboldt Stevedore Company as paymaster, handling all the finances and superintending difficult matters with an accuracy that has met the approval of his employers. During hours of leisure from business duties he has found pleasure and profit in developing, into a summer hunting and fishing camp, a tract of one hundred sixty acres on Mad river, at the mouth of Blue creek, having a half mile of Mad river on his place. When he secured the tract it was a timber claim and is still studded with pine and tan oak. On the property he has put up a rustic bungalow, made from red­wood shakes ; here he makes his headquarters, and for diversion he spends frequent vacations in the healthful sports of hunting and fishing. As a youth of twelve years, Mr. Ramsey ran the pack train for his stepfather, in old Sierra county, gathering the gold dust from the different stores and bringing it by muleback to the main store at Warren Hill. In his leisure hours he worked on an old abandoned claim from which he had the clean-up, and from this source he secured a fair return for his labor. He has never fully re­covered from the lure of seeking the elusive gold dust and it is difficult for him to refrain from joining the rush to the different gold strikes that are made.

Through his marriage to Anna A. Condon, a native of Belfast, Me., and a daughter of Isaac Condon, who was a member of the Vigilance Committee in San Francisco, Mr. Ramsey became united with one of the pioneer families of California. During the early '70s his wife's father had come to Humboldt county and embarked in the occupation of fishing for halibut off the Mendo­cino coast, stopping the steamers on their way to San Francisco and loading his catch on board, for sale in the city markets, where halibut in those days brought a price of about forty cents per pound.

CHARLES HART KINSEY.—Through the accomplishments of father and son the name of Kinsey is well and favorably known, not only in Eureka but through a large portion of Humboldt, where both have passed the greater part of their lives and where their interests are now centered. (For a more detailed account of the family the reader is referred to the sketch of Louis T. Kinsey on another page.)

The son of Louis Thompson and Sarah Jane (Hart) Kinsey, Charles Hart Kinsey was born in Eureka, January 5, 1876. His boyhood and youth were passed in his birthplace, and in the meantime he secured a good common school education here. Following closely upon his graduation from the Eureka high school in 1893 he matriculated in Leland Stanford Jr. University, continuing his studies in that institution during the years 1894 and 1895. A leaning toward a study of the law characterized the next two years of his life, while pursuing his legal training at the Hastings College of Law in San Francisco. In 1898 he left school and returned to Humboldt county to take charge of a ranch, assuming active management of a five thousand acre property for a period of seven years, or until 1905. After leaving the ranch he returned to San Francisco and again pursued the study of law, being admitted to the bar in 1907. For two years he was a law clerk in the office of Jordon, Rowe & Brann, and in 1909 opened an office of his own. His independent practice was continued for a year, at which time he formed a partnership with Fabius M. Clark. The partnership still exists, but Mr. Kinsey divides his time between San Francisco and Humboldt county. In 1914 he purchased the Nunn ranch near Garberville, in Humboldt county, and also the ranch of his father's near Briceland. Since joining the two proper­ties Mr. Kinsey has one of the finest cattle ranches in the state.

The marriage of Charles H. Kinsey united him with Alice Benicia Hulse on October 19, 1907. Fraternally he is identified with the Knights of Pythias, and while residing in San Francisco was a member of the Commonwealth Club and Union League Club.

JACOB MINER.—In his day Jacob Miner was one of the well known farmers and stockmen of the Mattole valley, and his widow still occupies the beautiful home at Petrolia which he erected in 1881. She, too, is a member of one of the early families of this region, the Johnstons, who came here with the Miners in the year 1868. Theirs were the first wagons ever brought in over the mountains, and this fact well illustrates the sturdy courage and resourcefulness which enabled Mr. Miner to make his way in the face of the difficulties which the pioneers encountered here. He was a man of high character and ability, and his widow has been no less favorably known among her neighbors and friends, her active and helpful life, and kindliness in all its relations, having been one of the distinct forces for good in the community for many years.

Mr. Miner was a native of Ohio, born February 23, 1827, and was a son of Allen Miner, a native of New York state. Though only seven years old during the war of 1812 the father was impressed into the service to the extent of taking a team and sleigh load of volunteer soldiers armed with muzzle-loaders and provided with powder horns to take part in the battle of Lundy's Lane, and was sent back home with the team. During his young manhood he drifted to Kentucky and thence to Ohio, practicing law in Cin­cinnati for a time. In Ohio he married a Miss Sophina Searles, and they had seven children : Jacob, Ichabod, David, Cyrus, Elizabeth, Lucinda and Amanda. For a number of years the family lived in Wisconsin.

Jacob Miner came to California in 1850, and ten years later married Miss Cavy Ann Johnston. For several years they lived at Marysville, in Yuba county, where he engaged in the ice and teaming business, dealing in that commodity quite extensively, and keeping several teams on the road. In 1868 they moved thence to Humboldt county, Mrs. Miner's father and his family, and Cyrus Miner, brother of Jacob, coming at the same time. They all settled on the Mattole, and Jacob Miner became a large landowner in this region, improving a stock ranch of about one thousand acres lying along the north fork of the river. In 1881 he built the beautiful residence at Petrolia where his widow still resides ; the property comprises eleven acres, on which there is a thrifty family orchard, and the place is one of the most desirable homes in the town. Mr. Miner died April 20, 1884. Having no children, Mrs. Miner reared a niece, Addie Johnston, a daughter of her brother, Charles A. Johnston, bringing her up from childhood ; she is now the wife of Rev. Ernest Gregg, pastor of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Arcata ; they have three children : Edith L., Cavy A. and Marian E.

Mrs. Miner was born at Cascade, Jones county, Iowa, April 28. 1837, and was fifteen years old when she crossed the plains with her father, who was captain of the train. She taught school in Yuba county some time before her marriage. She is a very zealous member of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Petrolia, and her many acts of Christian devotion and loving thought for all her circle of friends and acquaintances have endeared her to a large number who are happy to count so useful a member of society among their associates.

Charles B. Johnston, Mrs. Miner's father, was born in Guernsey county, Ohio, and his wife, Catharine (Smith), was also a native of that state. They were married near Bloomington, Ill. Moving with their family to the vicinity of Galena, Ill., they went farther west from there, into Iowa and Missouri, back again to Jones county, Iowa, in 1835, and thence over the plains to California in 1852. Charles B. Johnston liked frontier life and knew how to get along with the Indians, and he was personally acquainted with a number of the notable characters of the middle west, Abraham Lincoln among them. When the Black Hawk war broke out he enlisted and was captured, but fortunately he had had some acquaintance with and had befriended Black Hawk, the Indian chief, and the chief furnished him a horse to make his escape. His experience qualified him thoroughly to lead his party across the plains, and he was chosen captain. Happily they had only one small skirmish with the Indians en route, on the Platte river, and drew up safely at La Porte, near Gibsonville, in Sierra county. There the Johnston family first settled, Mr. Johnston engaging in mining at that location for six years, and for one year he was at the Cabbage Patch, in Yuba county, where he mined and kept hotel. Thence they moved to the prairie diggings near Brown's Valley, Yuba county, remaining there until 1863, after which for several years they were on a nearby ranch, which he operated. In 1868 they came to the Mattole, and Mr. Johnston took up one hundred sixty acres of land at Upper Mattole, where most of the rest of his life was passed. He died at Petrolia in 1885, when seventy-five years old, and his widow died there in 1902, at the age of eighty-five years. Nine children were born to them, only three of whom survive, William, the eldest son, having been accidentally killed in July, 1914; he was employed at the Anaconda mine. Cavy Ann is the widow of Jacob Miner. Samuel S., of National City, San Diego county, Cal., was formerly postmaster there. Charles A. is a prominent resident of the Petrolia region, mentioned elsewhere in this work.

CYRUS MINER, brother of the late Jacob Miner, was born in 1843 in Rock county, Wis., about three and a half miles from Evansville, on the old Madison-Janesville stage road, and was reared in that county up to the age of fourteen years. At that time he struck out for himself. Going down to the Kansas-Missouri border he was drawn into the local embroilments en­gendered by the Civil war, and when it was found necessary to declare martial law in the border counties he was called upon for service and placed in the militia by the sheriff of Linn county, Kans. He was drafted into the Union service under General Lane, and served in one battle and a number of skirmishes ; he saw the city of Lawrence, Kans., as it lay in ruins right after it was sacked and burned by Quantrell. In the years immediately following he led a typical frontiersman's life in Idaho, Washington, California and Nevada. In 1863 he teamed to Wallula and Walla Walla, Wash., hauling freight, and from Marysville, Cal., to Virginia City, Nev. During those adventurous years he met many of the characters famous in that region, Lieutenant Adams, Senator Jones, Stewart, Hearst, Stanford and Mark Twain, the latter when he founded and ran the Virginia City Enterprise. Mr. Miner continued at Virginia City until the fall of 1868, when he joined his brother Jacob on the north fork of the Mattole river, in Humboldt county, and has lived in the valley ever since. In partnership with his brother he operated in cattle and lands, and they both prospered, becoming citizens of substance and standing in this region. Mr. Miner is a Republican on political questions, but has never been active enough in such matters to take any direct part in the conduct of public affairs.

GEORGE WILLIAM PATMORE.—Well known throughout Hum­boldt county in the dual role of stockman and contractor for railroad ties, George William Patmore is one of the influential and prosperous men of the vicinity of Dyerville, where his interests are centered. He is also interested in the large general merchandise store at Rohnerville which belonged to his late father, George Patmore, he being one of the heirs to the family estate of which this store is a part. Although yet a comparatively young man, Mr. Patmore is the father of a large and interesting family in whom he takes a keen interest and pride. In his business interests he is broadminded and generous, and especially capable. He is possessed of the magnetic confi­dence of the successful man and is popular with a wide circle of friends and acquaintances.

Mr. Patmore is a native of California, born in Brown's Valley, Yuba county, April 5, 1869, and was brought to Humboldt county when he was six weeks old. He is the son of George Patmore, one of the most respected of California pioneers, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this edition, and who died at Eureka in August, 1914, at the age of seventy, as the result of a surgical operation. He was a native of England, and crossed the Atlantic on the Great Eastern on her maiden voyage. He came to California and for a time engaged in quartz mining in Brown's Valley and at Marysville, and also worked at his trade of house painter. He met Miss Elizabeth Wright in Brown's Valley, where they were married. He came to Elk's Prairie in 1869 and engaged in ranching, meeting with much success. He took up the place that is now owned by John Bryan, who conducts a summer resort there, known as Bryan's Rest. A short while before taking up this property Mr. Patmore lived with his family at old Camp Grant, and while there his house was robbed by the Indians, who took everything that he possessed. The wife died while living at Bryan's Rest, leaving five children, only three of whom are now living, David John, the third born, having died at the age, of seven years, and Edward, the next child, having died at the age of four. The living members of the family are : Mary, who is single and resides at Rohnerville, where she has charge of the management of her late father's general mer­chandise store ; George William, the subject of this article ; and Elizabeth, now the wife of Charles Avers, at Fortuna.

Mr. Patmore is one of the true pioneers of Humboldt county and can relate many interesting experiences of his childhood days. He attended the district school, when there was one available, and at fourteen he learned the painter's trade and thereafter worked with his father, being engaged in this occupation for some five or six years. When he was nineteen he took charge of his father's ranch on the Eel river, and when twenty-one took up a home­stead, a preemption claim and a timber claim, all adjoining. His father and sisters also took up similar claims in the same location. Later Mr. Patmore made a trade with his father, exchanging his redwood timber claim for the latter's stock ranch, and now owns nine hundred sixty acres, all of which is suitable for a stock ranch. He runs from three hundred to five hundred head of sheep, thirty-five to forty head of cattle, and about twenty head of horses and colts.

At Blocksburg, December 11, 1896, Mr. Patmore was married to Miss Cora Wheat, a native of Humboldt county. Mrs. Patmore is the daughter of William and Jennie Wheat, her father, now deceased, being a member of the firm of Wheat Brothers, pioneer stockmen of Dyerville. Her mother is still residing on the Wheat ranch located about four miles south of Dyerville. Mr. and Mrs. Patmore are the parents of eight children, all natives of this county. They are Fred, Nellie, Ruby, John, Edith, William, Donald and Keith.

Mr. Patmore, while giving his first thought to the conduct of his large stock business, is handling at this time an extensive contract for getting out ten thousand railroad ties for the Pacific Lumber Company, of Scotia. He maintains a camp near Dyerville, where he has eight or more men employed. He makes most of these ties from trees that float down the Eel river.

The affairs of his home community are always of the keenest interest to Mr. Patmore, and he is high in the confidence of his political party, he being affiliated with the Republicans. In all local matters he is progressive and wide awake to the best interests of the community, and gives freely of his time and ability for the public weal. In educational matters he is especially progressive and believes in maintaining a high standard of excellence in the public and high schools.

GEORGE A. PRICE.—Well known throughout Humboldt county as the descendant of one of the oldest and best known, as well as the most. highly respected of the early pioneer families, George A. Price is acknowl­edged to be a worthy son of his splendid father, the man for whom Price creek was named. He is a native of Humboldt county and practically his entire life has been passed within its confines. He has been engaged in farming, dairying and stock-raising for many years, and now owns some very valuable real estate, and also some fine herds of cattle. He is still in the prime of life and takes an active part in all that concerns the general public interests of his home community, being especially prominent in lodge circles throughout the county.

George A. Price was born on the old homestead on Grizzly Bluff, August 17, 1869, the son of Isaac Price, who was born near Hot Springs, Buncombe county, N. C., in 1828, and came to California in an early day, and after spending several years in mining and other activities in this state, Oregon and Utah, finally located in Humboldt county in 1852, and thereafter made this his home. He was a soldier during the Mexican war, in 1846-48, and later did service in New Mexico, near Santa Fe, where he helped to subdue the hostile Indians. Following this he carried the mail from Salt Lake City to The Dalles, Ore., and at a still later date freighted in the Sacramento valley. For a year he mined at Yreka, Cal., and then came to Humboldt county, in 1852, as before stated. He was married in 1853 to Miss Rachael B. Wyatt, at Arcata, the bride being a native of Illinois, born near Quincy, and having crossed the plains with the Stokes family, of Arcata. The father of Mr. Price was a Democrat and took an active part in the development and governmental affairs of Humboldt county. They had ten children : George A., the subject of this sketch, being the youngest. Of the others, Benjamin is engaged in the creamery business, and resides in Scott's valley, near Lake­port, Lake county, Cal. ; Flora was Mrs. Parker, who died at the age of nine­teen ; Addie is now Mrs. Simonds of Fortuna, and the mother of two children ; Jefferson owns a ranch at Metropolitan, but resides with his family in Oak­land ; Dora is the widow of Brice M. Stokes, of Los Angeles ; John is a con­ductor on the Southern Pacific Railroad, residing in Los Angeles ; William resides near Waddington ; Milton and Fred were accidentally drowned many years ago in Price creek, aged seven and five respectively.

The boyhood days of George A. Price were spent on his father's farm, and his education was received in the public schools of his district, and later at the Eureka business college. He has been engaged in dairy-farming and stock-raising all his life, and now owns a fine ranch of four hundred sixty-eight acres on Grizzly Bluff. He was born on this place, his father having located this ranch, the only one on the 'Bluff, as a government claim when there were but few other white settlers in the vicinity. When, many years ago, his aged father went to Los Angeles to live with another son to escape the rigors of the northern winters, George A. took over the home place and has since continued to conduct it along profitable lines. His father, how­ever, returned to the home place and died in Humboldt county, October 4, 1909, in his eighty-second year, the mother having passed away in 1891, at the age of sixty-two.

The marriage of Mr. Price occurred in 1900, uniting him with Miss Mary O'Leary, a native daughter of Humboldt county, who only lived a year and a half after their marriage. Mr. Price is prominent in lodge circles, having been made a Mason in Ferndale Lodge No. 193, F. & A. M., and is a member of Ferndale Parlor, Native Sons of the Golden West. He is also a member of the Eureka Lodge of Elks and of the Ferndale Lodge of the Knights of Pythias. He has taken an especially active part in the affairs of these two latter .organizations, and has passed through all of the chairs of both orders. He was chancellor at the time of the building of the Knights of Pythias Castle at Ferndale, and was a vital factor in the successful completion of this work, which was built in 1895 and formally dedicated in 1896. In his political views Mr. Price is loyal to Democratic principles, while in local issues he supports those who are working for the greatest good of the community, and for progress along lines of permanent achievement.

ALICE E. CATON.—One of the pioneer women of California, and a native of Humboldt county, is Mrs. Alice Caton, nee Conness, who is today one of the best known and most highly respected women of Garberville. As the adopted daughter of Jacob C. Garber, the founder of Garberville, and the man for whom the town was named, she spent her girlhood in her present home city, and is remembered by its older residents from the time of her childhood. She is a woman of splendid character and ability, possessing much business acumen, and is a genuine helpmeet to her husband, and his partner in various business ventures. She is also a most womanly woman in the truest sense of the word and is accomplished beyond the usual stan­dards. She is especially talented in music, and has received a splendid musical education, being at one time a professional pianist of much ability and no little reputation.

Mrs. Caton is now the wife of Joseph Caton, who for some years has been a foreman of the Tooby Brothers' ranch on the south fork of the Eel river, one and a quarter miles south of Garberville. The property consists of twelve thousand acres, and is one of the best ranches in the county. Mr. and Mrs. Caton are also part owners in a property of seven hundred sixty-five acres, five miles up the Eel river, where they are engaged in stock-raising, and they own their own residence in Garberville.

Mrs. Caton was born near Petrolia, Humboldt county, December 24, 1863. Her parents were John and Ellen (Sutherland) Conness, the former a native of Missouri, and the latter of Humboldt county, Cal. The father was thrown from a horse and fatally injured, dying immediately afterward,. when Mrs. Caton was so young that she has no recollection whatever of him. There were two children : Alice Emma, now Mrs. Caton, and George, who died when he was eighteen years of age.

When Mrs. Caton was but seven years of age she was taken by Mr. and Airs. Jacob C. Garber and reared by them as their own daughter, although never legally adopted. She received every advantage that was offered for education and general culture and she feels toward her foster parents all the tenderness and affection of a true daughter. After her marriage with Mr. Caton, which took place in Garberville, she went with her husband to Trinity county, where they lived for a time, later returning to Garberville, where they have since made their home, and where today Mrs. Caton is one of the leading women in the community.

Jacob C. Garber was one of the earliest settlers in this vicinity, and is often called the "pioneer of pioneers." He was born at Fort Republic, Va., January 7, 1824. His early life was passed in Virginia and in Ohio, where he received his education. Later he resided for a time in Iowa and also in New York. It was in 1845 that he came to California, locating in Trinity county, where he was engaged in mining for a number of years, later serving as county recorder with much credit to himself. He finally removed to Humboldt county, where he engaged in the general merchandise business, and in farming near the present site of Garberville.

In 1887 Mr. Garber removed to Grangeville, Idaho, and soon was made postmaster of that place, which position he held until the time of his death, October 2, 1904. Following his death, his wife, Julia A. (Wheeler) Garber, continued to conduct the affairs of the postoffice during the remainder of the term, and is still living at Grangeville. Mr. and Mrs. Garber never had any children of their own, and the place thus left empty in their hearts was filled by Alice Emma Conness, now Mrs. Caton, whom they adopted into their home when she was seven years of age, and whom they reared as their own child.

In the vicinity of Garberville both Mr. and Mrs. Garber are remembered with kindly good will by the older residents. They were people of superior worth, representing the true pioneer type, strong, energetic, industrious, with a deep love for the soil and for the growing things of the great out-of-doors. The general merchandise store opened by Mr. Garber marked the site of the present bustling center which bears his name, and which is a monu­ment to his ability and industry.

JOSEPH CATON.—Although a native of Portugal, and descended from a long line of Portuguese ancestry, Joseph Caton is none the less a true Californian. He came to this state with his parents when he was a child of but four years, locating in Trinity county in 1863. Since that time he has made this state his home continuously, residing for the most part either in Trinity or Humboldt county. For some years he has been a foreman on Tooby Brothers' ranch on the south fork of the Eel river, one of the most celebrated properties in the county. It contains twelve thousand acres, and was formerly known as the Wood's ranch, and is a property of great value. Mr. Caton also owns extensive property of his own, and is engaged in stock-raising on the Eel river in partnership with Norman Rice, where, together with Mrs. Caton, they own a stock range of seven hundred sixty-five acres, all valuable land.

Mr. Caton was born in Portugal, December 10, 1859, the son of Joseph and Francisca Caton. They came to America in 1863, settling in Trinity county, Cal., where the father is still living at the age of seventy-five years. He has been engaged in working in the mines during his entire lifetime. There were eight children in the family, all born in Trinity county save the two eldest, Joseph, now residing at Garberville, and Mary, who became Mrs. Rogers and lived for many years in Trinity county, passing away June 1, 1914. The other children are : Fannie, the wife of John King, and residing in Sutter county ; Annie, the wife of Samuel Williams, residing in Trinity county ; Frank, deceased ; Tony, a farmer in Trinity county ; John, a miner in Trinity county ; and Maggie, deceased. The mother is also deceased.

Joseph Caton began working in the placer mines of Trinity county when he was but fourteen years of age, being associated with his father for two years, and later for a like period of time with a miner named Silcox. Follow­ing this he was variously employed until he was, twenty years of age, when he went into Humboldt county, arriving at Garberville in 1881. For a time he worked for Woods Brothers teaming, and later was employed on the famous Wood ranch on Eel river.

The marriage of Mr. Caton took place in Garberville, uniting him with Miss Alice Emma Conness, the daughter of John and Ellen (Sutherland) Conness, and a native of Humboldt county, Cal. Mrs. Caton was the foster daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Garber, for whom Garberville is named, and her sketch also appears in this work. Following his marriage Mr. Caton returned to Trinity county and engaged in the stock business for some three or four years, later returning to Garberville to take charge of the Ray ranch, remaining there as manager for seven years. He then moved into Garberville and took a mail contract, and drove the stage from Garberville to Kenny, in Mendocino county. Later he drove stage for Mr. Hamilton and also for the Garberville Mercantile Company.

Mr. Caton is a man of superior type. He is a true optimist with unwaver­ing faith in the future of the county, and is always- bright and cheerful, even under the most trying circumstances. He is an ardent worker, never faltering because an undertaking presents difficulties, and needless to say, he is an enthusiastic booster for Humboldt county and for the Garberville region in particular. His home place in Garberville, which consists of a comfortable residence and six acres of land, is one of the most attractive places in town, being well improved and well kept.

Aside from his business associations Mr. Caton is deservedly popular for his sterling qualities as a man and a citizen. He served two years as town constable, giving the greatest satisfaction in the discharge of his duties. He is a Republican of the progressive type, and is always to be found on the side of progress and right, placing principle before party affiliations at all times, and in all local matters giving precedence to the character and type of the man, rather than to mere party lines. He is an advocate of temperance re­form and works earnestly for a "dry" town, and is also in favor of state­wide prohibition. In his political principles he is aided and supported by his wife, who is recognized as one of the most capable and efficient women in Garberville, and whose power for good is recognized wherever she is known.

GEORGE G. CURLESS.—The foreman of the Blocksburg ranch of the Russ Investment Company has been engaged in farming and ranching the greater part of his life, and indeed to fill the position of foreman of this immense ranch, which almost surrounds the town of that name, one would need to have had much experience along that line.

George G. Curless, the foreman of this estate, which is one of the largest stock ranches in northern California, is the son of Biar Curless, a pioneer and rancher of the county who, with his family, and driving his cattle before him, crossed the plains to California in 1859, making three trips, settling in Placerville, Cal., and later in Humboldt county near what is now the town of Blocksburg, and it was here that George G. Curless was born, June 6,1875, being one of seven children all of whom were educated in Hum­boldt county. His mother was Lovina D. (Shaw) Curless, a courageous woman of the old times, who made three hard trips across the unsettled plains with her husband and encouraged and helped him in every way possible dur­ing his energetic and hard-working life.

Until the age of nineteen Mr. Curless remained at home upon his father's ranch, receiving his education in the public schools at Larabee Creek, then leaving home for good and making his own way in the world from boyhood. He was employed by the month until his marriage in 1895 to Miss Ida Perry, one of the seven children of Stephen B. Perry, a California pioneer who came from Illinois in 1852 and died on his ranch in Humboldt county at the age of fifty-three years. A brother of Mrs. Curless is 'William 0. Perry, a ranch-man devoting particular attention to the raising of cattle and sheep, and the owner of fine property on the road between Alderpoint and Blocksburg. By his marriage with Miss Perry Mr. Curless has one son, Earl.

Mr. Curless at first followed farming and homesteaded one hundred sixty acres in the vicinity, which he proved up on. After spending one year in the country about Stockton, and four years in teaming from Ukiah to the dam constructed by the Snow Mountain Water and Power Company, in Potter valley, Mendocino county, in 1911 he became foreman for Z. Russ & Sons Company, now the Russ Investment Company, first at their Forest Home ranch on Bear River Ridge, where he remained for two years, in 1914 coming in the same capacity to the Blocksburg Ranch of the same company, where he continues to the present time.

FRED M. KAY.—One of the native sons of the state of California is the county clerk of Humboldt county, Fred M. Kay, who was born in Eureka, in that county, on July 26, 1871, the son of Moses and Mary A. (Snyder) Kay. The father was born and brought up in Ohio, removing thence with his parents to Hillsdale county, Mich., the journey being made by teams over the corduroy roads through the swamps of Ohio and. Michigan. On his father's side Mr. Kay comes of Revolutionary ancestry, his grandmother having been Annis Bickett, whose father served in the Revolutionary war. Mr. Kay's mother, though born in Ohio, was the daughter of John Snyder, of an old Virginia family, a man who saw service in the War of 1812; and the great-grandfather Snyder was a hatter living near General George Wash­ington, whose friend he was and for whom he made hats.

The year before the birth of Fred M. Kay, his family removed to Eureka, Cal., where they arrived in December, 1870, and although the father had for years been looking forward to the time when he could live in the land of gold and sunshine and enjoy the California climate and the hunting and fishing here, he died about a week after his arrival in Eureka, leaving his wife and a family of nine children. Mrs. Kay, however, courageously assumed the responsibility of bringing up her large family, and remained a year at Eureka, then for a time living near Fortuna, and later at Rohnerville. In the year 1877 she located a homestead near Bridgeville, in the same county, where she resided for fifteen years, leaving there to return to Eureka, where she lived until her death in 1910. Mrs. Kay was a woman of much force of character and brought up her children with a view to their becoming honored citizens in the community, and she may well be called one of the true pioneer women of this state. Fred M. Kay, the youngest of her children, grew up mainly on the ranch at Bridgeville, having plenty of outdoor work and exer­cise, and became a strong and healthy lad. His early education was received in the public schools, and this he supplemented by a course in the Eureka business college, where he was graduated in 1892. His first employment was a summer spent on a ranch in the Eel river valley, after which he became a clerk in Eureka, and later was bookkeeper in the Standard office for more than a year. For a time he tried mining in Trinity county, Cal., but returned to clerking, first for F. W. Phillips in Rohnerville, then in San Francisco, soon becoming a deputy in the county clerk's office in San Francisco, a posi­tion which he filled for two years. Again for a while he was engaged in mining, this time in Shasta county, Cal., on his return to Humboldt county becoming manager of Mr. Phillips' store in Rohnerville, which position he held for about two years. Returning to Eureka, he in December, 1902, entered the county clerk's office as deputy, and continued as such for twelve years.

In the fall of 1914, Mr. Kay was a candidate for county clerk, and at the primary election received a majority of fifty-two hundred votes and was elected without opposition at the November election, taking the oath of office on January 4, 1915, being well qualified for the position by his long experience in the office. He also has served one term as a member of the Board of Education of the city of Eureka from the fifth ward, having been a member of the Board at the time the high school bond election was held and the new high school built. A Republican in politics, he was for many years secretary of the Republican County Central Committee, while fra­ternally he is a member of Eel River Lodge No. 147 of the Free and Accepted Masons, now of Fortuna ; an Odd Fellow of Eel River Lodge No. 210 at Rohnerville ; the Woodmen of the World, of Eureka ; and the Eureka Aerie No. 130, F. 0. E.

Mr. Kay was married in Hydesville, Cal., to Miss Jessie H. Dobbyn, who was born at Camp Grant, this county, the daughter of William B. Dobbyn, a veteran of the Mexican war, and a California pioneer of 1849, and a very prominent horticulturist of Camp Grant, Eel river section, afterwards of • Rohnerville, a man who was for many years a supervisor of his district. Mr. and Mrs. Kay are the parents of four children, namely : Kendall K., city editor of the Humboldt Times, and arising young newspaper man ; Irene N., a graduate of the Eureka high school, who assists Mr. Kay in his office ; William B. ; and Margaret Kay.

HERBERT ANSON BARBER.—Although educated for the profession of a teacher, and engaging in that calling for several years, the career of Herbert Anson Barber, at present postmaster of Blue Lake, has been varied and interesting. He has been engaged in pursuits that have called for active and even strenuous labor, and also for careful management and able leader

ship, and in all of them has he met with splendid success. That he has many friends and well-wishers in Blue Lake has been attested by his recent appointment as postmaster.

Mr. Barber is a native of Ohio, having been born in Seneca county, July 16, 1855. Here he passed his boyhood days, attending the public and high schools of his district, and proving himself to be a scholar of more than ordinary ability. His father was Joel Barber, a native of Pennsylvania, born in Erie county in 1822. He was a man of scholarly attainments and a college graduate, and for many years was engaged in teaching. For a period of ten years he taught in Ohio, but later in life he gave up his profession, purchased a farm for himself and for the remainder of his life was a tiller of the soil. In this he was very successful and prospered. He died in 1888. The mother was Mary Mead, born in Seneca county, Ohio, in 1832. There she met Joel Barber and was married to him in 1853. She become the mother of four children, two sons and two daughters.

Herbert A. Barber early in life decided to follow in the footsteps of his father and become a teacher. He attended college for two years and having here, as well as in the high school, shown splendid ability as a student, he was able to take up his work as a teacher at the age of nineteen. After graduating from Olivet college he accepted a position to teach in the schools in Traverse City, Michigan. After a time he gave up this work to engage in mining and freighting. Later, in pursuit of these new undertakings, he re­moved to Montana, locating in Helena. Here he was very successful in the freighting business, but fortune refused to smile upon his ventures as a miner.

It was in 1882 that Mr. Barber first came to California. Ill health made it necessary for him to give up his interests in Montana, and he located eventually in Blue Lake, Humboldt county. The change of climate wrought the desired result in his physical condition, and within a short time Mr. Barber was again able to take up his active interests in life. He entered the employ of Isaac Minor, going into the woods to fell trees. He remained in this work for twenty-six years, and during all that time continued in the service of Mr. Minor.

In 1908 Mr. Barber was appointed to his present position as postmaster at Blue Lake, in which he has proven himself to be especially efficient and well fitted for the duties involved. Mr. Barber is also the local agent for the Arcata and Mad River Railroad. Aside from his official relations, Mr. Barber has a host of personal friends, and is also associated with a number of fra­ternal societies and lodges in which he is deservedly popular. He is a mem­ber of the Masonic Lodge, having been received into the order more than twenty-five years ago, and is also an Odd Fellow of thirty-seven years' standing.

The marriage of Mr. Barber occurred in Eureka, April 26, 1894, uniting him with Miss Emma Phillips, the daughter of D. P. Phillips. She is the mother of one child, a daughter, Ruth, who is at present attending the high school at Arcata.

Since coming to Humboldt county Mr. Barber has been very successful in all his undertakings. He is keenly interested in all questions of public welfare and civic progress, and is one of the trustworthy citizens of the community.

ALEXANDER GILLIN McCLOSKEY.—Born and reared in the north of Ireland, and descended from the sturdy race of Irish farmers who have kept the traditions of their fathers green and the tenets of their faith ever fresh and untainted it goes quite without saying that Alekander Gillin McCloskey brought with him to America something of the flavor of the Emerald Isle, coupled, be it said, with a. native wit, an insight into human nature, and a gift of shrewd business judgment, that is not always vouchsafed even to the Irish. And it may also be added, that the wise old saying about "The Irish for luck" seems to apply quite completely to him, although it has not been "luck" at all, but rather clear-headed wisdom and patient application to business, which have made the financial rise of this son of Erin almost phenomenal. Coming to Humboldt in 1888, then a man well past the two-score mark, and starting his life in the new land as an employe in a sawmill, he is now reckoned as one of the substantial business men of the county, and has recently retired from active business to enjoy the just reward of his industry.

County Antrim is the native heath of Mr. McCloskey, his birth occurring there June 24, 1844, on the farm of his parents. He was the son of Henry McCloskey, who like himself was born in County Antrim (April 8, 1822), and upon whose home farm the family life centered. The father followed farming the greater part of his life, but on different occasions he was in the employ of the government as a surveyor. In 1846 he removed for a short time to County Westmeath, the change being necessitated by his service for the government. When this work was completed he returned to County Antrim, residing in Armory Parish until the time of his death, in November, 1906. Here he had devoted his time to farming, in which he was prosperous, and he also owned a grist mill and a sawmill, the raw material for the latter coming from New Brunswick.

At the time when Alexander McCloskey was ready to enter school the only educational institution within reach was a religious school, to which he was sent. There he remained until he was seventeen years of age, and the succeeding two years he worked for his father on the home farm. The marriage of Mr. McCloskey to Miss Martha Hill, also a native of County Antrim, born July 19, 1845, occurred August 3, 1863, when the bridegroom was but nineteen years of age, and the bride a year younger. With his marriage the young man branched out for himself, renting and conducting a farm, and also engaging as contractor for the building of bridges and roads. In this latter venture he prospered and at one time owned the largest con­tracting business of this character in County Antrim. Prospering in his busi­ness, young McCloskey began investing his profits in real estate, purchasing first a farm of ninety acres, and at various times thereafter other plats of land, until he was recognized as a man of affairs and means. On one of these farms there were lime works and a boric acid plant, which covered six acres, and which he managed until 1874.

It was not until July 26, 1888, that Mr. McCloskey left Ireland and set sail for America, leaving his family to care for the home until he should be ready for them to join him across the sea. He came directly to Humboldt county on his arrival in San Francisco and secured employment with John Vance at Essex, on the Mad river, where he remained for eight years, work­ing in the sawmill and in the lumbering camps, eventually being transferred from Essex to Samoa by the same company. The year following his coming to Essex (1889) his wife disposed of the holdings in Ireland and with her children joined the husband and father in California. Here in 1896 they purchased their first farm, a tract of forty acres, all unimproved. The clearing of this land was made doubly profitable by the plan of using the timber to make bolts for the California barrel factory, located in San Francisco. Other tracts were handled in the same way, the bolts being shipped to San Fran­cisco until the opening of a barrel factory in Arcata created a market nearer home. The second forty acres were purchased from John Hannah, and 1897 witnessed the acquisition of yet another tract of the same size, while 1899 saw fifty more acres added. Up to 1900 Mr. McCloskey was still engaged in logging, but at that time gave up other interests and devoted his attention to real estate and farming. In 1901 he bought one hundred acres of the Hum­boldt Manufacturing Company, of Arcata, at Essex, and in 1903 secured the Shore ranch of two hundred forty-three acres from Ed Vance. This latter property was purchased for $10,000 and in 1913 it was sold for $20,000. Since coming to Humboldt county Mr. McCloskey has met with unusual success. Much of this time he has been interested in farming and dairying, having made every department of his work a paying investment.

Since making his home here, Mr. McCloskey has been vitally interested in all affairs of local import, and especially keen in politics. He has taken an active part in the deliberations of his party, his affiliation being with the Progressive Republicans. Several times he has been chosen as delegate to party conventions, and has served the interests of his constituents with great satisfaction to all. He is progressive in other matters as well as in politics, and stands firmly in his community and county for all movements for the betterment of conditions along all lines. He is also prominent in Masonic circles, having been made a Mason in St. Johns Lodge No. 89, F. & A. M., in Ireland, in 1865, also joining Bushmills. Chapter No. 14, R. A. M., in Ireland, in 1875.

Mr. McCloskey retired from active business several years ago and now lives retired on the home farm near Arcata. His wife died on September 28, 1913, on this same farm, where the family had spent so many happy years. It is an interesting fact that the late Mrs. Alex. McCloskey brought her bed and feather-bed from Ireland to the United States and slept on it en route, and after coming to California used it until her death, so that it can be said of her that she never slept a night after her marriage except on this bed. There are five children, now all grown and living on their own places in the vicinity of Arcata. They are James, Henry, Dan, Annie (Mrs. Wilson) and Mary Eliza (Mrs. Kane).

MAY R. CRAIGIE.—A native of Nevada county, Cal., and a resident of Garberville during her girlhood days, having come here as a child of eleven years, Mrs. May R. Craigie is today one of the leading business women of the thriving little city, and an important factor in the life and welfare of the city as well. As Miss May McCharles she grew to womanhood, and went from here to San Francisco to become the bride of Peter Craigie. After her hus­band's death she lived for many years in Grass Valley and cared for her aged father there. Later she returned to Garberville and took charge of the Ex­change Hotel, the leading tourist and commercial hotel in the southern part of Humboldt county, which she at present conducts, assisted by her son. Mrs. Craigie is a clever business woman, a shrewd investor and a clear­headed judge of men, women and affairs. She owns an appreciable amount of property in the vicinity of Garberville and within the city limits, and also some valuable lots in San Francisco.

Mrs. Craigie was born in Nevada county, Cal. Her father, Harrison McCharles, was a forty-niner, having come to California in the fabled year. He was a native of Kentucky, and a wagon maker and blacksmith by trade. He was married in Kentucky to Rosalie A. Wyman, a native of Canada, and of old English. descent. Mr. McCharles followed his trade in Kentucky until the gold excitement caused him to determine to come to California. He came from New York by the Nicaragua route, arriving in San Francisco in 1849. He went at once to Nevada county, where he became interested in the mines near Grass Valley, where his wife and children joined him in 1851. He also took up a homestead of one hundred sixty acres, which he improved and farmed at various times, with varying success. He was interested in live stock, and especially in the breeding of fine horses and was noted through­out Nevada county for always having good horses. After a time he became separated from his wife, but continued to reside in Grass Valley until the time of his death in 1900, he being then eighty-nine years of age.

Mrs. McCharles removed to Garberville in 1871; after residing here for some years she married John Ray, and continued to make this city her home until the time of her death, in 1903. She built the Exchange Hotel and con­ducted it for a period of years. She was a woman of much force of character and of high Christian principles. For many years she was one of the most prominent members of the Garberville Methodist church, helping to build it and in many ways contributing to its growth. She was the mother of four children, all of whom are well and favorably known in Garberville. They are : Mrs. Jennie Dale, the widow of John Dale, who resides in East Oakland ; Harrison, residing in Trinity county ; David, residing at Tustin, Orange ccunty, where he is a carpenter and builder ; and May, now Mrs. Craigie, of Garberville.

Mrs. Craigie was eleven years of age when her mother moved to Gar­berville. She attended the public schools here, and for two years was a student at the grammar school at Rohnerville. She met Peter Craigie at Garberville, and was married to him in San Francisco, May 12, 1879.

Peter Craigie, a bookkeeper by occupation, was a native of Hamilton, Canada, born May 12, 1848, and grew to young manhood there. His father was Dr. John Craigie, the most noted physician in Hamilton, and a man of great ability and learning. Mary, his wife, was of Scotch descent, and their marriage was solemnized in Scotland. Dr. Craigie gave all his children splen­did educations and started them in business, thus giving them the right beginning in life. There were nine children in the family, eight sons and one daughter. Of these one son, Thomas R. Craigie, is still living in San Fran­cisco, and has been in the United States customs service since 1876.

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Craigie went to Westport, where they continued to reside until Mr. Craigie's death in 1889, at the age of forty-one years. Three sons were born of this union : Harold McCharles Craigie, who married Miss Vanderburg of San Francisco, where lie is now employed as a printer with the Cotter Printing Company ; Wallace H. Craigie, a salesman for Waterhouse & Lester, of San Francisco; and Peter W. Craigie, who married Miss Irene Sullivan, and is now residing at Garberville, where he is assisting his mother with the management of the Exchange Hotel ; they have a daughter, Irene.

After the death of her husband Mrs. Craigie returned to Nevada county and took up dressmaking, which occupation she followed for many years. She gave her three sons excellent educations, putting them all through high school, and giving them other advantages, and all with the fruits of her indus­try. She also took care of her aged father for fourteen years prior to his death. Later, when her mother's health failed, Mrs. Craigie brought her to San Francisco, and saw that she received the best of medical treatment, and it was there that she finally passed away at the home of Mrs. Craigie, who was at that time residing there.

Mrs. Craigie herself is a woman of more than ordinary qualities of heart and mind. She has enjoyed almost phenomenal. success since she has been in business, and has accomplished far more than she had anticipated. Her Gar­berville property has increased greatly in value under her capable manage­ment, and she has recently built a garage across the street from the Exchange Hotel.

In politics Mrs. Craigie is a Progressive, and she typifies all that the word signifies, being wide awake to all that is for the best interests of the town and community, and always to be found well in the van when there is a movement for the public welfare and municipal betterment before the people. She is not, however, a politician, but rather a statesman and a splendid citizen.

Aside from her business ability, Mrs. Craigie is the center of a wide circle of friends and admiring acquaintances. She is kind-hearted and considerate of all with whom she comes in contact, and no one ever appeals in vain to her sympathies. She is at once a tower of strength and an angel of love, and as such she is known and loved and revered in her home city. In the manage­ment of the Exchange Hotel she has shown unusual ability, both as a busi­ness woman and in the art of making the hostelry homelike and comfortable for the guests, and so has made it easily the leading hotel in its section of the county.

GEORGE W. COUNTS.—When one is a hale old man of sixty-five years it must indeed be a pleasure to look back upon an energetic life spent in a variety of pursuits in the outdoors in this good green world. When George W. Counts of Blocksburg, Cal., a veteran of the Union army, gets to thinking of old times, his reminiscences are such as would acceptably fill the pages of a story of western life or the stirring days of our Civil war. His has been the wide, free-breathing life of the rancher in middle and southwest­ern states where one of his greatest delights was to be upon the back of his horse ; he has followed wood chopping and lumbering in Missouri and in the tall forests in the northern part of California, for the vitality and energy he put into his work receiving as much again from the rough, outdoor life ; he has served in the army, being one of the youngest soldiers to carry a musket in our Civil war ; and grim, red-handed tragedy is not omitted from his earliest recollections.

Born in Marion county, Ark., March 1, 1848, George W. Counts was the son of William and Elizabeth (Beard) Counts. About twelve years before the opening of the Civil war the family moved to Missouri, where they settled on a farm in Dent county, and here the son grew up, one of a family of seven children, and supported himself by chopping wood and working on his fath­er's and two other Dent county farms. That part of Missouri became the scene of bloody strife during the Kansas-Missouri troubles. The father, being an ardent Union man, was the object of special vengeance of the pro-slavery element, and was taken out from his home three miles into the timber and shot by the bushwhackers. Three of the sons had already enlisted in the Union army, and after the father's cruel murder all the remaining boys who were big enough to carry guns enlisted in the army. George Counts was then only fifteen years of age, the youngest of the five brothers in the army. He enlisted in Company D, 47th Missouri Infantry, and served in the battle of Pilot Knob, Mo., and was in Price's raid when the man of that name was pursued to the Big Blue river. The boy saw hard fighting and a lot of guerrilla warfare. He was honorably discharged March 31, 1865, being then only seventeen years of age, and therefore one of the youngest men who did actual fighting in the Civil war.

After the war Mr. Counts was engaged in ranching for two years in Missouri and Illinois, and lumbering one year in Missouri. Thence he went west to Texas and New Mexico where he followed the cattle and was a great rider—"vaquero" is the Spanish word for the cowboys in this southwestern part of our country. In 1873 he came to California, where he busied himself with lumbering in Humboldt and Mendocino counties for fifteen or twenty years, this time as head timber-feller, and it was while employed in splitting wood during this time that he accidentally cut off his left thumb. In Trinity county, Cal., he took up one hundred sixty acres of homestead, proved up on it and resided there eighteen years.

Politically Mr. Counts is allied with the Republican party. He has kept up old associations by his membership in the Cold Harbor G. A. R. Post at Arcata. He was married, in Humboldt county, to Mrs. Sarah Woods, and is the father of five children : Alice E., wife of Charles Baird, a business man of Eureka ; W. L., a rancher residing in Covelo ; John H., a teamster at Alderpoint ; Ivory M., employed in a hotel at Trinidad, Humboldt county ; and Alva M., who resides at Alderpoint. Mr. Counts is today well-to-do and living in retirement at Blocksburg where he is a well liked and highly respected citizen.

LOUIS PERSONS.—The old Eureka Foundry, for many years one of the best known plants of its kind in the city and vicinity, was established by Asa Persons in 1869, and after his death in 1875 his son continued there, as foreman and master mechanic, until January, 1913, his connection with the business in that capacity covering a period of thirty-seven years. The latter, Louis Persons, is still engaged in the same line at Eureka, where he and his family are highly respected citizens. It is notable that Mr. Persons helped to organize the fire department of the city, joining Company No. 2 June 25, 1873, and he has been in the service continuously since, only one other member, William P. Hanna, having as long a record of unbroken service.

Asa Persons was born at or near Rochester, N. Y., and came overland to California at the beginning of the gold excitement. After that he made several more trips over the plains before his marriage, which took place at Vinton, Iowa, Miss Isabella Dudgeon becoming his wife. She was a native of Ohio, of Scotch-Irish stock. In 1859 Mr. Persons settled in Nevada, where he built and operated a sawmill, running it in connection with the great Comstock silver mine, to which he supplied lumber. Later he engaged in the machine business, constructing the machine shop which did the work for the Comstock mine and working in the plant. In February, 1869, Mr. Persons moved the first machinery for the old Eureka Foundry to 'that place, bringing it from Washoe City, Nev. It was in the cargo of the brig Hesperia, owned by the Dolbeer & Carson Company, and commanded by Capt. Jacob Cousins, who at the same time brought the machinery for the old Excelsior mill on Gunther island, in Humboldt bay. Mr. Persons bought out an old blacksmith shop from James Dawson, located at D and First streets, where some casting had been done. This he turned into a foundry and machine shop. He also built two steamers which he owned and ran on Humboldt bay, named Silva and Ada. He carried on these enterprises very successfully until his death, which occurred in 1875, when he was about fifty years old. His wife lived to the age of seventy, dying in 1906, at .Eureka. She is survived by three children : Louis, and two daughters, Mrs. T. R. Hannah and Mrs. J. C. Ferrell, the latter a resident of Bar Harbor, Me.

Louis Persons was born July 22, 1854, in Plumas county, Cal. He was in his fifteenth year when he came with his father to Eureka, and he at once commenced work in the foundry, attending night school as opportunity offered. He has been following the trade of machinist for forty-five years, having remained with the works after his father's death, for thirty-seven years as foreman and master mechanic. In January, 1913, he severed his connection and has since been engaged as mechanic at the Marine Iron Works, on First street, conducted by J. R. Lane. Mr. Persons has always been one of the most respected residents of Eureka, and he is particularly well known in fraternal circles, being an Odd Fellow and a Mason; he is a past grand of Fortuna Lodge No. 221, I. 0. 0. F., of Eureka, and past chief patriarch of the encampment. In Masonry he has attained the thirty-second degree. He is past master of Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. Mi.; past high priest of Humboldt Chapter No. 52, R. A. M.; past commander of Eureka Cornmandery No. 35, K. T., and a member of all the Scottish Rite bodies at Oakland, and of Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., San Francisco; while Mrs. Persons is a member of Camelia Chapter, 0. E. S.

Mr. Persons was married at Eureka to Miss Addie Haynes, a native of Illinois, and they have become the parents of the following children: Louis M., now in the United States immigration service, stationed at Astoria, Ore.; Georgia, the wife of George McGeorge, a steamboat man in the employ of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company (they reside in San Francisco) ; Nellie, the wife of Asa Sullinger, agent of the San Francisco Chronicle at Eureka; and Hazel, who married F. E. McPheren, head steward of the steamship City of Topeka, and their home is in San Francisco. Mr. and Mrs. Persons have a comfortable home at No. 912 H street.

SAMUEL R. DEAN.—Among the oldest homesteaders in that section of southern Humboldt county adjoining Garberville are the Deans, who have occupied their present property on the east branch of the south fork of the Eel river since 1878. The Dean ranch comprises four hundred forty acres, all acquired by the family under homestead and preemption rights, and is now operated by John E. Dean, youngest son of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel R. Dean. He was born on the place and has passed all his life there, and with the development of his interests has promise of becoming one of the substantial agriculturists of his locality.

Samuel R. Dean is a native of Penobscot county, Maine, born April 22, 1838, and he lived there until just before he attained his majority. He came to California over the plains and had a rather adventurous trip, the Indians running off eight head of cattle belonging to the party, though most of them were recovered. He arrived in this state in February, 1859, and for a number of years thereafter was employed at the carpenter's trade, which he had learned in Maine. It was while following this occupation at Ukiah, Mendocino county, that he met Miss Annie A. Davis, whom he married, their wedding taking place there, May 26, 1872. In 1878 they decided to come up to- Humboldt county and settle on government land, and they took up a preemption claim and a homestead which are now included in the ranch above referred to, the rest of the property having been acquired in the same manner by their sons, John E. and Samuel T. From the time he came to this section until advancing age made it necessary for him to relinquish active labor, Samuel R. Dean was engaged in the cultivation of his land and to some extent in stock-raising, and his son now continues the operations he inaugurated and is making excellent progress with the work of developing the ranch. Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Dean, namely: Samuel T., now a resident of Trinity county, Cal., engaged in mining, married Miss Edna Newland, and they have three children : Arthur S. died at the age of twenty-five years ; Elbert LeRoy died when twenty years old ; Izora E. is the wife of L. E. Trabing, a machinist and engineer, of Yolo county, this state, and they have one child; John E. is now conducting the home farm, where he lives with his parents. Samuel R. Dean is now enjoying his ease with the care of the ranch in younger hands. He is a member of the lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows at Ukiah, and belongs to the •Rebekah degree there also, as does his wife. All the family are Republicans on political questions. The rustic dwelling on the ranch is a comfortable little home, and the front yard with its variety of beautiful flowers shows the loving care of Mrs. Dean, who delights in her garden. Though sixty-two years old she is as active as ever and interested in her home duties, to which she attends capably. She has always been an excellent rider, and has the distinction of being considered the most accomplished horsewoman in Humboldt and Mendocino counties.

Mrs. Dean was born at Greencastle, Ind., and her parents, John and Sarah J. (Stoner) Davis, were also natives of that state, where they were married. Of the six children born to them, five are yet living. The family came to California across the plains with ox teams and wagons, in the year 1857, settling first in Tulare county, whence they moved to Mendocino county and later to Humboldt county, making a location right near the Dean ranch. Mrs. Davis lived to be over eighty-two years old.

John E. Dean was born in 1888 on the Dean ranch in southern Humboldt county, and obtained his education in the public schools of the neighborhood. He now has all the management of the place, eighty acres of which he owns in his own right, and besides raising general crops he keeps considerable stock, having at present seven head of cattle, three horses, fifty hogs, seventy-five Angora goats and about fifty hens. He is an enterprising worker, managing the various branches of his business intelligently and to their mutual advantage, and has already gained much experience since the entire responsibility devolved upon him. His recreation is hunting and fishing, of which he is very fond. His reliable character and strong principles have won him a high place among the trustworthy citizens of his section.

BARTOL MORANDA.—A resident of Humboldt county, who is so well satisfied with the country that he would not live elsewhere,' Bartol Moranda, though a native of a distant land, is a loyal and worthy citizen of Ferndale, Cal., where he has lived on his present ranch since the year 1903.

Born in Vogorno, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, March 22, 1859, Mr. Moranda was the son of Stephen and Kate (Dominigini) Moranda, who resided in the Alps district all their lives. Of the family of seven children, the five sons all came to California to live: Julius is now a farmer at Centerville, this county ; Stephen was a dairyman in this county but has now returned to Ticino ; Bartol, a dairyman, owns his ranch in the vicinity of Ferndale; Frank, also a dairyman, died in this county ; and Joseph, a farmer, died near Ferndale. In his native country, Bartol Moranda was early accustomed to hard work, from a mere lad having to assist in making a living, and was employed in farming and dairying in Ticino until the age of twenty-one years, having received a good education in the local public schools. He then removed to California, attracted hither by the good reports that came back to the old home from his brothers and friends already in Humboldt county, and in October of the year 1881 he likewise arrived in this county.

The first employment of Mr. Moranda in the new country was at a dairy on Bear River Ridge, where he remained two years, working the next two years on Bull Creek, the following three at Loleta, Cal., and then several years more in different dairies. Determining to engage in dairying for himself, he rented a ranch with a partner, but this arrangement not proving a success, it remained for Mr. Moranda to pay all the debts, which necessitated his working for wages until the expenses were paid. Some time thereafter he purchased the old Dr. Stephens ranch, four hundred forty acres located on Bear River, where he engaged in farming and dairying, with a herd of forty-three cows. It was a splendid place, and besides his dairy interests there, he was engaged in raising apples and other fruits, and in the making of butter he was considered a champion. He conducted this estate until the year 1902, when he sold both ranch and stock, intending to return to his native Switzerland. But the lure of the West was too strong for him, and as soon as he had disposed of the place he found that he had become so much attached to life in Humboldt county that he felt no desire to return to Europe, and accordingly began looking about at once for another ranch in the vicinity of the latter one. In June, 1903, he purchased his present place of forty acres, situated three and one-half miles north of Ferndale, all rich bottom land and valuable property, and here he is at present engaged in the occupation of dairying, having a fine herd of twenty cows.

In his political interests, Mr. Moranda, like most of the others of his nationality in the county of Humboldt, is a stanch Republican. His marriage to Juditha Beni, also a native of Canton Ticino, took place in Ferndale, and they are the parents of three children, Anne, Delfina and Silvio.

ROBERT ANDERSON REDMOND.—Few officials in Humboldt county have had more substantial evidence of the confidence of their fellow citizens than Robert A. Redmond, whose continued public service, first as constable and later as sheriff, is abundant evidence of his unqualified fitness as a public servant. His thorough knowledge of conditions and routine gained through long public experience contributes to his reliability and efficiency, and the appreciation and approval of his work have been shown in the enthusiastic support he has received at the polls. It was after he had been in public service continuously since the year 1906 that he was elected sheriff in the fall of 1910, and so faithfully and well had he discharged his duties that he was reelected to succeed himself in 1914.

Mr. Redmond has lived in Humboldt county from childhood, having been thirteen years old when he came here, and he continued his education thereafter at the public schools of Eureka. As a foundation for business experience in later years he learned the trade of boilermaker, and for fourteen years, consecutively, was employed with Langford Brothers, in the Eureka Boiler Works. During these years Mr. Redmond's ability as a public servant became recognized by his fellow citizens, who appointed him constable of Eureka township to fill an unexpired term. So satisfactorily did he discharge his duties that his name was placed upon the ticket for reelection. At the close of a successful full term in this office he was nominated and elected sheriff of the county, and as before, at the close of his first term, in 1914, he was again elected to succeed himself, receiving a large majority. With some particularly trying and hazardous situations to meet he has come to be regarded as one of the most competent incumbents of the office in the state.

He has been especially successful in criminal cases, and deserves the trust that has been reposed in him because of his faithful performance of every duty and his evident sincerity to do his utmost to interpret the responsibilities of his office and discharge them with impartiality and without fear of criticism from any quarter.

Mr. Redmond has numerous fraternal connections and has been particularly prominent in the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, belonging to all its branches, lodge, encampment and canton, and taking an active part in their work. He is past noble grand of Fortuna Lodge No. 221, past chief patriarch of Mt. Zion Encampment, and past deputy grand master of District No. 9. He also holds membership in the Red Men, Modern Woodmen of America, Woodmen of the World, Fraternal Order of Eagles, being past president of Eureka Aerie No. 130, and the present district deputy of the district embracing Humboldt and Del Norte counties.

He is also an active member of the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks, Humboldt Club and Sequoia Yacht Club.
Mr. Redmond was united in marriage with Miss Marian McLain, a native of Nova Scotia, whose father, Jonathan McLain, was an early settler in Humboldt county. Five children have been born to this union : Rutherford, Olive, Robert A. Jr., Lucile and Vivian.

PETER ANDERSON.—Since the year 1865 Peter Anderson has been a resident of the United States, having arrived in New York August 13, of that year, from Denmark, where he was born at Rudkjoebing, Langeland, October 2, 1843, the son of Anders, a forester of a large estate, as was also his father, Anders, before him, an occupation which the son Carl now carries on in their native land. The father of Peter Anderson, as well as his mother, who was formerly Mina Hansen, are now both deceased, and of the family Of six children, five of whom are at the present time living, two are in America, namely, Peter and his brother Rasmus, who is a member of the Board of Supervisors of Humboldt county, Cal., and a resident of the city of Arcata in this county.

The education of Peter Anderson was received in the public schools of Denmark, and he grew• up on his father's farm, being confirmed at the age of fourteen years, and began to work for wages on a farm at that time. Because of the good reports he had read and heard of the opportunities offered to energetic and hard-working youths in the land of the Stars and Stripes, he determined to try his fortune in this country, and accordingly left his native land for the United States, from New York going directly to Chicago, where he was for a time employed, and from there to Rantoul, Ill., where he found employment on a farm, going later to Manistee, Mich., and working there at logging for a period of three years. Finally he made his way to California, coming via the Isthmus of Panama, and arriving in San Francisco in May, 1869. For a time he secured employment in Alameda county, this state ; in August, 1869, he removed to Eureka, in Humboldt county, where he went to work for James Gannon in the woods above Arcata, where for six years he was engaged in logging, being later engaged in the liquor business for a couple of years in Arcata, which he abandoned to engage in farming. Purchasing forty acres of land a mile south of Arcata, he operated a farm thereon until, selling this, he once more engaged in the liquor business in Arcata, six years later selling his interest in the latter to return to farming in 1903, at which time he bought his present ranch, which consists of forty acres a mile above Arcata, on the Boynton Prairie road. At the time of Mr. Anderson's location on the place it was all wild land, given up to stumps and brush, but he cleared the ground and broke it up, and is now successfully engaged in raising hay and stock thereon, and has built for himself a pleasant and commodious residence overlooking Humboldt bay, the city of Arcata and.Arcata Bottoms, the Mad river, the city of Eureka, and also the Peninsula in the distance. Here he makes his home with his wife, formerly Miss Lydia, Adkins, a native of Savannah, Andrew county, Missouri, to whom he was married at Eureka, July 12, 1876, and his son Peter, who assists him in the work upon the ranch, the other three children being, namely, Bert, now a member of the night police in Arcata ; Charles, who is in the employ of the Northern Redwood Lumber Company ; and Minnie, now Mrs. Peter Freeman, and residing on the Boynton Prairie road. Mrs. Anderson is the daughter of Enoch and Margaret (Stokes) Adkins of Virginia. The father died in 1851 ; the mother died at the age of eighty-two years. Mrs. Anderson came to California in 1875. In his religious associations Mr. Anderson is a member of the Lutheran Church, while his fraternal connections are with Anniversary Lodge No. 85, I. 0. 0. F., at Arcata, of which he has for forty-two years been an active and valued member. An old settler of Humboldt county, his progress has been with that of the locality where he makes his home, the story of his industry and advancement being closely allied with that of the material growth of his adopted county.

D. H. SOWASH.—The success that has come to D. H. Sowash in his life battle has been due entirely to his own efforts. He was thrown on the world when he was a child of only eleven years, and secured his education by working for his room and board while attending school. He was a talented boy and very earnest and industrious and by the time he was twenty-one years of age he had saved $500 with which to make his start in business. Later, when he had reached a state of affluence, he became interested in the oil industry and through unfortunate operations lost all his savings, and was again obliged to start at the bottom, seeking for this purpose the same town and the identical building that had been the scene of his first business venture. His first money was made by trading horses, he having for this line the fabled gift of a "David Harum," and it was thus that he accumulated most of his first $500. He has been in the harness business for much of his lifetime, that being the line of his first undertaking, and the one to which he has always returned. He has a prosperous shop in Loleta, where he deals in harness, whips, robes, and all horse goods, and in the manufacture of harness, running in connection a boot and shoe repair shop. He is also justice of the peace, having served in this capacity now for sixteen years, and giving such satisfaction that at the last primary election he received the nomination without opposition.

Mr. Sowash is the son of Joseph Sowash, a pioneer and frontiersman of Pennsylvania and Ohio, he keeping always just a little ahead of the march of civilization. He cleared two or three farms in western Pennsylvania, and then sold them to move further west, repeating the same process in Ohio. He was married in Westmoreland county, Pa., to Miss Jane Ann Armstrong, a native of that county, and descended from a very long-lived family, her mother living to be one hundred three years old. Some time after his marriage Mr. Sowash went to Ohio, where he engaged in farming, and where his wife died when the subject of this article was eleven years of age. Later the father married again, the second wife being a widow from Kentucky, and there they established their home, where the father died twenty-eight years later, at the age of eighty-four. There were nine children in the family, three daughters and six sons, and these were left to shift for themselves after the death of their mother.

D. H. Sowash was born in Armstrong county, Pa., July 9, 1834, and was some five or six years of age when the family removed to Ohio. He grew to manhood in Scioto county, and went up into Pike county when he was nineteen, remaining there for a year. When he was a child of nine years he met with an accident which cost him his right leg, and this hampered him seriously in his efforts to secure an education, although he met with a marked degree of success. When he was twenty-one he returned to Pennsylvania and engaged in business in Westmoreland county. Investing his $500 in a stock of goods and employing an expert harness-maker, he opened a harness shop and there himself learned the trade. He was married in Westmoreland county December 2, 1861, to Miss Keziah M. Grosscup, a native of that county, and after four years he disposed of his business there and went into Venango county, Pa., where he worked in the old fields, first as shipping-master, later as pumper, and then as machinist in charge of the machinery. After four years spent thus he began operating independently and soon lost everything that he had saved. He then returned to Westmoreland county and began again at the bottom, opening a harness shop in the same building that he had occupied many years before, at Murraysville. Later another oil boom struck Armstrong county, Pa., and he moved with his family into that part of the state, settling at Parker City. Here they met with a sad accident through the loss of their only child by fire, and after a year they returned to Westmoreland county and reengaged in the harness business there, meeting with his customary success in this line, which he has followed continuously since. Later he moved to Jefferson county, Ohio, where he followed the same line at Toronto, remaining for ten years, at the end of which time he came to California, locating first in Arcata, and later removing to Loleta, where he now makes his home.

Mr. and Mrs. Sowash became the parents of two children, the son whose death was due to the accident by fire being William H., then aged seven years, and another son who died in infancy. They now have an adopted daughter, Minnie, the wife of Henry Ott, a harness-maker of Ferndale. Both Mr. and Mrs. Sowash are very popular in Loleta, where they have lived since 1895, and also in Arcata where they made their home from 1886 to the time of their coming to Loleta. They are both members of the Congregational church in Loleta, and take an active and influential part in its affairs. Mr. Sowash is a member of the board of trustees and chairman of the board of business managers, while Mrs. Sowash is the superintendent of the Sunday School and also president of the Ladies' Aid Society and one of its most earnest and, enthusiastic workers. Mr. Sowash is also a very prominent member of the Odd Fellows, having united with that organization in 1860, and has been through all the chairs, and also served one term as deputy grand master of District 102, of Humboldt county, Cal.

PETER PETERSEN.—No country has contributed more worthy sons to America than has the sturdy little kingdom of Denmark, and of these there is none truer to the best interests of his adopted country than is Peter Petersen, who is now engaged in dairy farming near Metropolitan, this county. He owns a valuable farm of more than forty acres about a half mile south of Metropolitan and two miles from Rio Dell, which he is operating in such a manner as to make it especially profitable. He takes a live interest in all that concerns the agricultural affairs of the county and is a member of the Alton farm center.

Mr. Petersen was born near Hadersleben, Sleswick, Denmark, August 26, 1856; the son of Andreas Petersen, also a native of Hadersleben, and a farmer. Peter grew to young manhood on the home farm and attended the public schools of his district. There were four children in his father's family, two sons and two daughters, of whom Peter and one sister, now Mrs. Mary Stephensen, of Chico, Wash., are the only living members. In 1875, when he was only nineteen, Peter Petersen came alone to the United States, locating in Cedar Falls, Iowa, where for six months he was employed on a farm. At the end of that time, in December, 1875, he came to California, coming direct to Hydesville, Humboldt county, where lived an uncle and aunt, Mr. and Mrs. John Swansen, both now deceased. For a time he was employed on various dairy farms in this county, and during the first two years studied English under a private teacher. It was in 1886 that he was married in Eureka to Miss Anne Mai, also a native of Hadersleben, Denmark, who came to California as a young girl. She was a daughter of Mathias Mai, who for thirty-seven years was a musician and then became a merchant. She was reared and educated in local schools and in 1884 came to Eureka. Following his marriage Mr. Petersen rented land for a number of years and then bought a ranch at Hydesville, which he sold later and in 1895 purchased his present place at Metropolitan, where he has since made his home. He has placed splendid improvements on this property, erecting a beautiful dwelling and other modern improvements, and now has one of the most attractive places in the vicinity and is making a specialty of dairying. He finds alfalfa a very profitable crop, cutting it three times a year, besides pasturing it. He also raises large crops of corn, beets and carrots. Mr. and Mrs. Petersen were the parents of one child, a son, Andrew, who died in 1907, at the age of twenty-one years, after giving evidence of great ability as a student. This has been their one great sorrow and the only mar on an otherwise perfectly happy home. Mr. Petersen attributes his success in no small degree to the able assistance and counsel of his wife and helpmate, who has stood nobly by him in all of his undertakings and ambitions. Both Mr. and Mrs. Petersen are members of the Lutheran church, and he is a Progressive Republican and an ardent advocate of local progress and improvement along permanent lines.

GEORGE R. ALLEN.—One of the successful farmers and cattlemen of Humboldt county, George R. Allen, although in his sixty-eighth year, is still actively engaged with the care and management of his farm and herds, and has recently erected a handsome residence, modern in every appointment and with the latest scientific conveniences, in Waddington, where he will in the future reside, together with his wife and family. He is a man of much strength of character and genuine Yankee ingenuity and pluck, and descends from a hardy old English family of farmers and sailors, his own father having been interested in both lines of endeavor. Mr. Allen has been very successful in his various undertakings since coming to Humboldt county, and has amassed an appreciable fortune and also owns much valuable property in this vicinity.

Mr. Allen is a native of Maine, having been born in Jefferson township, Lincoln county, June 7, 1847, the son of George Alfred Allen and Mary (Rowell) Allen. The mother was a native of Maine, her people being early pioneers of the Pine Tree State. The father was born and reared in England, coming to Maine when a young man, and there meeting and wedding Miss Rowell. FIe engaged in farming during the summer and in the winter time took to the sea, meeting with much success in both occupations. Three children were born of this union, all natives of Jefferson, Lincoln county, Me. They were : Fannie, now deceased, who was the wife of Marcellus Mayhew, • a farmer, and the mother of fourteen children ; George R., the present honored citizen of Waddington ; and Jesse A., a painter by trade, and now residing in Gordon, Me. The childhood and early youth of Mr. Allen were passed in his native village, where he attended the public schools. When he was twenty-two years of age he determined to come to California, and accordingly, on April 1, 1869, he set sail from New York on the steamship Arizona for the Isthmus of Panama, which he crossed on April 8, and again set sail on the steamship Montana for San Francisco, where he arrived on April 23. From there he went at once to Trinity county, locating near Weaverville, and engaging in the logging business, driving a three-yoke ox-team. In 1875 he came into Humboldt county, where he again engaged in lumbering, being located in the redwoods. For eleven seasons he drove a logging team, and following this for six years he worked on the "donkey" engine as second chain tender. Later he was for three seasons at Rohnerville, at Fortuna for eight seasons, and still later at Scotia and Newburg, making in all seventeen seasons. It was in 1892 that he quit the lumber woods and took to farming and stock-raising, which occupation has since claimed his attention.

The first marriage of Mr. Allen took place in Rohnerville, July 4, 1876, uniting him with Miss Clara Langdon. Of their union was born one daughter, Bertha, married to Myron Hight, a blacksmith, at present residing in Oakland. She became the mother of three children, Ethel, Arthur and Robert, the former two making their home with their maternal grandfather, while the latter resides with his father in Oakland, their mother having died at Stockton in 1905. Mr. Allen and his first wife were separated by divorce, and later he married Mrs. Mary B. Winkler, a native of Switzerland, where she passed the early years of her childhood. When yet a girl she came to Humboldt county, where she met and married her first husband, becoming the mother of five children, three of whom are now living : Emil is employed on a ranch at Grizzly Bluff ; Eliza is the wife of Joseph Runner, who is employed at the Grizzly Bluff creamery ; and Chris, a carpenter at Ferndale. After the death of Mr. Winkler, the widow continued to conduct the farm for a number of years before her marriage with Mr. Allen. Of this second marriage four children have been born : Naomi ; May died in infancy ; Archie, and Clara. The place where Mr. and Mrs. Allen have resided for some time is the property of Mrs. Allen, and comprises one hundred sixty acres lying in the foothills south of Waddington. Mr. Allen also owns large interests in the vicinity of Waddington, having two hundred acres in the Price creek country, where he has extensive herds of livestock.

Mr. Allen has always given freely of his strength and ability for the public welfare, having served in various capacities, and for eight years was a member of the school board in the Price creek district. He is a stanch Republican and is well grounded in the political faith of that party as it fell to his happy lot to hear the doctrines of the Grand Old Party expounded by his former friend and fellow citizen, the Honorable James G. Blaine. Mr. Allen enjoys the esteem of everyone, and possesses a host of friends and admirers.

JOSEPH M. WALKER.—Although a native of Switzerland, Joseph M. Walker has spent practically his entire lifetime in America, having come to San Francisco, Cal., when he was a lad of twelve years. When he was seventeen he came into Humboldt county and soon thereafter rented a place and commenced dairy-farming, this having been his chief occupation since that time. He now owns three handsome ranches in the county, all of which are kept in model condition, and all of which are especially profitable. He is engaged in dairying and diversified farming and is meeting with the greatest of success, as is but natural with one whose application and industry go hand in hand with wisdom, judgment, honesty and fair dealing. He is a man of great executive force, strong in mind as well as in body, manly, self-reliant and altogether respected in his home community, and, in fact, wherever he is known.

Mr. Walker was born in Andermatt, Canton Uri, Switzerland, April 28. 1873, the son of Joseph and Mary N. (Rinner) Walker. His early childhood was spent in his native Canton, where he attended school, learning the German language. When he was twelve years of age, however, he came to the United States with his mother and brother Max, the father having made the journey ten years previously, and being then engaged in business in San Francisco. There were only these two sons in the family, Max being now engaged in dairy farming at Pleasant Point, this county. Joseph never attended school after coming to California, but at once went to work. His parents remained in San Francisco until he was eighteen years of age, when they removed to San Mateo county, and he secured employment on a dairy farm. Before this he had frequently found employment on the farms near San Francisco and Oakland, milking cows and doing other farm tasks, and when he was only twelve years of age was earning $20 per month. Soon after he was eighteen he came up to Humboldt county, he being the first of the family to locate here. He was soon joined by his brother Max, and together they rented an eighty-acre ranch at Port Kenyon, and for five years were engaged successfully in dairy farming. At the end of that time the partnership was dissolved, Joseph buying out the interests of Max and taking over the farm as an independent enterprise. Since that time he has continued in this line of occupation and now owns three valuable ranches. There is one of seventy acres at Pleasant Point near Waddington, one of forty acres at Port Kenyon, and another, his home place, consisting of ten acres, and located a half mile north of Waddington. He raises a variety of crops, in all of which he is exceptionally successful, and has several orchards of beautiful, healthy trees in full bearing. His ranches are models of order and sanitation, and his herds of milch cows are among the finest in the valley.

The marriage of Mr. Walker took place when he was but twenty years of age (1893), the bride of his choice being Miss Emma Ragli, a native of San Francisco, who came with her parents to the Eel river valley when she was but three years of age. There she grew to womanhood, receiving her education in the district schools, and there she met and married Mr. Walker. Of their union have been born five children : Joseph F., assisting on the ranch ; Mary died at the age of four years ; Clara, Charles and Marie.

The extensive dairy and farming interests of this industrious and capable man have not been sufficient to absorb all of his time and attention, and he is heavily interested in a number of widely varying enterprises. He is one of the shareholders in the International Automobile League Tire Company, of Buffalo, N. Y., and is also a shareholder in the Starritt Pump and Manufacturing Company, of San Francisco.

In addition to his influence as a business man and property owner, Mr. Walker has also made for himself an enviable position in the fraternal and educational circles of his home town. He is a prominent member of the Woodmen of the World, in Ferndale, and was for several years a trustee of the Coffee Creek school district, where he resided for a number of years.

PETER H. CHRISTENSEN.--A man in the very prime of life, strong, active, intelligent, industrious, successful and progressive, Peter H. Christensen is acknowledged to be one of the leading men in Humboldt county, and a dairy farmer of more than ordinary ability and standing. He is a native of Denmark and came to America when he was still in his 'teens. Here he married a good and beautiful girl, a native of Michigan, but born of Danish parentage. She has made him a most excellent helpmeet and is a woman of splendid character, hospitable and refined, and possessing a rare gift of common sense and good judgment, and is withal a hard worker. She has been of invaluable assistance to her husband in many ways, and especially in the promotion of his large business interests, in which Mr. Christensen is very aggressive. Their children are bright and attractive, and are receiving the best of educational advantages. Mr. Christensen is noted for his splendid executive ability and the way in which he succeeds in business generally. He employs six or seven men all the time, and more when there is a rush of farm work ; he drives a fine automobile and has his business interests well in hand. He has at this time a herd of choice graded milch cows and Guernsey bulls which are valued at $25,000. He is also prominent in church and school circles, and in the various Danish societies of the state and county. His ranch is located on the north bank of the Salt river, opposite Port Kenyon, near Ferndale, and is known as the Upper Riverside ranch.

Mr. Christensen was born on the Island of Aeroe, in Denmark, December 8, 1873. His father was a dairyman and landowner, but died when this son, Peter, was but three years of age. His mother is also deceased. There were eight children in the family of which the present respected citizen of Ferndale is next to the youngest, and is the only one in America. His early life was spent in Denmark, where he received his education in the public schools of the kingdom, being taught in the Danish language. Later he worked on a dairy farm in his native land, being employed on his mother's place much of the time. In 1892, when he was but eighteen, he determined to come to America, having at that time two brothers in Cleveland, Ohio. The young Peter, however, had heard many tales of the golden opportunities offered in California, and so came directly to the coast, locating first in Marin county, where he secured employment as a dairy hand on one of the great farms, being employed by the month, and continuing thus for about four years. He next engaged as buttermaker at the Burdell creamery, and following that engaged as a stage-driver out of Olema to Tocoloma. The following year he came up to Humboldt county, and secured employment near Ferndale on a dairy ranch where he remained for a short time, and then, in partnership With John Larsen, rented the Willowbrook ranch, on Salmon river. This partnership continued very successfully for three years, at the end of which time Mr. Christensen sold his interests to Mr. Larsen and rented a ranch at Loleta, operating this property alone for five years. It was during this time that he was married to Miss Emma S. Smith, a native of Michigan, but a resident of Humboldt county for many years. Of their union have been born five children : Elmer H., Arlina, Harry M. and Hazel M., twins, and Kenneth.

It was in 1908 that Mr. Christensen removed to his present location, the Upper Riverside ranch. This property consists of three hundred fifty acres of excellent valley land, on which he has a dairy herd of about two hundred graded Guernsey milch cows, headed by eight Guernsey bulls, two of which are full-blooded and registered.

Mr. Christensen has taken an active part in the general affairs of the community, where he makes his home, for many years. He is progressive and public spirited and supports all movements for the permanent improvement of the state, county and community. He is a member of the Dania Society, a Danish fraternal society of national scope, and of the Danish Lutheran church, in Ferndale, being also one of the church trustees.

REDMOND 0. McKEON.—The fact that Mr. McKeon has been chosen to fill the responsible positions of secretary, treasurer and superintendent of the Union Labor Hospital bespeaks an ability rarely found in a man of his years. Not only is he a native son of the state, but he is also a native of Eureka, his birth occurring here May 31, 1886. He is the son of John McKeon, who came to California from St. John, New Brunswick, where as a stationary engineer he was in great demand, for he was an expert in his calling. Needless to say that on coming to Eureka he had no difficulty in finding employment, and the proprietor of the old Vance mill was fortunate in securing his services. The attractions of the north at the time of the rush to Klondyke proved too strong to be resisted and giving up his position in Eureka he went to Alaska as a marine engineer, continuing to run on steamboats up to the time of his death in Victoria, B. C., in 1908. His wife, who in maidenhood was Miss Mary O'Connor, is still living, making her home in Eureka Seven children were born of the marriage of John and Mary (O'Connor) McKeon, of whom six are now living.

The fifth of the parental family, Redmond 0. McKeon, was reared in his native city, Eureka, and was primarily educated in the public schools. In the midst of his schooling he began to earn his own living, and while thus engaged attended night school in order to more fully round out his education, and to this he added a course in Eureka business college, all of which he paid for by his own efforts, demonstrating his perseverance and determination to forge ahead and win an education by his own endeavors.
It was while Mr. McKeon was attending business college that he was elected secretary and treasurer of the Union Labor Hospital in January, 1912.

and that he is the right man in the right place is evidenced by his uninterrupted occupancy of the position. The hospital is a large, modern, three-story structure, light, airy and sanitary in every respect, and has a capacity of seventy-five beds. It is located at Harris and H streets.
He has taken an active interest in the Eureka Fire Department for the last eight years, having been a member of Engine Company No. 1. By right of birth Mr. McKeon is eligible to membership in the Native Sons of the Golden West, and he claims that right by membership in Humboldt Parlor No. 14. He is also a member of the Woodmen of the World and the Sequoia Yachting and Boating Club ; while in his religious affiliations he is a member of St. Bernard's Catholic Church.

LOUIS RASMUSSEN.—It is an acknowledged fact that there is no foreign nation that sends to the United States a better and more desirable class of citizens than does Germany, or one which amalgamates and becomes transformed into genuine Americans more thoroughly or readily. Among this type of citizens is Louis Rasmussen, one of the extensive land owners and farmers of Arcata district, and a man highly esteemed by neighbors and friends. He came to Humboldt county almost thirty years ago, and since that time has made this county his home, being engaged continuously in farming, and meeting always with great success. He has invested heavily in land, and today is owner of some of the most desirable property in the county.

Mr. Rasmussen was born at TOndern, Slesvig, Germany, April 27, 1867. His father was Soren C. Rasmussen, also born in Slesvig, Germany, in May, 1825, but at that time under the Danish flag, for at the time of his birth the country in which he was born was a part of Denmark. He served his country in the Slesvig-Holstein war of 1848, and again in the Danish-Prussian war in 1864, resulting in the acquisition of Slesvig and Holstein by Germany. He is still living on his farm in Slesvig, and is in excellent health. He has followed farming for practically his entire life, but within the past few years he has retired from active work of all kinds. His wife, Louisa Samuelsen, died at the birth of the son who is now an esteemed citizen of Arcata.

The boyhood days of Mr. Rasmussen were spent on his father's farm. He attended school until he was fifteen, then began working with his father on the ranch. He was not destined to pass his entire life in his native country, however, for he had heard considerable about the splendid opportunities for young men in the United States and desired to participate in them, besides he wished to escape the military oppression which would fall to his lot by remaining in Germany. It thus happened that in 1888 we find him taking passage for New York City. Two brothers had preceded him and were making their home in Ferndale, Humboldt county, consequently he came directly to California, and for two years was employed on the dairy farm belonging to his brother Cornelius. Following this he worked on various ranches in the vicinity for four years, and in 1894 he leased three hundred acres. At the end of six years he engaged in farming for himself near Loleta, an undertaking in which he was very successful, clearing enough during the life of his lease to purchase, in partnership with his brother-in-law, Peter Johansen, the old Titlow place near Arcata, comprising one hundred seventy acres. The two engaged in farming and dairying on this property for two years, and after selling it in 1902 Mr. Rasmussen purchased the Dolson place, upon which he now resides, comprising sixty-two acres and lying one mile north of Alliance. At the time of purchase only a small portion of the place was cleared, but since then it has all been brought under a high state of cultivation and is now well improved. No water had been developed on the place when Mr. Rasmussen purchased it, but now it has an abundant water supply. Mr. Rasmussen is engaged in dairying, and has a very fine herd of Holstein cows. He is interested in the United Creameries, Inc., at Arcata, and has served on its board of directors. In February, 1915, he purchased eleven acres in the village of Bayside, with a residence, into which he has moved and will operate a small dairy, having leased his home place for one year.

Aside from his farming and dairying interests, Mr. Rasmussen is also interested in all questions which pertain to the general welfare of his community. He is especially interested in matters of education and has served as a school trustee in his district for several years. In politics he is a stanch Republican, but has never been especially active in political affairs. He is a member of Arcata Lodge No. 472, W. 0. W.

The marriage of Mr. Rasmussen occurred in Loleta, October 29, 1894, uniting him with Miss Dora Duholm, a native of Germany, and, like her husband, a native of Slesvig, born September 22, 1866. Of this union have been born three children, all sons : Clifford, Leonard and Maynard, and all are at present attending the public schools of their district.

Both Mr. and Mrs. Rasmussen have many warm friends in Arcata and the surrounding country, where they are well known. They are both members of the Danish Lutheran church in Arcata, and together with their sons, are regular attendants at its services.

WILLIAM HACKETT.—One of the most active men in the development of the dairy and creamery interests of Humboldt county for many years has been William Hackett, who, although a native of New Jersey, has been a resident of California since the age of twelve years. He almost immediately assumed a share of the duties and responsibilities of his father's dairy farm, and has for practically his entire life been associated with this line of business. He and his father built a creamery in the Eel river valley and conducted it with great success for many years. Mr. Hackett is descended from an old English family of wealth and refinement, and was himself born amid the surroundings of wealth and luxury. In his own family there is a large-hearted, open-handedness that precludes the accumulation of any great wealth, but he enjoys an appreciable fortune and owns some valuable property in the valley, and also some very fine cattle, especially milch cows.

Mr. Hackett was born in Newark, New Jersey, October 4, 1861, the eldest son of William Hackett, Sr., a native of New York City, where he was born August 29, 1839, and also where he was reared, educated and married. He was a jeweler by trade, and was associated with a jewelry manufacturing house in Newark, N. J., and was in very affluent circumstances. He was, however, in ill health, and so determined to come with his family to California. Accordingly, he sold his property, which was of considerable value, and July 5, 1873, he set sail from New York for Texas, expecting to remain there for a time. Arriving at Houston, however, they were not pleased with the conditions, and so came immediately by rail to San Francisco. From there they proceeded to Eureka, where they remained for a few months, and later removed to a ranch at Grizzly Bluff, which they leased for three years. At the expiration of the lease Mr. Hackett, Sr., purchased a farm of forty acres, all in timber, which he cleared and brought under cultivation, and on which he lived for many years. His death occurred in August, 1913, at the age of seventy-four years. The father of William Hackett, Sr., was Henry James Hackett, a native of London, England, and he also was a jeweler by trade and associated with the manufacturing business. He made his home with his son and family at Grizzly Bluff for some time, dying there at the age of eighty years.

William Hackett, Sr., was married in New York City, being united with Miss Elizabeth Cooper, also a native of New York City, and they became the parents of eight children, all of whom grew to manhood and womanhood save one, Joseph Edward, the sixth born, who died in infancy. Five of these were born in Newark, N. J., and the youngest three in Humboldt county. The mother still owns the Eel river valley ranch, which has been her home for so many years, but makes her residence at Weott or Ferndale. She is now seventy-five years of age, but is still interested in all that transpires about her. Of her children still living, the eldest, William, is the subject of this article ; Charles J. is a rancher near Waddington ; Albert is still single and makes his home with his mother ; Walter resides in Ferndale ; Ambrose is a dairyman at Centralia, Wash. ; Mabel W. is now the wife of Richard Bryson, a dairyman of Waddington ; Anna Louisa is the wife of Ira Goff, a clerk, residing in Waddington.

The subject of this sketch was but twelve years of age when he came with his parents to California, and located in Humboldt county. He had attended school in the east, but the duties of the farm claimed his assistance after coming west, and he attended school but three months after that time. He worked shoulder to shoulder with his father, and after a short time they built the Pleasant Point creamery, and built up a business of $3,000.00 per month, operating as a creamery until 1906, and thereafter as a skimming station until November, 1912. The younger Mr. Hackett put in eleven years and nine months in this creamery, and during that time made the phenomenal record of missing but three mornings from his duties. During a part of this time he rented the old Purcell ranch and kept a splendid herd of thirty-nine milch cows. He is prosperous and progressive and his place is one of the most attractive in the locality.

The marriage of Mr. Hackett was solemnized in Eureka, Humboldt county, February 3, 1887, uniting him with Miss Nellie Wooldridge, a native of Stuart's Point, Sonoma county, Cal., who came to Humboldt county with her parents when she was a small child. Here she was reared and educated, and many of her friends are the playmates of her childhood. Mr. and Mrs. Hackett have become the parents of three children, all natives of this county, where they have been reared and educated. Of these, Gertrude, the eldest, resides with her parents ; Edna is the wife of Victor Maybury, an employe of the Central creamery in Ferndale, and they have two children, Loyd and Zearl ; and Clarence, who is still residing at home with his parents.

Both Mr. and Mrs. Hackett are well known to a wide circle of friends throughout their section of the valley. Mr. Hackett is a prominent member of the Odd Fellows, and both Mr. and Mrs. Hackett are Rebekahs and take an active part in the work of that order, and both are also members of the American Nobles. Mr. Hackett is also a member of the Woodmen of the World. In his political affiliations he is a Republican and is well informed on all questions of the day. He is a strong party man, but is also independent in his opinions, and in local issues endorses the men and principles which stand for the best interests of the public.

WILLIAM JAMES QUINN, M. D.—In common with practically all of the men who have been lifelong residents of Humboldt county and are familiar with its development, Dr. Quinn maintains an unceasing interest in movements for the public welfare and the material upbuilding. He was born at Table Bluff, October 11, 1876, and here he laid the foundation of a splendid education by attendance upon the Eureka schools. In this county he grew to manhood and hither he returned at the close of his medical course and hospital service in San Francisco, content to engage in practice at Eureka without investigating the allurements of localities less dear to him. Largely through his own efforts he was enabled to enjoy exceptional advantages while preparing for the practice of his profession and after he was graduated from the Cooper Medical College with the degree of M. D., in 1905, he engaged as a physician in St. Mary's hospital in San Francisco, where a year of practical experience in the treatment of diseases of every kind proved most helpful to him in later embarking in the profession for himself.

Upon his return to Eureka in 1906 Dr. Quinn opened an office and began to practice his profession, which has since engaged his attention and has brought him a growing prestige and popularity. Besides his private practice he is engaged as surgeon with the Union Labor hospital of Eureka. A close student of every advance made in the profession, he has been benefited by the reading of medical literature with reports of latest discoveries, and has found help also in association with the county and state medical societies. For some years he has acted as physician for the local Aerie of Eagles, to which he belongs, and his other fraternities are the Knights of Columbus and the Improved Order of Red M en. By his marriage to Norma McClean, a native of Minnesota, he has two children, Robert and Phyllis. The family home is a comfortable residence in Eureka, while the Doctor's office is in the Carson building. As yet he has taken no part in politics nor has he ever consented to hold office, his tastes being in the line of professional activities rather than public affairs. Yet he has been keen to give his support to every measure for the permanent progress of the community and has cooperated with helpful projects, so that he merits a place among the public-spirited men of his native county.


History of Humboldt County California
History by Leigh H. Irvine: Historic Record Company, Los Angeles, California, 1915
Transcribed by Martha A Crosley Graham 17 July 2006, Pages 748-866


Site Updated: 4 December 2009

Martha A Crosley Graham