Humboldt County, California


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WALTER L. BURRILL.—Another of the rising young men of Humboldt county is Walter L. Burrill, an enterprising manufacturer of confections, who is winning for himself and his home city general recognition throughout the county for the splendid quality of his Ferndale products. Mr. Burrill has spent most of his lifetime in California, his parents having located in Eureka when he was but thirteen years of age. There he received his education, and grew to manhood. After graduating from the grammar and high schools he served an apprenticeship with E. B. Hall, the confectioner at Eureka, and on August 1, 1899, he came to Ferndale to seek a possible location fora business of his own. On August 22 he opened up his first place in Ferndale, and has been continuously in business here since. He now has one of the finest business stands in the county, and one of which the city is justly proud. He has built up a splendid local trade in his special line of candies and is now establishing an equally desirable wholesale trade. He has a commodious ice cream parlor and soda water fountain in connection with his factory, the entire place being beautiful and attractive. In the rear is to be found the candy factory, which is every bit as good to look at as the candies themselves are good to eat. The establishment is conducted on the latest lines of modern sanitation and every precaution is taken to have the product scientifically pure. Only the best of ingredients are used, pure sugar and fruit flavors being employed exclusively. Mr. Burrill began in a very modest manner, but his business is rapidly assuming metropolitan proportions.

Mr. Burrill is a native of Maine, having been born at Fairfield, in the Pine Tree state, February 8, 1872. His father, James M. Burrill, also a native of Maine, is now an engineer for the Metropolitan Lumber Company, and resides at Eureka. The mother, like her husband and son, was born in Maine, and was Miss Mary J. Brown in the days of her maidenhood, and resides at the family home in Eureka. There were two children in the Burrill family, the son, Walter L., and a daughter, Abbie C., who is still living at home.

Mr. Burrill was married at Eureka October 30, 1902, to Miss Etta F. Allen, the daughter of Capt. H. D. P. Allen, of Eureka, a pioneer boatman of Humboldt county. Of their union has been born one child, a son, Leslie A. Both Mr. and Mrs. Burrill are justly popular in their home city, having a wide circle of friends. Mr. Burrill is forging to the front in many respects and is regarded as one of the most influential men of the community. He was elected in April, 1914, as a member of the board of town trustees, and is making an enviable record for himself in his official capacity. He is also well and favorably known in fraternal circles, being an influential member of the Ferndale lodges of Foresters of America, the Woodmen of the World and the Knights of Pythias.

WILLIAM CROWLEY.—A man who has taken a prominent part as foreman for different lumber companies in Humboldt county, Cal., and whose proficiency in the handling of men makes him valuable as superintendent in charge of construction work, William Crowley understands the lumber business thoroughly, having worked in every department, from the felling of the timber until it was landed at the mill either by means of water or rail, and in early days was employed to drive a bull team in connection with the work.

Since the fall of 1875 Mr. Crowley has been a resident of California, his birthplace having been St. John, New Brunswick, where he was born October 25, 1858. His father, John Crowley, who was born in County Derry, Ireland, removed to New Brunswick, where he later married Theresa Pierce, a native of that part of Canada, and spent the remainder of his life there, engaged in farm and lumber work. Of their eleven children, William Crowley was the oldest, and received his education in the public schools of New Brunswick, after which he was employed on his father's farm during the summer months, the winters being spent in the lumber woods. Removing to California, he spent the first three years of his residence here in the Arcata woods, where he was employed by N. H. Falk, later being employed another three years by D. R. Jones & Co., on the Elk river. He was next engaged by the Excelsior Mill Company, located on Gunther Island, to work in their woods on the Freshwater, where he remained sixteen years, during that time becoming foreman, a position which he filled with ability and with complete satisfaction to his employers, his many years of experience in the woods amply qualifying him for the position. Later he engaged in the manufacture of shingles, operating a shingle mill and wood yard for two years in Eureka, after which he entered the employ of the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia as woods foreman, continuing with them for a period of fourteen years. Resigning from their employ, he accepted a position with a New York lumber company as superintendent of railroad and woods at their mills, which were located in Madero, Mexico. There he was engaged in carrying out his duties for fifteen months, when the revolution in that country became so menacing that they were obliged to leave the place, and Mr. Crowley came then into charge of the railroad of the Little River Redwood Company, in Humboldt county, Cal., being employed in the woods by this company for three years and three months. In October of 1914, in company with a partner, Thomas E. Clooney, he obtained a contract to build three and one-tenth miles of the state highway, extending from Bear creek to Jordan creek, in the carrying out of which charge he is at present engaged. Mr. Crowley has much faith in the Pacific coast real estate, and is the owner of property in Humboldt county, in Southern California, and also along the northern coast.

A Republican in his political interests, Mr. Crowley's fraternal associations are with the Eureka Lodge, B. P. 0. E., the Woodmen of the World and the Knights of Columbus. He was married to Miss Katherine Gorman in Eureka, who is a native of England, and they have four children, of whom three are at present living, namely : William A., an employee in the Eureka postoffice; Millard E., a machinist in San Francisco ; and Frances G., the wife of John Reedy, of San Francisco.

JOHN F. HELMS.—In the veins of John F. Helms flows the blood of a noble and ancient ancestry. The origin of the family is traced to Holland, whence members came to the new world with Peter Stuyvesant in 1616 and settled in New York. Subsequently some of the family drifted into Virginia, and it was in that state that the great-grandfather of our subject, Alfred Helms, was born, he being one of a family of eleven children, all of whom served in the Revolutionary war. It is said that Alfred Helms accompanied "Mad Anthony" Wayne to the frontier in an Indian campaign. The country was then all known as Ohio Territory, but is now the state of Indiana. At the close of the campaign Mr. Helms returned to Virginia, but the comparative ease and quiet of life there palled upon him and he determined to go back to the frontier. With others he made his way over the mountains into what is now Dearborn county, Ind., and there purchased a claim from an Indian chief which embraced thirty-six sections. Afterward he named this Clay township, in so doing perpetuating the name of Henry Clay, for whom he had the greatest admiration. His ownership of the property was recognized by the government, the grant remaining valid, and the land is still in the possession of his descendants, As an indication of the political strength of the Helms family it may be said that as voters they hold the balance of power in Dearborn county today.

The son and namesake of this intrepid pioneer, Alfred Helms, the grandfather of our subject, participated in the war of his time, doing valiant service in the Mexican war. He was the father of thirteen sons, and of these nine followed the example of their forebears in taking up arms in defense of their country, serving in the Civil war, and though three of them were wounded, all of them lived to the close of hostilities. Next to the oldest in this large family was David Helms, who saw active service in Company B, Eighty-third Indiana Volunteer Infantry, for a period of four years, during which time he was in numerous battles and skirmishes, having been able to respond to every call, and ultimately rose to the rank of captain. After laying down the destructive equipment of warfare he took up the peaceful and constructive life of the farmer in Indiana, settling upon a place which had been the home of three generations before him. Subsequently he sold this property and removed to Topeka, Kans., where he now makes his home at the age of eighty years. In maidenhood his wife was Jennie Johnson, a native of Dearborn county, Ind. She died in Topeka, Kans., in 1912, having become the mother of ten children, of whom six are now living.

Next to the oldest in the parental family, John F. Helms was born in Clay township, Dearborn county, Ind., May 27, 1871, and was brought up on the old home farm until he was eighteen years of age. In the meantime he had received a good education in the schools near by. He accompanied his parents upon their removal to Topeka, Kans., in 1889, and in Shawnee county he followed farming, at the same time continuing his education by attending school during the winter season. When circumstances made it possible he took a course in Topeka Business College, from which he was graduated in 1891. It was following this that he gave up farming and began teaching school in the district adjoining Topeka, and at the same time he taught at night in the Topeka Business College, continuing this dual occupation for five years.

Mr. Helms' public life dates from 1896, when he was appointed clerk in the office of Sheriff Porter S. Cook of Topeka. His activity in political matters led to his selection to become a delegate to the Republican county congressional and state convention during the years which intervened. Upon the breaking out of the Spanish-American war he resigned his position with Sheriff Cook and volunteered for service in the Twentieth Kansas Volunteer Infantry, but was rejected, after which he enlisted in the Sixteenth United States Infantry, and as a member of Company F was sent with his regiment to Cuba. At Santiago, Cuba, he and others were detailed and mounted and later were under Colonel Roosevelt at San Juan Hill, but before the charge he was ordered back to guard the field hospital.

At the close of the war Mr. Helms was mustered out and honorably discharged at Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, Mo. Subsequently his regiment was sent to the Philippines, so he again enlisted in Company F, Sixteenth United States Volunteer Infantry, and joined his regiment in the islands, making the trip by way of New York City, thence across the Atlantic and up the Mediterranean sea, through the Suez canal to Luzon Island, where with his regiment he took an active part. Soon after his arrival he was detailed as headquarter's clerk. He considered himself fortunate because at no time was his name on the sick report. During his service in the islands he worked his way up to sergeant-major, and passed the examination for second lieutenant, ranking third in a class of thirty-seven. Returning to San Francisco, he was honorably discharged, and liking the country, decided to remain in the west. For a year he was employed in a tannery at Benicia, after which he bought a ranch at Shively and became interested in fruit-farming. As had been the case in Kansas, his ability for office holding became recognized by his fellow citizens and in 1906 he was appointed deputy county clerk under George Cousins, an office which he held for one year, after which he returned to his ranch, in addition to the management of which he also served as deputy county assessor for three years. Thereafter he received the appointment of deputy United States marshal and• came to Eureka. However, after six months he resigned the office to accept the appointment of under-sheriff to Sheriff Robert A. Redmond, a position which he has ably filled since January, 1910. He has disposed of his ranch at Shively, but he still retains his buildings and shingle mill at Holmes, in the running of the latter having a capable partner in George R. Young of Pepperwood, who operates the mill whenever the price of shingles justifies their manufacture. The mill has proved a source of profit to both partners, each in his own name owning redwood lands. With what has preceded regarding Mr. Helms' public life it is needless to state that he is a stanch Republican. However, he is liberal in .his views and recognizes good even in his opponents. Fraternally he is a member of Hoopa Tribe, I. 0. R. M., of Eureka.

GATLIFF & THOMPSON.—The leading photographers in Eureka at the present time are Gatliff & Thompson, whose studios are located in the Connick & St. Clair building, at the corner of Fourth and F streets. Both of the partners are thorough masters of photography and artists in their line. Their work is the best and all the later styles and types of photography are to be found in their studios, which are artistic and attractive to a degree. They enjoy the patronage of the best people in Eureka and Humboldt county, and are always careful to have all their work up to their established high standard. The partnership is composed of Bertram Gatliff and Joseph G. Thompson, the former being the senior partner, and a resident of Eureka for many years.

Both Mr. Gatliff and Mr. Thompson are popular with a wide circle of personal friends in Eureka, and their standing among business and professional men of the city is very high. Their business is prosperous and is conducted along modern lines, and they themselves are both progressive, wideawake young business men. They are enthusiastic and energetic boosters for their home city, and take an active part in all that tends for the welfare of the municipality.

GEORGE S. SHEDDEN.—A native of Scotland, but a resident of America since early childhood, George S. Shedden is today one of the most prominent and prosperous of Eureka's business men, and is one of the most highly respected of her citizens. He came to Eureka as a drug clerk, but very soon bought out the business from his employer, and has since continued to conduct it as an independent enterprise, with the greatest success. His thrift and conscientious industry have reaped a splendid reward, and today he is well on the high road to wealth. He is interested in copper properties in Humboldt county, together with other prominent business and professional men of Eureka, which bid fair to make all the stockholders therein independently wealthy within the near future.

Mr. Shedden was born in Airdrie, Lanarkshire, Scotland, December 23, 1863. His father was John Shedden and his mother was Margaret (McCall) Shedden, both natives of Ayrshire, Scotland. They were married at Ayr, Scotland, and the present honored citizen of Eureka was the youngest of seven children. The father was gardener at Airdrie House, and held this position for many years. He removed to the United States with his family in 1873, when George S. was ten years of age, locating in Newport, R. 1. There the son grew to manhood, receiving his education in the public schools. In January, 1883, when he was twenty years of age, he came west to Formosa, Jewell county, Kans., where he was engaged by an elder brother, Thomas Shedden, as a drug clerk, he being the owner of a drug store there.

It was in 1888 that Mr. Shedden finally came to California, locating at Santa Cruz, where he was employed in the drug business. He remained there until 1895, when he went to San Jose to accept a position in the drug firm of Perrin & Stephenson, remaining with them for ten years, and making an enviable reputation for himself for reliability and trustworthiness. In 1905 he came to Eureka with Mr. Stephenson, his former employer in San Jose, who had purchased the store of W. E. Moore in Eureka. Almost immediately Mr. Stephenson desired to dispose of his interests and leave Eureka. Accordingly, Mr. Shedden bought a half interest in the business, paying for it •the first year from the profits of the store. Later he bought the remaining one-half interest, which has since been cleared away by the profits of the enterprise.

The marriage of Mr. Shedden took place in Eureka, August 13, 1911, uniting him with Mrs. Helen Beckwith Skinner, the daughter of Leonard and Caroline Beckwith, and a native of Hydesville, Humboldt county. Her father is one of the oldest settlers in Eureka, where he is held in especially high esteem, having been closely associated with the upbuilding of Humboldt county for many years, and being a man of more than ordinary ability and worth. Mrs. Shedden is the mother of one daughter by her first husband, Margaret Skinner, who makes her home with Mr. Shedden.

The copper property in which Mr. Shedden is interested is owned by a corporation of fifteen prominent business and professional men of Eureka, and is known as the Humboldt Copper Mining Company, of which Mr. Shedden is a director.
Both Mr. and Mrs. Shedden are popular members of their social circle in Eureka, and are the center of a wide circle of warm friends and admiring acquaintances.

WILLIAM LIGHT.—Lying on the Briceland road two and a half miles west of Garberville, Humboldt county, is the Light ranch of three hundred twenty acres, where Mr. and Mrs. William Light have resided continuously since 1883. They have been residents of California, however, for a much longer period, both having come to this state during the sixties. Mr. Light, in common with many emigrants from the eastern states ,in his day, tried mining when he began life on the Pacific coast, but a very brief experience in that line, and a better understanding of the varied resources of the country aside from its mineral wealth, convinced him that it was not the only road to prosperity, and he has followed agricultural pursuits with highly satisfactory results. He and his wife are counted among the most esteemed residents in their section of the county.

Mr. Light was born in Broome county, N. Y., January 16, 1842, and lived on his father's farm until he reached his majority. Then he decided to come out to California, and made the trip by the Nicaraguan route. He was soon at work in the gold fields in Placer county, but he became disgusted after a week's trial of mining and went to work for his uncle, Elijah Light, on a farm in Marin county, remaining with him one season. Proceeding thence to Sonoma county, he rented a dairy ranch comprising one hundred acres situated in the Coleman valley, and was successfully engaged in agricultural work on his own account in that county until his removal ao Humboldt county, in 1883. That year he bought the ranch of three hundred twenty acres where he has since had his home, and which during his ownership has undergone steady and intelligent improvement. Besides cultivating it carefully he has put up two sets of buildings, one occupied by himself and wife, the other by their daughter, Mrs. Hinckley, to whom the property was turned over recently, Mr. Light having retired from active labor to enjoy the comfortable home and competence he acquired during his busy career. Mr. Light's honorable life, his pleasant relations with his neighbors, and thrifty management of his property, all combine to establish him as one of the highly desirable residents of his locality.

During his residence in Sonoma county Mr. Light married Mrs. Cynthia (Williams) Barton, who came to California with her parents in 1865. By her first marriage she had two children : Clara, Mrs. Good, who died in Oakland, March 12, 1909; and J. W., living at Eureka. One child has been born to her union with Mr. Light, Amy, now Mrs. Alexis Hinckley, and they have two children, George and Clara. Politically Mr. Light is a Democrat, his wife a Republican. She is a Christian Scientist in religious belief, and possesses estimable personal qualities which have endeared her to a large circle of friends and acquaintances. Even-tempered and serene, and accustomed to accepting her duties philosophically and her pleasures gratefully, she has a disposition which attracts friendship, and her generous nature is appreciated by all who have had the opportunity of knowing her.

Mrs. Light was born at Hyde Park, Vt., the third child of Mr. and Mrs. 'William Williams, farming people, who moved to New Hampshire during her early life. The father came to California alone in 1853, and became interested in farming at Tomales, Marin county. Some time later he returned to Hebron, N. H., for his wife and family of four children, whom he brought to the Pacific coast in 1865. They were at sea when news was received of Lincoln's assassination, and the diversity of opinion among the passengers regarding the affair nearly caused a riot on board.

Just as this goes to press Mr. Light died, July 18, 1915. His loss is mourned not only by his dear ones, but by all who knew him. He was a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows for forty-two years, being a member of Occidental Lodge, Sonoma county.

EDWARD STUART FORBES.—It would be difficult to find a young man more emphatically in accord with the true western spirit of progress or more keenly alive to the opportunities awaiting the industrious and intelligent man of affairs in Humboldt county than Edward S. Forbes, junior member of the firm of Forbes Bros. They have built up a far-reaching stock and dairy business and identified themselves with the best interests of their district. Out of his own experience Mr. Forbes has evolved the theory that any young man with ambition and the correct theories of life may attain unto his goal, providing his diversions do not include gambling, drinking and kindred destroyers of happiness. He is a fine type of young manhood, of athletic build, six feet five inches in height. Besides renting the old home place of a quarter section, Forbes Bros. operate eleven hundred acres of the Beaty range, which they rent, and also have leased eight hundred acres from Dick Mason. Their properties are located near Blocksburg. They devote their time to general farming and dairying, having on their ranch a fine herd of ninety cattle of the best breeds. The progressive spirit possessed by the brothers is shown in the improvements which they have introduced, as it is their desire to have only the very best in farm machinery and dairy equipment.

A representative of a fine old Scotch family which was among the first to locate in Humboldt county, Mr. Forbes was born at Elk River, February 23, 1895. His father, Alexander Forbes, came to America when a young man and during the early fifties became a resident of California at a time when Humboldt county was wild and almost entirely uncultivated. However, in spite of hardships and obstacles, in spite of having to start for himself in a strange country without friends, he gained a success that reflects credit upon his sterling Scotch characteristics. He lived to the advanced age of eighty-six years, passing away in 1908. To himself and wife, Harriet Honora (Creek) Forbes, were born four children : Robert Bruce, the senior member of the firm of Forbes Bros., married Miss Rosina Curless, a native of Van Dusen township, this county ; Fred Victor, foreman of the Howard Auto Company, makes his home in Portland, Ore. ; Myron C. married Miss Florence Barrett and is living at Fortuna ; and Edward Stuart. On the death of her husband Mrs. Forbes married Frank B. Morey and is making her home in Fortuna.

WILLIAM E. SMITH.—Since the spring of 1914 the books of the Pacific Oak Extract Company, at Briceland, have been under the care of William E. Smith, who though yet a young man has acquired a very high reputation as bookkeeper and accountant. His training and the responsible positions he has held were thorough preparation for his present duties, in which his work has been up to the high standards for which he has become known. Mr. Smith was born November 24, 1892, on a ranch seven miles west of Briceland, son of the late Abraham Smith. The father was a typical westerner and experienced ranchman. From the time he was eleven years old he was a great rider and a good pistol shot, could spin a lariat to perfection, and had the various other accomplishments acquired in riding the ranges. He was thus engaged, as a cowboy, in Montana for years before coming to California, settling in Humboldt county in 1888. He married Miss Julia Calkins, of Briceland, this county, and two children were born to their marriage : Mrs. Katie Teel, who lives at Bakersfield, Cal.; and William E. After the father's death the mother remarried, being now the wife of W. 0. Louk, and living at Garberville, Humboldt county.

William E. Smith grew up at Garberville, where he attended public school. He was only ten years old when his father died, but his mother reared him carefully and gave him all possible advantages. When a youth he took the commercial course at the Eureka business college, from which he was graudated in 1909, following immediately with the post-graduate course. He now holds a teacher's certificate, being not only a proficient bookkeeper and accountant from the practical standpoint, but also an expert instructor in the art. During 1910-11 he taught in the Eureka business college, and then took a position with the Shelter Cove Wharf & Warehouse Company, keeping their books two years. For the next six months he was similarly employed by the Garberville Mercantile Company, on April 1, 1914, taking his present position, with the Pacific Oak Extract Company. This company conducts the most important industry in southern Humboldt county, fifty men being employed at its works in Briceland and in the woods getting out bark. Its product, oak extract used in tanning, is made from the bark of the oak growths on the edge of the redwood belt, which for many years were considered unworthy of commercial exploitation. Thus the business has a double value, having converted what was once looked upon as a waste product of this region to an article for which there is steady demand. The extract company at Briceland is subsidiary to the Wagner Leather Company, of Stockton, Cal., which uses all the output of the works. Mr. Smith has taken his place among the valued employees of the company, and his reliability and capability are receiving just appreciation. He has made an excellent beginning in business.

On May 16, 1914, Mr. Smith was married, to Miss Pearl Landergen, of Upper Mattole, this county, daughter of R. R. Landergen, a rancher of that region. Socially Mr. Smith holds membership in the lodge of Modern Woodmen at Eureka, and in Hoopa Tribe, Improved Order of Red Men, of the same place.

LEOPOLD FREDERICK GROTHE.—The justice of the peace of Briceland township in Humboldt county, Cal., a popular and enterprising man in that vicinity, and the owner of extensive property in that county, Leopold Frederick Grothe is a native son of California, having been born at Bell Springs, Mendocino county, on August 15, 1880, the son of Frederick August Grothe, who, with his brother Ferdinand, came from Germany to New York and two years later to the northern part of California in the early days, they being among the first permanent settlers of northern Mendocino county.

Berlin, Germany, was the native home of Mr. Grothe's father, and there he grew up and learned the blacksmith's trade, in 1867 coming to the United States, where for two years he remained in Long Island City, N. Y., in the year 1869 making his way to Sacramento, Cal., where he commenced farming operations in company with Messrs. Chittenden and Weinkauf. With his partners he removed to Mendocino county, locating claims at or near Bell Springs, and with them engaged in stock raising, continuing the partnership for a period of about seven years, when it was dissolved and by the division of the property Frederick August Grothe became the owner of the ranch at Bell Springs. Building up a well improved ranch there, he added to it from time to time until he had in his possession about ten thousand acres of land at the time of his death. With the aid of his sons he engaged in cattle and sheep raising on an extensive scale, meeting with remarkable success and erecting a comfortable residence on his ranch at Bell Springs, which has for many years been the stopping place for travelers between points in Humboldt county and the Bay region. Both Mr. Grothe and his wife were devoted to the Lutheran faith, in which they had been reared, his wife having been Anna Weinkauf, a native of Germany, who died in June, 1891, the death of Mr. Grothe occurring in January, 1910. They were the parents of nine children, as follows : Louise, now Mrs. Linser, residing near Bell Springs ; Selma, who was formerly a teacher, but now presides over the Bell Springs home ; Otto, engaged on the home ranch ; Leopold Frederick, the owner of an extensive ranch in Humboldt county ; Franz, who remains on the home ranch ; Henry, engaged in the dairy business at Woodland, Cal. ; Paul and Weinkauf, who are also on the home ranch ; and Rose, a teacher, who makes her home on the Bell Springs ranch. The father is remembered as having brought the first drove of sheep into northern Mendocino county, and as being the last to go out of the business on account of the coyotes which brought destruction to so many of the flocks of that region. The ranch is still owned by the family and is operated under the firm name of Grothe Brothers.

The son, Leopold Frederick Grothe, who was brought up on the Bell Springs ranch, receiving his education in the public schools, from a lad was well acquainted with the business of stock raising and continued at the home ranch until accepting the position of foreman of the Ramsey Home ranch near Bell Springs for Harry Ramsey, after the great fire in San Francisco, however, removing to that city, where for a year he followed the carpenter's trade, returning to the Ramsey ranch for a short period of time. In 1911 he came to Briceland, Cal., to assume the management of the Ferdinand Grothe ranch which his family had inherited from the uncle, Ferdinand Grothe, who in the early days had settled at Bell Springs, where he homesteaded with his brother and carried on stock raising for several years, selling out his business and removing to Briceland, where he purchased the William Marshall place. Here he engaged in sheep raising, meeting with success until the inroads of the coyotes caused him to give up the raising of sheep and devote himself to his cattle, wherein also he was successful. A well known and popular man, active in local politics and an ardent admirer of the Republican platform, Ferdinand Grothe was a prominent member of the Independent Order of Odd. Fellows, having joined the Cahto lodge No. 206 soon after coming to California. He was never married, and his death occurred in 1911, at which time his nephew, Leopold Frederick, assumed charge of his property, where he has since resided, in 1914 selling his interest in the estate at Bell Springs and purchasing the Briceland ranch of the estate, by which transaction Leopold Frederick is now sole owner of his uncle's Briceland ranch, which comprises over fifteen hundred acres located on Redwood creek, and is known as the Heart G ranch, Mr. Grothe's brand being a G within a heart. On this estate range over one hundred twenty-five head of cattle, Mr. Grothe making a specialty of high grade short horn Durham cattle and also raising hogs. The property is splendid grazing land, well adapted to stock raising, and besides the advantages of Redwood creek, there are numerous small streams and springs upon the land, including a sulphur spring, and Mr. Grothe is placing redwood troughs in convenient locations for the stock, the water being brought thereto by iron pipes, so that his cattle have ample drinking facilities.

A member of the Cahto Lodge No. 206, I. 0. 0. F., and in politics an enthusiastic and stanch Republican, Mr. Grothe is actively interested in the welfare of the community where he resides, having been elected justice of the peace of Briceland township by a handsome majority, assuming the duties of his office in January, 1915.

HARRY COWEN.—The prosperity of the little town of Briceland has been materially aided by the operations of the Pacific Oak Extract Company, which affords employment to some fifty men, supplying the Wagner Leather Company, of Stockton, Cal., with a high-grade extract of oak bark used in the tanning of its superior products. Harry Cowen, one of the most respected citizens of this place, is the efficient woods foreman for this company, whose employ he entered in 1906, and his varied duties have been so capably performed that he is recognized as one of the men whose conscientious efforts and intelligent understanding of the requirements of the business have been the foundation upon which its success is laid. He has been a resident of southern Humboldt county since 1901.

Mr. Cowen is a native of Pennsylvania, born November 15, 1871, near the center of the state, on the Susquehanna river, at Clearfield, Clearfield county, and was the sixth in the family of fifteen children born to Robert and Hannah (Henchbarger) Cowen, who were married in Pennsylvania ; the mother was born in that state. Robert Cowen made an honorable record as a soldier in the Civil war, enlisting in 1863 in the One Hundred Tenth regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, and serving until 1865. At one time he owned five hundred acres of timber land in Pennsylvania, but his patriotism cost him his property, for he lost his land and home on account of accumulated interest debts. Subsequently he rented farms in that state. In 1898 he and his wife moved to California.

Harry Cowen was brought up in Pennsylvania and began to make his own living when only a boy, becoming used to hard work early. His first experience in his present business was acquired there, cutting and peeling hemlock bark, and being large for his age and very strong he did heavy labor when a mere youth. When eighteen years old he began to follow the log drives on the Susquehanna river, from the lumber regions, being thus engaged for ten seasons. Having concluded to settle in the west he spent some time deciding on a location, looking over twenty-two of the northwestern states and eventually making his home in Mendocino county, Cal. For the several years following he was employed there by the Usall Lumber Company, at Usall. In 1900, at the time of the rush to Nome, he went up to Alaska for a season, and upon his return to California in the fall of that year he located at Garberville, Humboldt county, renting the Swithenbank place, four miles north of that town. He remained on that property five years, during which time he was very successful. The year after the big earthquake, 1906, he took the contract from the supervisors to fix the road to Shelter Cove, a large undertaking and difficult to carry out for many reasons, and his highly satisfactory completion of the contract was a proof of executive ability, it being done in the thorough manner typical of everything he handles. He was then induced to help out a friend who had entered into an unusually responsible contract with the Pacific Oak Extract Company to furnish a large quantity of tanbark, and then began to work for the company on his own account, in the fall of that year. His valuable qualities were soon recognized, and in the spring of 1907 he took the position of woods foreman, which he has since filled. Most of his time and attention is given to his work in this connection, which includes a variety of arduous and important duties. The cutting and peeling of the oak tanbark, and its delivery to the works, which are located on Redwood creek half a mile from Briceland, are entrusted to him, with all the incidental business of buying tanbark timber as needed, or when there is a favorable opportunity ; of looking after the curing systematically and economically ; and of laying out and building the roads necessary to facilitate its transportation from the woods, which must usually be accomplished over long and difficult mountainous trails. The average quantity required at the works is eighty cords weekly, and the difficulty of procuring enough to keep the works going is increasing steadily, the company being obliged to go farther and farther for the bark each year. Moreover, the location to be cut over must be chosen in good time and all preparations made, as the cutting has to be done at the proper season, after which the bark is cured and hauled to the sheds at Briceland to be stored ready for use. Fifty mules and horses are used in the woods, and a five-ton automobile truck supplements the teams in taking the finished product from the works to Shelter Cove, where it is loaded onto steamboats for shipment to San Francisco, being sent thence by river boat to Stockton. The extract company is subsidiary to the Wagner Leather Company, of Stockton, which uses all the extract made at the Briceland works. Mr. Cowen has proved to be the right man for his work, and his efficiency has increased as he has acquired familiarity with its details, his resource and ingenuity in making the best of every situation being no less remarkable than his strength and energetic disposition.

While his activities for several years have been devoted principally to the business of the extract company, Mr. Cowen has also looked after some private affairs and has taken part in the public affairs of his locality. He has made a number of good investments in stock range and timber lands in Humboldt county, having a half interest in two hundred forty acres of redwood timber lands ; and also three hundred twenty acres of tanbark oak land, his wife owning a similar quantity.

For the last four years Mr. Cowen has been filling the office of justice of the peace in Briceland township, with office at Briceland, and his recent nomination for another term shows how well satisfied his fellow citizens have been with his services. He has every reason to be well pleased with his choice of a place to live and work. He found the opportunities he was seeking, and has proved himself worthy of them; the change has brought him contentment and prosperity, and he is repaying the community which held out these attractions, and made good, with citizenship of the highest order.

On May 12, 1896, Mr. Cowen was married at Ferndale, Humboldt county, to Miss Annie Miner, daughter of Allen Miner, a stock-raiser in Union and Mattole, where she was born. Mr. and Mrs. Cowen have two children, Edward Allen and Harry Miner. Mr. Cowen owns the comfortable little home at Briceland which they occupy.

Mr. Cowen was the first of his family to come to California, and he was sufficiently impressed with its advantages to encourage other members to follow him, his parents, two brothers and five sisters joining him here in 1898; the next year another sister came out. Politically he has always been a stanch Republican.

DAVID MURPHY.—Those were energetic pioneers in the old days who made the tedious journey to California across the plains in ox-wagons or by sailing-vessel around Cape Horn, either journey being attended by the many inconveniences of travel in early times, not to mention hardship and danger. The father of David Murphy, a rancher and bear-hunter of Blocksburg, Cal., was one of the settlers of this state who made the journey around the Cape. The elder David Murphy was born in the state of Ohio and was married in Missouri to Polly Ann Raglan, a native of that state, by whom he had ten children, the two oldest being born in Missouri, the others in California. In 1856 the family came to California, where for three years they lived at Hydesville, and in April, 1873, settling near Blocksburg. The father then bought the Foster ranch where he devoted his time and energy to stock-raising, and died sixteen years ago at the age of seventy-six, his wife having passed away the previous year aged sixty-five years.

The seventh of his children, David Murphy, now a prosperous resident of Humboldt county, was born at Cottonwood, Tehama county, Cal., October 10, 1867, receiving his education in the public schools of Blocksburg district, for some time remaining at home where he assisted his father and was employed also on various other ranches in the vicinity. In 1890 he took up a preemption of forty acres which he proved up and still owns. He has also held large stock-ranch interests at Fruitland, Cal., which he sold in 1914 and rented the G. F. Connick ranch of fifteen hundred acres and about one thousand acres of Fruitland property whereon he raises cattle and hogs. Besides being a successful rancher, Mr. Murphy has gained for himself the distinction of being the most successful bear-hunter, at the present time, in the county, having killed twenty bears in Humboldt county during the season of 1913 and 1914, so that he may be said to rival Roosevelt as a bear-hunter. His reason for hunting so industriously was because the bears were destroying the hogs in the neighborhood.

Mr. Murphy's home life on his ranch is of the pleasantest. His wife is Susie F. Heryford, whom he married in 1891; she is the daughter of Paul and Josephine (Elkins) Heryford, also pioneers of California, crossing the plains when children ; they were married in California ; the father died in Blocks-burg and the mother now resides in Santa Rosa. Mrs. Murphy was born in Tehama, California, but was reared and educated at Blocksburg. She is the mother of five children: Viola, the wife of Bert Johnson, living near Harris ; Neta, the wife of Charles Flora, living at Fruitland ; David, William and Eva.

JOHN WALTER RYAN.—Apparent chance brought Mr. Ryan from the extreme northeastern portion of our country (Sherman Mills, Aroostook county, Me.,) where he was born May 14, 1847, and where he had been reared on a farm, to the extreme western portion of our great continent, although there had been a long interval of employment in other sections prior to his settlement in Humboldt county in July of 1883. Throughout practically all of his life he has been identified with the lumber business. As a boy he worked in logging camps in the great pine forests of Maine. When he left that commonwealth in 1868 he secured employment in the lumber industry in Pennsylvania, nor was there any special change in occupation during the nine years of his wanderings in Idaho, Utah, Montana and Nevada. After he had engaged in the lumber business at Lake Tahoe for six years he spent two years in Butte City, Mont., until 1883, when he arrived in Humboldt county, where for eighteen years he was connected with the old Pacific Lumber Company of Scotia. For a time he also assisted in railroad building. During almost the entire period of his residence in this county he has been connected with its timber claims and perhaps no one is more familiar with their condition than he. Coming to Eureka in 1902, he bought the neat residence which he now occupies. In 1905 he was appointed justice to fill a vacancy and the following year he was elected justice of the peace. Since then, a period of two terms, he has filled the office with rare tact and a far wider knowledge of the law than he would have been expected to possess.

Judge Ryan has always been a Republican, active in the councils of the party, and in 1900 was one of the state presidential electors on the McKinley-Roosevelt ticket. He was duly elected and met with his colleagues in the senate chamber at Sacramento, when they cast their vote for the Republican nominees.

The first marriage of Judge Ryan united him with Miss Priscilla McHenry, who was born in Pennsylvania and died in Humboldt county in 1900. Later he was united with Miss Minnie Jameson, who was born and reared in this county and is a member of an honored pioneer family, her father, Benjamin T. Jameson, having settled here in 1852 and afterward taken an active part in local upbuilding. Besides being prominent in the local branches of Masonry, including blue lodge, chapter, commandery and Eastern Star, in some of which he has filled offices of honor, Judge Ryan is one of the leading members of the Eureka Lodge of Elks and at this writing is serving as leading knight.

JAMES E. FRENCH.—The Ettersburg neighborhood is known as one of the most progressive in Humboldt county. The wholesome spirit of cooperation which has characterized that region is well exemplified in the success of the Ettersburg Farm Center, and the same liberal esprit de corps is evident in the business circles of the locality, where enterprise does not mean selfishness, or success riches for one man alone. The Etter brothers themselves have set a notable example in this regard, but those who have kept pace in their own lines also deserve and receive credit. As the Etters have taken the lead in Humboldt county in horticultural work, so the firm of French & Pixton has been foremost in another industry, one not yet thoroughly understood or entirely appreciated in this country—the raising of milch goats. The members of this firm are brothers-in-law, and they have been working together successfully for a number of years. Beginning in a humble way, taking up homesteads in the mountains which required years of hard work to prove up and develop, they have gone ahead in spite of drawbacks, and in their special line particularly have turned adverse circumstances to profitable use. In fact, one of their greatest triumphs is the demonstration that hundreds of acres of Humboldt county mountain lands hitherto considered useless for cultivation or grazing, being inaccessible even to sheep, may be turned to account.

Mr. French is a son of Daniel and Sarah (Huling) French, the father a native of Michigan and of English and German extraction. The mother came of an old English family, to which General Huling, a British officer in the Revolution, belonged. She was born in Iowa, and was only a child when taken across the plains by an uncle, the journey being made with ox teams, in 1861. After seven years' residence in California she returned to Iowa, where she married Mr. French in 1869, and in 1876 came back with him to California, settling that year near Fortuna, in Humboldt county. She died at Fortuna in 1895, the mother of three children : James E.; Ernest E., also a resident of the Ettersburg section of this county ; and Clarence H. By a previous marriage Daniel French had one son, Henry, now a merchant in New York City. The father is still living, now (1914) almost eighty-four years of age, but though he lost his left leg nineteen years ago (it was amputated above the knee) he is able to mount a horse and ride over the mountains unassisted.

James E. French was born October 22, 1870, at West Union, in Fayette county, Iowa, and was six years old when his parents settled at Fortuna. There he received his education, graduating from the grammar school, and completed the ninth grade work when fifteen years old, after which he began to make his own living. For nearly two years he was in the employ of Cornelius Swett, butcher at Fortuna, driving a delivery wagon. Then he spent three years in Tillamook county, Oregon, where he took up a homestead, but he dropped it and engaged in the cattle business and eventually returned to Humboldt county. His next employment was with Z. B. Patrick, in the Ferndale market, and after two years he bought a third interest in the same. About this time he was married, and he continued in the meat business at that location until his wife's health made a change necessary, her suffering from asthma being relieved by the higher altitude at Ettersburg, which is in a mountainous region. For five years Mr. French rented a place at Ettersburg, the Erickson home, and then ran a hotel and conducted the post office for a time. He has homesteaded a tract of one hundred sixty acres on Wilder Ridge mountain, lying to the right of the road between Upper Mattole and Ettersburg, and though the third winter was very hard, many of his cattle being lost, he persevered until he proved up on his land, which has become more valuable yearly under his care. He still lives on that place, where he now has a comfortable dwelling house and barns, good fences, considerable cleared land and a fine family orchard; the corn he raises on his mountain tract is as fine and large as that grown anywhere.

But it is principally as a breeder of milch goats that Mr. French is working toward success. In partnership with his brother-in-law, Mr. Pixton, he has established what is now the leading business of the kind in Humboldt county, where Richard Sweasey, of Eureka, was the first to undertake it—that is, the first to introduce Toggenburg goats, a famous breed. French & Pixton were second, and at present they are giving more attention to the raising of Toggenburg goats than any others in the county. The work is so interesting that it is worthy of some mention. The Toggenburg goats are scarce and high priced, grade does bringing from fifty to seventy-five dollars, thoroughbreds from one hundred and thirty-five to two hundred dollars ; thoroughbred bucks are worth about three hundred dollars. Larger and stronger than the Angoras, they can climb where even sheep cannot go, and like homing pigeons return at night and at milking time. To those familiar with the mountain districts of California the breeding of these animals offers lucrative employment, and there is no danger of overstocking northern. California in twenty-five years. Indeed, when the value of these little animals comes to be more generally known the demand for their products will increase. Their browsing habits make them almost invaluable in clearing land of brush, etc. The milk is prescribed by physicians for invalids and infants, and is claimed to be more digestible than cow's milk. Sold to hospitals, it brings twenty-five cents a quart. Condensed or evaporated, it may be kept almost indefinitely. It is the basis for the manufacture of Roquefort cheese, a high-priced commodity. The meat is good for food, by many preferred to mutton, which it closely resembles. The hides are valuable for leather. Though the goat costs as much as a cow it can be raised in a much shorter time and for less than one-third the cost. French & Pixton now own five seven-eighths bred does, six three-quarter bred does, ten half-breed does and one thoroughbred Toggenburg buck, whose dam had a record of seven quarts of milk daily, for two milkings.

Mr. French is not only an excellent business man, but a citizen whose good qualities make him highly desirable to his fellow men, a type of American manhood which is a credit to the race. He vies with his neighbors in community enterprise, and is a prominent member of the Farm Center at Ettersburg which has done so much to promote sociability and good times among the congenial element which has found its way into that section.

Mr. French married Miss Sarah Pixton of Ferndale, who was born in Blackburn, Lancashire, England, coming to Salt Lake City when eight years of age, and to Humboldt county, Cal., in 1884, with her parents. Their family consists of four children : Sadie, who attends high school at Ferndale ; Florence ; Ralph, and Lee. Mr. French is a progressive in his political convictions.

LEWIS KEYSOR WOOD.—The early days of the Humboldt bay region, and the records of the intrepid pioneers who braved the hardships of settlement in what was then a wild section, remote from civilization and difficult of access, afford much of interest to the generation now enjoying the fruit of the seeds sown by their hardihood. Of the names intimately associated with the beginnings of development in what is now Humboldt county, that of Lewis Keysor Wood has a permanent place in history, not only officially, because he was its first county clerk, but as one of the courageous band who were the first to find a way into the wilderness then surrounding the bay. Bucksport, in this county, still commemorates' the name of one of the party, David A. Buck, and other localities still bear the titles bestowed upon them by these explorers. Mr. Wood entered upon his life here crippled by injuries received in an encounter with grizzly bears on the expedition.

Lewis Keysor Wood was a native of Kentucky, born' February 17, 1819. His father, David Wood, born in Washington, Mason county, Ky., April 13, 1789, was a member of the company of Captain Bayliss in the Eleventh Regiment of Kentucky militia, as the result of whose services Proctor's army was defeated at the Thames. On August 21, 1816, David Wood married Emma Scudder, in Washington, Ky., and one of their sons, Nathaniel, served as an officer in the Union army during the Civil war. Emma Scudder was a granddaughter of Nathaniel Scudder, a signer of the Declaration of Independence from New Jersey.

Lewis Keysor Wood was a druggist by profession. In 1849 he crossed the. plains to California as one of a party of about forty persons, arriving at the Trinity river worn out by the tedious journey. They made camp at a point now known as Rich Bar. Having been informed by an Indian chief that the ocean was not more than eight days' travel distant, and that there was a large and beautiful bay surrounded by fine and extensive prairie lands, a company was formed to explore this unknown expanse lying between the upper Trinity and the Pacific. Twenty-four at first volunteered for the expedition, and two Indians from the nearby tribe consented to act as guides. But while they were recuperating from the toilsome trip just completed the wet season set in, and heavy rains and snows delayed their departure and made the outlook unpromising in view of the evident hardships to be encountered in traveling afoot that time of the year. Thus when preparations were resumed only seven were willing to undertake the expedition, and the two Indians who were to guide also backed out because of the rain and snow. One of the first to suggest this tour of exploration had been Dr. Josiah Gregg, a native of 'Missouri, a physician by profession, and of all the large company seemingly the best fitted to guide and direct so important and hazardous an enterprise. The seven who accompanied him were Thomas Seabring, of Ottawa, Ill.; David A. Buck, of New York ; J. B. Truesdell, of Oregon ; Mr. Van Dusen, of Boston, Mass.; Charles C. Southard, also of Boston; Isaac Wilson, of Missouri, and Lewis K. Wood, of Mason county, Ky. They set. out on the 7th of November, 1849, carrying scarcely enough provisions for ten clays' ordinary rations of flour, beans and pork, not to be incumbered with supplies. The next six weeks were filled with unmitigated toil, privation and suffering of which even these hardy adventurers could have had little anticipation. Before them, as far as the eye could see, lay mountains, high and rugged, deep valleys and difficult canyons, now filled with water after the recent rains. Leaving the river they struck a path up the mountains in the direction indicated by the Indians, and though the wearisome journey was much longer than they had expected they stuck to their enterprise until they reached the coast, after incredible hardships and all but starvation, arriving at the mouth of Little river, December 20th. They had tramped over snowy mountains and swum swollen streams without hesitation until their goal was attained, over six weeks from the day they started. Mr. Buck discovered the bay on the date named and called it Trinity bay, and the party also named Mad river, Buck's Port, Elk river, Eel river and the Van Dusen. However, the bay was discovered from the ocean four months later by a company of the vessel Laura Virginia, who gave it the name it retains, Humboldt hay.

Under the leadership of Dr. Gregg the party now attempted the return to the settlement by way of the Eel river, in the depth of one of the hardest winters known in California. Their provisions gave out in the midst of a heavy snowstorm, and for days they were without food, reduced almost to starvation. Three of the men went hunting, and, finding a band of eight grizzly bears, in their desperation attacked them. After they had wounded some of the animals the brutes turned on them, and seized Mr. Wood, mangling his body fearfully. One of his legs was broken, and one of his arms torn, and his life was saved only by his presence of mind. When the bears had torn the clothing from his body and injured him so terribly, they left him lying on the ground, evidently thinking him dead, and for some time he remained perfectly still for fear they would return. It was not until he tried to move that he realized the extent of his injuries. His companions managed to carry him back into camp, where they stayed for twelve days because of his inability to proceed, subsisting entirely on the meat of the bear Mr. Wilson had shot during the struggle. But his wounds instead of healing grew worse, and it was a question what might be done with the disabled man, as all were aware that their health and strength were being steadily undermined by the hardships of their position. If they remained in camp they would perish of hunger, yet Mr. Wood's wounds were so swollen and sore he could not be moved. When they consulted with him he asked them either to induce the Indians who had visited the camp to care for him until his companions could procure aid from the settlement, or if this could not be arranged to end his sufferings by shooting him, which he was willing they should do rather than sacrifice the lives of all. Either alternative was preferable to being abandoned to his fate under the circumstances. But after some discussion the men decided to make a litter and pack him as far as possible, and thus they reached the ranch of Mrs. Mark West on the 17th of February, after enduring untold miseries in their weakened condition. They remained there until sufficiently recovered to proceed to San Francisco, and Mr. Wood never forgot the kindness and care which he received from every member of the West family.

Not long after his recovery Mr. Wood returned to what is now Humboldt county, and in 1852 was the independent candidate for the office of clerk of Trinity county, of which Humboldt then formed a part. The Democratic candidate won, but when Humboldt county was created, in 1853, Mr. Wood became its first clerk, and filled the office with efficiency and the utmost satisfaction to his fellow citizens. Later in life he became engaged in farming in Arcata bottom, and he died at Arcata, July 12, 1874. The same progressive spirit which induced Mr. Wood to try his fortune in the west and which made him a member of the little band of discoverers who first penetrated the Humboldt bay country characterized him to the end of his days. He was always foremost in advocating movements for the general good, and as a farmer did his share in bettering conditions among agriculturists in this locality, taking an active part in the Grange work and becoming the first president of Kiwelattah Grange, organized at Arcata about the year 1870. In politics he was a Union Democrat, supporting Lincoln on the occasion of his second nomination for the presidency. His religious connection was with the Presbyterian Church.

On June 18, 1857, Mr. Wood was married, at Eureka, Cal., to Miss Clarissa Sidney Hanna, daughter of James Hanna, and a great-granddaughter of Betsy Ross, the maker of the first American flag. She came to California from Philadelphia by way of Panama in 1856. Of the eight children, seven grew to maturity and most of them still reside in Humboldt county, as follows: Emma Scudder, Mrs. L. F. Stinson, resides in Arcata ; Ella Sophia, Mrs. P. L. Deuel, of Portland, Oregon ; Clarissa Sidney, Mrs. D. J. Foley, of Eureka ; David married Minnie Greenwald, and is engaged in real estate and insurance business in Arcata ; Mary Forman, the wife of A. N. Foster, of Eureka ; Lewis Keysor married Maggie Cornwell, and he is a clerk in the United States engineer's office in Eureka ; Alice Hanna is the wife of Howard Barter, of Arcata.

JAMES EDWARD MARSHALL.—The varied experiences of James Edward Marshall are full of interest and excitement, and have served to fit him especially well for his present position of superintendent of outside construction in brick, cement and concrete, for the great Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia, which position he has capably filled since 1909. Previous to that time he had been engaged in a similar line of work in various parts of the world, including the Philippine 'Islands, where he did several million dollars' worth of government contract work, in Mexico and in Louisiana, Texas, and other parts of the United States. He has always been eminently successful in his work, and only failing health has ever interfered with the continuation of any especial line of work in which he has been engaged.

Mr. Marshall is a native of Ohio, born at Forest, Wyandotte county, September 24, 1877. His father, James Willis Marshall, was a native of Germany, as was the grandfather, Joseph Marshall. The father was married to Miss Fannie Baker in Ohio, where they spent many years of their life, now being residents of Nevada county, Ark., where the father is engaged in brick-making and brick contracting business at Prescott, Ark. Under the name of Cole & Marshall he put in the first sawmill at Gurdon, Ark., which later burned, and was a heavy loss to the owners, practically breaking Mr. Marshall in business. James E. was then fourteen years of age, the eldest of nine children, by his mother, who was his father's fifth wife, there being fourteen children in all. At this time he started out for himself, going to work in a brick yard in Prescott (Ark.), where he did a man's work. Later he went out on construction work and learned brick laying under his father in and around Prescott. He began to act as a boss of men at the age of fifteen years and had increasing responsibilities put upon his shoulders from that time. He became an expert brick layer and building boss and also a construction boss on brick work. He was employed in this way until the breaking out of the Spanish-American war, when he enlisted in the First Arkansas Volunteer Infantry, Company E, and was mustered in at Little Rock. He received his honorable discharge October 25, 1898, and then went to Cuba as a civilian, remaining about three months, and making a special study of the Spanish language. Returning to Arkansas he re-enlisted for the Philippine service, September 6, 1899, in Company A, Fortieth United States Volunteers, at Little Rock, under Captain Dodge. He drilled at Fort Riley and was there made corporal, September 18, 1899. They were later sent to the Presidio, San Francisco, and thence sailed for Manila. Mr. Marshall was engaged in many skirmishes and battles in the Philippines and was with General Bell's expedition to Southern Luzon and later to Mindanao in 1900. He received his honorable discharge in Manila May 19, 1901, and remained in the islands for a number of years, being engaged in government construction, and handling some of the largest contracts for government construction work. He was first appointed watchman .inspector, quartermaster's department, under Capt. Thomas H. Cruse, captain and quartermaster, U. S. A., June 1, 1901. Later he was transferred to the southern department under Capt. Archibald Butts, who went down on the Titanic. He then went to Camp Stotsenburg and engaged in construction work with Capt. C. D. V. Hunt, afterwards under Captain Whitman. He was made superintendent of construction in November, 1903, when he was transferred to Fort William McKinley, where he took charge as inspector of the construction of that post, roads, sidewalks, barracks, officers' quarters, etc., the construction work requiring an appropriation totaling $1,500,000. In 1905 he was promoted to chief inspector of the United States government work, bridges, roads and sewers being his principal line of work. He put in twenty-five miles of sewer at Fort William McKinley, under Thomas H. Jackson, lieutenant of engineers.

Ill health finally made the resignation of Mr. Marshall necessary and he left Manila, spending some time in China, Japan and Australia, going finally to Cape Town, South Africa. Returning at last to the United States he went to Waldo, Ark., where he built three store buildings. He then went to Mindon, La., to set boilers for the Bodcaw Lumber Company, and thence to Trout, La., where he put in large dry kilns. He married Mary Anna Prichard at this place, April 6, 1907, she being the daughter of Lee and Florence (Green) Prichard. Later he put in a mill and built dry kilns at Longville, La. ; later still going into Mexico, State of Chihuahua, and at Madria built a sawmill plant and put in 3,000,000 bricks. The panic and the war caused him to lose everything that he had there, and in 1908 he returned to Louisiana and started anew. After a short stay in Louisiana he came to California, arriving in Scotia June 3, 1909, where he has since resided.

Both Mr. and Mrs. Marshall have many friends at Scotia and take an active part in the social life of the town. They have one child, Ben B. Marshall, born at Madria, Mexico, August 16, 1908. Mr. Marshall takes an interest in the local fraternal affairs, being a member of the Red Men at Scotia, Weeott Tribe No. 147, I. 0. R. M., and also a Mason, with a membership in Eel River Lodge No. 147, F. & A. M., at Fortuna. He is a member of the Spanish-American War Veterans, Camp Lafferty, P. I. In his political preferences he is a stanch Republican, and has served on the County Central Committee with distinction. He serv.ed as deputy sheriff under Redmond and at the November election, 1914, he was elected constable of Hydesville township by a large majority, which position he is now filling. He is progressive and wide awake to the best interests of the community, giving freely of his time and ability for the general welfare. He believes in educational advancement, and lends his aid readily to all forward movements.

ARTEMUS HOWARD LEWIS.—Having traveled extensively over the west and south, being in all the Pacific coast states, Colorado, Arizona, Arkansas, Texas and New Mexico, and having lived many years in Missouri and Indiana, his native state, and also in Kentucky, A. H. Lewis returned at last to California and located on his present ranch in the Bull creek district, Humboldt county, in 1891, and is convinced that he selected for his home the garden spot of the United States, if not of the world, although he is loath to admit even the remote possibility of any place that excels his home community. Mr. Lewis is a native of Park county, Ind., born December 11, 1845. His father, George Ashford Lewis, was a native of Ohio, as was also his mother, who was Mary Hamilton in the days of her maidenhood. The father was a stone-mason and brick-layer, learning his trade at Pittsburg, Pa., and later becoming a contractor and builder well known in Indiana and Ohio. One of his most notable buildings was the court house at Crawfordsville, Ind. In the fall of 1865 the family removed to Lawrence, Kansas, where the father. died in the fall of 1866, at the age of fifty-four years. The mother returned to Paris, Monroe county, Missouri, where the son, A. H. Lewis, purchased a farm for her to reside upon, and there she lived until the time of her death, which occurred when she was sixty-seven years of age. She was the mother of eleven children, of whom the subject of this sketch was the second born.

A. H. Lewis was reared and educated in Indiana, spending most of his time at Rockville, Park county. He suffered from a peculiar affliction in childhood, being deaf from the time he was three years of age until he was fourteen, when the deafness left him as miraculously as it had come upon him. This affliction prevented him from indulging in the sports of other children, or the occupations of the farm, and he was obliged to spend his time at home with his mother. From her he learned to be an excellent cook, an accomplishment which he later used to good advantage. At a later date the family migrated to Lawrence, Kansas, making the journey with horses and wagons. Mr. Lewis soon came on westward, locating in Colorado, where he took a contract for the getting out of railroad ties for the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad, near Buena Vista and Salida. He made a great success of this undertaking, getting out many thousands of ties, and at the same time being engaged in cooking at a camp for about eight men, the double revenue netting him a handsome profit. Later he was employed as cook at the coke ovens, in' Tincup or Virginia City, Colo., where he cooked for from thirty to forty men. Finally he returned to Missouri, but found the climate too cold to suit him, and so he came west again, this time through the Southwest. He was variously employed at the various places in Arkansas, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California for a number of years, including Sonoma county, Cal., where he worked for a year ; Seattle, Tacoma, Anacortes, and Kirkland, Wash., and Portland, Ore. He also spent a year in Humboldt county at this time, being engaged as cook for John French, in the lumber camps. From Washington he went through Idaho and Montana, back to Missouri, where he worked at contracting for four months, and eventually returned to Humboldt county, in April, 1890, where he has since made his home. He purchased his present place of one hundred fifty-four acres of James Hart for $1200 in 1890, and has improved it and greatly enhanced its value since that time, having orchards of apples, pears, peaches, prunes and plums.

The marriage of Mr. Lewis and Miss Sarah Reed took place at Lawrence, Kansas, in 1873, and of their union were born four children, only one of whom, Abner Bruce, is now living. He is an orchardist and stockman on Bull creek, and is married to Ida May Turner, a daughter of the late Noah H. Turner, a pioneer of Humboldt county. Mrs. Lewis is also the sister of Jasper Turner, a prominent young farmer and orchardist of the Bull Creek district, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this edition.
Mr. and Mrs. Abner Bruce Lewis have become the parents of seven children, namely, Ernest, Viola, Noah, Emma, Leona, Blanche and Bruce. Of the four children born to Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Lewis but one other lived to grow to maturity, this being a daughter, Effie Grace, who married Mr. Thompson, a conductor on a train running out of Leadville, Colo., where they made their home for many years. She died in 1912, leaving two children, Bruce and Albert.

Mr. Lewis was a sufferer from cancer for many years, and spent many months in various hospitals, and was pronounced incurable by many physicians. He was, however, entirely cured at the Bohanon Cancer Institute at Berkeley, and is a man of more than ordinary vitality, strong and capable of enduring great fatigue and hardship. He owned one hundred fifty-four acres of land here, but deeded ninety acres to his son Bruce. He resides in the oldest house on Bull creek, is still active and always busy in improving the place and in caring for his growing crops and orchards. He is one of the most enthusiastic boosters that Humboldt county possesses and his praises of the Bull creek country are quite unqualified. He is of a kindly, generous disposition and enjoys the friendship of a wide circle throughout this portion of the county.

MICHAEL RODONI.—Among the native sons who are making an honorable record and success in business in Humboldt county is Michael Rodoni, who was born in Salinas, Monterey county, August 29, 1877, the son of Michael and Constancia (Rosetti) Rodoni, natives of Biasca, Ticino, Switzerland. After their marriage they removed to Buenos Ayres, South America, where they engaged in the stock business for three years, when they returned to Ticino, and later they emigrated to Santa Cruz, California, in 1873, where the elder Rodoni followed teaming for about three years, after which the family removed to Arroyo Grande, San Luis Obispo county, where he purchased a ranch and engaged in dairying with success until he sold out and removed to San Jose, where he was a stock-buyer as well as buying and shipping hides. He was accidentally killed by being run over by a train at Twelfth and Taylor streets, San Jose, April 12, 1913, when he was seventy-two years of age. His widow still makes her home in San Jose. They had twelve children, ten of whom are living, as follows : Antone was born in Buenos Ayres ; Paul is the partner of our subject ; Dora, Mrs. Monighetti, resides in San Luis Obispo county ; Michael, of whom we write ; Jennie, Mrs. Robasciotti, of San Luis Obispo county ; William, of Petrolia ; Joseph died when twenty-eight years of age ; Josephine, Mrs. Garfinkle, of San Jose ; Fred, living at Capetown, and John, with Rodoni Brothers.

Michael Rodoni was reared on the farm in Arroyo Grande and received a good education in the public schools. In 1899 he came to Humboldt county and found employment at dairying at Loleta for three years, then at Ferndale for one year, when he became foreman of the Green Pond ranch for Z. Russ Company, continuing in that position for six years. Having determined to engage in business for himself he leased the Anderson place of eighty acres where he operated a dairy of forty cows for two years. After spending a year in the south, he returned to Humboldt county. In 1911 he formed the present partnership with his brother Paul, as Rodoni Bros., and leased the Grant Johnson place of fifteen hundred acres on Bear river, above Capetown, where they are engaged in dairying and stock-raising. Aside from raising cattle and hogs they have a dairy of sixty milch cows. They make butter which is made into squares and cubes and shipped to San Francisco under the brand of "Myrtle Grove Creamery." Their creamery is equipped with a gas engine for running the separator and churn.

Michael Rodoni was married in Ferndale to Miss Mary Jensen, a native of that place and a daughter of Robert Jensen, an old settler on the Island and who was accidentally killed by his horse running away. Mrs. Rodoni died near Ferndale, in 1907, leaving three children : Mabel, James and Ada. Fraternally he is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. and the W. 0. W., at Loleta. Always interested in the cause of education, he is a loyal supporter of good schools. Politically he is a Republican.

Paul Rodoni, the other member of the firm of Rodoni Bros., was born in Biasca, Ticino, November 15, 1872, and came to Santa Cruz county. He grew up on his father's farm, remaining there until 1897, when he came to Loleta, Humboldt county. After working on dairy ranches he finally rented the Green Pond ranch for five years, and then ran a dairy, near Ferndale, for two years, until 1911, when he joined his brother Michael in the present enterprise. By his marriage he has two children, Ernest and Elsie. He is a trustee of the Capetown school district and a Woodman of the World.

JACOB H. DECKER.—One of the oldest living pioneers of Humboldt county, Jacob H. Decker, whose death occurred December 14, 1914, was well past his eighty-first year. Mr. Decker was a veritable store-house of pioneer history, being probably the best informed man in the county on the early life of that section. His mind was as bright and his memory as vital as that of a man of fifty years, although his bodily strength failed during the past few years. He had been engaged at various times in farming, mining, and in building and contracting, and had witnessed the growth and development of the country through many changing stages. He was a member of one of the oldest and best American families, the progenitor of the Deckers in America having settling in New Amsterdam, one of the earliest settlements of New York, and descended from a good old Dutch family. The Decker Brothers, manufacturers of the famous Decker piano, are own cousins of the late honored citizen of Rohnerville. Mr. Decker was a man of strict integrity and splendid character, and through years of industry he had accumulated an appreciable fortune. His daughter, Mrs. Williams, who kept his home and gave him her affectionate care, was one of the first white girls to be born in Humboldt county, and is herself a pioneer of many interesting experiences.

Mr. Decker was a native of New York, born January 28, 1833. His father, Peter L. Decker, was born in Schoharie county, N. Y., and was a logger and chopper by trade, and also owned a small farm. He was married in 1812, and died in 1835, at the age of forty-eight years. The mother was Cornelia Swart, the daughter of David and Nancy Swart, and a native of New York, her maternal grandmother having been born during the Revolutionary War. After the father's death Mrs. Decker, Sr., gathered her five children, of whom Jacob H. was the youngest, and moved to Branch county, Mich., where she located two hundred acres of land near Butler. There young Jacob was reared, attending the public schools of the district, the school house being made of logs, with hewn logs for benches and desks, with other accommodations in proportion. In 1853, at the age of twenty years, he was married to Miss Elizabeth Rossman, born in Onondaga, N. Y., in 1834, and in 1855 he came to California, by way of the Isthmus of Panama, landing at Sacramento. From there he went to Whiskeytown, on Clear creek, Shasta county, and later went up into the Sierra Nevada mountains and engaged in making boards and shingles. The following year his wife and baby joined him at Shingletown, where he continued until October 1, 1856, when he came to Hydesville, crossing the mountains and arriving there October 15. There he found employment with Dr. Felt, making shingles, and later kept a livery barn in Eureka, in 1858. He built the Decker Hill road over Decker Hill back of Field's Landing, and still later he purchased one hundred sixty acres of land which he cleared and improved, adding to his tract until he had three hundred sixty acres, all improved. About this time diphtheria and typhoid fever broke out and three of Mr. Decker's sons were stricken and died. He became discouraged and sold his valuable property for a small sum and returned to Michigan, together with his wife and two remaining children. He bought a farm in Butler township, Branch county, and farmed there for four years, during which time another child was born. Here again dread disease found them and two children were lost through scarlet fever. Selling his Michigan property, Mr. Decker returned to Humboldt county in October, 1873, residing here until his death, being for the greater part of that time engaged in carpentering, contracting and building. Only one of his children lived to maturity, this being Luella, born at Field's Landing. She is now the widow of Thomas L. Williams, who died near Rohnerville in 1886, and is the mother of two children, Elizabeth, the wife of J. 0. Branstetter, a carpenter of Rohnerville, and herself the mother of three children, Maxine, Clifton and Van. Mrs. Decker, the mother of Mrs. Williams, died in June, 1887, at the age of fifty-three years.

Three times during the years of his residence in California, Mr. Decker had journeyed back to Michigan for a visit. In the days of his young manhood he was a Democrat, but the guns fired against Fort Sumter changed him into a Republican, and he became a stanch Progressive. He always took an active part in the political affairs of his community and held various public offices, serving on several occasions as deputy sheriff, and filling the office with marked ability. He was a member of the Eel River Lodge No. 210, I. 0. 0. F., with which he affiliated many years ago. Mr. Decker was held in the highest esteem by all who knew him and was acknowledged to be one of the finest men of the county.

DICK K. FRENCH.—The descendant of an early pioneer family of. California, and himself a native of Trinity county, where he was born October 14, 1882, Dick K. French is a young man of excellent worth, and stands high in the esteem of employers and friends. His family resided for many years in Van Dusen township, Humboldt county, and he has many warm friends in this section. He is the son of Greenleaf C. and Mrs. Orinda (Bean) (Burgess) French. His father died at Burr creek, five miles south of Bridgeville, where he owned a handsome property which he was farming at the time. He was about fifty-five years of age, his death occurring in 1893. The mother has been married three times, and is now the wife of W. H. Barnwell and resides on a farm on Burr creek. After the death of her first husband, John Burgess, she was married to Greenleaf C. French, the father of the subject of this sketch, and after his death she became Mrs. Barnwell. By her first husband she became the mother of three children : Benjamin and John, both deceased, and Esther, now the wife of Henry M. Marvel, in the employ of the California Central Creameries, at Ferndale, and an old teacher of Humboldt county. By Mr. French there were four children : Addie L., now the wife of W. H. Sweet, residing in Ferndale and employed in the California Central Creameries ; Dick K., the subject of this sketch ; Alden A., employed at Ferndale ; and Susan Jane. By her present marriage Mrs. Barnwell has one child, William H. Barnwell, Jr.

The father of Mr. French, Greenleaf C. French, was a native of Maine and came to California, locating in Trinity county, when he was a young man. He engaged in mining and packing supplies into the mining camps and was very successful. He was married to Mrs. Orinda (Bean) Burgess in Trinity county, and removed to his farm on Burr creek, Humboldt county, in April, 1883. Dick K. French was eleven years of age when his father died, and life took on a different aspect. He had attended the public schools up to that time, and also received further advantages, but commenced to work out for others before the marriage of his mother to Mr. Barnwell, and has been making his own way in the world since he was eighteen years of age. He was for a time engaged in farm work, and then took to teaming and stage driving and is an expert in the handling of horses. In 1907 he entered the employ of the Helmke Stage Company, but after a time gave this up and took to ranching as an independent venture, following the fortunes of the farmer for three years, with varying success, near Burr creek. Eventually, however, he returned to the service of the Helmke Stage Company, and is now engaged in driving a four-horse freight team, carrying freight to the store at Blocksburg, where he makes his home.

WILLIS B. MEAKIN.—One of the richest and most fertile ranches in the region of Pepperwood is that owned by Willis B. Meakin, and located in Pepperwood Bottoms, which section is declared to be "as rich as the valley of the Nile" of fabled story and song. Mr. Meakin owns about forty-three acres, which he has brought under a high state of cultivation, and which is one of the most beautiful places in the vicinity. In 1913 he erected a handsome two-story frame dwelling, at a cost of $5,000, which, with one possible exception, is the most modern and complete residence in this part of the valley. While he is engaged in diversified farming, more and more he is giving his attention to horticulture as the years go by. He purchased this property in 1902 and has improved it since that time, clearing the land of a heavy growth of timber and bringing it up to its present high condition. He has made the place a very profitable one, and in all his undertakings he has the unstinted support and cooperation of his faithful wife, to whom he gives much credit for his success.

Mr. Meakin is a native of Pennsylvania, born January 2, 1856, the second in a family of eight children born to George and Lucy A. (Bliss) Meakin, also natives of Pennsylvania, where they were married. Shortly after the birth of their second child, Willis B., the parents removed to Linn county, Iowa, where the father engaged in farming, and also followed logging, contracting for getting out hardwood logs, such as hard maple and hickory, for manufacturing purposes. He died in-Iowa at the age of fifty-two years. The mother came to California in 1896, locating near Pepperwood, in Humboldt county. Later she went to Eureka, where she died at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Annie Masters.

Willis B. Meakin grew to young manhood on the farm in Iowa, attending the public schools and assisting his father with the care of the home place. He also farmed for himself, meeting with deserved success. During the summer of 1896 he came to California, driving overland with horses and wagons and arriving in Humboldt in July of that year. After reaching his destination he resumed farming and in 1902 purchased his present property. His marriage occurred in Eureka in 1897, uniting him with Miss Julia Bliss, a native of Morris county, Kan. Mrs. Meakin is a daughter of Isaac and Sarah (Trowbridge) Bliss, natives of Clearfield county, Pa., and New York respectively. They were married in Iowa, after which they removed to Osage county, Kan., and later to Morris county. In 1896 they came to California with their family, locating at Pepperwood, where they died. Of their eleven children eight grew up, and of these Mrs. Meakin is third oldest. Mr. and Mrs. Meakin had eight children, only five of whom are living, their first-born having died at birth; Ora, the third child, living to be five, and Allen, the seventh born, dying in infancy. All the living children are residing at home and are well and favorably known in their community. They are George W., Earl, Stanley, Willard, and Thomas.

Mr. Meakin is a Republican in his party politics, and is keenly alive to the benefits of progressive legislation, both local, state and national. He is interested in educational matters, and gives of his best efforts for the public welfare at all times.

U. S. GRANT MYERS.—As the owner and proprietor of Myers Resort, located on the state highway, nine miles south of Dyerville, on the road between that point and Garberville, U. S. Grant Myers is well known throughout Humboldt county, and especially so in the southern part. With the completion of the new state highway, which passes directly by his place, he plans to enlarge his house and accommodations, and to conduct a large summer and tourist resort. The location is especially suitable for such an enterprise, and there seems no reason that such an undertaking should not meet with exceptional success. The south fork of Eel river flows past the very door, and fish are plentiful therein, while game of all kinds may be secured in the mountains near by. Fruits and vegetables of all kinds are now supplied for the table from the home place, where they are grown to perfection, the soil being especially adapted to their growth. Milk, cream, butter and eggs are also supplied in abundance from the home place, and the table at Myers Inn is noted for its excellency. In addition to all this are the beauty of location and scenery, than which there is nothing more magnificent to be found in the state. Personally Mr. Myers is well fitted for such a business, having that charming, pleasant, genial manner which instantly puts his guests at their ease.

A native of California, Mr. Myers was born near what is now Carrville, Trinity county, January 9, 1864, and came into Humboldt county when he was four years of age, and has since that time made this his home. His father was Elias Myers, a native of Missouri, and his mother, Sarah D. Camp, of Dubuque, Iowa, where she met and married Mr. Myers. Later, accompanied by an uncle of the husband's, Andrew Myers, familiarly known as "Uncle Andy," the young couple crossed the plains with ox-teams and wagons, and came to California in 1860, locating in Trinity county. "Uncle Andy" had been to California before, having made his first trip in 1850. He made his home with his nephew and wife for many years, and was a well known pioneer, passing away at their home at the age of ninety-one years. The young couple continued to reside in Trinity county until 1867, when they came to Rohnerville, Humboldt county, where they remained for their first winter, purchasing the squatter's rights of Farris and Brock to the present site of Myers Inn the following spring, paying $1,000 for the one hundred sixty acres. They began at once to make improvements and this was their home place for many years. Both are now deceased, the father passing away in Missouri at the age of seventy years, and,the mother dying in Eureka at the age of seventy-two. They were the parents of six children : Etta, wife of Willis Nichols, residing at Camp Grant, where she died in 1914, leaving two children by a former marriage, namely, Arthur M. Hungerford, now a master mechanic at the Hammond Lumber Mills, at Astoria, Ore., and Daisy, now the wife of Harry Potter, residing at Tacoma, and the mother of two children ; Hosea E., who first married Emma Carr, and by her had three children, later marrying Martha Hamilton, by whom he had two children (he was in the stock business in Trinity county and was so engaged when he was attacked by a mad bull and gored to death) ; John G., a rancher at Camp Grant, married to Kate Turner, of Bull creek, and died leaving nine children ; Clara, who was the wife of J. C. Day, and died at El Paso, Tex.; Christie J., living in Los Angeles county, where he is engaged in farming, and is married to Miss Mary McGill, of Table Bluff; and U. S. Grant Myers, the subject of this sketch.

There were no public schools within reach of the Myers farm when U. S. Grant was of school age, and he was necessarily sent away to receive his education. He graduated in due time from Heald's Business College, in San Francisco, in 1884, and then returned to Humboldt county, where he assisted with the management of the home farm. In 1897 he went to the Klondike, making the journey by way of the White's Pass route, sledding over the mountains to Windy oven, there building boats and coming down the Yukon, arriving in Dawson, June 18, 1898. He engaged in placer mining there for two years and met with an appreciable amount of success, clearing several thousand dollars 'through his efforts. In 1900 he returned from the frozen north and on March 19, 1901, in Eureka, he was married to Miss Mattie C. Smith, a native of Hayesville, Keokuk county, Iowa, to whom he had been betrothed before his trip to Alaska. Mr. and Mrs. Myers are the parents of four children, all natives of Humboldt county. They are : Nevada California, U. S. Grant, Jr., Andrew Fay and Lesser Roosevelt.

Besides his property on the state highway, where he makes his home, Mr. Myers owns a one-half interest in the property of one hundred twenty acres which he owns together with his late sister, Mrs. Etta Nichols, the other half interest being owned by her estate. The home place, however, is the especial pride of Mr. Myers' heart and is receiving his most ardent attention. He has one hundred acres under a high state of cultivation, with seven hundred bearing apple trees, and a young orchard of three hundred Bartlett pear trees, all of which are in magnificent condition. He raises a large crop of sweet potatoes for the market each season, the soil here being especially adapted for their growth. This is also true of sweet corn, and his fields of this succulent vegetable are of the finest to be found: His gardens of other vegetables and small fruits, berries, etc., are not to be excelled, and his orchards contain practically every variety of fruit grown in the temperate zones. In addition he maintains a first-class dairy and chicken ranch, and each year markets about fifty hogs.

In his interest in local affairs Mr. Myers is quite up to date and his grasp of political situations, both local and national, is of the best. He is an enthusiastic Progressive, and is giving his best effort for the measures which he deems best for the development of the county and state. He commands the respect and admiration of his neighbors and friends, and receives the best wishes of all who know him.

FRANK LESLIE KEHOE.—Mr. Kehoe has spent most of the years of his manhood up in Alaska, and has but recently settled at Briceland as the successor of his brother-in-law, John W. Bowden, in the mercantile business, but he is no stranger to Humboldt county, and is finding himself quite naturally in close touch with its affairs once more. One of a family whose members one and all are possessed of impressive personality, he is favorably remembered at Rohnerville, where his youth was spent, and has already attained a place in the popular esteem at Briceland, where his progressive policy and enterprise have assured the continued success of the business he took over a little more than a year ago. He is a brother of William Kehoe, of Eureka, a leading attorney of the county and at present serving in the state senate from his district.

Mr. Kehoe's parents, William and Elsie (Hammersley) Kehoe, were of eastern, birth, the father a native of Maine, the mother of Pennsylvania, in which latter state they were married. Their first two children, both daughters, were born there. In 1876 the family came to California, first settling in Mendocino county, where they lived until the year 1883. Then they removed to Eureka, Humboldt county, and thence in April, 1884, to Rohnerville, this county, where William Kehoe engaged in hotelkeeping, conducting the Grand Hotel until his death, which occurred in 1888. His widow took up the work thereafter, carrying on the hotel very successfully until 1910, when a paralytic stroke incapacitated her for active duties and she retired. Her home is now at Fortuna, Humboldt county. Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Kehoe : Clara is the wife of Fred Leach, hardware merchant at Fortuna ; Lottie is married to J. W. Bowden, who until recently had the general store at Briceland now operated by F. L. Kehoe ; William, present state senator from the First Senatorial district, is a member of the firm of Coonan & Kehoe, attorneys, who have offices in the Gross building at Eureka ; Frank Leslie completes the family.

F. L. Kehoe was born in Mendocino county January 17, 1880, at Cuffey's Cove, on Greenwood creek, near Elk, and spent practically all of his boyhood and youth at Rohnerville, where he obtained a good education in the public schools. The family was well known there in connection with the hotel business, and the young man widened his own circle of acquaintances as clerk in the store for Mr. Phillips and as one of the local favorites among baseball players who brought fame to the town. In 1900, in company with twelve other young men, from Fortuna, Scotia and Rohnerville, all towns of Humboldt county, he went up to Alaska hoping to win fortune in the gold fields. They sailed from Eureka on the steamer Humboldt, to Seattle, where they embarked for Skagway, Alaska, arriving February 14. Proceeding up the White Pass to Lake Linderman and Lake Bennett, they assembled the dog teams at the latter place and left there February 22, pushing on over the trail to Dawson, six hundred miles from Bennett. They reached their destination March 14 and celebrated Saint Patrick's day there. At no time during the trip did the thermometer rise above twenty degrees below zero (Fahrenheit),. and at Fort Selkirk, on the Yukon, they experienced a temperature of sixty-five degrees below.

Mr. Kehoe took a job logging on Moose Hide creek, and after about three months in the Klondike country went down to Nome in a small open boat, being the only one of the original party to undertake this journey. He followed the uncertain game of mining and prospecting for five years without making a single large stake. Returning to Rohnerville on a visit, he was at home from November, 1904, to the latter part of February, 1905, when he joined another stampede to Alaska, with the same results as before. He lost the winter without returns. From June, 1906, to 1908, he was at Fairbanks and vicinity, and then bought an interest in a business at Fox, Alaska, where he was associated with two other men, storekeeping and mining. In the fall of 1910 he sold his interest at Fox, going to Iditarod, where he and his partners had established a branch store that year, the place being a new mining camp on the lower Yukon which offered exceptional opportunities. Mr. Kehoe remained in business there until 1912, and in 1913 came back to California. Though in common with a large percentage of those who went up north to search for gold he was disappointed in that particular, he had no reason to regret his venture, for he was decidedly successful as a merchant, accumulating enough to give him a good start when he was ready to resume life in his old home territory.

In 1913 Mr. Kehoe bought out the business of his brother-in-law, J. W. Bowden, who had the only general store at Briceland, where he built up a large and profitable business. Since it came into his hands it has been conducted along the lines which for a number of years have made it a popular trading center, and Mr. Kehoe has devoted himself to studying the tastes of his customers and the demands of his patronage, which he endeavors to meet in the most satisfactory manner. He gives strict personal attention to all the details of the trade, and the fifteen-thousand-dollar stock from which it is supplied comprises everything likely to be called for in the way of staple and fancy groceries, hardware, boots and shoes, hats and caps, dry goods, clothing, furniture, crockery, tinware, toilet articles, patent medicines, in quality and assortment calculated to please all classes. It would be difficult to find a better selected range of goods, and the patrons appreciate the opportunities which Mr. Kehoe's enterprise presents at their very doors. Mr. Kehoe is interested in the upbuilding of his section of the county, and when the test for oil in this field was launched he contributed his influence and means, becoming an original stockholder of the Briceland Oil Company. Personally he has lost none of the pleasing qualities which made him so popular as a youth, and the many years during which he has been accustomed to come into contact with people of all kinds on grounds of common interest have made him a broadminded and sympathetic human being, a fact which those who enjoy any degree of acquaintance with him readily concede. He and his brother have many similarities of character, all the family, in fact, enjoying a reputation for charm of presence which is well deserved. Mr. Kehoe has entered public life to the extent of serving as one of the registration clerks in southern Humboldt county (of which there are four), in which capacity he has registered one hundred people for the primaries. His energetic career even in the brief period since his return to the county has made him welcomed as a substantial acquisition to the ranks of the most reliable citizens of this section.

Mr. Kehoe was married at Fairbanks, Alaska, in 1909, to Miss Myrtle Townsend, of that place, but a native of the state of Nebraska. Two children have been born of this union, Lottie and Clara. Mr. Kehoe became a Mason in St. John's Lodge No. 9, F. & A. M., Seattle, Wash. For ten years he has been a member of Eel River Lodge No. 210, I. 0. 0. F., at Rohnerville.

R. AMBROSE.--For thirty years Mr. Ambrose, the present postmaster at Miranda, has been a resident of Humboldt county, and he is particularly well known in and around Rohnerville for his musical attainments and success as a teacher of music. The greater part of his life has been devoted to that profession, though his career has been varied by experiences of many kinds. With his natural talent for music developed by careful training and constant practice, Mr. Ambrose was a fine performer on the cornet and violin during the days of his active career as a musician, and as band master and orchestra leader his services were in constant demand.


Mr. Ambrose was born in Herefordshire, England, June 11, 1840, and grew up in his native land. His education was received in the national schools, which correspond to the public schools in this country. In 1865 he went to London, where he was engaged as a professional musician for the year and a half following, in 1867 entering the government service. He was sent out to China and placed in the harbormaster's department, where his work, though dangerous, was highly interesting. Piracy was then enjoying its palmy days in Chinese waters, where it is still practiced to some extent, and the English government was then directing its activities to putting down and preventing the evil. Mr. Ambrose saw service at three different stations on the Chinese coast, and himself had charge of one of the six stations maintained there by England at that time. He was in the government service for nearly four years, at the end of which time he came to America, settling at San Francisco, Cal., in the year 1870. During his stay in China he kept up his work in music for his own pleasure only, but after coming to this country he resumed the profession, which he followed in San Francisco for over thirteen years, playing the cornet and violin, leading cornet bands and orchestras, and teaching. His high-class work gained him a position among the most popular musicians in the city. Looking for a change of occupation and location, Mr. Ambrose came to Humboldt county in 1884, and settled at Rohnerville, taking up a homestead about three miles east of where the Miranda postoffice is now located. He proved up on his land, planted an orchard, improved the property in various other ways, and then sold it, returning to Rohnerville, where he continued to make his home for a number of years. Throughout this period he was engaged at the work of his choice, teaching bands and orchestras and giving private lessons, and relinquishing the work only when he felt that his advancing age interfered with the perfect performances to which he always bent his energies.


Since he gave up his musical work Mr. Ambrose has been acting as postmaster at Miranda, Humboldt county, to which office he was appointed in August, 1911. The office is of the fourth class, and under the civil service regulations. Now that the parcel post is established. a considerable amount of business is handled at this point, and it is constantly on the increase. Mr. Ambrose has shown himself well adapted to the duties of his post, to which he attends punctually and intelligently, giving the utmost satisfaction to those who are served from Miranda. He has many friends in this part of the county who hold him in affectionate esteem for the kindly regard he has always displayed in all his relations with his fellow men here.


Mr. Ambrose was married in 1863 to Miss Onor Harding, a native of England, who died in that country not long afterward. It was then he went up to London to follow his profession in the city, as above related.


ERNEST R. LINSER.—Though still a young man, Ernest R. Linser is thoroughly experienced in the calling to which he bids fair to devote the principal part of his life—the development of northern California lands. He has just undertaken a large enterprise, having purchased in 1913 the property formerly known as the Davis ranch, to which he has recently moved. In his youth and earlier manhood he had an all-around training on the extensive Belle Springs ranch in Mendocino county, just south of the Humboldt county line, which he and a brother now own in partnership with their mother, and his success with that place should be a fair indication of what he may expect to accomplish in his present venture. As a self-made young man he has few rivals in his vicinity, for his position and means have been acquired through his own labor, a fact which undoubtedly accounts for the large measure of confidence which his fellow citizens have shown in his ability to carry ambitious plans to satisfactory completion.


Mr. Linser is of German extraction, his parents, Frederick and Caroline (Weinkauf) Linser, having been born in Germany, where they lived until after their marriage and the birth of their first two children. They came to this country in about 1866, and for a time thereafter were located in New York state, where Mr. Linser was engaged at ordinary labor for three years. Thence they removed to Minnesota, where Mr. Linser took advantage of the opportunities offered to settlers, taking up a homestead in McLeod county. He went bravely to work to secure a home for his growing family, but he died after a few years and before he had proved up on his land, his widow completing the necessary work and complying with the requirements. Her family consisted of seven children, all small at the time of the father's death, and she was glad to avail herself of the chance offered not long afterward by her brother, Charles Weinkauf, who lived on the Belle Springs ranch in Mendocino county, Cal., of which he was a half owner with August Grothe. She came to California about 1880, with her little brood to the home he provided, and worked for him several years, and though her duties were many she was contented in being able to keep her children together. When her brother died he willed her an undivided quarter interest in the ranch, which consisted of forty-five hundred acres of well improved hill land, a fine grazing and stock farm. Through all the changes which the years brought, Ernest and an older brother, August, remained with their mother and devoted themselves faithfully to the rather formidable task, for two young men, of operating the ranch, and after many years of hard work they succeeded in buying off the heirs to another quarter interest in the property, thus coming into one-half interest in the Belle Spring ranch in partnership with August Grothe. Afterward the ranch was divided into two parts, Mrs. Linser and the two sons coming into possession of about twenty-seven hundred acres of the western part of the ranch. Mrs. Linser is now seventy-seven years of age, and is enjoying the rest and immunity from care which she so well deserves. Her noble efforts are fully appreciated by her family, and she is respected by all who know her and have been in any position to realize the extent of her labors.


Ernest R. Linser was born July 6, 1876, near Hutchinson, in McLeod county, Minn., and having been but three and a half years old when his father died, has but the barest recollection of him. He was the sixth child in the family of seven. His early education was obtained in the public schools of Mendocino county, and when a young man of twenty-three years he took a six months' course in the commercial department of the Santa Rosa business college, graduating from that institution. From boyhood he helped on the ranch, and he should have his share of the credit for its successful development into the valuable property it is today. Some eight years ago Mr. Linser came up to Humboldt county, and rented the Nunn ranch of forty-five hundred acres located on the east branch of the south fork of the Eel river, living there alone for three years—until his marriage. He had phenomenal success with this land, which he continued to operate until he removed to his recently acquired property in the same neighborhood, a tract of twelve hundred eighty-eight acres which he purchased from Mel. P. Roberts in 1913. His plans for its improvement include the planting of an extensive orchard, apples, pears and walnuts, and he will give considerable attention to the raising of cattle and hogs. With a remarkable capacity for hard work with his own hands, executive ability perfected in the discharge of heavy responsibilities, and a character which bears no impeachment, his future looks promising indeed. Moreover, his fellow agriculturists in the vicinity look to him for leadership and cooperation in the promotion of many enterprises which will benefit the entire locality. Mr. Linser is a stockholder in the Garberville Mercantile Company, which operates a large general store at Garberville and owns and runs two stage lines from that point, one to Dyerville and one to Thorn, both in Humboldt county. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias lodge at Garberville.


Mr. Linser is married to Mattie Hamilton, sister of John W. Hamilton, secretary of the Garberville Mercantile Company and general superintendent and vice-president of the large Woods ranch of the Western Live Stock Company. She is a native of Kentucky, and came to California from that state some time after her father's death. Mr. and Mrs. Linser have three children, Hamilton Rudolph, Vera Marie, and Leslie Frederick.


JOHN J. NEWMAN.—In this region of extensive properties there are few agriculturists who have made any serious attempts at intensive farming, but John J. Newman has demonstrated that with proper care Humboldt county land may be made to yield as abundantly as any in the sections of boasted fertility. For thirty years he has been cultivating a fifty-acre tract on the Eel river, opposite Dyerville, in the southern part of the county, and the surprising results of his work have a value beyond the profit they have brought him, for they show the possibilities of the locality, and are an encouragement to all who have his perseverance and ambition. A native of Pennsylvania, of German extraction, he has all the thrift characteristic of his race, developed generations ago under the stress of necessity, and persisting in the more prosperous descendants whose industry is better rewarded. His grandfather came to this country from Germany. His parents, Frederick and Caroline (Binz) Newman, were farming people, and lived and died in Pennsylvania. John Joshua, their only child, was born July 18, 1853, at Milford, on the Delaware river.


John Joshua Newman grew up in Pennsylvania and had a thorough common school training, attending a private German school, and he still reads and writes German as well as English. He became familiar with farm work from boyhood on the home place. After his parents died he sold his interests in his native state and came to Humboldt county, Cal., locating at Rohnerville in June, 1882. He spent one season there, and in 1884 bought his present place on the Eel river, a tract of fifty acres then only partially improved. The work of development has gone forward steadily since he took hold of the land, and the work has not been done in any haphazard fashion. Besides experimenting carefully, he has studied faithfully the means of making the most of his property, applying his mind as well as his hands to.the task with such good effect that his crops seem marvelous, though his intelligent, scientific attention can account for all he has achieved. His horticultural triumphs are due to unceasing study and unremitting care. He has selected the varieties of apples, peaches, potatoes and other fruits and vegetables best adapted to the conditions found in his locality, and then neglected no detail of .culture to bring them to perfection, both as regards quality and yield. Absence of weeds and other evidences of close care add immensely to the attractiveness of the property. The fruit grown here is of beautiful color and flavor, Mr. New-man's Crawford peaches having so high a reputation that they bring top prices in the market. His peach orchard covers three acres, and he usually grows about eight acres of choice potatoes, which net him about three hundred dollars an acre. In fact, he has accomplished wonders on his little ranch, on which he has built two fine residences and a barn, and established a delightful home. He has been able to rear his family well, give his children the best of educational advantages and enjoys a more than comfortable livelihood, establishing a precedent in the development of Humboldt county land worthy the attention of all who have any interest in its value. Mr. Newman has been particularly attentive to the question of public education in his neighborhood and has served twenty years as trustee of his school district. Politically he is in sympathy with the Progressive party. The family are Lutherans in religious connection.


When twenty-four years old Mr. Newman married Miss Catherine Grathwold, who was born in Pennsylvania, and they have had a family of four children: Anna M., graduated from the University of California, at Berkeley, and is now the wife. of Horace Jenkins, who is in charge of the manual training school at Monterey, Cal. ; John G. took the agricultural course at the University of California, graduating, and is now running a ranch of six hundred acres in Potter valley, Mendocino county, he married Miss Hazel Barnett, of Potter Valley ; Fred Conrad, after two years in the civil engineering course at the Leland Stanford University, and having completed a course in the International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Pa., is now a surveyor in Humboldt county, at Eureka, he married Miss Ellenor Bryant, of Eureka, and they have one child, Pauline ;. Clarence, a graduate of the commercial department of the University of California, was formerly employed as office-man by the Pacific Lumber Company, and is now operating the home place with his father, he married Catherine Felt, of Stockton, Cal., a granddaughter of the late Dr. Dwight Felt, of Eureka, Humboldt county, a pioneer physician of this section of the state, and they have one child, Ruth.


WILLIAM JOHN MAHAN.—Although not a native of California, William John Mahan has spent practically his entire life in this state, his parents coming west when he was but a few months old, and locating in Sierra county. They made the long journey around Cape Horn, many months being consumed on the way. After a few years spent in Sierra county the family removed to Humboldt county in 1867, locating on the property that is now the home-place of Mr. Mahan. His parents, James and Ellen (McCormick) Mahan, had ten children, eight of whom are living, William J. being the oldest. This worthy couple of pioneers made this farm their home, and established -a reputation for business sagacity and reliability that is worth more than much gold, and also being very successful in their business undertakings. The father died in 1898 and the mother now makes her home in Eureka.


Mr. Mahan is a native of Illinois, having been born in Galena, Jo Daviess county, July 12, 1862. This same year his parents removed to California, where they located on a farm. After a few years they settled on Mad River, opposite what is now Blue Lake, but which was then known as Scottsville, and here the son received his education in the public schools.


At the age of seventeen he gave up attending school and went to work with .his father on the ranch, remaining at home until he was twenty-three years of age. At that time he went to work in the woods for Jim Gammon at Bayside, being employed in the lumbering camps. Here he remained for two years, and the following year was with Frank Graham at similar work, then during the winter for John Vance. The next four years he was with the Minor & Kirk Company located on Warren creek, and for six years after that with Isaac Minor, at Glendale, and constantly occupied in the woods. The next two seasons he was with William Carson on the Elk river lumbering, and in 1893 he went back to work for Isaac Minor, also in the woods, at Glendale.


It was in 1895 that Mr. Mahan returned home and took charge of the home-place and engaged in dairying and farming, making a specialty of the former. The farm included seventy acres of improved river bottom land of great richness. The last few years much of the bottom land has been washed away by the flood waters of Mad river, leaving at the present time only about thirty acres of good bottom lands. When the father had the management of the place, he spent many hundreds of dollars in the erection of dykes and break-waters to keep out the floods, but when the river is at its highest these are prone to go down with the flood. At one time there was a very valuable orchard on the place, but this too, was washed away. This shrinkage of the bottom land of the farm so interfered with the possibilities of dairying that Mr. Mahan has given up that line of farming industry, and has taken up the poultry business instead. He commenced on a small scale in 1910, with but twenty-four laying hens, and today he has a flock of more than six hundred hens. The undertaking has proven very successful and is one of the most attractive poultry farms in the valley. The place is well equipped with the latest incubators, brooders, and other appliances for a successful poultry business.


Mr. Mahan has been successful in all his undertakings and is well known and liked throughout the valley, where he has many life-long friends. In politics he is a Democrat, but has never desired political preferment.

The marriage of Mr. Mahan took place July 22, 1886, at Eureka, uniting him with Maggie Frances Keating, a native of Humboldt county, born on Elk river. She is the mother of two sons, Raymond Edward and Harold Joseph ; the former is attending the Arcata high school. Mr. Mahan, together with his family, is a member of the Catholic church.


CARL W. WIDNES.—A young man of marked executive ability and business acumen, honest and upright, and one who is meeting with great. success along his chosen line of occupation, Carl W. Widnes, who comes of a fine old family in Christiania, Norway, is an example of the kind of foreigner whom America welcomes to her shores and is glad to adopt as her son. A member of the firm of Peters & Widnes, proprietors of the Log Cabin and the Eureka bakeries, the two largest of their kind in the city of Eureka, Mr. Widnes was born in Christiania, the capital of Norway, the son of Anton Widnes, who was proprietor of a bakery in that city, where he did a successful business until the time of his death. The son, Carl W., was educated in public and private schools of Christiania, and at the completion of his education was apprenticed as a baker in the same city, learning the trade in all its details and making a specialty of cakes and confections. Then, as a journey  man, he worked at his trade in various cities in Germany and Denmark, until the death of his father necessitated his return home to take charge of his parent's business. On account of the good reports he had heard from the Pacific coast, Mr. Widnes was fired with a desire to make his home in California, and accordingly in 1905 he came to Eureka, where he soon found employment in the Log Cabin Bakery, and nine months later was made foreman of the cake department for the company, a position he filled acceptably until his resignation in 1914 to take a much desired trip back to his old home. During his residence in Eureka, Mr. Widnes had been an active member of the Norden Singing Society, of which he is now an ex-president, and he accompanied this society to Christiania at the Jubilee Exposition, with his fine'bass voice assisting the society in the rendition of the beautiful Songs of the North ; on the way to New York they gave concerts in the leading cities between Portland and New York, and in Norway in most of the principal cities of that country, receiving ovations due them from their countrymen. It was with intense enjoyment that Mr. Widnes revisited the familiar scenes of his home country, his trip consuming about five months, or the weeks included between May and October. On his return to California he purchased the Eureka Bakery, situated at No. 423 Fifth street, Eureka, where he continued the business, five months later taking as partner John Peters, who bought a one-half interest in the business, while Mr. Widnes purchased also a half interest in the Log Cabin Bakery, the two men thereafter continuing the business as Peters & Widnes. The last mentioned bakery, located on Fifth near H street, is the manufacturing plant. The bakery is equipped with the most modern machinery to be found in a plant of this kind. It has a large capacity for baking bread, putting out from three thousand to five thousand loaves a day. A specialty is also made of making cakes and confections, the business along this line being one of the largest and most important between San Francisco and Portland.


Prominent in many of the local societies, Mr. Widnes, besides having been president of the Norden Singing Society, is also a member and ex-president of the Normana Literary Society. Fraternally he was made a Mason in Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., and also holds membership in the Foresters and Red Men. In religious circles he is active in the Norwegian Lutheran Church, where he was at one time a member of its board of trustees.


GEORGE McDONALD GRATTO.—The little village of Harris, picturesquely situated in the mountainous region in the southern end of Humboldt county, is a favorite stopping place for automobilists passing through that section, and its location in the heart of a rich agricultural region also brings many business men here who find profitable patronage among its well-to-do settlers. The Harris House, conducted by Mr. and Mrs. George M. Gratto, enjoys well merited popularity among all who visit the town, and its proprietors are probably the most widely known in the southeastern corner of the county, for their energetic spirit not only pervades almost every channel of their activities, but spreads out to wider fields. Besides the hotel they conduct a general merchandise store in the town, where Mr. Gratto is also postmaster, and they combine their various interests very effectively.


Mr. Gratto was born September 10, 4860, at Machias, Maine, where his early years were spent acquiring a common school education and serving an apprenticeship to the shoemaker's trade. When nineteen years old he accompanied his father to California, settling at Blocksburg, Humboldt county, where he followed shoemaking for a time. Coming to Harris a number of years ago he has by dint of intelligent management conducted all his affairs most successfully, and the fact that he is now one of the foremost men of the place is due entirely to his own efforts. He has built his store, hotel and residence here, and in other ways made material contributions to the growth of the town, besides using his influence always for the good of its best interests. Mr. Gratto made a recent visit to the east, among his relatives in Maine and Massachusetts.


On November 28, 1886, Mr. Gratto was married to Miss Martha Asenath Jewett, daughter of the late Enoch Phelps Jewett, and they have had three children : Gladys Celia, born August 27, 1890, who died December 27, 1891 ; Eva Belle, born November 16, 1887 ; and Ruby Asenath, born August 1, 1892, who was married to Charles W. Wilson, the ceremony occurring on the top of Jewett Rock, January 16, 1915, in the presence of twenty-two relatives, after which. a wedding breakfast was prepared and served on the rock. Mrs. Gratto is noted for her neighborly and hospitable disposition, sharing her husband's popularity in and around Harris. As one of her father's heirs she owns a large stock ranch at Harris.


Enoch Phelps Jewett, father of Mrs. Martha A. (Jewett) Gratto, was a native of Springfield, Mass., and a member of a family well known in that state from Colonial days and represented in the Revolutionary war on the colonists' side. A genealogy of this family, in two volumes, has recently been published. Its earliest progenitor in America, Deacon Maximilian Jewett, was born in England in 1607, son of Edward Jewett, a cloth manufacturer of Bradford, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Deacon Jewett married in his native country, and in 1638 sailed with his wife, Ann, from Hull, England, in the ship John, as members of a company under the leadership of Rev. Ezekiel Rogers. They arrived at Boston, December 1, 1638, spent the winter at Salem, and in the spring of 1639 founded the town of Rowley, ii1 the Massachusetts Bay colony. Deacon Jewett's descendants in every generation have been noted for vigor of intellect and high moral character, and the branch of the family in Humboldt county, Cal., has been no exception to the rule.

Stephen Jewett, great-grandfather of Enoch Phelps Jewett, was born October 5, 1736, in Thompson, Conn., and moved to Lanesboro, Mass. His wife was Mehitable Harris. He was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, a sergeant in the company of Asa Barnes, Col. B. Ruggles Woodbridge's regiment, muster roll dated August 1, 1775 ; entered May 17, 1775, service two months, sixteen days.


Timothy Jewett, son of Stephen, was born March 5, 1763, in Lanesboro, Mass., and like his father was a Revolutionary soldier, his record reading as follows : "Timothy Jewett, private, Capt. David Wheeler's company, Col. Benjamin Simonds' regiment ; service eight days ; company marched from Lanesboro to Manchester, October 12, 1780." He married Elizabeth Phelps.


Enoch Phelps Jewett, son of Timothy and Elizabeth (Phelps) Jewett, learned the trade of tailor, but was only a youth when he shipped on a whaler, sailing from the port of Boston. He made voyages to both the Arctic and Antarctic oceans, around Cape Horn and north to San Francisco, where he took "French leave" of the ship. This was in 1843, when California was still Mexican territory. He remained at San Francisco until 1848, and assisted in making the first, second and third surveys of the city and bay. Having decided to return to the east overland, he had proceeded as far as Salt Lake City when he heard of the gold finds, and hoping to make a fortune in the mines retraced his steps, going up to the north fork of the Feather river. He spent five or six years at Hangtown (now Placerville), and took part in the gruesome affair from which the place derived its early name, helping to arrest, try and execute three desperadoes. They were made to stand up in a wagon box with the ropes adjusted about their necks and attached to the limb of a tree, and Mr. Jewett was one of the men who helped pull the wagon from under them. He not only mined, but also ran a store and market at Hangtown. Later he moved to the Sacramento valley, where he was engaged in ranching, and for a time he was in Gravelly valley, hunting deer. Two of his partners, Messrs. Flick and Brown, were killed by the Indians, and in this and other experiences he had the dangers of life in the early days brought very near to him. For a few years he was located in Sherwood valley, Mendocino county, raising cattle, hogs and horses, and in March, 1863, he came up to what was then known as Little valley, in Humboldt county, but which was renamed Jewett's valley in his honor. Here he bought a squatter's claim of ten thousand acres from Mr. Redd and drove in the first cattle, horses and hogs ever brought into the valley. There are many landmarks now in the vicinity which perpetuate his name. Jewett's Rock, in full view from the little mountain town of Harris, stands like a sentinel in the midst of picturesque scenery, and Jewett's creek is another local feature.


Mr. Jewett had twenty-five hundred sheep, two hundred head of cattle and one hundred horses (principally saddle horses), and his sons worked with him in the cultivation of the ranch and the conduct of its various interests, becoming expert horsemen and cattlemen, and raisers of sheep and saddle horses. Here Enoch P. Jewett made his home during the last thirty-five years of his life, becoming one of the well known figures who bore a large share in the advancement and development of the locality, where he was honored for his admirable personal qualities as well as for his success in his business ventures. He perfected title to twenty-four hundred acres, now in the possession of his four children, who have taken proper pride in the preservation of the large estate.


By his marriage to Miss Belle Fenton, a native of Trinity county, Cal., Mr. Jewett had a family of four children : John Howard, who is extensively interested in the stock-raising ; Martha Asenath, wife of George McDonald Gratto, of Harris ; Edwin Cecil, who is engaged in the raising of cattle and hogs ; and Maria C., wife of Wilson Wood, of Harris. Mr. Jewett died May 16, 1898, at the age of seventy-three years, surviving his wife, whose death occurred March 12, 1888.


JOHN W. LOGAN.—The Logan ranch of twelve hundred acres in southern Humboldt county, lying about a mile from the little village of Miranda, is now operated by Albert F. and Simeon B. Logan, sons of the late John W. Logan, who live there with their mother and sister. The extensive tract has accumulated around the nucleus of Mr. Logan's homestead, taken up in the year 1875, before there was a 'railroad in the county, and in this region no traveled road on their way beyond Rohnerville. Mrs. Logan saw no wagon for several years after their arrival here, which circumstance of itself indicates the courage and perseverance required of the pioneers who braved loneliness as well as hard work and lack of comforts to found a home in a region which then held little attraction except its promise. Their expectations of acquiring a desirable home were fulfilled, however, after years of patient and unremitting labor, and they deserve great credit for the share they bore in opening up the locality to civilization.


John W. Logan was a native of Clay county, Illinois, and was a farmer all his life. In Clay county, July 4, 1867, he married Miss Amanda Ruth McDaniel, who was born in Perry county, Pennsylvania, daughter of Joseph and Martha (Morrison) McDaniel, both also Pennsylvanians by birth. Mrs. Logan grew up in that state, and moved to southern Illinois with her parents. In the latter part of 1874 Mr. and Mrs. Logan, with their family, then consisting of three children, left Flora, Ill., journeying by rail to San Francisco. Thence they made the trip up the coast to Eureka in the old steamboat "Pelican," and from there, proceeded by stage to Rohnerville, continuing from that point as far as Rio Dell in a lumber wagon. The Rohnerville teamster who brought them so far would not go on, being afraid of being caught in a winter storm, so they hired an Indian to take them on up the south fork of the Eel river, as far as Phillipsville, where Mr. Logan's brothers, Albert and Charles Logan, were then living. They had brought their household goods, and had to make a second trip by boat to transport the same. Mrs. Logan's mother, who was past seventy-two years of age, accompanied the party, and in spite of all drawbacks they arrived safely. Mr. Logan took up a homestead near the south fork of the Eel river, and to this one hundred and sixty acres added as much more by preemption. Thereafter from time to time, as his means permitted, he increased his holdings by purchase until he had twelve hundred acres, on which all the improving has been done by the family, Mr. Logan's heirs having continued the work he had so well started. His death occurred November 12, 1899, when he was sixty-six years old.


Eleven children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Logan, seven of whom survive at this writing : Arthur J., of Eureka, the present county surveyor ; Martha Ellen, Mrs. M. C. Burnell, of Chico, Cal.; Albert F. is on the home ranch ; Jane is a teacher in Humboldt county ; Mary E., Mrs. L. M. Burnell, of Eureka ; Una, Mrs. Howatt, Scotia, Cal.; and Simeon B., who resides at home.


Mrs. Logan and three of her children still reside at the home place, the sons looking after its operation. There is a substantial house on the property, considerable clearing has been done, and an orchard set out, the latter for family use, and which, in view of the large amount of labor involved in clearing, is a luxury which speaks well for the industry and perseverance of this thrifty family. Self-denying and ambitious, they have made steady advancement, not only with the work necessary to improve their land but in the matter of education and other progress, and they have cooperated faithfully, all the members of the family showing spirit and sterling qualities of character in the furtherance of their various undertakings. They are of the kind which contributes citizenship of solid worth to the community, earning all they acquire and assisting in the general welfare. Mr. Logan was a man of active nature, and his wife helped him nobly in his struggles to obtain a start in the wilderness. Yet in spite of hard work she is well and energetic at the age of seventy-eight years. She has every reason to appreciate the material comforts of the present day as well as the improved social conditions. She can remember when deer were so plentiful here that she could see as many as twenty-four at one time ; at times they still come close to a field near the house.


WILLIAM JOHN JONES.—The little village of Miranda, in southern Humboldt county, derives its principal importance as the halfway stopping place of the stages between Garberville and Dyerville. The stage teams are changed there, going and coming, and the interests of the Garberville Mercantile Company, which operates the stage line, constitute the business life of the town. William J. Jones is the company's man in charge there, and he also acts as lineman for the Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Company, giving the greater part of his time to the duties of the latter position, which he has held for sixteen years. He has resided in Humboldt county since 1888, and has been established at Miranda since 1909. Mr. Jones' work brings him into contact with a large proportion of the residents of his part of the county, and the good cheer of his genial nature and hopeful disposition have made him welcome wherever known.


Mr. Jones is of Welsh ancestry. His father, J. Jones, a native of the state of Pennsylvania, followed the business of merchant tailor throughout his active years. In 1864 he removed to Girard, Ohio, where he resided until his death, May 12, 1915, at eighty rears of age. His wife lived to be eighty-one years old. Of the six children born to them three died in infancy, the survivors being : William John ; Ida, married to Gomer Jones, a general merchant of Girard, Ohio ; and Daniel D., a druggist, who resides near Dayton, Ohio. William John Jones was born January 7, 1862, at 'Hyde Park, Pa., about two and a half miles above Scranton (now a suburb of that city). Being but two years old when the family settled in Ohio, all his education was acquired there, and he attended the high school at Girard. In 1884 he went to Chicago, where he remained until a short time after his marriage, that year (1887) moving up to Ferry, in northern Michigan. His wife's health beginning to fail in that climate he brought her out to California, arriving at Garberville, Humboldt county, May 8, 1888. For several years thereafter he ran a small ranch. Mrs. Jones was considerably benefited by the change. In 1893 she was appointed postmaster at Garberville, and she continued to fill the position until, after an attack of pneumonia, her health was so seriously affected that she was obliged to resign, in October, 1907, her death occurring the following month, at Riverside, Cal. Her maiden name was Belle Voorhies, and she was a niece of Senator Daniel Voorhies and daughter of Jackson Voorhies, who was a Union soldier during the Civil war and fell at the battle of the Wilderness. Mr. and Mrs. Jones were married at Chicago, September 21, 1887.


 Mr. Jones acted as his wife's assistant in the Garberville postoffice until 1898, when he became lineman for the Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Company, and he continued to reside at Garberville until the company changed his headquarters to Miranda, in 1909. His jurisdiction is over a distance of thirty-three miles, all the telephone and telegraph wires from Grant Meyers' place to Samp's old place, nine miles south of Garberville, being under his care. That he has never lost a day's work in the sixteen years he has been in the employ of the company speaks well for his fidelity and reliability, important qualities where so much is left to his own judgment. Miranda lies half way between Garberville and Dyerville (thirty-two miles apart), in the woods, and the store of the Garberville Mercantile Company, with its barns and sheds for the stage line, a schoolhouse and a few dwelling houses and the post office, constitute the town. Mr. Jones has charge of the stage station and store, and the Garberville Mercantile Company rents the ranch of five hundred forty acres at this point belonging to Mrs. Jones, which she acquired as one of the heirs of the estate of J. W. Monroe, her first husband. Upon this land the Mercantile Company produces enough hay to supply the stage horses. The agricultural land forms only a small part of this property, probably twenty or thirty acres ; the country is Mountainous and stony, and the hillsides are timbered principally with tanbark oak, cut for the sake of the bark.


Mr. Jones was married (second) September 22, 1909, to Mrs. Gussie P. Monroe, daughter of "Gus" Schumacher, a native of Germany, and widow of J. 1W. Monroe, who was a brother of Attorney Monroe, of Eureka, one of the leading citizens of that place. To this marriage has been born one child, Jay, now fifteen months old. Mr. Jones had no family by his first union. Mrs. Jones had seven children by her first husband, viz.: Sybil, who is now the wife of H. A. Ross and living in Minneapolis, Minn. ; Ann, who is engaged as stenographer in the office of the Humboldt Times, at Eureka; Mary, at present attending Craddock's business college ; Edith, who is taking a course in nursing; John, Frank and Loretta, who live at home and are attending the public school at Miranda. Mr. and Mrs. Jones and their family reserve the dwelling, house yards (about three acres) and barn on her ranch for their own use, residing there. They are all active and enterprising, making the most of their circumstances and helping to enliven conditions and social existence in the little town where they are so comfortably settled. Mrs. Jones is a capable helpmate, and her encouragement and assistance have been very valuable to Mr. Jones. She was born at Petrolia, Humboldt county. Outside of her home, her interest in public affairs has been principally in those governing educational provisions in the locality, and she is serving at present as a member of the board of school trustees. 11 Ir. Jones is a Republican on political issues.


DAVID WAYNE MORRIS was born on a farm near Salem, Essex county, Mass., April 22, 1842. He passed his boyhood days on the farm, attending the public school in the winter and working on the farm during the summer. Thus he continued until nineteen, when the Civil War began and he responded to the first call for 300,000 men, enlisting in Company H, Twenty-fourth Massachusetts Infantry, being mustered into service October 7, 1861. He served continuously for four years and four months, being continually at the front, and was fortunate in escaping injury. The first two years he served along the Atlantic coast, from Maryland to Florida. When General Grant took command, in March, 1864, he served under him in the Army of the James till the surrender at Appomattox.


He was mustered out in Richmond, January 26, 1866, and returned to Boston, where he was honorably discharged. Soon after his discharge, he started west and after visiting several states he located at Baxter Springs, Cherokee county, Kansas, being engaged in farming for some years. While there he met the lady who later became his wife, the marriage occurring July 16, 1868, when he was united with Miss Emily Ruth Mitchell, a native of Plainfield, Kendall county, Ill., and to -them were born eight children, three boys and five girls. In 1873, they removed to Pueblo, Colo., where he remained two years.


It was in the spring of 1875 that Mr. Morris removed with his family to California, locating at Ferndale, Humboldt county. Here he engaged in farming and dairying until 1896, when he moved across the river to Fortuna and continued in the same occupation, residing there for eight years. In 1904 Mr. Morris purchased a forty-acre tract on Dow's Prairie, where he still resides. Mr. Morris was a member of Anderson Post, G. A. R.. at Ferndale, until it was disbanded.


EDWARD LEE FITZGERALD.—Among the prominent, liberal and enterprising young men, who by his ability, energy and exertion has made a place for himself among the leading men of the community is Edward, or Judge. Fitzgerald, as he is familiarly called. A native son of Humboldt county, he was born on the old Fitzgerald place, which he now operates on Kneeland Prairie, August 26, 1874. He is the son of Michael and Margaret (Welch) Fitzgerald, natives of Ireland. They came to California in the pioneer era. Michael Fitzgerald had crossed the plains in the early days and had served in the wars with the Indians on the plains. After his arrival on the coast he followed mining in. California and Nevada. He was married in the latter state, and resided there until October 23, 1867, when he arrived in Humboldt county with his family. Being desirous of engaging in ranching he looked about for a location and purchased two hundred acres, the nucleus of the present place on Kneeland Prairie. It was wild land and he set to work clearing it of brush and timber, breaking the ground and starting crops. He built a log house which was the second house on' Kneeland Prairie. It was made of logs cut from the native timber and hewed into shape for use in building the house. He started in stockraising, an undertaking in which he met with success. By the purchase of adjoining land he became owner of five hundred sixty acres, which he held at the time of his death in 1890. His widow raised the family and continued to operate the ranch with the aid of the children until about eleven years ago, when she turned the management over to her son Edward L. She still makes her home on the ranch, and is hale and hearty at the age of seventy-five years, and is now the oldest settler on Kneeland Prairie. Her family comprised eight children, as follows : Mary C., of Eureka; John M., who died in 1892; James, living at Fort Baker ; Nora, Mrs. Showers, of Eureka ; Nellie, Mrs. Burke, of Fruitvale ; Margaret, Mrs. Kentling, of Ozark, Mo.; Edward L., of this review ; and Kate, Mrs. Delamore, of Eureka.


Edward L. Fitzgerald received a good education in the public schools, which was supplemented by a course in the Eureka Business college. For three years he followed ranching at Madera, Cal., but in 1904 he returned to Kneeland Prairie to take the management of the old homestead. Leasing the ranch from his mother he has since engaged in farming and stockraising, keeping up the improvements so that it is one of the well-kept places in the county. It is an admirable stock ranch, being well watered and wooded with sufficient land suitable for cultivation, thus enabling him to raise ample crops of hay and grain for his stock. He is making a specialty of sheepraising, growing them for both wool and mutton, his flocks numbering three hundred or more head.


Fraternally, Mr. Fitzgerald is a member of the Woodmen of the World at Madera, and the Knights of Columbus in Eureka. For eight years he served as Justice of the Peace of Bucksport township, holding the office from January, 1907, until January, 1915, filling the office with credit to himself as well as his constituents. He was not a candidate for a third term. Politically he is independent, preferring to vote for the man rather than party. Edward Fitzgerald is a man of pleasing personality and is highly esteemed by all who know him for his kindness of heart and charity towards those who have been less fortunate, being always ready to lend a helping hand to all worthy movements.


FRANK EDWARD MORRELL.—Another of the prominent and influential men of Arcata, and one who has been a material factor in the life of the community for many years, is Frank Edward Morrell, who is at present engaged in the real estate and insurance business, and in which, although the venture is in an entirely new field, he is making a decided success. His home place is a well kept dairy farm, one mile north of town, where he has resided for a number of years, and on which his sons are now engaged in dairy farming. For many years previous to his latest undertaking in the business field, Mr. Morrell was engaged in blacksmithing, and as a workman of more than ordinary skill he is known throughout the valley.


Mr. Morrell is a native of New Brunswick, Canada, having been born at Oak Bay, that province, May 2, 1865. His father was Andrew J. Morrell, a blacksmith by trade, and when a small boy the son commenced to help about the shop, assisting his father in many ways, and by the time he was twenty-one he was a skilled workman, capable of doing all classes of the work. He attended the public schools of Oak Bay until he was eighteen, and from then until he was twenty-one was with his father in the shop. At that time he accepted a position with a lumbering company in Maine (Tracy & Love Company), to take charge of their blacksmith shop, remaining with them for four years, and proving himself a capable man for the position.


It was in 1888 that Mr. Morrell came west. He left Penobscot, Me., where his headquarters had been, and came directly to Humboldt county (California), feeling that the opportunities in this state were greater than those offered in the east, and naturally seeking lumbering regions. At first he went to work for John Vance as blacksmith in the woods, remaining for six months, when in partnership with Charles Smith he opened a shop in Arcata. In this new undertaking they were very successful and for three years they continued here. At that time the health of Mr. Morrell failed and .it was not possible for him to continue in indoor occupation, and he was obliged to dispose of his interests and for a time gave himself up to complete rest. Later he accepted a position as blacksmith at the government jetties, remaining there but six months, when he returned to the employ of the Vance & Hammond Company remaining with them for fourteen years, eight of which were spent at Essex, and six at Samoa. 


It was in 1906 that Mr. Morrell gave up his position with this company and purchased his present home place of twenty acres, all improved land. Here he built a home, and has since that time resided thereon. Later he purchased an additional tract of fifteen acres adjoining, this being unimproved land, which has since been brought under a high state of cultivation, and is now a part of the dairy farm. On his home place, Mr. Morrell built a blacksmith shop, and again engaged in his trade. He was remembered by many people for the splendid service rendered in his similar shop in Arcata a few years previously, and within a short time the new shop was doing a flourishing business. Skilled workmanship and prompt service were two important elements which helped to build up the trade with such rapidity. He continued to conduct his shop with the greatest success until July, 1912, when he gave up active work of this kind, and leased the shop to Porter Brothers, who are conducting it at the present time. Soon after this he took up his present occupation in the real estate and insurance line, in which he is meeting with his customary success. He represents several splendid companies in his insurance business and the confidence and esteem in which he is held by his fellow citizens are again aiding materially in establishing a most desirable clientele. The care of the home Place has been given over to the sons, thus leaving Mr. Morrell free for his outside interests.

Aside from his business interests Mr. Morrell has always been keenly interested in politics and in all the public questions concerning his community and the county and state. He is a progressive Republican and is a progressive in the broadest and best sense of the word, standing for all that tends toward the social and civic betterment of the city and community. He is also interested in fraternal matters and is prominent in lodge circles in Arcata. He was made a Mason in Sussex Lodge No. 7, F. & A. M., St. Stephens, N. B., and is now a member of Arcata Lodge No. 106, F. & A. M., of which he is Past Master. He is a member of Humboldt Chapter No. 52, R. A. M. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias and is especially prominent in Odd Fellow circles, being a member and Past Grand of Anniversary Lodge No. 85, I. 0. 0. F. 


The marriage of Mr. Morrell occurred in Arcata, July 21, 1891, uniting him with Miss Clara Bell Brown, a native of California, born at Pescaclero. Her parents were pioneers of the state, and well known in their section, her mother coming across the plains in 1849. Mrs. Morrell grew to womanhood and received her education in this state, and has resided in Humboldt county for the greater part of her life, having a wide circle of friends throughout the county. She has borne her husband four children, all of whom are natives of Arcata, where they have been reared and educated: Vera, Earl, Chester and Alford.  Both Mr. and Mrs. Morrell are prominent members of the Methodist Episcopal church of Arcata, of which they are regular attendants.

DANIEL ALEXANDER BALDWIN.—It was in January, 1884, that Daniel Alexander Baldwin came to California, from his home in New Brunswick, Canada, locating first in Sonoma county. Since that time he has resided continually either in that county or Humboldt, choosing his wife from the former place. At present he makes his home in the beautiful little city of Blue Lake, near which he owns valuable real estate, both farming land and range lands. He has for the greater part of his residence here been associated with some phase of the lumbering business, and is also interested in farming. He has been actively associated with the governmental and political life of the county, also, and has twice been elected supervisor from his district, where he is one of the influential members of the Republican party.

Mr. Baldwin is a native of Chatham, Northumberland county, New Brunswick, where he was born September 27, 1858. Here he spent his boyhood days on the farm of his father, attending school in the winter and assisting with the farm work in the summer months. After finishing his school course he went to work in the woods, but continued to live at home with his parents until he was twenty-one years of age. At that time he went to Pennsylvania, as the wages in the United States were better than those paid in Canada. Here he also worked in the lumber camps, remaining until 1883. In the spring of that year he returned to his home in New Brunswick and began his preparations for coming to California, where it was known there was great demand for men, and where the wages were high. In the fall he made his start, and arrived in Sonoma county the first month of the following year (1884). There was no delay in securing employment, and his first work was for a man named French at Guerneville. Later he was employed by Brown & Armstrong for a year at the same place.

It was in 1887 that Mr. Baldwin first came to Humboldt county. He remained but a short time, however, going to Fresno county, where he found better opportunities at that time. Here he was for a year employed in the sugar pine woods, lumbering in the Sierra Nevada mountains. In 1889, he was married in Sonoma county, and soon returned to Humboldt county, where he has since resided. In the fall of 1889 he went to work for the Korb el Lumber Company, and in the spring of 1890 took charge of the work of road building for this company, which at that time was known as the Humboldt Milling Company ; afterwards this company was absorbed by the Northern Redwood Lumber Company. He continued with this company in charge of their road construction work until 1906.

During all the time of his employment in Humboldt county, Mr. Bald--win had been actively interested in securing land for himself. He had taken up several claims in the mountains and had lived on one of these for five years, while working for this company. He had also purchased a ranch of seventy-two acres, all improved land.

It was in 1906 that Mr. Baldwin purchased his present home site of five acres at Blue Lake and at the same time he gave up working for the Northern Redwood Lumber Company, and accepted a position with Stanley Thompson, getting out ship timbers, and remained in his employ for two years. While with Mr. Thompson he was nominated supervisor for the third district on the Republican ticket, and was elected for a term of four years in 1908. In 1912 he was reelected, and at present serves the public in this capacity. He is exceedingly conscientious in his application to his duties as supervisor and he never allows anything to interfere with the affairs of his office. He is familiar with the road work, and his practical knowledge of road construction is invaluable to the county and is a valuable asset among the many abilities of the supervisor from the third district.

The marriage of Mr. Baldwin to Miss Mary Angeline Carr occurred in Sonoma county, at the home of the bride's parents, July 3, 1889. Mrs. Baldwin is a native of Pennsylvania, where she was born March 21, 1871. She came to California with her parents who located in Sonoma county about 1875. Her father, William Carr, has followed the fortunes of the farmer for the greater part of his life, and 'is at present located on a ranch at Guerneville, Sonoma county, where he is well and favorably known. Mrs. Baldwin has become the mother of four children: William C., James D., Nellie G. and John, the latter deceased. The eldest son, William C., is a graduate of the Eureka business college, and is manager of the People's Store in Arcata; James D. is attending the Oregon Agricultural College in Corvallis, Oregon ; Nellie G. is attending the Humboldt State Normal school at Arcata.

Mr. Baldwin has been very successful since coming to Humboldt county and is today classed as one of the most progressive and sterling citizens of the county. He is a man of broad mind and progressive ideas, with an unusual understanding of public questions and is especially well informed along all business and political lines. He is recognized as a man of absolutely sound business principles and his dealings with his fellowmen have been of such a character that his word is as good as his bond wherever he is known.

Aside from his business and political associations, Mr. Baldwin is well known in certain fraternal circles, where he is interested, although he is not what is known as a lodgeman. He is a prominent member of the Odd Fellows, and is one of the veteran members of the order in this section of the state, having joined Redwood Lodge, No. 281, I. 0. 0. F., at Guerneville in 1885, but is now a member of Blue Lake Lodge, No. 347, I. 0. 0. F., of which he is past grand and the present secretary.

Mr. Baldwin is the son of Daniel Baldwin and Mary (McLaughlin) Baldwin, both natives of New Brunswick, where he himself was born. His father was born in 1819, and the greater part of his life he was a tiller of the soil. For a short time he varied this by lumbering in the adjoining woods. He died at the age of eighty-one years. The mother of Mr. Baldwin is also dead, having passed away in 1889. Her entire life had been spent almost within sight of the place of her birth. She was a woman of great strength of character and of deep maternal affection, and her influence on the lives of her children cannot be overestimated. She was the mother of nine children, five of whom are living, Mr. Baldwin being the fifth in order of birth.

WILLIAM JAMES TURNER.—As president of the Garberville Mercantile Company, and one of the principal stockholders in this corporation, William James Turner is one of the prominent and influential citizens of Garberville, where he has made his home for many years. He has owned and operated a blacksmith shop here for a number of years past. Descended from a long line of Irish ancestry, he was born in County Armagh, Ireland, July 12, 1861, the son of Robert and Margaret (McCreary) Turner, both natives of Ireland, where they lived and died. The father was a wagon-maker, carpenter and blacksmith, and had a large establishment for the manufacture of wagons, farm implements and tools, besides doing repair work and much general blacksmithing, and often employed as many as sixty men at a time. There were four children in the family, one daughter and three sons. Of these the daughter died in infancy, and the three sons all came to America, eventually settling in California. Joseph became a machinist and was for a short time located in San Francisco, later coming to Garberville, where he opened a machine and blacksmith shop, and owned and operated a stock ranch on the south fork of the Eel river. He had married before leaving Ireland, and was accompanied by his wife when he came to California. At his death, in 1880, he left a widow and three daughters, and the widow has since died. John also came to Humboldt county and for a time had charge of the brother's stock ranch on the Eel river, where he died.

William James Turner spent his boyhood days in Ireland, where he attended the common and high schools of his native village. He began to work in his father's shop when he was a boy and grew up with the trade, becoming a skilled blacksmith and machinist. It was in 1885 that he came to America, coming to California, where his older brothers had preceded him by several years. He went at once to the ranch on the south fork of Eel river, where his older brother, Joseph, had died in 1880. The ranch was then being conducted by his brother John. Later W. J. Turner bought a blacksmith shop in Garberville, and built up a splendid trade, through the rendering of prompt and efficient service. He still owns and operates this shop, which is one of the best known in the community.

The marriage of Mr. Turner took place in Eureka, in 1909, uniting him to Miss Emma Kemper, born in Sonoma county, the daughter of C. W. and Margaret (Merritt) Kemper. Her parents were well known in Garberville, where they lived for many years, and where both passed away.

Aside from his business as a machinist and blacksmith, Mr. Turner has been in close touch with the affairs of Garberville during his long residence here, and is an influential citizen. When the Garberville Mercantile Company was organized in 1911 he was one of the prime movers and also a heavy investor in the stock of the company, and was chosen its first. president, which position he still fills. Other officers of the corporation are : E. R. Unser, vice-president ; John W. Hamilton, secretary-treasurer, while the Bank of Humboldt County is the depository.

In addition to their general merchandising business, which is probably the largest business of its kind in southern Humboldt county, the company own and operate two stage lines, connecting Garberville with adjacent territory. Their business on these lines is important and extensive. They employ three drivers and one hostler on each line, own twenty-five horses, which they use in this connection, and lately have also put on an automobile truck.

Mr. Turner has been almost phenomenally successful in his business ventures, and his judgment and foresight are such as to enable him to make many successful investments and business ventures. He is well informed, a good financier, and a careful and capable business manager. In all his interests he has had the sympathy and cooperation of his wife, who is a woman of rare ability and judgment. Both Mr. and Mrs. Turner are highly respected in Garberville, and enjoy the friendship of a wide circle of acquaintances. They are members of the Presbyterian church and regular attendants of its services. Mr. Turner is a Republican in his political affiliations, but has never been actively associated with the affairs of his party outside of local issues. He is progressive and an independent thinker, and has always worked for the welfare and general betterment of his home city and community.

Mr. Turner is a true Irishman in that he is very proud of his ancestry and nativity, although he is a true and loyal son of his adopted state. Mrs. Turner represents one of the oldest and most highly respected pioneer families' of California, her parents having come to this state in the pioneer days, and made it their home since that time.

ALEXANDER LAMB.—One of the wealthy stockmen of Rohnerville, Alexander Lamb has been a resident of Humboldt county since 1866, coming to the Pacific coast immediately after the close of the Civil war, throughout which he had served with honor and distinction. His parents had come to California during his time of military service and as soon as he was mustered out he joined them. They were then engaged in the stock business and Mr. Lamb, who is now the only living member of the family, has since continued in this line with exceptional success. Since 1866 he has been fifty-one years in the saddle, and has probably ridden more miles on horseback than any other man of Humboldt county. Under the corporate name of Lamb Brothers Company, they own nine thousand acres of stock-ranch land in the Ball Hills, twenty miles east of Rohnerville, where he manages an extensive stock ranch. He is president and manager of the company, and is a man of strict integrity, progressive and industrious, and stands exceptionally high in his home community. His home place is an eighty-acre ranch on the main road between Rohnerville and Hydesville,. which he operates himself.

Mr. Lamb is a native of Indiana, born in Monroe county in 1845. His father, also Alexander Lamb, was a native of North Carolina, as also was his mother, Abigail Trodgen, her parents being descended from an old Southern family of distinction. The father was a farmer and removed to Indiana shortly after his marriage, and there a family of nine children were born, the present respected citizen of Rohnerville being the eighth child, and the only one now living. When he was but a small child the family removed to Lucas county, Iowa, where he grew to maturity, attending the public schools and working on his father's farm. At the age of seventeen he responded to the call of President Lincoln for volunteers, and enlisted in Company L, Eighth Iowa Cavalry, in 1863. He was mustered in at Davenport, drew horses at Louisville, Ky., and entered the Army of the Tennessee, being in the battles from Resaca to the taking of Atlanta, then fighting under General Thomas at the battles of Franklin and Nashville, where General Hood's army was annihilated. Mr. Lamb served until the close of the war, making a splendid record for courage and daring, and was never wounded, although he had many narrow escapes, having two horses shot from under him in one day. The company was mustered out at Clinton, Iowa, and Mr. Lamb returned home to find that his parents and family had migrated to California, having crossed the plains with wagons in 1864. He himself made the trip by way of the Isthmus of Panama, arriving in San Francisco, June 19, 1866, joining his parents and brothers and sisters at Rohnerville, where he has since made his home.

The marriage of Mr. Lamb occurred at Hydesville, uniting him with Miss Frances Palmer, a native of Missouri. Of their union were born six children, five of whom are living. They are all natives of Humboldt county, and are well and favorably known in Rohnerville, where they have been reared and educated. They are: Winfield, Leonard, Henry, Abigail (deceased), Charles and Ray.

Mr. Lamb is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, and is particularly proud of his war record. The standing of his family since first they came to Humboldt county more than fifty years ago has been such as to place any representative of the name in high favor, and of this, too, Mr. Lamb is very proud. He is progressive and broad-minded, and has always given of his best for the general welfare of the community.

PETER NICHOLAS J. PETERSEN.—As one of the demonstrators of the Farm Bureau of Humboldt county, Peter Nicholas J. Petersen is well known throughout the county, and is in very close touch with the farmers and their needs. He himself has been actively engaged in farming since he was a young man and so has a very wide practical knowledge of the existing conditions. For the past season he has been demonstrating the value of lime as a fertilizer in the raising of alfalfa and has been very successful in gaining the attention and co-operation of the farmers. He is associated in this work with A. H. Christiansen, farm advisor for the county, who is in Charge of the demonstration work. Mr. Petersen's own ranch is three-quarters of a mile south of Grizzly Bluff and consists of sixty acres, being generally known as the old Wooldridge place. It, is one of the best kept and most attractive places in the vicinity, a credit to its owner and a source of pride to the neighborhood.

Mr. Petersen is a native of Abenrade, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and was sixteen years of age when he came to America. He is the son of A. E. Petersen, well known throughout the Ferndale district as a man of great strength of character and purpose of mind. He and his forbears were natives of Schleswig, born there when it was a part of Denmark. He owned a splendid dairy farm and was one of the prosperous men of the community, but the German dominion was so offensive that he disposed of his holdings there, and together with his wife and family migrated to America, in 1894, locating in Humboldt county, Cal., where he purchased a farm. The son, Peter Nicholas, the subject of this article, has inherited many of the splendid qualities of heart and mind that distinguished his forefathers. He attended the public schools in Schleswig, where he was born, June 24, 1878, learning both the Danish and the German language. The family was a large one, and although the family was in good circumstances it was necessary for the boys to work whenever they were not in school. This same condition maintained after their coming to America, and for five or six years Nicholas worked on the various farms in the neighborhood, and then rented the Sam Fulmer ranch on Eel River Island for three years, this being a dairy ranch of eighty acres. Following this he rented the Joe Shaw ranch at Centerville, where he continued to engage in dairy farming for six years. At that time, in 1913, he purchased his present place, where he has established a permanent home. With a passing glance at this place today it is plain to see that the owner is a man of ability and industry. The dwelling house, yard, fields, pastures, orchard, water supply, and large new dairy barn all speak of and for the man who is responsible for them. When he purchased the place he at once remodeled the dwelling, and everything else has been brought up to the same standard of excellence, the dairy barn being the last word in scientific construction.

The marriage of Mr. Petersen in Ferndale, November 15, 1911, united him with Miss Johanna Linnemann, a native of Sorup, Jutland, Denmark, the daughter of Carl Linnemann, who followed farming in that country until his death. Mrs. Petersen finished her training in the school of domestic science at Sjaelland, and afterwards was a teacher of this science in Copenhagen, continuing this until she came to California for a visit. In Humboldt county she met Mr. Petersen and their marriage followed in Ferndale, as above stated. She is a woman of rare personal charm and has gathered about her a circle of warm friends. She has one child, a daughter, Edith.

Quite apart from his responsible position as farm demonstrator for the county, and also from his popularity as a man of affairs, Mr. Petersen occupies a place of prominence in the fraternal, religious and governmental affairs of his community. He is especially prominent among the fraternal orders with a large Danish membership, and has been active in the affairs of the local organization of the Danish Brotherhood, of which he has been a member for many years. He is a member of the Lutheran church at Ferndale, and keenly interested in all its activities. In his political views Mr. Petersen is a Republican and has taken an intelligent part in the local affairs of his party. He is, however, essentially interested in his own business affairs, and his success therein is far more vital to him than any obsolete political problem. In all questions that affect the local improvement and progress he is keenly alive to their full importance and ready to give his earnest support for the betterment of the community, county, state, or nation.

CHARLES WESCOTT.—Coming to Scotia in 1900 from South San Francisco, where ill health had forced him to resign from a lucrative position, Charles Wescott accepted a minor position with the Pacific Lumber Company at this place and steadily worked his way upward, until in 1910 he was made foreman of the drying department for the Scotia mills, which important position he now fills, having charge of the dry kilns and of the handling of all the lumber in that department. The importance of the work that he controls may be easily understood when it is known that the freight rates on lumber from the coast to the Missouri river points are forty-two cents per hundredweight, sixty-five cents to Chicago, and seventy-five cents to New York ; and that while a foot of green redwood lumber, fresh from the saw, weighs seven and one-half pounds, the same lumber, skillfully dried in the kilns, weighs but two and one-half pounds. Thus it is seen that the drying process is a wonderful saving in freight rates, and that the work is necessarily intrusted to a man of great reliability.

Mr. Wescott is a native of New York, having been born in Essex county, June 12, 1875. His father, Leander Wescott, was a farmer of Essex county and was very well-to-do. He was horn in Essex county, at Wescott Hill, which was named for his grandfather, Oliver Wescott, who came to America from England in Colonial times. Oliver Wescott was a patriot of the truest type, and together with his son, the grandfather of the present respected citizen of Scotia, fought in the Revolutionary War, both being engaged in the battle of Plattsburg, where they fought side by side. Charles Wescott grew to young manhood in Essex county, attending public and high schools of the district, working on his father's farm, and in the woods, the latter occupation appealing to him most strongly. The Wescott home was located in the woods, and while yet a boy he learned all the craft of the woodsman. There were seven children in the family, two sons and five daughters, only two of whom are living at this time, the other member being Mrs. Daisy Hathaway, of Lewis, Essex county, N. Y. The parents are both deceased, the father having lived to be sixty-three years of age, and the mother to be sixty. When Mr. Wescott was twenty-two years of age he, forsook the home farm and came to California, and in 1897 engaged in the meat packing business, working his way up until he became foreman of the Western Meat Company at South San Francisco, where he remained for three years. His health broke down at that time and he was obliged to seek employment in a different climate. Quite naturally his inclination turned him toward the lumber woods, and he went. to Eureka, where he remained for a short time, and then came to Scotia, where he entered the employ of the Pacific Lumber Company in the spring of 1900. For a time he was engaged as a handler of lumber, but his ability and application made his promotion certain, and after a time he was made foreman of the old dry kiln, holding this position for a year and a half, then becoming assistant foreman of mill yard "A." This position he filled for three years, when he became foreman, and was later transferred to the dry kilns.

Mr. Wescott is deeply interested in his work and is of a mechanical turn of mind, having made numerous changes and improvements in the dry kilns which have greatly increased their efficiency. He is an adept in the use of tools, in cabinet work and in the methods of finishing and polishing the various kinds of woods that are found in Humboldt county. One of the most interesting things that he has discovered is a method for finishing up boards cut out of redwood bark. He gives them a soft, plush-like finish which makes very novel and beautiful furniture, and of these he has made various pieces of furniture for his own home. Formerly Mr. Wescott was fire chief of Scotia and filled the office very capably. He is also exceptionally well liked by the employees of the Pacific Lumber Company who are under his direction, and also by his employers. He is firm and exact, but always fair and reasonable.

The marriage of Mr. Wescott and Miss Vera Locke, of Grand Island, Neb., occurred in Scotia in 1911. They are now the parents of two small daughters : Verda and Ione. Both Mr. and Mrs. Wescott are popular socially and have many friends in Scotia. Mr. Wescott also takes an active part in the local fraternal affairs. He is an influential member of a number of local orders, including the Knights of Pythias, Weeott Tribe, No. 147, I. 0. R. M., and the Modern Woodmen.

ULYSSES SHERMAN STOCKHOFF.—One of the prominent residents of Elk River, Cal., where he is engaged in farming and as overseer of a section of the road, Ulysses Sherman Stockhoff is well known and liked as a progressive and enterprising man in that section of Humboldt county.

The parents of Mr. Stockhoff came to California in the early days, his father being John Henry Stockhoff, a native of Oldenburg, Germany, who became a cattle dealer in Iowa, where he married Charity Ann Winters, who was born in Tennessee, but came to Missouri with her parents when a child, where she grew up. In the '60s, John Henry Stockhoff crossed the plains with ox teams to Nevada, where for a year he engaged in ranching, coming thence to California, and locating in Sonoma county, where he spent a year in chopping wood. The next year he was engaged in making ties, etc., hiring as an assistant to his boss of the previous year, and later took up contracting and teaming near Fort Ross, took a homestead there, which he cleared and improved, operating a dairy thereon and buying adjacent land. so that he had a large stock ranch and dairy of about eight hundred acres at the time of his death, which occurred in 1914, his wife having passed away in 1893. They were the parents of five sons and one daughter, Ulysses Sherman Stockhoff being the third oldest of the family, the names of the children being as follows: Mary A., now Mrs. Zeek, residing at the old home at Fort Ross; Samuel H., a stock man in Larabee valley, Humboldt county ; Ulysses Sherman, a farmer of Humboldt county ; John F., a farmer near Elk River Corners ; William S., who went to Alaska, and has not been heard from ; and Cornelius, who for years has been driving the stage for Holloway out of Point Arena, and is well known in Mendocino county.

Growing up on his father's ranch overlooking the Pacific just north of Fort Ross, Ulysses S. Stockhoff was educated in the Timber Cove school district and remained at home until the age of twenty-one years, at which time he started out for himself, being employed by a rancher near Fort Ross to care for cattle and sheep, and there he rode the range and for seven years had the management of the Jack Lancaster ranch. Leaving there to come to Humboldt county, he worked for a year at Salmon creek, and then with his brother Samuel bought out the business and engaged in dairying on Judge Haines' ranch for three years, operating a dairy of thirty cows. Selling out to his brother, Mr. Stockhoff then entered the employ of the Vance Company, now the Hammond Lumber Company, being employed in the woods near Fieldbrook and later at Little river for the same company, in all covering a period of three or four years. Then purchasing his present ranch from his brother Samuel in 1903, formerly known as the old Bell ranch on the north fork of the Elk river about ten miles from Eureka, Mr. Stockhoff has now in his possession an estate comprising one hundred and forty-eight acres, about forty acres of which are under the plow, and here he is engaged in stockraising and farming, raising potatoes for the market, also giving a part of his attention to general contracting. He is also well known in the vicinity as road overseer in District No. 3, from Bucksport to Falk, and to Humboldt Hill on the south and back of Pine ranch. His political preferences are with the Republican party, and his fraternal associations are with the Fortuna Lodge No. 221, I. 0. 0. F., at Eureka.

ROBERT LEE HARRIS.—Well known in Scotia and vicinity as the foreman of the cut-up department of Mill "B," of the Pacific Lumber Company, Robert Lee Harris is one of the most popular employees of this great company, and also of Scotia, where he has made his home for a number of years. His association with the Pacific Lumber Company has proven his ability in mechanical and industrial lines. His department is that in which the lumber is sawed into proper lengths for sashes, doors, window and door casings, boxes, and the thousand and one things for which special lengths are required, and is one of the most important departments of the mill work.

Mr. Harris, who is popularly known as Lee Harris, is a native of California, having been born at Rio Dell, Humboldt county, December 27, 1873. His father was James A. Harris, a native of Arkansas, and died when Robert Lee was ten years of age. His grandfather was Henry B. Harris, also a native of Arkansas, where both grandfather and father were well-known cotton planters, and in which state the grandfather lived and died. The mother was, in her girlhood, Addie A. Gould, a native of California, and born in San Francisco. She is now residing at Shively, this county, with a son, and is sixty-two years of age. She bore her husband six children, three sons and three daughters, two sons and a daughter still living, the others having died in childhood. The living members of the family are : A. W. Harris, a farmer at Shively, with whom the mother makes her home; Clara, now the wife of William. Carter, a rancher in Sonoma county ; and Robert Lee Harris, respected citizen of Scotia. Following the death of his father when he was ten years of age, Robert Lee went to live with his mother in Sonoma county. His father had left an estate of some $30,000, and he received a common school education and later took a course in the Eureka business college, where he was graduated in 1892. He then went to work for the Williams Company at Fortuna, where he remained six years. He next became foreman for Beckwith for a year, and then returned to the employ of the Williams Creek Company, accepting a position as woods and mill foreman, and remaining for two years. A position was then offered him with the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia, and for a year and a half he served as an apprentice as a band-saw filer, and from his knowledge of the band-saw machinery he was then given a position in the cut-up department. Here his knowledge of the lumber business stood him in good stead and he was shortly made foreman of the department, which. position he has now held for four years.

The marriage of Mr. Harris occurred in Fortuna in 1899, uniting him with Miss Mildred Kerri, the daughter of Frank Kerri, who came to California in 1858, locating in Humboldt county, where he has since made his home. He is now living in retirement with the family of Mr. Harris. Mr. and Mrs. Harris have one child, a daughter, Mildred Leota. Both Mr. and Mrs. Harris are well known socially in Scotia, and Mr. Harris occupies a prominent position in the fraternal affairs of the county. He is an influential member of the Masons, having been made a Mason in Eel River Lodge, No. 147, F. & A. M., of which he is Past Master; he is also a member of Ferndale Chapter, No. 78, R. A. M., at Ferndale, and is Past Inspector of the northern district of California, District No. 1. He is also a member of the Odd.Fellows at Fortuna, and Past Grand of that Lodge. In his political preferences Mr. Harris is a stanch Republican, and has been a member of the county central committee for several years. He takes a keen interest in all that pertains to the welfare of the community and is active in all the affairs of his party, but steadily declines public office for himself, although he has been urged by his friends and admirers on several occasions to accept the nomination for important county positions.

CHARLES BERTI.—One of the successful young dairymen in Humboldt county who is now conducting the Spicy Breezes Dairy ranch on Cape Mendocino is Charles Berti, who was born at Prosito, near Lodrino, Ticino, Switzerland, October 17, 1883. His father, Augustino, was a painter and decorator, and followed his trade in Paris during the summer for many years. He now resides on a small farm at Prosito. His wife, who was Giacinta Biasca, is also living, as are their two children, the eldest, Charles, of whom we write, the youngest Giacinta, living in the old home with her parents.

Charles Berti, after completing his education in the public schools, was apprenticed and learned the stone cutter and mason trade. Having a desire to try his fortune in California, of which he had heard good reports, he came to Eureka, arriving March 5, 1501. The first year he was in the employ of Ralph Biasca, who ran a dairy at Arcata, then he entered the employ of. Rudolph Ambrosini, on the Mayflower ranch, continuing there one year. Afterward he was with Ferdinand Ambrosini on the Woodland Echo ranch for five years, later for eighteen months with Joseph Russ near Ferndale, after which he concluded to start in business for himself. In 1910 he leased the Spicy Breezes Ranch of 600 acres which he devotes to dairying and the raising of hogs and cattle. He has a herd of ninety-two milch cows and by the use of a gas engine is making butter which is packed under the label of Cape Mendocino Creamery and shipped to Eureka and San Francisco markets.

In Ferndale occurred the marriage of Mr. Berti with Mansuita Biasca, also a native of Ticino. They have four children, as follows: Edward, Dora, Elvizo and Baby.

PETER MOSSI was born in Sant' Antonio, Ticino, Switzerland, March 10, 1872. His father, also named Peter, was a farmer at Sant' Antonio. Young Peter was educated in the public schools of his native place and in the high school at Bellinzona, at the same time remaining on the home farm and making himself generally useful until the age of seventeen. It was at this time that he determined to try his luck on the Pacific coast, of which he had heard such good reports. His brother Joseph had come to California a dozen years previous and was living in Placer county. So in May, 1889, Peter joined his brother in the latter county and for a short time was employed in a sawmill, after which he returned to San Francisco bay. After working a short time in the salt works in Alameda he found employment on a dairy at Point Reyes, i\Iarin county, afterwards following the same line in Sonoma county, until March, 1895, when he came to Humboldt county. Until 1904 he was employed on dairy ranches in the vicinity of Ferndale, after which, in partnership with Thomas Pedrazini, he purchased a liquor establishment. In 1906 he bought his partner out and has since continued the business alone, being now located in the center of Ferndale.

Mr. Mossi was married in Ferndale to Miss Victoria Re, also a native of Switzerland, born at Cevio. Fraternally he is a member of the local lodge of Druids, of which he is past officer. Politically he is a Republican.

CHRIS MOSSI was born at Carena, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, October 28, 1869. His father, James Mossi, a dairyman there, married Annie Boletti and both are living on the old home. Of their ten children Chris is next to the oldest and was brought up to be an industrious lad, learning farming and dairying as it was done in his native Ticino, and he also received a good education in the local schools. In 1889 he came to Santa Cruz county, Cal., where he worked in a sawmill during the summer and then on a dairy near Davenport. He continued in that vicinity until 1902, in that year coming to Humboldt county. After working a while in the Eel river valley he went to Scotia and was employed on the Pacific Lumber Company's ranch for two years, after which he leased a ranch in that vicinity and ran a dairy of thirty cows. In December, 1908, he leased the McDonald place of one hundred twenty acres at Grizzly Bluff, where his herd of milch cows numbered fifty-five. In January, 1915, he sold his interest and lease and has since been in the employ of the Hansen dairy ranch.

In 1c09 Mr. Mossi made a trip back to Switzerland, visiting his old home, and in December of that year was married at Carena, being united with Miss Delmonica Enriceta, also a native of that place, and they have two children, Lena and Alice. Fraternally Mr. Mossi is a member of Branch Forty, Lodge No. 96, Santa Cruz. Politically he is an ardent believer in the principles of the Republican platform.

WILLIAM L. SHIELDS.--The present proprietor of the old East Ferry at Alton is William L. Shields, who was born at South West City, McDonald county, Mo., June 8, 1870. His father, John R. Shields, was a farmer, and William L. spent his boyhood helping his parents on the farm and attending public schools until fifteen years of age, or until 1885, when he came to the Pacific coast. While living at Healdsburg and at Lakeport, Cal., he attended public school, later going to Ukiah, where he was employed at farming. In Sacramento he was engaged in horse breaking and bronco busting. Giving up this work he returned to Ukiah and thence to Potter valley, where he. again worked at farming.

After spending nine years in California Mr. Shields returned to Missouri and soon afterwards went to Oklahoma, being there at the time of the opening of the Cherokee strip. He followed farming there between Grove, Delaware county, and Fairland, Ottawa county, at the same time engaging in threshing during the grain season for twenty-four years, and during this time wore out four steam threshing rigs. He was very energetic during these years and was busy all the time.
In 1913 Mr. Shields returned to
California, locating at Waddington, Humboldt county, where he followed the carpenter's trade until March 15, 1915, when he purchased the old East Ferry, which he operates across Eel river at Alton. This is an important crossing, as it takes care of the travel on the road between Ferndale and Alton, and is said to be the most popular ferry on the river.

In Ukiah Mr. Shields was married to Miss Birdie Stewart, born in Mendocino county, the daughter of Mark Stewart, a pioneer of that county, and they have nine children living, as follows : George (residing in Napa), Robert, Effie, John, Henry, Freelove, Frank, Bernies and Eleanor. Politically he is a Democrat.

ANTONE PELASCINI was born in Statsona, province de Como, Italy, February 4, 1880, the son of Guerimo and Lucia (Gobbi) Pelascini. The father was a farmer in his native land and is now in Buenos Ayres, South America, while the mother is still residing at the old home in Italy.

Of the four children in the parental family Antone Pelascini is the third oldest, and he and his brother Peter, of Elk River, are the only ones in America. Antone's boyhood was spent on the farm in sunny Italy, where he received a good education in the public schools. In 1902 he came to Eureka, Humboldt county, where he obtained employment in the woods working for the Vance Company, then for their successors, the Hammond Lumber Company, and still later for the Pacific Lumber Company. He also spent two years in Del Norte county in the same line of work. Having saved enough money he determined to engage in the dairy business and in 1912 leased the present ranch of seventy-five acres near Alton, fifty acres of the place being bottom land, where he raised a sufficient quantity of hay and grain feed for his herd of twenty-five milch cows. He has made a success of his new undertaking.

In Eureka in April, 1914, Mr. Pelascini was married to Miss Rosa Gobbi, who was also a native of Statsona, Italy, and they have a little daughter, named Annie. In politics Mr. Pelascini favors the principles of the Republican party.

JOHN SAOTTINI.—Brescia, Italy, is not alone famed for violin-making, but also for its high standard of butter and cheese making. Many from that province have made Humboldt county their adopted home and have taken their place among the leading dairymen of the county. One of these is John Saottini, who was born at Bioni, Brescia, Italy, December 27, 1884. His father, Peter Saottini, a dairyman at Bioni, was there married to Cressini Giacomini, who died about the year 1898, and to them were born five children, four of whom are living. John is the eldest, and he has two brothers, Louis and Peter, also in Humboldt county.
As a lad John Saottini learned dairying as it is done in Brescia, and also attended the public schools. On completing the local course of study he continued to assist his father on the farm, but he soon resolved to try his fortune in the land of the Stars and Stripes. In May, 1902, he came to the United States, and in the vicinity of Pittsburg, Pa., he was employed in the coal mines until 1907. In that year he concluded to come to the Pacific coast, and in August of that year he arrived in Loleta, Cal. Here for fourteen months he was in the employ of Steve Giulieri, and then worked over three years for Rafael Lanini, after which he rented Erickson & Johansen's ranch of one hundred eighty-four acres in the vicinity of Loleta, which he devoted to dairying, having a herd of sixty milch cows. He had leased the place for ten years, but he sold the lease at the end of four years and purchased a half interest with Rafael Lanini in the present dairy and lease of one hundred thirty acres on Cannibal Island, which is devoted to a dairy of fifty cows, and since Mr. Lanini moved out to his own place on Elk river Mr. Saottini has superintended the place, giving it his undivided attention. The place is rich bottom land, which not only furnishes excellent pasturage, but also yields ample crops of hay and green feed.

Fraternally Mr. Saottini is a member of the Woodmen of the World. He is an experienced dairyman and by his energy and close application to the business he is making a success and has established himself among the men of affairs in the Eel river valley.

CLAUDIO PIFFERINI was born at Cugnasco, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, November 16, 1882, the son of Dominico and Teresa (Pallacio) Pifferini, who followed dairying. The father died in 1901 and the mother is still residing at the old home. Of their eight children, five of whom are living, Claudio is the third oldest. After receiving his education in the public schools he assisted his parents on the home farm until he came to California. His brother Albert had migrated to Humboldt county some years before, so Claudio joined hini here in February, 1907. For a short time he was employed in the woods for the lumber company at Metropolitan and then for the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia, working in the mill. In 1908 he went to work on a dairy near Ferndale, later for Charles Walker at McKinleyville and afterwards at Loleta until January, 1910, when he formed a partnership with Fred M. Giulieri, leasing two small ranches of one hundred sixty acres near Grizzly Bluff, where they engaged in dairying, eventually milking sixty-five cows on the place. In January, 1915, he sold his interest to his partner and came to Arcata Bottoms, where he leased the Albert Nelson ranch of forty-seven acres. being rich bottom land, which furnishes ample feed for thirty milch cows.

In Ticino, Italy, December 16, 1905, Mr. Pifferini was married to Mary Pallacio and they have four children, Attilio, Hazel, John and Lillie. Politically he espouses the principles of the Republican party.

SAMUEL PIOLA was born in Montecrestese, Province of Novara, Italy, February 18, 1876, the son of Isidoro and Adelaide (Storni) Piola, who were farmers. The father is dead, while the mother still lives on the old farm in Italy. Of their seven children that grew to maturity, Samuel is the fifth in order of birth. He received a good public school education, remaining at home and assisting his parents until eighteen years of age, when he emigrated to the Argentine Republic, South America, being employed on farms and in factories and also clerking at Rosario de Santa Fe. While there he became familiar with the Spanish language. After five years he returned to his old home in Novara, and immediately made preparations to come to the United States. On April 16, 1901, he arrived in St. Louis, Mo., which city he left two years afterward to go to McAlester, Indian Territory, where for the next four years he was employed in the coal mines.

In 1906 Mr. Piola came to California, going first to Los Angeles and two months later to Alameda county, where he was employed as a brick-maker at Tesla. In December, 1906, he made his way to Bisbee, Ariz., where he was employed in the copper mines. In the spring of 1912 he came to Humboldt county and worked on a dairy on Cannibal Island. In the fall of 1912 he rented the Varian place of forty acres and ran a dairy of twenty-two cows for two years. After selling this lease he entered a partnership with G. Faravis in leasing the Risen place of one hundred thirty ,acres and the J. Larsen place of forty-five acres on Cock Robin Island, which the partners devoted to dairying. In December, 1914, Mr. Piola's partner was accidentally drowned, and since purchasing the latter's interest Mr. Piola has continued operating the one hundred seventy-five acres, milking sixty cows on his dairy, and is meeting with success.
Mr. Piola was married in
Bisbee, Ariz., in 1911, being united with Clementine Pella, who was also born at Montecrestese, and they have one child, Gino. Politically he believes in the principles of the Republican party.

MARTIN L. PONTONI.—A successful dairyman in Humboldt county, where he owns a valuable farm near Arcata, in a section of California which has proved most propitious for the dairy industry, Martin L: Pontoni is known as an enterprising and liberal man, and an upbuilder of the community where he resides.

Born at Cimalmotto, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, Martin Louis Pontoni was the son of Michael and Martha (Coppini) Pontoni, his birth occurring September 20, 1875. His father, a painter by trade, spent his summers in Paris, France, where he was engaged in painting and decorating, and his death took place at his farm at Cimalmotto, where his wife is still living with her six daughters. Of their family of ten children, eight are now living, and the two sons are both in California, where Camillo, the younger, works for his brother Martin. Brought up on the home farm in Switzerland, and educated in the local public schools, at the age of sixteen years Martin Pontoni decided to come to California, of which he had heard good reports concerning wages and opportunities for young men. Accordingly, in October, 1891, he arrived in San Francisco, going thence to Eureka, in Humboldt county, immediately seeking employment, as he had borrowed one hundred sixty dollars from his father for the journey. In finding work Mr. Pontoni was very successful, as he went to work on his first evening there, being employed on a dairy ranch near Fern Bridge, continuing in the same line of work in other dairies for a year or two, at the end of the first year being able to repay the money borrowed of his father, in spite of the fact that the wages were not as good then as now, Mr. Pontoni receiving only two hundred dollars and board for his first year's work. In the year 1893 he removed to the vicinity of Arcata, where he was employed on the dairy of J. W. Coppini for a year and at other dairies in that vicinity thereafter. Ten years later, having saved sufficient money to enable him to start in business for himself, he leased the Stewart Foster place of sixty-six acres, and engaged in the dairy business independently, starting with a herd of thirty-six cows, later renting more land and increasing the number of his cows, milking as many as seventy-five cows in a season. In 1909 he purchased forty acres and later twenty more, so that he now owns sixty acres, to which he at present gives his entire attention, having two years ago given up his leased land. On his property, which is all rich soil, he has fine pastures, and raises hay for his herd as well as such green feed as corn, carrots and beets, and his dairy herd of forty cows is composed solely of high grade Jersey cows.

A stockholder in the Savings Bank of Arcata, Mr. Pontoni has also been both an organizer and stockholder in the United Creameries Company, in 1908 becoming a member of its board of directors and later the vice-president of the board, which position he still holds. He is also a member of the Humboldt County Dairymen's Association and of its board of directors, and member and trustee of the Canal School district, while fraternally he holds membership in the Arcata Camp No. 472, Woodmen of the World, and with the Knights of Columbus in Eureka, his political preferences being with the Democratic party. By his marriage in Eureka with Jennie Barca, also a native of Canton Ticino, Switzerland, he is the father of five children : Michael, John, Martha, Martin and Louis.

GEORGE W. WILLIAMS.—A man who has been prominent in the lumber industry and mercantile business and is present supervisor of the Second Supervisorial district of Humboldt county is George W. Williams. He was born in Fairview, Guernsey county, Ohio, February 22, 1858, the son of Daniel W. and Fannie (Belford) Williams, natives of Wales and Ireland, respectively. They were married in Fairview, Ohio, where Daniel Williams was a carriage maker. In 1861 he came west via Panama and landed at San Francisco. From there he went to Nevada and engaged in sawmilling. It was about 1870 that he located in Humboldt county, engaging in the manufacture of shingles at Fortuna until he retired. Five years after coming west, 1875, the family joined him in this county. Both parents died in Fortuna.

Of the four children born to Daniel W. and Fannie Williams, George W. was the third oldest. He was reared in Fairview, Ohio, and was educated in the public schools of that place until he was seventeen, when with the family he joined his father in Humboldt county and here continued his studies for two years in a district that later became the thriving city of Fortuna. After his school days were over, he started a shingle mill on his own account, in 1878, building it in Palmer Creek gulch about one mile from what is now Fortuna. It was then called Slide, afterwards Springville and finally Fortuna. He continued as a shingle manufacturer for thirty-five years, during which time he had about twelve different mills, among them the sash and door factory at Fortuna. This was in partnership with William Swortzel, the firm being known as Swortzel & Williams, an association that continued for about twenty years. Besides the sash and door mill, the firm had a shingle mill and a store in Fortuna. During this time Mr. Williams was interested in organizing the Bank of Fortuna, and has been a director of that institution for many years. The store was incorporated as the Fortuna Merchandise Co., and was run as such by the original owners for about ten years, when it was sold, and it is still running under the same name. After the dissolution of the partnership, Mr. Williams became sole owner of the shingle mill.

In August, 1903, Mr. Williams was appointed Supervisor of the Second District by Governor Pardee to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. Swortzel, and in 1906 he was elected for the balance of the term. In 1908 he was elected to succeed himself and again in 1912 by a handsome majority. So for the last ten years his time has been devoted to the duties of supervisor and during this time he has been chairman of the board for four years. His district embraces about five large townships, extending from Singley on the west to Trinity county on the east, and from about two miles north of Fortuna to the Mendocino county line on the south. This includes about four hundred miles of road, with about the same number of bridges. The roads in his district are kept in splendid shape and he is well liked and favorably known.

Mr. Williams was married in Hydesville, February 21, 1886, being united with Josephine Versell, a native of Rock Island, Ill., the daughter Joseph and Dorris M. (Liitt). Versell, natives of Switzerland and Germany, respectively.. They migrated from Illinois to Humboldt county in 1880 and Mrs. Williams attended school in Hydesville. Mr. and Mrs. Williams have four children : Dorris, Mrs. Nelson, and Ida, Mrs. Pryor, both of Fortuna ; Versell of Scotia ; and Belford, who remains at home.

Fraternally Mr. Williams is a member of Onward Lodge No. 380, I. 0. 0. F., at Fortuna; Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E., and is also a member of the Fortuna Men's club and Fortuna Board of Trade. In his political preferences Mr. Williams is a stanch Republican. Mrs. Williams is a member of Independence Rebekah Lodge No. 197, of which she is past district deputy and is also a member of Sunshine Circle No. 678, Women of Woodcraft, being past installing officer.

CHARLES E. SACCHI.—A native of Switzerland, where he was born in Lodrino, Canton Ticino, on March 30, 1867, Charles E. Sacchi is the son of Peter Sacchi, a farmer and dairyman of that canton, and in his new home in California the younger Mr. Sacchi is continuing the occupation of dairying in which he grew up from childhood. After attending the public schools of his native country, he determined, when but seventeen years of age, to seek his fortune in California, a country whither his brother Natal had preceded him and sent home glowing reports of the prospects for young and ambitious men. Accordingly February, 1884, found Charles Sacchi in Humboldt county, Cal., where he soon secured employment on a dairy on Bear River Ridge, continuing there for a period of three years. Desirous of engaging in that business independently, he in 1888 leased a ranch consisting of seventy acres located at Rio Dell, in the same county, there for five years conducting a dairy of forty cows. At the end of that time, removing to Elk River, Cal., he leased a ranch of two hundred fifty acres, where for seven years he operated a dairy composed of seventy mulch cows. In 1900 he came to Arcata, Cal., where he at present makes his home, leasing there the Calanchini and Comisto ranch of three hundred thirty-five acres, located about a mile south of the town of Arcata. Here he engaged in dairying, and has brought the ranch up to a high standard for the purpose, his splendid pastures and large crops of hay, corn and green feed for his dairy herd of one hundred twenty mulch cows being the result of his own endeavors and skilful management in bringing the place to a high state of productiveness.

The interest taken by Mr. Sacchi in the dairy industry is not confined to his own ranch alone, but he also takes a practical share in the advancement of this and kindred industries, and assisted in the incorporation and building up of the United Creameries Company, Inc., of which he has been one of the directors from the time of its organization, serving one year as president and for the past three years as secretary. In political circles he is known as a stanch upholder of the Republican principles. His marriage in Rio Dell, Cal., July 4, 1891, united him with Miss Lucy Giacolini, who is a native of the same part of Switzerland as her husband, she having been born in Monte Carasso, Canton Ticino. Mr. and Mrs. Sacchi are the parents of six children, namely : Peter, who is in charge of the Bayside Skimming Station for the United Creameries Company ; Frank, who assists his father on the ranch ; and Amelia, Mabel, Juditha and Christina, who live at home.

AXEL ANDERSON.—A native of Langeland, Denmark, where his birth occurred on January 14, 1885, Axel Anderson, a man now prominent in the creamery business in Arcata, Cal., is the son of Carl J. and Antonia (Nielsen) Anderson, both of whom are now living in their native home of Denmark, where the father is a forester, as was his father Anders before him. The fourth in a family of seven children, Axel Anderson received his education in the local public schools, after which for two years he was employed at cheese-making in a creamery, at the end of which time he entered a creamery school, taking a dairy course there, receiving in that way a thorough education in his chosen line of work, in which he had already had practical experience. On the completion of his course of study Mr. Anderson entered the Danish navy, serving on different vessels as gunner, during the time of the Russo-Japanese war, after a year's service being honorably discharged.

Turning his attention once more to the creamery business, Mr. Anderson was for about a year employed in this line of work, but determining to try his fortunes in California, where he had tvvo uncles, Peter and Rasmus Anderson, living at Arcata, he came immediately to this place, arriving in April. 1906. Entering the employ of the Central Creamery Company at the Minor Creamery near Arcata; he spent the summer engaged in work there, removing later to the Ferndale plant of the same company, after a while engaging with the Silver Star Creamery on the Island until his return to Arcata in the spring of 1907. Here he was employed at Creamery No. 1 by the United Creameries, Incorporated, a few months later being placed in charge of the Premium Creamery, one of this company's plants located at Bayside, where he remained for a year, then entering the employ of Creamery No. 2 of the same firm until the spring of 1912. At that time he went back to the Premium Creamery at Bayside for a few months, then again returned to Creamery No. 2, where he continued until June, 1913, when he was placed in charge of Creamery No. 1, situated at Arcata Bottoms, where he continues in business at the present time. By his long association with the United Creameries Company, at their various plants, Mr. Anderson has become a valued assistant of the firm, one thoroughly acquainted with its business methods as well as with the creamery industry in general. During the height of the season Mr. Anderson oversees the receiving of sixteen tons of milk and about a ton of cream per day, the separating of the cream, which is sent to the main plant in Arcata, and the making of casein. He built for himself and family a comfortable and pleasant residence at Arcata, which he now rents, since he now makes his residence adjoining the creamery.

In his political preferences Mr. Anderson is an upholder of the Democratic party, while his religious associations are with the Lutheran church, and fraternally he is a member of the Arcata Aerie No. 1846, Fraternal Order of Eagles. His marriage took place in Arcata in 1913, his wife being Miss Elaine Moxon, who was born at the Moxon home on Arcata Bottoms, the daughter of Isaac and Emma (Nielsen) Moxon, well known residents of that part of the county. Mr. and Mrs. Anderson are the parents of one son, Carl Isaac Anderson.

JOHN and HUGH HAMILTON.—Among the rising young farmers of the Bull creek country and natives of Humboldt county, descended from one of the oldest and most honored pioneer families of the county, are John and Hugh Hamilton, who are residing on the old Hamilton homestead, which they operate together, the ranch being the property of their widowed mother. The Hamiltons trace their ancestry back directly to one of the most illustrious. families of England, and the grandfather, James B. Hamilton, was a first cousin of Alexander Hamilton, the great statesman of Revolutionary times. The grandfather was a minister of the gospel, a member of the United Brethren church, and was one of the pioneer preachers of Humboldt county. He lived to be over ninety years of age, and died just two weeks before the death of his son, James A. Hamilton, which occurred November 15, 1904. His wife was Levicy McWhorter, a native of Illinois, where they were married and where their only son, James A., was born, March 19, 1839, this son becoming the head of a family of iiine children. James A. Hamilton was married to Miss Emily Powell in Iowa, she being a native of Platte county, Missouri. Three children were born to them in Iowa before they came to California in 1855. The father and mother of Mr. Hamilton came with them, the long journey across the plains being with ox teams, in 1855. The entire family resided for a time in Yolo county, and about 1862 they came into Humboldt county, where they have since resided. For two years they lived at Ferndale, and then moved into the Hydesville and Rohnerville vicinity, where they resided on various places for a number of years, buying and selling several pieces of property. In 1878 they moved into the Bull creek country, buying a relinquishment of one hundred sixty acres from Mr. Whitlow and proving up on the same. Later an additional one hundred sixty acres adjoining was secured by his oldest son and became a part of his ranch, the property now numbering three hundred twenty acres. Since the death of their father in 1904 the two sons, Hugh and John, have been running the place, and are meeting with much merited success. They raise principally fruit and stock, and also do general farming. They have five acres of apples which are among the finest in the valley. Mrs. Hamilton, their mother, owns the property and keeps in close touch with all that concerns her interests. She is now almost eighty years of age, but is still vigorous in mind and body. She became the mother of nine children, all of whom are living at the present time, save one, Uriah, the fourth born, who died at the age of eighteen months. Of the others, William, the eldest, is a farmer at Independence, Ore.; Baker resides at Requa, Del Norte county, Cal., where he is engaged in dairy farming ; Martha resides in Merced county, where her husband, James Blow, is a dairy farmer ; John is engaged in the management of the home farm ; Levicy also resides at home ; Mary is the wife of Simon Albee, and resides at Myrtle Point, Ore., where her husband is engaged in the confectionery business ; Augustus also resides at Myrtle Point, Ore., where he is a well known stockman; and Hugh is engaged in the management of the home farm with his brother John.

John Hamilton was born at Ferndale, but was raised on the ranch in Bull creek and educated in the public schools there. Although some time has been spent in other parts of the county, his interests and work have centered around the old homestead, and since his father died he and Hugh have run the farm together.

Hugh Hamilton is a native of Humboldt county, being born on the farm on Bull creek, and reared and educated in this district, where he has passed his lifetime. The brothers are well known throughout the county as young men of ability and worth, industrious, energetic and capable, possessed of judgment and business acumen. Hugh Hamilton was married to Miss Ruby Butler, a native of Nevada, and the daughter of William and Minnie (Bessmer) Butler. She came to Humboldt county with her parents when a girl, and is well known at South Bay, this county, where her parents now reside. She has borne her husband two children, Hugh Augustus and Ruby Maxine. Both John and Hugh Hamilton are members of the farm center at Dyerville and are taking an active interest in the agricultural and horticultural development of their vicinity.

CARL FREDERICK HANSEN.—The manager of the United Creameries Company at Arcata, Cal., is Carl Frederick Hansen, who was employed by a large creamery company in his native land of Denmark before coming to the United States, and who, prior to his appointment as manager of his present company, acted as butter-maker for the firm until the year 1911, having already had extensive experience along this line of business in other companies in California. The United Creameries Company was incorporated about the year 1907, its main plant being located about a half mile west of the city of Arcata, with skimming stations at both Arcata and Bayside. The butter is all manufactured at the main plant of the company, with an output of forty-five hundred pounds per day, much of which is sold locally in Eureka and vicinity, the rest being shipped to San Francisco. The record of the United Creameries Company for the year 1914 was close to a million pounds of butter, while for 1915 they expect an output of over a million pounds. Their manufacture of casein amounts to about twelve hundred pounds per day, or one hundred fifty tons a year. Besides being manager of the company, Mr. Hansen is also a stockholder and director in the same, his wide experience in the industry, both in Denmark and in this country, rendering him peculiarly fitted for the important offices which he today fills.

Like his two brothers, Mr. Hansen has chosen to make his home in California, where opportunities are offered to ambitious youths from other countries for advancement which their home lands do not afford. Born in Band-holm, Laaland, Denmark, September 4, 1876, he was the son of Mads and Maren Hansen, both of whom are now deceased. Carl Frederick was brought up in his native city, receiving his education in the local public schools, and entering the employ of a large creamery company at the close of his school days, where he remained until twenty years of age, learning the trade of butter-making in all its branches. At the age of twenty Mr. Hansen entered the Danish Agricultural College, where he was graduated from the creamery course two years later, thereafter serving the required time in the Danish army, from which he was honorably discharged at the end of a year. Returning then to his chosen line of occupation, he entered the employ of a cow-testing association, the largest of the kind in the country, continuing there for a period of two years, resigning in order to remove to California, where he arrived in Humboldt county in February of the year 1901. Here Mr. Hansen found employment with the Sunset Creamery at the town of Loleta, being placed in charge of the plant, in which office he continued until deciding to accept a position with the United Creameries Company at Arcata, since which time he has made his home in the latter city, and has risen from an inferior position with the firm to his present office of manager.

Married in San Francisco to Miss Gerda Dohlquist, a native of Goeteborg, Sweden, Mr. Hansen is the father of two sons, Vernon and Kenneth. In his religious associations he is a member of the Lutheran church, and fraternally he is an Odd Fellow, having been made a member thereof in the Loleta Lodge No. 56, and at one time was Noble Grand of the same, being at present a member of the Anniversary Lodge at Arcata.

GEORGE BOYES.—Among the men who have achieved success and acquired a competency in their chosen occupation mention must be made of George Boyes, who is the owner of a stock ranch on Boynton Prairie, where he is engaged in growing cattle and angora goats, in the latter industry demonstrating it to be very profitable not only for the fleece and meat, but also for keeping down and clearing the stock range of brush. Before he had the flock of goats it was necessary for him to clear and burn the brush every few years, but since he has the flock of angoras they keep it down. Mr. Boyes has been a resident of California for thirty-three years and of Humboldt county since 1884. Since then he has taken no small part in its development and upbuilding and is known as a progressive and enterprising man, liberal and kind hearted, always ready and willing to do his share towards any measure that has for its aim the improvement of the county or betterment of the condition of its people. In all this he is ably assisted by his estimable wife, who has been his helpmate in the truest sense and to whom he gives no small credit for the success he has attained. They are both very hospitable and do not hesitate to assist those who have been less fortunate.

George Boyes was born in Hemmingford, Huntingdon county, Province of Quebec, November 6, 1861, being the sixth oldest of a family of ten children born to George and Mary A. (Lyttle) Boyes, who were respectively born in England and Ireland, coming to the Province of Quebec in youth where later they were married and where they engaged in farming. George Boyes received a good education in the public schools. From a lad he made himself generally useful on the farm and learned farming as it is done in Quebec. He was thus employed until he was twenty-one years of age, when he came to Mendocino county, Cal., in 1882. His first employment was on a ranch near Albion, but a year later he went to work in the Albion woods, continuing there until 1884, thence came to Humboldt county. For a year he worked for Isaac Minor on Warren creek and then entered the employ of the Riverside Lumber Company, afterwards incorporated as the Northern Redwood Lumber Company. Beginning his work on Mad river as a rig-puller, he worked up and soon became chain tender, a place he filled until 1895, when he discontinued his connection with the company to engage in dairying. For this purpose he leased the Merriam ranch above Blue Lake and operated a dairy of forty cows, continuing on the place for a period of five years. He then purchased the old Boynton Prairie farm of four hundred eighty acres, lying nine miles east of Arcata, the place taking its name from Mr. Boynton, who was killed by the Indians while squatting on land at this place. After securing the place he moved onto it with his cattle and for a time ran a dairy, but he found it too far to market so began growing cattle, of which he has a splendid herd. In 1909 he began raising angora goats, which he finds very satisfactory and profitable, as stated heretofore. Besides his herd of cattle he has about two hundred head of fine nearly full blooded angora stock. Aside from his manifold duties on the ranch he finds time to contract getting out tan bark for the Arcata tannery, some years delivering as much as one hundred fifty cords to the tannery.

The marriage of Mr. Boyes occurred at Arcata in December, 1887, when he was united with Miss Kate Goodrich, a native of New Hampshire. Her father, Henry Goodrich, brought his family to Arcata when Mrs. Boyes was a year old. He followed general contracting until he retired and there he still makes his home. Mrs. Boyes received her education in Arcata and is a cultured and refined woman, greatly esteemed by all who know her. They have one child, Alice, Mrs. Stanley Stokes, of Oakland.

Fraternally Mr. Boyes is a member of Blue Lake Lodge. No. 172, I. 0. 0. F. He is a member of the board of trustees of Cedar Springs school district. Politically he has always believed the principles of the Republican party to be of the greatest benefit to the country.

MRS. MARGARET SMITH COBB.—An author of note, and known among her literary friends as "The Lady of the Hills," is Mrs. Margaret Smith Cobb, at present residing on her ranch some four miles from Garberville, where she has made her home for many years. Mrs. Cobb is a woman of rare ability and charm, and her literary skill is of a superior order. She published a California romance in 1913 which has had a wide circulation. It is "Blaxine, Half-breed Girl," a tale which, like Helen Hunt Jackson's "Ramona," deals with the life of a beautiful half-breed girl. This tale has received the favorable comment of the best critics and has been especially praised by California writers, including Joaquin Miller and Jack London, both of whom give it their unqualified approval, the former having declared that "it is dearer to me than `Ramona'," and adding that it is "the masculine to Helen Hunt's feminine." Mrs. Cobb has the manuscript to several other novels which will appear within a limited time, and she is planning to publish a volume of her poems in 1915. These manuscripts were ready for the publisher when the death of her husband occurred and so disturbed the current of her life that for the last year she has given very little time to her literary efforts.
Mrs. Cobb claims that her ability as a literary woman is simply a heritage Anyone blessed with the wonderful father and mother that were her own must naturally and necessarily be a writer. She is the daughter of Thomas Smith, a native of Michigan, a dreamer and frontiersman, and Donna Anna Zeparra, of a titled family of Chile.

When but a boy Mrs. Cobb's father was in the commission of the government, moving the Pottawattamie Indians to the west of the Mississippi. This awakened in him a love for the Indians, to understand something better in their nature than savagery. In 1846 he crossed the plains to California, and while on this trip there were the most friendly relations with the Sioux and Comanches. Arriving in California, he enlisted under John C. Fremont and served under him during the war with Mexico. He was working in the timber, where Oakland now stands, when gold was discovered, and Aunt Jane Wymer, who tested the gold in the kettle of soft soap, was an aunt by marriage.

Shortly after this he became associated with a party that made a trip through the wilds of Trinity county. Redemeyer of Ukiah, Requa of Long Valley and Jewett of Harris were members of this party. They found no gold and the Indians were very troublesome, forcing them to make a stand against them where Harris is now situated. It was on this trip that the dreamer and adventurer first saw Long Valley in Mendocino. He loved the beauty of the high vale in the mountains and the next year, in 1852, returned to make his selection of a home in the valley that had charmed him. Far up in this wilderness he lived several years, building the log house that still stands on the land and splitting out fencing from the virgin timber. In 1858 he returned to San Jose for the wife he was to take away to share the wilds with him.

Donna Anna Zeparra was a Chilean lady, a granddaughter of Don Juan de Lieva, a well known figure in Chilean history and one of a long line of Castilian nobility. Donna Anna was a daughter of the rich and one of a family intensely Catholic, nuns and priests following both sides of the family. The De Lieva family owned a magnificent property in the Rincon Valley near Valparaiso. Don Juan was a proud old Tory during the war for Independence, and would have been treated as one when the Chileans won their freedom, but it was too widely known how he had opened his granaries to the poor of both parties. In honor to this kindness, he was pardoned (an unusual thing during those cruel years) and made governor for life in that section where he lived. The family had great pride in their title, their Castilian blood and in their deeds toward the church. It was a grand-aunt of Donna Anna, Donna Monecita, who founded the great Carmelite convent at San Felipe. Donna Anna was left an orphan at six years, and her stories of her childhood, of playing in the great garden where the red lilies grew as tall as her head, or sitting at evening watching the flames belch forth from Mt. Aconcagua are yet stories of wonder. In 1850 she was brought to California by her godfather and god-mother and soon afterward entered Notre Dame convent at San Jose to be a nun and teacher. She had determined to become a nun, and had taken the first vows when she met the man who was to be her husband, while recovering from an illness at her god-mother's. It was a case of true love at first sight, the frail Spanish maiden loving the daring blond frontiers  man. They were married in a short time, Bishop Alamana officiating at the ceremony. Then they set out for the wilds. The young husband drove a yoke of cattle and carried with him three hundred fruit trees, ornamental trees and rose cuttings, while the bride carried her great Spanish dictionary and grammar and her finest embroidery and lace needles. Arriving at their home, the little wife embroidered and wrote Latin poems, when for months at a time her only companions were the Indian squaws who looked upon her as sonic rare queen. When the first baby was born the second year after• their arrival, it possessed six long skirts embroidered their full length so heavily that one could scarcely find the space to set a finger down on unembellished cloth.

Donna Anna became the mother of eight children, Mrs. Cobb being the sixth. Mrs. Cobb's opportunities for schooling were very scanty, the dreamer-father was never a maker of money, but the teaching of her mother was al ways her aid. Listening to the wonderful stories that her father and mother could tell was a natural advantage to her trend of literature. During her childhood she read many of the classics, including all the works of Shakespeare. At seventeen she began to write poems, but did nothing of great merit until her twenty-seventh year. In that year her poem. "The Drowned Man's Song" was brought out by Ambrose Bierce in the San Francisco Examiner with his praise. Ever after Bierce proved a friend to her in her literary work.

Mrs. Cobb has not done a great amount of literary work ; she has always hail to contend with ill health—but what she has done has been pronounced exquisite. Mr. and Mrs. Jack London are warm personal friends of Mrs. Cobb and it was Mr. London who presented her poem to the Century. This poem was copied and recopied throughout the east with the following comment of Mr. London: "The poem `tinkissed' which is published in the September Century, came to the Century through Jack London, who sent it with the following comment : 'I am sending you what I consider, under the circumstances, a most remarkable poem. The writer, Margaret Smith Cobb, is a mountain woman, who has• lived all her life in the remotest mountain districts of California, far beyond the reach of any railroad. The author's mother came from the west coast of South America in 1849, so you can see that from the time of her birth to the present moment, the writer has lived a most primitive life. Yet this poem of hers has the control, the restraint, the simplicity and the chastity that would mark the expression of an elder and old country civilization, such as that of England.' "

Mrs. Cobb was born in San Jose, where she remained at the old Mission until she was six years of age, when her parents removed again to their ranch at the headwaters of the south fork of the Eel river. She met and mar- . ried Oliver C. Cobb, a native of the state of Maine, born in 1858. He came to California and became the owner of a ranch of sixteen hundred acres on the Eel river south of Garberville, where his widow now resides. He was a member of a splendid family, and was a brother of Charles H. Cobb, of Seattle, Wash., millionaire real estate and mill owner of that place. His death occurred in Oakland, May 16, 1914. Mrs. Cobb is the mother of two children, Lillian, the wife of Samuel McCash, a native of California, who now rents and operates the Cobb ranch, and Yvonne, aged eleven years.

Mrs. Cobb lives a busy life, but she finds time to devote to her literary work. Among her unpublished works are two novels, the "Gold Squaw" and "Gad Wright," both of which will appear shortly. Mr. and Mrs. Jack London are warm personal friends of Mrs. Cobb and have been entertained by her at her ranch home. Mr. London is an eager admirer of her work. George Sterling is also another admirer of her poems, characterizing her lines as "exquisite." As a means of diversion, and as an outlet and satisfaction for her artistic imagination, Mrs. Cobb also does landscape painting, and has produced some very creditable canvases, both in water colors and in oils. She also makes a rare and beautiful grade of Spanish point lace, an accomplishment which she learned from her talented mother.

It is also a noteworthy fact that with her splendid artistic and literary ability Mrs. Cobb yet possesses a business ability and power of sane and safe judgment that is unusual. She understands the conduct of her business interests and keeps in close touch with all the details of her properties. She is well informed on all questions of public interest and is progressive and modern in her appreciation of public needs. She has never taken an active part in the suffrage movement, but is an advocate of freedom and fuller life for women and fully appreciates the advantages that have been accorded to the sex in California.

LEWIS L. McDANIEL.—A typical California pioneer, who was engaged in mining and stage driving in this state and in Idaho in an early day, and who did valiant service with the California Volunteers in the days of the Indian troubles, serving for six months in Humboldt county, is Lewis L. McDaniel, who has been a resident of California for almost sixty years. In 1860 he left New York City for the west, coming direct to Humboldt county, which has been his home continuously since with the exception of a few years spent elsewhere on two different occasions. He has driven a stage in Idaho, Nevada and California, his routes in this state being both in Humboldt and Mendocino counties.

Lewis L. McDaniel is a native of Missouri, born at Palmyra, November 29, 1842, the son of William and Sarah (Nash) McDaniel, the father being a native of Virginia and the mother a Kentuckian. His parents were married in Missouri, where his father was engaged in the practice of law. He served for twenty-five years in the United States land office, and in collaboration with Major Hook he established the land office in Humboldt county, at Humboldt Point, in 1858, this being the first land office in the county, in which he served as registrar. He made numerous trips across the continent in his official capacity, and held two commissions under President Jackson, one from President Pierce and one from President Buchanan. He came to Humboldt county in 1849, crossing the plains by way of the old Santa Fe trail. From Humboldt county he removed to Idaho, where he was elected territorial auditor, and died from Bright's disease while holding this office, at the age of sixty-four years. The mother outlived him by a number of years, passing away in Eureka. There were ten children in the family, of whom the subject of this sketch was the fifth born.

The mother came to California in 1860 accompanied by Lewis L. and another son and a daughter, and located on Elk. river. Later L. L. McDaniel went into the mines in Idaho, just before he was twenty-one, and in 1870 he began staging, driving the stage from Boise, Idaho, to Owyhee, Reno and Virginia City, Nev., this line being then a part of Wells Fargo & Company's property. Later Mr. McDaniel came to Humboldt county and was engaged in driving stage for Bullard & Sweasey, and was so engaged when he joined the California Volunteers to fight the Indians, who were then causing much trouble in this part of the state. He served under Captain Work, and was in a number of sharp engagements. After quiet was restored he resumed stage driving.

The marriage of Mr. McDaniel and Miss Izetta Greenlaw took place in 1877. She is the daughter of J. C. and Mary (Morris) Greenlaw. Mrs. McDaniel is a native of New Brunswick, as are both her parents, who came to California in the fall of 1858, locating in Sonora, Tuolumne county, where for two years the father was engaged in placer mining. In 1859 Mr. and Mrs. Greenlaw came to Humboldt county, locating at Eden, where the father engaged in logging. Later they purchased one hundred sixty acres of land, which they improved and upon which 'they lived until 1877. At that time this property was sold to the sister. of Mr. Greenlaw, and he came with his family to Pepperwood, where he purchased three places on Eel river, including two claims of about three hundred acres each. Since their marriage Mr. and Mrs. McDaniel have made their home in Humboldt county continually, save for four years when Mr. McDaniel was employed at the Great Eastern silver mine in Sonoma county, and two years during which he drove stage in 'Mendocino county. It was in the early part of 1876 that he bought a handsome Concord stage coach in San Francisco and shipped it to Humboldt county for service between Eureka and Arcata, the firm operating this line being known as McDaniel & Kirby, and continuing through 1876-77. This was the second coach in the county.
Mr. McDaniel's present place is located in Pepperwood bottoms, well adapted to fruit raising and general farming, he having cleared and made all the improvements himself. Mr. and Mrs. McDaniel have three living children, all natives of Humboldt county, where they have been reared and educated, and where they are bearing out the traditions of the family for character and ability. They are : Edna, Mrs. E. P. French, and Edith, Mrs. Carl Daggitt, both of Pepperwood ; and Frank, now engaged in business in Chicago. There was also another child that died in infancy. Mrs. McDaniel has a large and rare collection of curios and Indian relics, not only from Humboldt and Mendocino counties, but from all over the world.

In his political affiliations Mr. McDaniel is a Democrat, as was his father before him. He is closely identified with the affairs of the community and is broad-minded and progressive. Both Mr. and Mrs. McDaniel are regarded as the flower of the old pioneer stock of the county, and their daughters are prominent in the circles of the Native Daughters, being members of Alton Parlor, and high in the councils of the order throughout the county.

CHARLES F. ROBERTS.—A career worthy of emulation from many standpoints is that of Charles F. Roberts, one of the enthusiastic promoters of the enterprises of Eureka and who served as treasurer of Humboldt county from 1898 to 1911. During that time he won the confidence of all its best citizens, who appreciated to the full his faithful services. An ardent itepublican, he has been chairman of the county central committee and was appointed registrar of the United States Land Office in 1872 by President Grant ; reappointed by him in 1876; in 1880 by President Hayes and again in 1884 by President Arthur. He was appointed collector of customs in 1892 by Benjamin Harrison, and served until a change in administration. During this time he served nine years as a member of the board of education in Eureka, a part of the time as president, and also served one term as member of the city council. He is a prominent Mason, having been made a member of Trinity Lodge, at Presque Isle, Me., and is at present a member of Humboldt Lodge No. 79, F. & A. M., at Eureka, having served as master, senior and junior warden, senior deacon, and was treasurer for twelve years. For one year he was chief of the Fire Department ; in 1888 was president of the Eureka Jockey Club, and in 1893 was president of the Humboldt Midwinter Fair Association, to the success of which he devoted a great deal of time and money. The Odd Fellows claim him as one of their most valued members, being a member of Humboldt Lodge No. 77, while with his wife he belongs to Camelia Chapter, 0. E. S., and the Rebekahs. At the organization of Colonel Whipple Post No. 49, G. A. R., he became one of its charter members and has held the office of adjutant for many years.

Mr. Roberts is of English and Scotch descent and was born in Hartland, Somerset county, Me., April 7, 1843. His father and grandfather both bearing the name of Joseph, were ministers in the Baptist Church, preaching in the days when they received no remuneration for their services. As farmers they were capable and moderately successful. The mother of Charles Roberts was Atlant Ireland, also a native of Maine. He was the third in order of birth of six boys and two girls, of whom one son is deceased. After completing his education in the grammar schools, he entered the high school of Bangor, where he was prosecuting his studies at the outbreak of the Civil war. To one of loyal, patriotic spirit, his country's needs appealed with great force and young Roberts enlisted in Company H, Second Regiment, Maine Volunteers, and was assigned to the First Division, Third Brigade, Fifth Army Corps, Army of the Potomac. This was in May, 1861, in the three months' service. On the expiration of his term he reenlisted in the same company for two years and saw service at the first Battle of Bull Run, the seven days fight on the Peninsula, Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. In the spring of 1863 he was mustered out and honorably discharged with a record of which he may well be proud.

Mr. Roberts started for the Golden State, July 13, 1863, leaving New York and coming to San Francisco via the Isthmus of Panama, arriving two months later. Like many others coming West he had hoped to secure a good position in the metropolis, a hope that was doomed to disappointment, for after a short time spent there he went by stage to Carson City, Nev., and secured employment as tally man and clerk in the office of Folsom & Bragg, owners of a sawmill and lumber yard. • Later, however, he was made bookkeeper for the same firm, receiving, as remuneration for his first year's work, $50 per month. This sum was raised the second year to $75 and the third year to $100 per month. While a resident of Carson City, Mr. Roberts met and married Miss Alicia, the daughter of Albert Bragg, one of the firm of Folsom & Bragg, his employers. She was born at Dover, Me., and was well educated in the public schools of that place. On returning to California in 1866, Mr. Roberts and wife came to Eureka and the following year he spent as swamper in the woods. This business not being to his liking he found employment on a ranch on Mad river, remaining there until 1872, when he received his appointment as registrar of the land office, then followed, as hereinbefore mentioned, thirty years of conscientious, honorable public service. For many years Mr. and Mrs. Roberts, though not members, have been active in the work of the Congregational Church, to the support of which they are most liberal contributors.

L. B. POYFAIRE.—The coming of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad to Fort Seward and Eureka and other points in Humboldt county was the beginning of a new era in the life and development of that portion of the state. Already the strides forward that have been made are stupendous, and especially has Fort Seward forged to the front, with promises of being second to none in the county as a commercial center. As the local representative of the Northwestern Pacific, L. B. Poyfaire has been exceptionally closely identified with the changes that have been worked through the opening of this splendid new artery of trade, and the growth of the business of the road since its opening has been so great that even the splendid abilities of this clever, energetic and capable young man have been taxed to their uttermost. Having been the first agent of the new line at Fort Seward, Mr. Poyfaire has been accorded a prominent place in the minds and hearts of the people, as a material evidence of a blessing so long hoped for, and it is greatly to his credit that he has not only held this position, but rather has won for himself an even warmer place in the regard of his fellow townsmen by the quality of his service and the evident interest that he takes in his work and in the general welfare of the town and community.

Mr. Poyfaire is a native of Washington, born at Woodland, August 15, 1892, the son of Isadore and Laura M. (Cook) Poyfaire, his father being a native of Nebraska, born in Lincoln county. When the son was five years of age the family left Woodland and came to California, locating at Edge-wood, Siskiyou county, where they remained for a season, and then came to Humboldt county, settling at Eureka. Later they returned to Edgewood for several years, but in the end returned to Eureka to make their home, remaining there until 1906, when they removed to San Francisco. In 1911 they again moved, this time going to Loleta, where the father is engaged as a driver of auto trucks for Libby, McNeill & Libby. Young Mr. Poyfaire attended school in Eureka, graduating from the grammar grades, and then entered the Craddock Business College, taking a commercial course, from which he graduated with the class of 1911. He then joined his parents at Loleta and at once began to work at the depot, starting at the bottom with the avowed intention of learning the railroad business from the ground up. His application and industry opened many doors for Mr. Poyfaire and he soon was firmly planted on the ladder to success, and has since climbed steadily upward. He was given a position of responsibility at Loleta within a short time, and since then has served as agent at a number of minor stations, including Scotia, Alton, Elinor, South Bay, Fortuna, Trinidad, and came to Fort Seward on the opening of the new line in June, 1914. In all the details of his business he is proficient and reliable, and his grasp of details is a matter of wonder to those who are in contact with the volume of business that he handles. The Northwestern Pacific has recently erected a handsome and commodious passenger station, and is already provided with huge freight stations and warehouses. The volume of business that passes through the offices and yards here can only be understood when it is realized that many thousands of acres of rich land in Trinity county also find their outlet here, as well as the country immediately surrounding Fort Seward, which is one of the richest and most productive sections of the county.

Fort Seward itself is a new town, and like most youths is possessed of a splendid amount of strength and vitality. It is located at the terminal of the new railroad and is situated on the site of the old fort of historic interest. Surrounded on every hand by the eternal hills, the beautiful little valley lies beside the river and directly on the line of the railway. There is an abundance of trees, madrones and oaks, which add a stately beauty to the landscape, while leaving the land nominally clear. The growth of the city has been very rapid and the improvements that have been made by the county since the coming of the railroad and the completion of the magnificent new highway which Trinity county has built to give an outlet to the railway for her rich farm lands, have added vastly to her resources and made the future outlook very flattering. The citizens of Fort Seward are of a type that know not discouragement or faltering in reaching the goal of the heart's desire, which in this case is to make their city at least equal in importance to Eureka, and it is a known fact that they have set themselves no limits. They are all pulling together and the harmony that prevails is one of their strongest assets. In all this they are receiving the hearty support and cooperation of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad Company, and of their energetic local agent, Mr. Poyfaire. Special efforts are being made to give splendid service, both in the passenger and freight lines, and the improvements that have been and are being made by the railroad are of the best, adding not only to the commercial value of the town, but also to its beauty. It is freely predicted, both in Humboldt county and in Oakland and San Francisco, that the opening of a regular through service from San Francisco will bring an influx of tourists, pleasure seekers and home seekers into this section of the country such as has never been known before, and that this region will become one of the most popular resort sections of the state. It is especially fitted for this, being well wooded, provided with game and fish, and blessed with a beauty of scenery that cannot be excelled.

MANUEL ENOS DE MELLO.—It is interesting to learn of the different nationalities which constitute our American nation, the natives of certain foreign lands being represented in certain sections of our country ; and to California, which is essentially Spanish in atmosphere, the descendants of Spanish, Portuguese and South American families can hardly seem like strangers, though the old Massachusetts coast towns can also claim a degree of Portuguese population, since men of that descent were brought from the Azores in early days to assist in the whaling industry of little Nantucket Island, where their names are still to be met with, as well as in many of the tiny fishing towns along the Cape. South America, too, where old-time New Englanders used to go to make their fortunes, has given Spanish brides and pretty children of Spanish ancestry to the sedate little Puritan towns beside Massachusetts Bay.

Both South America and the Azores are represented in the family of Manuel Enos De Mello, an old-time settler and prominent dairyman of Humboldt county, Cal., where his death occurred March 24, 1915, he having been born at the Isle St. George, in the Azores, in January, 1861, while his wife was born at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the daughter of Joseph Enos and Maria Brazil, natives of Isle St. George, Azores. Manuel De Mello grew up on his native isle, at the age of fifteen years removing to Boston, Mass., securing employment on a dairy in that vicinity for two years. He then, in 1878, came west to California, locating in Humboldt county, where for nine years he was employed upon the Hurlbutt dairy ranch on Bear River Ridge, during that time becoming manager of the place. After a six months' visit to his old home at St. George, Mr. De Mello returned to the United States, settling in Massachusetts as he had first done, this time at the town of New Bedford, and there his marriage took place, on December 18, 1888, to Miss Diulinda J. Brazil, of South American birth, her father being now deceased and her mother still living at St. George, her native place. Mrs. De Mello was the oldest of seven children, of whom the five at present living are as follows : Diulinda, now Mrs. De Mello ; John, a dairyman at Freshwater ; Julio, who makes his home with Mrs. De Mello ; Ida, now Mrs. Enos, of Freshwater ; and Leonora, Mrs. Enos, residing at Modesto, Cal. Mr's. De Mello grew up at her parents' old home in the Azores, where she received a good public school education, in June, 1888, removing to New Bedford, Mass., where her marriage took place in December of the same year.

Immediately after their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. De Mello moved to Humboldt county, where Mr. De Mello had spent nine years previous to his marriage, and here they now leased the Hurlbutt dairy ranch, of which he had formerly been the manager. On this estate, which comprised about five thousand acres of land, Mr. De Mello at once engaged in dairying and stock raising, milking a herd of two hundred seventy cows. In those early days it was necessary to pan the milk and skim the cream by hand, the churning also being done by hand, but Mr. De Mello soon obtained horse power for the churning and in the last two years of his residence at the place operated a separator, his butter being shipped in kegs to San Francisco and carried by six-horse teams to the wharf at the foot of Table Bluff. His next move was to rent the Robert ranch on Kneeland Prairie, where for two years he conducted a dairy, skimming milk by hand and making butter, and after a few months spent on a ranch near Arcata, he leased the Deering place at Bucksport, in the same county, operating a' dairy there of thirty-five cows and running a retail milk route in the city of Eureka for a period of five years. In December, 1900, he leased the present place, the Zanone ranch, consisting of about two hundred eighty acres, situated five miles from Eureka, and here he carried on a prosperous dairy of fifty cows, besides engaging in the raising of stock. A Republican in politics, and a member of the I. D. E. S., his death occurred in 1915, after an illness of eight months' duration, and since that time Mrs. De Mello has proved herself a successful business woman by her wise operation of the ranch and dairy with the assistance of her son Alfred, a young man of much ability and worth. For fifteen years they have operated the Zanone ranch, and not only enjoy the ranch, but also appreciate the owners very much. Besides this son, Mrs. De Mello has two other children living, namely, Marie, now the wife of Frank X. Costa, and Rose De Mello, both of whom make their home with Mrs. De Mello, the former being the mother of three daughters, Ermaline, Marie and Diulinda Costa.

FRANK ESSIG.—It is often said of Americans, especially here on the Pacific coast, that they are not "descendants," but rather "ancestors," and in the latter statement is the truth especially told of Frank Essig ; for, although he is descended from a sturdy line of old German stock, his chief pride is in his sons, their honor, integrity and Christian manhood, their achievements and their progress being the principal delight of his life. it is also worthy of note that Mr. Essig has not confined his efforts among the youth of his community to his own sons, but has reached out a helping hand to all who are in need and has done a splendid work in the community for many years. He organized a union Sunday school in Shively, where he makes his home, and was its superintendent for three years, and one of the most devoted workers in the cause at all times. He also organized the Sunday school at Holmes, attending there in the afternoon, where he was assistant superintendent, the mornings being given to similar work in Shively. The strength and straightforwardness of Mr. Essig's character and life are most strongly exemplified in his sons, who are all men of splendid character and achievements. One of his sons is now a professor of entomology at the State University, at Berkeley, the author of several books along similar lines, while the others (there being five in all) are following various lines of occupation which are honorable, and in which they are acquiring much distinction.

Mr. Essig is engaged in ranching and in horticulture at Shively, where he owns eight acres a quarter of a mile above the town, and rents the Pacific Lumber Company ranch of twenty acres, just north of Shively, on which he has a lease. This property is principally devoted to orchard, and he is producing some exceptionally fine apples and making a specialty of raising tomatoes, in which he is making a decided financial success. Mr. Essig is a native of Indiana, born at Arcadia, February 8, 1862, the youngest of a family of fifteen children, there being ten sons and five daughters. His father, Henry Essig, was a native of Wurtemburg, Germany ; he was a cabinet-maker and farmer, and a member of the Lutheran church. He came to America at the age of sixteen years and located in Allentown, Pa., and was there married to Caroline Bosler, who bore his children and died at the age of sixty-nine years, the father living to be seventy-nine and dying in Indiana, whither he had removed with his family many years before.

Frank Essig was reared and educated in Indiana, and at the age of eighteen years started out in life for himself. At this age he was married to Miss Belle Todd (his first wife), and soon afterward the death of his father called him back to the home farm, which he then managed for five years. He was twenty-seven when he finally came to California, locating first in Sonoma county, and later moving to Napa county. His first wife had died before he left Indiana, and while residing at Santa Rosa, Napa county, Mr. Essig was again married, July 5, 1889, to Mrs. Fannie (Morris) Owens, the widow of fames Owens, by whom she had five children. Mrs. Owens was the daughter of Joseph and Elizabeth (Halverstadt) Morris, well known California pioneers. But three of the children by her first marriage lived to maturity, and of these, Elmer resides in San Francisco, Isabelle is the widow of Jesse Doss and resides in Lake county, and Luella is the wife of William Bernhardt, and resides at Gardner, Douglas county, Ore. Mr. and Mrs. Essig have become the parents of four children, two sons and two daughters, all of whom are well known in Humboldt county. They are : Hattie, the wife of Harry Thompson, an engineer of the Pacific Lumber Company at Shively, and the mother of three children, John, Donald, and Glenn ; Fred, a student at the University of California, at Berkeley; Charles, an electrician, with the Western Electric Company, in San Francisco; and Caroline, the wife of Lester Thornton, residing in Fortuna, and the mother of one child, a son, Maxwell. Mr. Essig's first wife left him two little sons, who were aged, respectively, four and six years at the time of his second marriage, and they were reared by the present Mrs. Essig as her own. Of these, the elder, Samuel H., is horticultural inspector in Ventura county, and married to Miss Hazel Crabtree, of Rohnerville ; and Edward Oliver is professor of entomology at the University of California, at Berkeley, and the author of "Injurious and Beneficial Insects of California," ex-secretary of the State Board of Horticulture, and an expert horticulturist and an authority on this subject. He is married to Miss Ethel M. Langford, of Eureka.

Mr. Essig continued to reside in Sonoma county for two years after his second marriage, and then removed to Calistoga, Napa county, where he remained for three years, then going to Oregon, where he farmed at Florence, Lane county, for another three years. At the end of this time he came to Humboldt county, and has since resided here. He located at Fortuna, in February, 1895, farming and working for the Pacific Lumber Company in various capacities, and meeting with success in all his undertakings. He has taken an active part in the political and municipal affairs of his community since coming to Shively and is one of the most influential men of this part of the county. He is a Democrat, but is broader than any party and gives his support to • the measures that are most beneficial to the community, and to the candidates who are best fitted to render valuable public service. Mr. Essig is keenly alive to the value of education, and has given to each of his children the best educational advantages that the day affords. In local educational matters he is always for giving the best of school advantages to the boys and girls, and has rendered valuable service as a member of the school board and has served as clerk of the board. He is also a member of and clerk of Shively Farm Center.

OSCAR RASSAERT.—A well known architect and chemist, as well as inventor and mining man, one who for some years has been intensely interested in scientific research regarding the extraction of valuable metals from the black sand, is Oscar Rassaert, a man of whom this state may well be proud. He has perfected a plan in which by an electrical chemical process he has been enabled to make a perfect separation of gold, platinum and iridium by amalgamation. He has also invented a machine, which he is now building at Eureka, Cal., for concentrating the sand and gravel before the separating process, having also built an extracting plant in the same town, enabling miners to get values extracted at a minimum expense. It will thus be seen that the genius of Mr. Rassaert has brought forward another industry in the county, and one that materially benefits the mining interests of the entire state.

The Rassaert family is of Belgian extraction, being traced back in that country to the year 1342, and its members were prominent in the mercantile interests of their native land. Mr. Rassaert's father, Prosper, was a successful architect and contractor in the city of Ghent, Belgium, where he became one of the prominent and wealthy citizens, and there his son Oscar was born and received a thorough education in private and high schools, after which he began the study of architecture in the Academie of Beaux Arts of Ghent, and graduated with the diploma of architect and engineer. Practicing in the city of Ghent and perfecting plans for buildings not only in that city, but throughout Belgium, Mr. Rassaert spent his vacations in travel in various countries of Europe, where he continued his study of architecture. His was a profession which took him far afield, for in 1903 he set out for Lima, Peru, to compete for the plans for the Grand Opera House in that South American city, but on his arrival in San Francisco, Cal., he learned that, on account of political troubles in Peru and consequent turmoil there, it would not be advisable for him to continue his journey to Lima. Accordingly, he concluded to remain in San Francisco. He was instrumental in forming the Ferrolite Company, architects and builders, who were engaged in building in that city, and after the great fire in its rebuilding. They also experimented for the Western Fuel Company, wherein they made the first successful ex.- periments with reinforced concrete. On account of his health, in the autumn of 1906 Mr. Rassaert went into the mountains to recuperate, and while in Plumas county became interested in placer mining, his knowledge of chemistry leading him to experiment and study to discover a manner of extracting gold from the black sand, and by his success in this experiment was the first man to accomplish the endeavor. During this period Mr. Rassaert visited many different mining districts of California, in 1912 coming to Humboldt county, where the Johnson mine was located north of Gold Bluff. A year later he purchased the lease of the Gold Bluff mine, which he has operated continuously since that time, the mine being situated seven miles north of the town of Orick, on the Pacific ocean, and extending for two miles along the coast. Here the ocean waves take the first step in the concentration process as they break against the bluff, whereafter the machine invented by Mr. Rassaert concentrates the beach sand containing valuable metals, separating by his original process the metals from the black sand ; and as he also does the separating of the metals he thus obtains the largest possible values from them.

It will thus be seen that Mr. Rassaert is a man who gets results by his own energy and brain ; he works entirely for the end in view, and thus is enabled to accomplish his ambition and thus, too, by his enterprise and progressive spirit he has made a success of mining to a greater extent and in different and more original ways than most men. Indeed, his is a career which many might do well to emulate.

HITIE ROBINSON.—A stirring young man of energy and business ability, honest, fearless, and a hard worker, Hitie Robinson is making his mark in the commercial life of Humboldt county as a dealer in fresh and cured meats of all kinds, and also engaged in buying and selling beef, hogs, dairy cows and sheep. He has a market at Shively, where he makes his home. The management of the slaughter-houses, the buying and selling, and also the management of the market, are attended to by Mr. Robinson, duties which he is discharging with great ability and financial profit. His trade in live stock is large and is constantly increasing.

A native of California and of Humboldt county, Mr. Robinson was born at Rio Dell, April 14, 1877. His father, Seth Robinson, owns a ranch at Shively, where he now makes his home. He was a native of Ohio, and came to California in 1851, locating in Humboldt county in 1853 or 1854, and has since made this county his home. He has been engaged in farming during this entire time, and for many years was dairy farmer for the Joseph Russ ranches, looking after as many as thirteen dairies. He is now eighty-two years of age. Hitie Robinson attended the local schools and later spent three years in Eureka, where he attended the Phelps Academy. His first business venture was as a teamster, contracting for the getting out of piling, bolts, and all kinds of split timber and telephone poles. He continued in the contracting business until he engaged in his present occupation in 1913.
The marriage of Mr. Robinson and Miss Rosa Emhoff took place in 1900. Of their union has been born one child, a son, Gilbert. Mr. Robinson takes an active part in local political affairs, and has rendered valuable service to his community as justice of the peace, to which office he was first appointed in 1908,, and was regularly elected in 1910. He was not a candidate for re-election, as the duties of the office require more time than he can give from his private business. In his political views Mr. Robinson is a Republican and stands high in the councils of his party in all local affairs.

BERT Q. KEESEY.—A native of Ohio, where he had made a success of stock-raising before he came to California, Bert Q. Keesey is now one of the well known fruit-growers and market-gardeners of the southern part of Humboldt county, making his home near Pepperwood, where he operates a ranch of forty acres. Mr. Keesey is industrious and progressive, the type of man that always succeeds in whatever he undertakes, because of the value and fidelity of his service, his splendid judgment and his careful attention to details. His father before him was engaged in market-gardening on a large scale in Ohio, and it seems an inherited ability with Mr. Keesey to till the soil and secure phenomenal results with fruits and vegetables, and he is never happier than when so engaged.

Mr. Keesey was born at Cadiz, Ohio, August 31, 1870, where he was reared and educated, learning to work on his father's farm and in his gardens. His father, James B. Keesey, was a German, of frugal and industrious type, and the son learned the value of the conservation of all resources and attention to detail when he was a small boy. He became engaged in the stock business at Cadiz when he was a young man and met with much success. He was married there, August 3, 1890, to Miss Carrie L. Nichols, also a native of Cadiz, and they have six children : Harry is an automobile driver in San Francisco and a machinist by trade; Charles is a musician in Eureka, Paul, Laurance, Ray and Chester are still at home.

The first trip that Mr. Keesey made to California was in 1895, and for a year he remained in the southern part of the state, coming to Humboldt county in October of that year, and buying a small place at Fortuna. For two summers he returned to Arkansas, where he was then making his home, but eventually returned to Humboldt county to reside permanently, bringing his wife and family with him. He now rents a forty-acre ranch on which he raises apples and other fruits, including small fruits and berries in abundance. All kinds of vegetables are grown and the entire place is in a splendid condition and one of the best cared for ranches in the vicinity. He retails the vegetables, making trips as far as Loleta and Ferndale.

The local affairs of the community have always been of vital importance to Mr. Keesey and he is especially well informed on all economic and educational subjects. He is a careful student, and in his political views is a Socialist. He is progressive and broad-minded and as a thinker is well in advance of his time. He is a member of the Modern Woodmen. His keenest interest, however, lies in the farm bureau of Humboldt county, in which he is an influential worker, being a member of the farm center at Rohnerville. Mrs. Keesey is the close companion and friend of her husband in all his business undertakings and is a member of the Christian church in Fortuna.

MATT L. WARNER.—Although a native of Texas, Matt L. Warner is descended from old California pioneer families, both his parents being natives of this state, and his grandparents respected pioneers of an early day, coming from Ohio and crossing the plains with ox-teams in 1849. Business interests took his parents to Texas, and there he was born, August 30, 1882, the son of Edmund and Rebekah (Amen) Warner. His mother was a native of Petaluma, and the family is well known there at this time_ The father was a cabinet-maker, and died in Texas, their son, Matt L., being the only child born of their union. After the death of her husband, Mrs. Warner returned to California, locating in Los Angeles, where she died in 1898. After the death of his mother the son came to Humboldt county to make his home with an uncle, A. E. Amen, also a native of California, and residing at Pepperwood, where he has since made his home. He attended school both here and in Los Angeles, receiving a good education.

Since reaching his majority, young Mr. Warner has been in business for the greater part of his time in Pepperwood, being engaged in the general mercantile business, and has a splendid trade. Mr. Warner is also postmaster at Pepperwood, having received his appointment in 1914, and having since that time given splendid satisfaction in his new duties. He is a young man of exemplary habits and of exceptionally good character. His marriage occurred in 1903, uniting him to Miss Caroline Alice Winemiller, the daughter of Mrs. S. C. Winemiller, and a native of Humboldt county. She has borne her husband four children, namely : Wesley, Jiovanni,, Newell and Clyde.

Mrs. S. C. Winemiller is a native of Iowa, and was formerly Miss Sarah C. Thompson. She was only a small child when her parents came to California, and she was reared and educated in this state. Mrs. Winemiller is a woman of much ability and withal has lost none of her true womanliness and old-fashioned charm of manner and speech, although entirely modern in business comprehension and appreciation. She has a host of friends in Pepperwood and vicinity, where she has resided for many years.

GEORGE W. McKINNON, M. D.—It was the privilege of Dr. McKinnon to receive his medical training in one of the greatest universities of America, an institution noted for the superior talents possessed by members of its faculty and also for the high character of its student body, this being none other than McGill University of Montreal, from whose medical department he was graduated in 1888 with an exceptional standing and with the thorough preparation necessary for the attainment of professional success. Prior to attendance at the famous Canadian college he had alternated attendance at local schools with work on the home farm on Prince Edward Island, where he was born February 22, 1867, and. where his parents were of the hard-working but unusually efficient agricultural class. Two years after he had completed the studies of the university he came to California and opened an office in Eureka with Dr. William H. Wallace as an associate in professional work.

A partnership of remarkable harmony came to an end in 1898 with the removal of Dr. McKinnon to Arcata, where he has since engaged in general practice, becoming widely known throughout all this section of the county and rising to local prominence solely through his own merit as a physician and surgeon. The need of a hospital at this point impressed him forcibly from the first and in 1909 he carried out a long-felt desire in the building of Trinity hospital at Arcata, a modern structure of twenty-five beds, up-to-date equipment and every facility for the efficient care of the sick. Two permanent trained nurses are employed at the hospital and others are available if needed. The Doctor has been deeply interested in every movement pertaining to medical work and has studied current literature with painstaking zeal. During 1908 he was honored with the presidency of the Humboldt County Medical Association and besides he is connected with the California State and American Medical Associations. Fraternally he is a member of the orders of Elks, Eagles and Knights of Columbus. By his marriage to Miss Annie Richert, a native of California, he is the father of two sons, Harold R. and Wilfred C., both of whom are receiving excellent educational advantages.

JOHN W. BRYAN.—As one of the pioneer hotel men of Humboldt county, his father having been in this business when he was a child, John W. Bryan is well known to the traveling public and is highly esteemed by all who know him. He purchased his present place, which he named Bryan's Rest, a delightful summer resort, in 1890, and, with the aid of his wife, has made a splendid success of its management. He has one hundred twenty acres in the ranch, and the location is ideal for a tourist resort, being located on the Eel river, and having all the advantages of beauty of scenery, splendid table, with home cooking, fruits and vegetables, eggs, butter, milk and cream, supplied from the home farm orchards and gardens. The transportation facilities are also of the best, Bryan's Rest being directly on the line of the Northwestern Pacific Railway, with a station of its own, called Bryan. Mr. Bryan is an ideal host for such a place, being of that genial, happy-hearted disposition which immediately puts his guests at ease, and possessing those indispensable qualities of the capable landlord, the ability to anticipate their every wish, and satisfy it almost before it is made known. Both Mr. and Mrs. Bryan have had many years of successful hotel experience, having had charge of the leading .hotel in Fortuna for many years, and many of the guests that come regularly to Bryan's Rest are old friends of the former days.

Mr. Bryan is a native of Ohio, born in Adams county, as was also his father, William H. Bryan, and his mother, Frances J. Lockwood. The father was engaged in farming in Ohio, and in 1870, when John W. was sixteen years of age (he having been born July 20, 1854), the family removed to La Salle county, Ill., where they remained for two years. In 1872 the family, consisting at that time of the parents and five children, came to California, locating in Monterey county, at Monterey, where they remained for four years, the father being engaged in the hotel business and also owning and managing a livery stable. In 1876 they came to Rohnerville, Humboldt county, where the father was elected justice of the peace and appointed a notary, and for many years maintained al office there. H e died in Rohnerville in 1908, at the age of seventy-four years, after a protracted illness lasting four years. The mother passed away three years before this time. They had five children : Martha, now Mrs. Van Sickle, of Rohnerville ; John W., the subject of this article ; Maggie, who was Mrs. Thomas Thompson, a resident of San Francisco, where she died, leaving two children ; Albert, married and living in San Francisco, where he died, leaving no children ; and Oscar, who was drowned in Bull creek when he was eighteen years of age, while teaching school.

When he first came to Rohnerville Mr. Bryan started out for himself and worked at various occupations, generally being employed on the farms of the vicinity. When he was thirty years of age, August 2, 1884, he was married in Rohnerville to Miss Maggie McDaniel, a native of Albany, Linn county, Oregon, and soon afterward they went to Rohnerville, where they conducted the Bryan House, meeting with merited success. Later they conducted the principal hotel in Fortuna, and in 1890 they purchased their present place, which they named Bryan's Rest. They have made many improvements and their accommodations are strictly modern and up to date. Their hotel building is a two-story structure, forty by fifty feet, and is attractive and comfortable. The ranch is a very valuable one, and Mr. Bryan has fifty-five acres in Eel River bottoms under a high state of cultivation. The land is very rich, and with present shipping facilities the products are so easily marketed that it is especially valuable.

Mrs. Bryan is a daughter of Austin and Mary (Wilkinson) McDaniel, born in Virginia and Kentucky, respectively ; they were married in Kentucky and crossed the plains to Oregon, where he engaged in mining and farming. The mother died in Oregon, and the father then moved to California ; they had five children, four of whom are living, Mrs. Bryan being the second oldest.

Mr. and Mrs. Bryan have four children, all of whom are natives of this county, and are very popular, possessing their parents' rare charm of personality. The children are : Dr. Lloyd Bryan of Eureka, county physician and surgeon at the Sequoia Hospital, and who is extremely popular, is married and has a daughter, Jane ; Oscar Homer, a locomotive engineer on the Western Pacific Railroad, and married to Miss Marie Waldner, of this county, they having one child, a daughter, Doris ; Ray W., in the employ of the Humboldt Commercial Company, Eureka ; and Verna, a graduate of the Eureka High School, class of 1914.

Mr. Bryan is a member of the Knights of Pythias of F'rtuna, and has been through all the chairs. He is a Republican, is always interested in the cause of education, and it was largely through his efforts that Englewood district was formed. He built a school house this side and Mrs. Colonel George built one on the other side of the river, and they had school in one or the other, wherever most convenient. He was a trustee for many years.

WILSON WOOD.—One of the notable estates of southern Humboldt county is the old Jewett ranch of twenty-four hundred acres still owned and occupied by the heirs of the original proprietor, Enoch Phelps Jewett, and their families, the Woods, Grattos and Jewetts. Wilson Wood, who married one of the daughters of Enoch P. Jewett, is the eldest son of anothe- pioneer of the region, the late James E. Wood, at one time the owner of the celebrated Wood ranch, one and a quarter miles south of Garberville, a tract of twelve thousand acres now owned by Toobey Brothers. A man of stirring disposition and ambitious nature, he improved that immense place and for years was heavily interested in sheep and other stock as well as agricultural operations to some extent.

James E. Wood was a native of Whitehall, Greene county, Ill., born March 14, 1827, and died in southern Humboldt county, Cal., in 1907, aged eighty years. He had an eventful, busy and useful life. Coming to California in 1858, he mined for a time in Plumas and Nevada counties, and then engaged in hunting, supplying provisions to the government. About 1859-60 he settled in the vicinity of Garberville, Humboldt county, where he became very extensively engaged in the stock business, owning and operating what has been known since his time as the Wood ranch, about twelve thousand acres situated along the south fork of the Eel river. In his later life, however, owing to the hard times he met with financial reverses, and he lost the accumulations of a lifetime of thrift and well directed industry, through no fault of his own. Through his enterprise he developed and improved a vast tract of valuable land, and to his energy was due much of the advancement made in that part of Humboldt county during the last generation. He was respected for his upright character, and his descendants are representative citizens of the county.

Mr. Wood was twice married, and Wilson was the only child of the first union that grew to maturity. For his second wife he married Miss Laura Webb, who survives him, now making her home at Rohnerville, this county, and she became the mother of seventeen children, of whom we have the following record : Julia ; Charles W., who married Lena Linser, and who has large interests at Briceland and Garberville ; Mary Elizabeth ; Alice, who lives with her mother at Rohnerville; Olive ; Ella, Mrs. Hadley, of Petrolia ; George, who died when two years old ; Nancy, who married and died leaving three children ; Nellie, deceased in infancy ; Louis, who died when ten years old, of injuries received by a horse falling on him ; John, of San Diego, Cal. ; Della, who died at Petrolia when fifteen years old ; Leora Edna ; Edith, of Hardy, Cal.; James, a resident -of Humboldt county ; Frank, of Rohnerville ; and Frances, who lives in Washington state.

Wilson Wood was born November 29, 1866, on the Wood ranch in Humboldt county, and there spent his childhood and early manhood, attending the public schools in the local country district and beginning to help his father as soon as possible. He remained at home until his marriage, taking an active part in the improvement of the estate, and after a few years' experience on other ranches settled with his wife on the Jewett ranch, where they have resided continuously since 1892. Though the property has been divided, each of the heirs owning distinct herds and droves and carrying on independent operations, the large tract is fenced altogether, and the Wood, Jewett and Gratto families have many interests in common. The property of Mr. and Mrs. Wood now comprises eight hundred acres, in the management and systematic cultivation of which he has shown the value of his early training. He raises high-grade cattle, and makes a specialty of breeding Yorkshire hogs. As a progressive citizen Mr. Wood has proved a worthy son of his father, using his influence for the promotion of the best movements, and taking an active part in the local welfare. He has exerted himself especially in the cause of public educational facilities, and is a school trustee and president of the board. His religious principles are based on the teachings of the Golden Rule.

When twenty-four years old Mr. Wood married Miss Maria C. Jewett, daughter of the late Enoch Phelps Jewett, and they have two children: Howard C. J., and Enoch Phelps J., both of whom reside at home and assist in the operation of the ranch. It is located two and a half miles east of Harris.

Enoch Phelps Jewett, father of Mrs. Maria C. (Jewett) Wood, was a native of Springfield, Mass., and a member of a family well known in that state from Colonial days and represented in the Revolutionary war on the colonists' side. A genealogy of this family, in two volumes, has recently been published. Its earliest progenitor in America, Deacon Maximilian Jewett, was born in England in 1607, son of Edward Jewett, a cloth manufacturer at Bradford, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. He married in his native country, and in 1638 sailed with his wife from Hull, England, in the ship John, as members of a colony under the leadership of Rev. Ezekiel Rogers. They arrived at Boston, December 1, 1638, spent the winter at Salem, and in the spring of 1639 founded the town of Rowley, in the Massachusetts Bay colony. Deacon Jewett's descendants in every generation have been noted for vigor of intellect and high moral character, and the branch of the family in Humboldt county, Cal., has been no exception to the rule.

Stephen Jewett, great-grandfather of Enoch Phelps Jewett, was born • October 5, 1736, in Thompson, Conn., and moved to Lanesboro, Mass. His wife was Mehitable Harris. He was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, a sergeant in the company of Asa Barnes, Col. B. Ruggles Woodbridge's regiment, muster roll dated August 1, 1775 ; entered May 17, 1775, service two months, sixteen days.

Timothy Jewett, son of Stephen, was born March 5, 1763, in Lanesboro, Mass., and like his father was a Revolutionary soldier, his record reading as follows : "Timothy Jewett, private, Capt. David Wheeler's company, Col. Benjamin Simonds' regiment ; service eight days; company marched from Lanesboro to Manchester, October 12, 1780." He married Elizabeth Phelps.

Enoch Phelps Jewett, son of Timothy and Elizabeth (Phelps) Jewett, learned the trade of tailor, but was only a youth when he shipped on a whaler, sailing from the port of Boston. He made voyages to both the Arctic and Antarctic oceans, around Cape Horn and north to San Francisco, where he took "French leave" of the ship. This was in 1843, when California was still Mexican 'territory. He remained at San Francisco until 1848, and assisted in making the first, second and third surveys of the city and bay. Having decided to return to the east overland, he had proceeded as far as Salt Lake City when he heard of the gold finds, and hoping to make a fortune in the mines retraced his steps, going up to the north fork of the Feather river. He spent five or six years at Hangtown (now Placerville), and took part in the gruesome affair from which the place derived its early name, helping to arrest, try and execute three desperadoes. They were made to stand up in a wagon box with the ropes adjusted about their necks and attached to the limb of a tree, and Mr. Jewett drove the team hitched to the wagon. He not only mined, but also ran a store and market at Hangtown. Later he moved to the Sacramento valley, where he was engaged in ranching, and for a time he was in Hull's valley, hunting deer. Two of his party were killed by the Indians, and in this and other experiences he had the dangers of life in the early days brought very near to him. For a few years he was located in the Sherwood valley, in Mendocino county, raising cattle, hogs and horses, and in March, 1863, he came up to what was then known as Little valley, in Humboldt county, but which was renamed Jewett's valley in his honor. Here he bought a squatter's claim of one thousand acres, and drove in the first cattle, horses and hogs ever brought into the valley. There are many landmarks now in the vicinity which perpetuate his name. Jewett's Peak, in full view from the little mountain town of Harris, stands like a sentinel in the midst of picturesque scenery, and Jewett's creek is another local feature.

Mr. Jewett had twenty-five hundred sheep, two hundred head of cattle and one hundred horses (principally saddle horses), and his sons worked with him in the cultivation of the ranch and the conduct of its various interests, becoming expert horsemen and cattlemen, and raisers of sheep and saddle horses. Here Enoch P. Jewett made his home during the last thirty-five years of his life, becoming one of the well known figures who bore a large share in the advancement and development of the locality, where he was honored for his admirable 'personal qualities as well as for his success in his business ventures. He added to his original holdings materially, until he owned twenty-four hundred acres, now in the possession of his four children, who have taken proper pride in the preservation of the estate.

By his marriage to Miss Belle Fenton, a native of Trinity county, Cal., Mr. Jewett had a family of four children : John Howard, who is extensively interested in the raising of saddle and stage horses; Martha Asenath, wife of George McDonald Gratto, of Harris; Edwin C., who is engaged in the raising of cattle and hogs ; and Maria C., wife of Wilson Wood. Mr. Jewett died in 1898, at the age of seventy-three years, surviving his wife, whose death occurred twenty-six years ago.

JOHN W. BOWDEN.—An interesting career, and one that holds promise of still greater success, is that of John W. Bowden, of Garberville, rancher, oil promoter and general business man, who is one of the most prominent young men in Humboldt county, and one whose splendid good fortune is the direct result of his own untiring efforts. Mr. Bowden is descended from a long line of distinguished ancestry, dating back through the colonial days to England, and numbering many men and women of note on both sides. His mother is a cousin of Nathaniel Hawthorne, the poet, and is herself an authoress of note, while on the father's side there are men of courage and brave deeds by the score. This favored son seems to have manifested many of the splendid traits of his forbears, and his financial success, personal popularity and integrity of character are acknowledged by all who know him.

Mr. Bowden is a native of Maine, having been born at Jefferson, Lincoln county, February 8, 1870. His father, William H. Bowden, a farmer, was also a native of Maine, where he died when this son was a lad of seven years. His mother is still living at the age of seventy-one, making her home in San Luis Obispo. She has given much time and thought to literary work and one of her published volumes is dedicated to her children. She is a poetess and prose writer of rare ability and her writings have been well received. The progenitor of the American branch of the Bowden family was Gideon Bowden, who came to this country from England and settled at Boothbay, Me., early in the eighteenth century. One of his sons married Jane Murphy, the first white child to be born between the Penobscot and Kennebec rivers, and they became the ancestors of a long line, the wife living to be a great-great-grandmother. On the side of the mother, who was in girlhood Miss Caroline E. Philbrick, Mr. Bowden is related not only to the famous poet (Nathaniel Hawthorne), but also by direct descent to Asa Bartlett, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence.

The boyhood days of Mr. Bowden were spent in Maine, where he assumed the responsibilities of life at an early age. His father owned a small farm, free from debt, but not profitable enough to provide for the family, and so he went to work at the age of eleven years on a neighboring farm, attending school in the winter months and working during vacations and at odd times. There were five children in the family, three sons and two daughters, namely : John W., present esteemed citizen of Garberville; William H., residing at Shelter Cove ; Della, the wife of Henry Bryant, residing in San Francisco ; Belle, wife of Fred Jenks, residing at Willowbrook, Los Angeles county ; and Charles, a farmer and dairyman at San Luis Obispo. From his earliest boyhood Mr. Bowden was very practical in his ideas and when he worked he always managed to save something of his earnings. Accordingly in 1886, when he was sixteen years of age, he had saved enough to bring him to California, and leaving his family home at Jefferson, he made the trip alone, coming first to San Luis Obispo, where he secured employment with Judge Beebee as office boy in his lumber office, remaining there for two years. His mother and the remaining members of the family joined him in 1888, and he purchased a little place where his mother still makes her home. Later he went to San Francisco and took a course in civil engineering at the Van der Nailen School of Civil Engineering, graduating with the class of 1893. For a time he pursued this occupation in the southern part of the state, but later came to northern California, landing at Shelter Cove in 1894. In the fall of 1896 he opened a general merchandise business at Briceland, and for seventeen years conducted it as an independent enterprise with the greatest success. In 1904 his brother, William H. Bowden, came to Humboldt county and a partnership was formed between the two, which still continues in some lines. Together they purchased the drug store formerly conducted by C. J. Swithenbank, and William H. Bowden took charge of that while John W. conducted the general merchandise business. In 1908 another business expansion was made, the brothers purchasing the one-half interest of the Notley Brothers in the store and wharf at Shelter Cove, the remaining half interest being the property of the Wagner Leather Company of Stockton. This business has since been incorporated and is now known as the Shelter Cove Wharf & Warehouse Company, capitalized at $30,000. They have improved the wharf and now have first-class wharfage accommodations, where steamers of fourteen feet draft can easily and safely dock. It is anticipated that the question of the United States government's establishing a Harbor of Refuge south of Eureka will eventually be decided in favor of Shelter Cove.

Recently Mr. Bowden has become actively interested in ranch property and in oil lands, the latter industry being his especial esthusiasm at this time. He disposed of his store at Briceland in 1913 to Leslie Kehoe, lately of Alaska, and has given up the merchandising business. In 1912 he purchased the Kemper Brothers ranch, a property of eight hundred acres located two and a half miles south of Garberville, which he operates at present. He is planning to cut this tract up into smaller ranches and dispose of it for home farms, which are in demand in the locality. He also owns some eight hundred acres of timber land, covered with much valuable timber.

His interest in the oil industry is not a new idea with Mr. Bowden, he having made a careful study of the conditions in this locality for several years, and being convinced that there are large deposits of oil here, he is determined to develop the industry in southern Humboldt county. The seepage of oil is very evident in many places, and natural gas is found in sufficient quantities and of such quality that it is used for heating and lighting purposes in Briceland. A company has been formed with John W. Bowden as president, C. J. Swithenbank as secretary-treasurer, and M. D. Shaw as vice-president and manager, and they are at present engaged in drilling for oil on their properties.

The marriage of Mr. Bowden took place in San Francisco in 1898, uniting him with Miss Lottie Kehoe, a native of Pennsylvania but reared at Rohnerville, Cal., an own sister of Senator William Kehoe, of Eureka. Of this union has been born one child, Clara D.

Aside from his splendid business abilities, Mr. Bowden is well known socially and fraternally and possesses a host of warm friends and admirers. He is an old line Republican and a stanch party man. He is progressive and alive on all public questions and always in favor of all measures that tend toward the general betterment of the community. He favors strictly business methods in municipal and state government and stands firmly for the principles advocated by his party. Altogether, Mr. Bowden is a citizen of whom the county may well be proud. His work has been strictly along developmental lines, and he has been an important factor in the history of the county in that he has been instrumental in opening up various lines of endeavor, extending and developing them, and so increasing the wealth and opportunities that the community offered to the general public. This is his great desire in the oil industry, and he is striving to demonstrate the possibilities and great hidden wealth of the locality, rather than working for mere personal gain.

JOSEPH CASACCA.—From the canton of Ticino, in Switzerland, Joseph Casacca came to make his home in California, having heard there were great opportunities for young men in this new country. Brought up on his father's dairy farm in the Alps, Joseph Casacca was already well initiated in the dairy business, which he has followed industriously and with marked success since coming to America.

Born in Gordola, Switzerland, March 19, 1872, Mr. Casacca was the son of John and Carmilla (Scaroni) Casacca, both of whom are now deceased, and of their family of eight children five are now living, namely : Joseph, a dairyman in Humboldt county, Cal. ; Albert, residing in San: Francisco ; Celeste, also living in San Francisco ; Marion, in the employ of the elder brother Joseph ; and Louis, who remains on the old home farm in the Alps. At the age of twenty-one years, having received his education in the local public schools, and spent some time assisting his father upon the farm, Joseph Casacca determined to come to California, and in May, 1893, arrived in Sonoma county, where for fourteen months he was employed on a dairy at Lakeville, in July of the next year removing to Humboldt county, where he was employed on different dairies in the neighborhood of Waddington for about nine years. By that time, having saved sufficient money to enable his starting in business independently, Mr. Casacca in 1903 leased the Pleasant Point ranch of sixty acres near Waddington, where for a period of five years he conducted a dairy of twenty cows. Removing thence to the Eel river island he there leased the old Sam Fulmore place of sixty-two acres of bottom land, where he raises large crops of hay, grain, clover, corn, carrots and beets, and milks a herd of thirty-four cows, all fed upon the estate.

Besides being a stockholder in the Valley Flower Creamery Company, Mr. Casacca is a member of the Woodmen of the World, his wife being a member of the Women of Woodcraft. His marriage took place in Ferndale, his wife having formerly been Miss Cora Mead, a native of Oregon and daughter of Alfred Mead, a pioneer of Oregon and California now residing at Bridgeville, this county. Mr. and Mrs. Casacca are the parents of three children, by name Mabel, Florence and Lloyd.

MARTIN AMBROSINI.—For many years Martin Ambrosini has been a resident of the state of California, whither he was attracted by the good reports he had heard of the opportunities for farming and dairying in Humboldt county, numerous of his countrymen having already come to this part of the United States to seek their fortunes.

Switzerland is the native land of Mr. Ambrosini, and his birth occurred on December 11, 1855, in the town of Lodrino, in the Canton of Ticino, where his father, Peter, was a farmer and dairyman. The father, and also the mother, who was formerly Petronella Martinolli, are now both dead, and of their five children, Martin, the youngest, is the only one now living. His boyhood was spent on his father's farm in the Alps region, and he received his education in the local public schools. At the age of twenty years, responding to the law of his country, he entered the infantry regiment, where he served his time until honorably discharged, after which he continued to assist his father upon the home farm, until the determination to try his luck in the new country led him to leave his home for California, a change which he has never found cause to regret. May 1, 1882, saw him in Eureka, Humboldt county, Cal., and he commenced his career with humble employment in dairies on Bear River Ridge and near Ferndale. When he had accumulated considerable means by faithful work and wise economy, Mr. Ambrosini looked about for an investment and in 1895 purchased twenty acres on the Island, two and one-half miles from the town of Ferndale. This he improved to a great extent, and has engaged in the dairy business there since that time, owning a herd of fifteen cows. The land consisting of rich soil, he is enabled to raise large crops of hay and green feed, so that all the fodder for his cattle is supplied by his own ranch. At a later date he added to his property by the purchase of thirty additional acres on the county road, but this he does not make use of individually, but has rented it for dairy purposes to another party.

Among the oldest Swiss citizens of the county, Mr. Ambrosini is well known here as a man of integrity and steady purpose, one whose residence here is a benefit to the community where both he and his wife are known for their geniality and hospitality. Mr. Ambrosini's marriage took place in Ferndale, on November 3, 1894, his wife, formerly Miss Filomina Giulieri, having been born in Cognisco, in the same canton in Switzerland as Mr. Ambrosini, and having lived in Humboldt county, since February, 1893. Mr. and Mrs. Ambrosini are the parents of three children, Lillian, now Mrs. Biondini of Ferndale ; and Ida and Sadie, who make their home with their parents in Ferndale. In his political interests Mr. Ambrosini is an Independent.

JOHN LARSEN.—Among the prominent dairymen of Humboldt county, Cal., who have come from other lands to make their home in this country, should be mentioned John Larsen, who operates the Willow Brook dairy near Beatrice, Cal.
The native land of Mr. Larsen is Denmark, where his birth occurred April 23, 1874, at Kjedeby, Langeland, and there he attended the public schools and was brought up in the dairy business on the dairy farm of his father. In 1893 John Larsen removed to America, settling first in Marin county, Cal., where he was employed as a butter maker on a dairy farm until the year 1899, at which time he came to Ferndale, in Humboldt county, working here a year upon a dairy, and then, having saved sufficient money for the purpose, he determined to go into business for himself. He therefore in 1900 leased his present place, the Willow Brook ranch near the town of Beatrice, on the main road from Eureka, and ten miles south of the latter place. Here Mr. Larsen has been in business independently ever since, milking a dairy herd of fifty cows, mostly of Jersey stock, and, on his land of over two hundred acres, more than half of which is rich bottom land, he raises plenty of hay and green feed for his herd, and enjoys the advantages of springs and streams of running water. The interest which he takes in the dairy and creamery business is shown by the fact that he was one of the original stockholders in the Eclipse Creamery, which ships all its butter to San Francisco, and likewise a director of the same company from the time of its organization, as well as having at one time been its president and now its secretary. He is also a member of the Humboldt County Dairymen's Association and the Humboldt County Farm Bureau, while the Danish associations with which he is connected are the Dania and the Danish Brotherhood. In his religious interests he is a Lutheran, and politically he is a member of the Republican party. By his marriage in Ferndale to Miss Maria Christiansen, a native of Aero, Denmark, he is the father of one son, John Larsen, Jr.
A man who has grown up in the dairy business and has in later years made a conscientious study of the same, it is not strange that Mr. Larsen has attained the success in his chosen line of work which has been his; and aside from his business interests he is a great reader, and blessed with a retentive memory, so that he is a well informed and interesting conversationalist as well as a practical and successful business man.

ARTHUR ALEXANDER ROSS.—Though at present giving his time to the duties of his office as deputy sheriff of Humboldt county, Mr. Ross, until he assumed that position, was engaged in mechanical work, being a high-class boilermaker and expert in construction work. He has been engaged on many notably important structures, his reputation extending all over this section of the state. In his public service he has given evidence of the same efficiency which has characterized all his work. Coming to Eureka in boyhood, he has resided here much of the time since, and is a credit to the community. He was born in Humboldt county May 3, 1882, son of Stephen H. Ross, a resident of Eureka, born in Charlotte county, New Brunswick, in 1849. The father came to California when about sixteen years of age, and followed logging in the woods of Sonoma, Mendocino and Humboldt counties, becoming an expert driver of ox teams, which occupation he followed until they were superseded by steam power, since which time he has been woods foreman, and is at present foreman in the woods for the Pacific Lumber Company at Scotia. The father returned to New Brunswick, and at Saint Stephen, was married to Miss Mary Amanda Armstrong, who was a native of Charlotte county, New Brunswick. They have had two children, Ethel J. and Arthur Alexander, the daughter now the wife of E. C. Langford, a boilermaker, formerly connected with the Eureka Boiler Works at Eureka, but now manager of the Eureka News Company.

Arthur Alexander Ross was four years old when his parents moved to Fortuna, where he lived until .1894. He had good public school advantages in his boyhood, and on January 1, 1899, when in his seventeenth year, entered the Eureka Boiler Works, where he served a thorough apprenticeship, remaining there for a period of six years. Meantime he had supplemented his early education with a course in the Eureka business college, which he completed in December, 1906. He continued work at his trade as boilermaker and general machinist, doing outside construction work for Mr. Langford, of the Eureka Boiler Works, in all for about five years, after which he went to Portland, Oregon, in 1905, where he became outside foreman for the Marine Iron Works. He also did work at his trade along the line of the Oregon River & Navigation Company in Oregon and Washington, and at West Berkeley, Cal. He again worked for Mr. Langford in the Eureka Boiler Works in 1907-08, and in 1908 took a position with the Western Steel Plate & Construction Company, of Portland, Oregon, for which he was engaged as foreman of construction in the state of California. In this connection he erected oil stills and cooling boxes at Oleum, near Crockett ; put up acid tanks for the DuPont Powder Company ; did work for the Union Oil Company at Fresno, Cal., where he put up four oil tanks ; put up a large tank for the California & Hawaiian Sugar Refining Company near Port Costa, its diameter being one hundred fifty feet and it being thirty feet in height. Returning once more to Eureka he resumed work with his old employer, Mr. Langford, until he took the position of deputy sheriff, to which he was appointed January 1, 1910, under Sheriff R. A. Redmond. His chief appreciates thoroughly the system and efficient methods which this capable young man has helped to introduce into the conduct of the sheriff's office, and the people have found him as trustworthy and public spirited as they expected, when his appointment was recommended. Personally he is a young man whose fine traits have appealed to all who have come in contact with him. The sheriff's office has never been in better condition than it is today or more ably conducted, a condition for which Mr. Ross should receive his share of credit. As a representative of substantial Humboldt county citizenship, and a man of exceptional qualities as proved by his conduct in all the relations of life, he deserves the high place he holds in the esteem of the people he is serving so faithfully. He is a member of the B. P. 0. E. and I. 0. 0. F. lodges at Eureka, and of the Eureka Development Association. Politically he is a Republican.

On March 17, 1907, Mr. Ross was married at Eureka to Miss Nettie Vreeland, a native of that city, daughter of John and Harriet (Stagg) Vreeland. Mr. and Mrs. Ross live with her parents at No. 815 N street, Eureka ; they have one child, Helen .Catherine.

CHARLES C. GIULIERI.—Since the year 1888, Charles Celeste Giulieri has made his home in California, having come here from Switzerland, whence two of his brothers had preceded him to the United States. Born in Cognasco, Ticino, Switzerland, February 15, 1872, Mr. Giulieri was the son of Dominic, a farmer of that place, where his death occurred in the year 1913, and Rosa (Calzascia) Giulieri, who died in 1892. The family of four brothers and one sister are all at present residents of the state of California, and are namely : Stephen, who is a dairyman, of Salmon Creek ; John, following the same occupation at Cock Robin Island, in Humboldt county ; Filomena, now Mrs. Martin Ambrosini, of Ferndale ; Charles Celeste, a dairyman of Beatrice ; and Enos, a dairyman at Table Bluff. Like his brothers, Charles Giulieri grew up on the home farm in Switzerland, receiving his education in the local public schools, when he was sixteen years of age removing to California, where two of his brothers were already living, his first employment in the new country being at a dairy in Calistoga, Napa county, where he remained for a period of nine months. Removing to Humboldt county, he was engaged in the same line of occupation at Bear River Ridge until 1891, when he went to Santa Barbara county, working at a dairy there for three years, after which he spent about five years in the same work in Plumas county. January of the year 1899 saw his return to Humboldt county, where, having saved his money, he engaged in the dairy business on an independent basis, with his brother Stephen purchasing a one-half interest in the Tierney ranch, two years later buying out his brother, since which time he has continued in business alone, meeting with much success in his occupation and becoming well and favorably known in that community. The estate is one of one hundred and twenty acres, situated on Salmon Creek, seventy acres of which are rich bottom land, whereon Mr. Giulieri is enabled to raise all the green feed necessary for his fine dairy herd which consists of forty-five cows, mostly of the Jersey breed. He is also the owner •of forty acres located about three miles northeast of Ferndale, which property he rents ; and together with his brother Stephen owns sixty acres on Salmon Creek where his brother conducts a dairy. Mr. Giulieri was one of the organizers of the Eclipse Creamery, and for many years a director therein, where his practical experience and fine success in the dairy business made him a valued assistant. In 1903 he made a trip to his old home, revisiting the scenes of his boyhood, a town which was also the childhood home of his wife, formerly Miss Albina Piini. Mr. and Mrs. Giulieri are the parents of four children, Rinaldo, Walter, Alfred and Emma Giulieri. In his political interests Mr. Giulieri is a member of the Republican party and fraternally he is allied with the Woodmen of the World in Loleta, Cal.

NIELS J. HANSEN.—A very interesting man, one who has sailed around the world, is well traveled, well read and a good conversationalist, Niels J. Hansen, of Ferndale, Cal., came to this country from far away Denmark, where he was born in Bagenkop, Langeland, July 15, 1860, the son of Hans. Hansen, a farmer of that fertile little island, who also owned a sloop and was engaged in the transportation of freight and followed the coasting trade for many years, the last part of his life being spent with his son Niels in Humboldt county, Cal.

The education of Niels Hansen was received in the public schools of his native land, and at the age of fourteen, having always been interested in sailing, he went to sea, visiting many different parts of the world, in the trade along the western coast of South America rounding Cape Horn several times in the German sailing vessel Mexico, sailing around the Cape of Good Hope also, and in the northern trade making trips to Iceland, in all following the sea for a period of eight years. Giving up this life, Mr. Hansen decided to make his home in California, and coming to Humboldt county, he arrived in Eureka on April 1, 1883. His first employment in this country was with Niss Nissen for a year, after which he was engaged in fishing in Eel river for a season, then working on the Bunker Hill ranch for a couple of years. In the year 1886 he purchased his present ranch of seventy-five acres on Cock Robin Island, in Humboldt county, which for some years he devoted to the purposes of dairying. In 1898 renting the place and selling his stock, Mr. Hansen joined the rush to the Alaska gold fields, going by the Stickeen River route to Tesland Lake at the head of the Yukon River. From the mouth of the Stickeen river to Telegraph Creek they hauled their provisions on hand sleds and from the latter place to Tesland Lake, one hundred fifty-six miles, where his company constructed boats by which they came down the Yukon to Dawson. The party wintered at Dawson, doing prospecting for others and also sortie logging, but the logs stranded and their work in that line was lost, their work at Dawson likewise not proving a success, on account of the failure of their employer, and although they brought suit, nothing was gained thereby. Leaving then for St. Michael's, they stopped at different places along the Yukon, finally taking a schooner for Seattle, Wash., arriving in Eureka, Cal., after a hard trip of two years' duration in the frozen north. Mr. Hansen then went to San Francisco, and secured work at Harbor View Baths, of which he had the management for seven years, resigning there in order to return to dairying once more, and is now the owner of a fine herd of fifty cows, mostly high grade Jerseys, and on his ranch on Cock Robin Island, which consists of very fertile soil, he is enabled to raise all the hay and green feed necessary for his herd. Besides his business interests, Mr. Hansen is also one of the original stockholders of the Valley Flower Creamery, is a member of the Ferndale Dairymen's Association, the Danish Brotherhood and Aurora Lodge No. 51, Knights of Pythias at Ferndale, of which he is past chancellor. He was married in Oakland, Cal., to Miss Harriet Boyd, who was born in St. Louis, Mo.

CHARLES FREMONT GOFF.—Among the pioneer families in the region around Petrolia, in the Mattole valley, the Goffs have been well known for over fifty years, the family having resided there since 1859. Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Goff, parents of Charles F. Goff, the present postmaster at Petrolia and otherwise prominently associated with public affairs at that place, lived to see the locality reach its modern state of development, both having attained the ripe age of ninety years, passing away only a few years ago. They were widely known among the early residents, and even in the days when hospitality . was almost a necessary virtue were noted for the cheer and kindly welcome given to all who came to their door, their generosity and liberality reflecting the best sentiments which prevailed in the locality.

Stephen Goff was a Southerner, born in Guilford county, N. C., January 17, 1811. When a young man he moved out to Wisconsin, where he lived until some time after his marriage, and during that period he served in the Black Hawk war, from the time of his enlistment to the end of the trouble ; in his later years he received a pension for this military service. By occupation he was a carpenter. In the year 1849 he came across the plains to the Pacific coast with a train of ox wagons, leaving his family in Wisconsin. Going up to Oregon, he was engaged in the stock business there for the next five years, and returned to the east by way of the isthmus. The voyage from Aspinwall (now Colon) to New York City was made in a United States mail steamer, and was marked by at least one exciting incident. A Spanish war vessel fired two shots across the bow of the ship to halt her, and a Spanish officer came aboard and made a hasty examination, the ship being allowed to proceed as soon as he retired. Mr. Goff rejoined his family in Wisconsin and in 1855 set out with them for the west by the plains route. Their first stop in California was in Shasta county, and in 1857 they came to Humboldt county, living about one year at Rohnerville before removing to Petrolia, in the Mattole valley, where they settled in 1859. The Indians were active and hostile at the time, and after several white men had been killed the government troops at Eureka were sent down to protect the settlers. The Goffs were here throughout the primitive period, and have done their share toward the opening up and improvement of the country, not only from a material point of view, but through their support and encouragement of the best influences set on foot in the vicinity. Mr. Goff bought the property on the Mattole river known as the old Goff ranch, and there he made his home to the end of his long life. He worked industriously to rear his large family in comfort and to provide them with the best the times afforded. His progressive spirit made him the recipient of public honors in the early days. Even during his short residence in Oregon he had been elected to represent his district in the state legislature, and about 1862 he was elected assessor of Humboldt county, serving two successive terms ; his deputy was William H. Wallace. He always took an interest in the welfare of the county and in seeing good men in office.

At White Oak Springs, Wis., Mr. Goff met Miss Mary Deborah Hinton (born April 3, 1818), whom he married there, April 3, 1837, and who survived him six years, his death occurring March 11, 1902, hers in 1908, at their home place on the Mattole river. As previously mentioned, both lived to be over ninety years old. Airs. Goff was a famous nurse in the early days, and probably as popular and well known for her kindliness and sweet disposition as for her more practical qualities. In her professional capacity she was called upon to minister among all classes, and never lost an opportunity to relieve suffering and pain, or to do a generous or gracious act, especially among the poor and needy. She attended many births, and being a woman of intelligent mind realized the necessity for records and their value and took the pains to record births and deaths in the valley for a long period. Her benign and helpful character endeared her to a wide circle which appreciated the good she did in her unselfish life, and she is held in loving memory all over the territory where so many years of her life were spent. To Mr. and Mrs. Goff were born twelve children : Elender married William Edington, of Sioux Falls, S. Dak., and died leaving three sons : Anna A., the widow of Joel Benton, lives at Oakland, Cal.; James H. married Mary Patrick, and died leaving five sons; Silas M., a stockman, of Baker City, Ore., married Miss Sarah Crank ; Stephen T., who lives at Heppner, Ore., married Clara Patterson ; Thomas H. married Sarah Goodman, and both are deceased ; John B., a stockman, is located at Lone Rock, Ore. ; Mary is the wife of Frank Gouthier, of Coquille, Ore., a stockman ; Charles F. is mentioned below ; Harry C., deceased ; Lillie M. died when sixteen years old ; the eldest child was a son that died in infancy.

Charles F. Goff was born February 9, 1860, at Petrolia, on the old Goff ranch down the Mattole river, and grew up there. He received a good public school education in Petrolia district. Remaining with his parents until after he attained his majority, he went to Oregon in the year 1882 and lived there over ten years, principally in Grant county. In 1893 he returned to his native county and resumed work on the homestead ranch, where he remained until he took the agency of the Pacific Telegraph & Telephone Company at Petrolia, being local manager. He is associated with all such enterprises in the vicinity, being a stockholder, director and manager of the Petrolia Telephone Company, which is the exchange for the Upper Mattole Telephone Company. His duties with the various concerns combine to their mutual advantage, for having a line on all the facilities in the locality he is able to see that it has the best service possible, there being no elements to conflict under the present arrangement. On March 1, 1914, he was appointed postmaster at Petrolia, another arm of service in which he has proved very capable, looking after the best interests of his fellow citizens with his customary fidelity. His businesslike methods and executive ability fit him admirably for all his responsibilities, and his prompt attention to every duty has called forth much favorable comment, of which his sincere desire to please makes him worthy.

Mr. Goff was married during his residence in Oregon, July 15, 1884, to Miss Mary Lightfoot, born in Salem, Ore., the daughter of Samuel and Maria (Salisbury) Lightfoot, born in Indiana and Ohio respectively. They crossed the plains overland and were married in Oregon. For a time they farmed in Marion county and later were stock-raisers in Umatilla county, where the father died in September, 1913, and the mother in October, 1914. Mr. and Mrs. Goff have a remarkably pleasant home. Of the four children born to them, Agnes died when twelve and Grace when eight years old. The eldest living child is Maude May, now the wife of Gilbert Langdon, a resident of Petrolia, and the mother of two children, Mildred and Charles Elsworth. The other child, Elva Elaine, is now twelve years old. Mr. Goff, although not a member, attends the Methodist Episcopal church at Petrolia. The congregation has just erected a new house of worship and Mr. Goff served very efficiently as a member of the building committee ; he is a trustee of the church and a willing helper in all its activities. Fraternally he is a member of the Woodmen of the World.

CELSO PEDROTTI.—Among the enterprising and successful young men engaged in the dairy business in Humboldt county, Cal., may be mentioned Celso Pedrotti, who, though of foreign birth, was attracted to this country by the success of several of his relatives who had preceded him to the new world. Many years previous, his father, John Pedrotti, had come to California when a lad of about fifteen years of age, and had spent many years on the Pacific coast, in Marin, Sonoma and Humboldt counties, being engaged in the mercantile and livery business in Rio Dell and afterwards in Scotia. Returning to his native Canton Ticino in Switzerland, Mr. Pedrotti was there married to Delfina Sartori, and devoted himself to the hotel business in Giumaglio, in Canton Ticino. Of the thirteen children of John and Delfina Pedrotti, Celso is the next to the oldest. He received his education in the public schools of the town of Giumaglio, where he was born August 7, 1891, and in the fall of 1907 removed to Ferndale, in Humboldt county, Cal., where he was employed for three years on the ranch of his uncle, Elvezio Pedrotti, and for two years more on the estate of his cousin, Horace Pedrotti, and for a time on various other ranches in the vicinity, until finally starting in business for himself.

Leasing his present place of seventy acres of bottom land, which he has stocked with a dairy herd of forty cows, where he likewise is enabled to raise sufficient hay and green feed for his herd, Mr. Pedrotti, with the experience gained while in the employ of other ranchers, and with the practical ability which is characteristic of him, is making a success of his chosen line of work, and is well liked by all with whom he has dealings. In his political interests, he is a supporter of the Republican Party, and in fraternal circles is well known as a member of the Independent Order of Foresters. His marriage was solemnized in Eureka, Cal., his wife, formerly Miss Sunta Gnesa, being a native of the same canton in Switzerland as Mr. Pedrotti.

DAN DUSINA.—Among the progressive sons of other lands, who have made their home in California, after a few years of employment by others starting out in business for themselves and reaping success in their chosen lines, may be mentioned Dan Dusina, who, after securing employment and practical experience in several dairies in Humboldt county, Cal., for a time, is now the successful operator of a ranch of one hundred and thirty acres stocked with a large herd of cows, where he also engages in agricultural pursuits.

The son of Bartol Dusina, a stockman and farmer of Italy, Dan Dusina was born in that country, at Ona Degna, in the province of Brescia, December 6, 1881, where he was educated in the public schools and until 1904 assisted his father on the farm and in the business of stock raising. In the latter year he removed to California, in order to try his fortunes in the New World, of which such glowing reports had been brought by others of his countrymen who had met with success there. In March of that year, Mr. Dusina went to Eureka, Cal., finding his first occupation in working in the woods at Philbrook, in the same county, but this not being to his liking, he removed to the town of Ferndale, a month later obtaining employment with Martin Pedrezini at Loleta for a period of eight months. His next employment was with De Carli for ten months, after which he was engaged at different dairies in the vicinity of Loleta and Ferndale, and this being the line of occupation which appealed to him most strongly, it being the one to which he was accustomed in his home in Italy, Mr. Dusina concluded to start in business for himself, he now having received practical experience in the methods of carrying on this work in the new country. He therefore, in October, 1909, leased the Frazer place of one hundred twenty acres, for a period of seven years, where he successfully carried on a dairy consisting of forty-five cows, but in 1912 sold his interest to his partner, Mr. Flocchini, after which he rented the Peterson place of eighty acres for three years, having there a herd of sixty milch cows. Again making a change in his location, Mr. Dusina in November, 1914, leased the present ranch, the Kelly place near the town of Waddington, and here he now operates one hundred and thirty acres of rich bottom land, which he has stocked with a dairy of eighty cows, being also engaged here in the raising of alfalfa, corn, clover, carrots and beets in large quantities. At his new location, Mr. Dusina is making a decided success of the business, thoroughly understanding every part of the work, both from his early experience in his boyhood's home and from his employment upon various dairies when he first came to California. A Republican in principles, he is well known in the community as a liberal and enterprising man, and holds the esteem. of everyone with whom he is associated.

JAMES F. WORTHINGTON.—The father of James Fulton Worthington was a California pioneer, located at Worthington Prairie, now a suburb of the city of Eureka. Born in Wisconsin, William Worthington was there married to Elizabeth Johnson, a native of New York state, and followed the occupation of farming in Wisconsin until in 1854 he crossed the plains by ox team, with his wife and two children, and came to Humboldt county, Cal., where he cleared and farmed the land on Worthington Prairie and engaged in stock raising. After a few years he removed to Table Bluff, and from thence to Waddington, Cal., where he purchased a farm and engaged in the dairy business. There his death occurred in April, 1910, at the age of seventy-eight years, his wife's death taking place two months later, the cause of the death of each being typhoid fever. Of their family of eight children, seven are living, James Fulton Worthington being the fourth oldest. He was born at Table Bluff, Nov. 20, 1859, receiving his education in the public schools, and until twenty-one years of age remained at home assisting his father on the farm. At that time he purchased ninety-four and one-half acres, a portion of the ranch where he was born, and for nine years was engaged in the dairy business there, with a herd of thirty-three cows, making butter which he sold in the city of Eureka. Selling this ranch in 1889, he rented a place at Waddington for six years, consisting of forty acres, then leased one hundred acres from John T. Pollard on Coffee creek, where for twenty years he ran a dairy of sixty cows. As early as 1903 Mr. Worthington bought the old Charlton place of one hundred and twelve acres, located on the coast, to which in 1911 he added the ninety-four acres adjoining it on the south, and the next year forty-seven acres more, all adjacent, making in all an estate of two hundred fifty-three acres, situated on the coast with a half mile of coast line, and devoted to pasture land and the raising of hay and green feed for dairy purposes. For a period of twelve years Mr. Worthington has operated both this ranch and the Pollard place on Coffee creek, but in 1914 disposed of the latter lease and moved his stock to his coast ranch, where he now milks a herd of forty cows and is also engaged in the raising of stock, and resides a part of the time upon this extensive ranch, and a part of the time at his Ferndale residence.

Politically, Mr. Worthington is a member of the Republican party, while his religious associations are with the church of the Latter-Day Saints. In fraternal circles he is known as a member of the Woodmen of the World, while the interest he takes in educational matters is shown by the fact that he was a school trustee of the Waddington district for many years, nine years of which time he was clerk of the board. He was married in Eureka, in May, 1881, to Miss Elizabeth Pollard, born in Dixon, Solano county, Cal., the daughter of John Pollard, a pioneer of Solano county and then of Humboldt county, where he purchased the Pollard ranch on Coffee creek. Mr. and Mrs. Worthington are the parents of eight children, namely : John, an electrician in Southern California; Margaret, now Mrs. Rogers, of Ferndale ; Clarence, who died at the age of twenty-one years ; Joseph, who resides at Ferndale ; Mabel, now Mrs. Robinson ; June, now Mrs. Benjamin Goff, of Ferndale ; and Myrtle and Josephine, who still make their home with their parents.

PANCRAGIO MORANDA.—The early life of Pancragio Moranda was spent in Switzerland, where he was born at Vogorno, Canton Ticino, January 4, 1861, and grew up on the farm of his father, Bartol Moranda, attending the public schools of Vogorno. Desirous of trying his fortune in California, as he had heard from returning countrymen of the great opportunities there, Mr. Moranda in 1880 came to San Francisco, the first employment he secured being on a dairy farm near Petaluma, his next engagement being in San Francisco. In February, 1883, he removed to Humboldt county, Cal., securing employment here on a dairy farm near Ferndale until August, 1883, when on account of his health he returned to Switzerland. Restored in health by the conditions of climate in the Alps, Mr. Moranda in 1886 came once more to California, continuing in the dairy business here until 1901, when he purchased his present place at Loleta, Humboldt county. 'At the time of his purchase of the forty-nine and three-quarters acres, the land was a wilderness, thick with spruce, willows and underbrush, but by hard work Mr. Moranda has cleared the ground until his property is now one of the finest modern sites in the county, and here he successfully operates an up-to-date dairy consisting of twenty cows, by continued endeavor having cleared the property of debt as well as of the wild underbrush which at first covered it. In his political interests Mr. Moranda is a supporter of the principles of the Republican party. Since 1886 he has made two trips to Switzerland, once in 1912 and again in 1913 and 1914, the last time remaining fifteen months, when he returned to take charge of his ranch.

JOHN P. MULLEN.—Although not a native son, John P. Mullen has been in the state since he was six months old, and this is the scene of his first recollections. He was born in Virginia. City, Nev., March 18, 1868, the son of Jeremiah and Elizabeth (Sullivan) Mullen. born in County Cork, Ireland, where they were married. They migrated to the Pacific coast in pioneer days, coming via Panama to San Francisco. Jeremiah Mullen was engaged in mining at Virginia City, Nev., and from there in September, 1868, he came to Humboldt county, Cal., and on Lawrence creek homesteaded one hundred sixty acres of land twenty-two miles east of Eureka. It was wild land, but he cleared and improved it and converted it into a valuable farm. He first built a log house, afterwards a frame house, which was burned, and the third house which he erected is still standing. By purchasing adjoining land he became the owner of a ranch of eight hundred acres, upon which he raised cattle until he died in April, 1898. His wife had preceded him two years, her death occurring in 1896. Of their four children there are three living, as follows: William H., a rancher on Lawrence creek ; John P., of whom we write and Timothy J., also a stockman on Lawrence creek.

As stated above, John P. Mullen was reared in Humboldt county from the age, of six months. He grew up on his father's ranch, and was educated in the public schools. From a lad he learned the stock business and riding the range. As did all the sons, he remained home on the home farm helping his parents, and after the father died he and his brother William H. bought a ranch of eight hundred acres from their uncle, David Mullen, and ran it in connection with the home ranch for four years. John P. then sold his interest in both ranches to his brother William. In 1903 he bought the two ranches which he now owns, the Tom Bulger ranch of three hundred sixty acres and a part of the old Charles Roberts ranch, five hundred ninety-one acres. The latter has two sets of buildings, while the former has good buildings and improvements ; about one hundred acres are under cultivation. He engages in cattle-growing, raising the Short Horn Durham stock, his brand being J P. It is a splendid cattle ranch and can feed about one hundred fifty head of cattle. He also takes contracts for getting out tan bark for the tannery, a business he has followed for six years.

Mr, Mullen was married in Eureka November 7, 1891, being united with Miss Etta Phelan, born in San Francisco, the daughter of Young Phelan,• born in Arkansas. When a young man Mr. Phelan came to San Francisco, from there coming to Eureka, where he engaged in hunting for the Fort Baker Company with his pack of hounds, following it as a business until he retired to Eureka. His wife died in 1914. Of their four daughters, Mrs. Mullen is the third oldest, and is a woman of natural ability and charm. Mr. Mullen was for several terms trustee of the Kneeland school district, being clerk of the board. Fraternally he is a member of Eureka Aerie No. 130, F. 0. E. He believes in the principles of the Republican party.

ELVEZIO PEDROTTI.—In the Eel river valley there is no more enterprising and highly respected citizen than Elvezio Pedrotti, a native of Switzerland who has carved out a fortune for himself since coming to this country as a youth. Born in Giumaglio, Canton Ticino, Switzerland, in December, 1867, he was the son of John, a farmer of that district, and Mariana (Adami) Pedrotti, both of whom died in their native land. Of their six children, three sons are now living, the youngest of whom is Elvezio, who was brought up on the farm and received his education in the public schools, at the age of sixteen years coming to California, whither his brothers had preceded him and sent back good reports of the opportunities for advancement and success in the new country. On October 24, 1884, Elvezio Pedrotti left home and came to New York, whence he continued his journey to San Francisco, going to Eureka, in Humboldt county, Cal., the latter part of November of the same year, in which town his brother Victor had established a dairy farm. For a time Elvezio remained with his brother in Eureka, then finding employment in the dairy of the Russ Company on Bear River Ridge, where he remained a couple of years, after which he continued in the employ of other dairymen in the vicinity of the town of Ferndale for a period of ten years, save for four months spent in a trip to his old home in Switzerland in the year 1892. In 1896 he rented a dairy ranch on Bear River Ridge from Mr. Russ, his former employer, conducting it in partnership with G. La Franchi for two years, then renting two small ranches near Ferndale which he managed independently for four years, his herd consisting of sixty cows. Later, Mr. Pedrotti rented the Steinhoff place near Fern Bridge, which he ran for ten years, with a herd of about eighty cows. Purchasing his present place of eighty-one acres at Waddington, Cal., in 1906, he has since that time been engaged in the dairy business there with a herd of fifty cows, raising on his own land hay, grain and alfalfa, as well as such green feed as carrots and beets for his stock, for which he also has fine pasture land.

In his political preferences, Mr. Pedrotti is an upholder of the principles of the Republican party, and with his wife is a member of the Court of Honor, she also being a member of the Independent Order of Foresters. His marriage was solemnized in 1896, uniting him with Mrs. Attelia (Grande) Giacomini, who is also a native of the Canton of Ticino in Switzerland, and they are the parents of three children, Alphonso E., who assists his father in the dairy business, Mary and Agnes. By her former marriage, Mrs. Pedrotti has two children, Carrie Giacomini, who makes her home with her mother, and Henry Giacomini, a grocer in business in Ferndale.

CARLO MAFFIA.—The native home of Carlo Maffia, now a prominent hotel man of Humboldt county, Cal., was beside the beautiful Lake Como in Italy, and there he was born on January 25, 1871, the son of Isidor Maffia, a farmer in that district. After receiving a good education in the public schools of his native land, Carlo Maffia, or Charles Alaffia, as he is now known to his friends, came to the United States, arriving in San Francisco on February 12, 1891, when he was a young man of twenty years. Going immediately to Duncan's Mills in Sonoma county, Cal., Mr. Maffia secured employment there and at Occidental, in the same county, for a period of five or six years, after which he removed to Gualala, in Mendocino county, being employed on a ranch there for a year. His next move was to Usal, where for a while he worked in the woods for the Dollar Lumber Company. February of the year 1900 saw his removal to Humboldt county, his present home, where, after a few months spent at the town of Scotia, he went to Bayside, remaining there for the space of three and one-half years. Determining to start out in a new line of business, Mr. Maffia in 1903 entered into partnership with Agostino Brambani in the purchase and management of the Italian Swiss Hotel on First and C streets, Eureka, and the two continued for several years as successful proprietors of the hostelry, when Mr. Maffia sold out his interest to his partner and removed to San Francisco, there to engage in business for four years, a business which he still owns. At the end of that period he returned to Eureka and bought back his former interest in the Italian Swiss hotel from his old partner, the two at present conducting it together under the partnership of Brambani and Maffia. Recently they have taken into the partnership Mr. Maffia's brother Isidor, and have branched out in their chosen industry, in 1911 having erected the new Flor de Italia Hotel on Second street, between B and C streets, Eureka, which is a four-story building with basement, and is modern and up-to-date in all its equipment.

The marriage of Mr. Maffia to Marie Albini was solemnized in Eureka, his wife also being a native of Italy, and they are the parents of four children, of whom only two are living, namely, Siro and Rinaldo. Mr. Maffia holds membership in the Royal Arch Lodge No. 2 of San Francisco.

ANTONE ENOS.—Humboldt is a county which is well adapted to the success of dairymen and farmers and this section of the state of California is glad to welcome from foreign shores men who are expert in this line of occupation. It is therefore not remarkable that among her citizens are many from Southern Europe, since the mountainous regions of those European countries are inhabited so generally by shepherds and owners of dairy herds ; and Mr. Enos, a well known dairyman of Humboldt county, is a representative citizen in that industry, he having been born at Manadas, St. George, in the Azores Islands, September 27, 1877, where his father, also named Antone, is a farmer and stockman, and where the death of his mother, Maria (Ceu) Enos occurred.

The Azores are islands of which perhaps less is generally known than of the other European countries, but they hold a high place among health and pleasure resorts, and their Portuguese atmosphere and place-names possess a little of the local color which the Spanish have given to our own California. One rarely hears their name without recalling Longfellow's line which refers to "some far-off, bright Azore." It was there that. Antone Enos grew up on his father's farm, received his education in the public schools and remained at home until the age of twenty years. At that time he removed to Humboldt county, Cal., in 1897, and secured employment at the dairy of Frank Peters, at Capetown on Bear river, working there intermittently for three years, and during a part of this time embraced the opportunity of attending the public school at Capetown. After 1900 he continued in the same line of employment at other dairies in the vicinity of Ferndale, Cal., and by 1904 had sufficient money accumulated to permit of his starting out independently. Accordingly he leased the ranch of C. 0. Morrow, which comprised thirty-five acres, thereon conducting a dairy of twenty cows for a period of three years, which he gave up in order to lease the Hicks place, a larger estate, of one hundred and sixteen acres. Here Mr. Enos established a dairy of sixty cows and has continued to operate the place ever since, though in the meantime purchasing thirty-one acres on the Island, three miles from Ferndale, which he has improved greatly and where he has built his new residence, barns, etc., and has a fine herd of twenty cows, all high grade, of the Guernsey breed. Through his interest in the dairy business, Mr. Enos was led to become one of the organizers of the Valley Flower Creamery Company, a stockholder and director of the same from its inception, and at present the vice-president of the company.

The marriage of Mr. Enos took place in Ferndale, his wife having been formerly Miss Wilhelmina Peters, a native of the same town as himself, and niece of Frank Peters, a pioneer of Humboldt county, and daughter of William Peters, who was also an early settler of this district. Mr. and Mrs. Enos are the parents of two children, by name Cedric and Frank. In political principles a strong Republican, Mr. Enos is known in fraternal circles as a member of the Woodmen of the World and the U. P. E. C., in Ferndale, he being secretary of the latter order.

JOHN BATTISTE ZANOTTI.—California has been the leading inducement which has brought many of the sons of Italy from their beautiful native land to the more prosaic and matter-of-fact United States, where, however, they find place names of no less beauty than those with which they are familiar, though these in California are of Spanish origin, and where, in the southern part of the state, the climate and scenic setting of the country have won for it the name of "the Italy of America."

The son of Francisco Zanotti, a farmer and stockraiser of Italy, John Battiste was born in Ono Degno, in the province of Brescia, on the twenty-first of December, 1869, and, the oldest of a family of seven children, was educated in the local public schools and brought up on his father's farm, where he followed the trade of his father until removing to California in the year 1.000. It is only natural that the newcomers from Italy should follow the occupations of dairying, farming and stock raising, since in their native land many of them have in childhood tended their father's flocks upon the mountainsides and in the sheltered valleys ; and Mr. Zanotti found his first employment in America on a dairy ranch near Ferndale, Cal., which occupation he continued for a period of seven years, during that time being employed on only three different ranches. About the year 1907 he went into business independently along the same line, renting the L. Petersen ranch of forty acres, whereon he conducted a dairy for four years. In 1911 he rented a ranch from George Sweet near Waddington, Cal., comprising one hundred and thirty acres of rich bottom land, where he is today doing well in the business, being an energetic and ambitious man, and one who is bound to advance. On his ranch he milks seventy cows, likewise raising stock which he pastures in the hills in that vicinity, and in his business achievement is a shining example, to other youths of his homeland, of what can be accomplished by one who is willing to start out for himself and make his way in a new country.

In his political interests, Mr. Zanotti is a member of the Republican party. By his marriage in Brescia, Italy, with Miss Anna Flocchini, also a native of that place, he is the father of five children now living, namely, Francisco, Louis E., Margarita, Katherina and John Battiste.

RUEL RUSS.—As the owner and occupant of a ranch near Carlotta, Mr. Russ is a prominent figure in the locality and is here engaged in general farm pursuits. Much of his life has been passed in California, as he was only seventeen years of age when, in 1869, his father brought the family to the west on one of the first transcontinental trains. Ruel remembers well the journey and the settlement in the then lonely town of Eureka, far removed from congenial associates. His boyhood was one of constant work. His advantages in an educational way were meager, but being a man of observation he has overcome to a great extent the lack of thorough schooling. Ruel Russ was born in Waldo county, Me., October 15, 1855. His father, William Russ, also a native of that state, was an own cousin to Joseph Russ, known throughout Humboldt county as one of its most prominent and wealthiest citizens. The grandfather, Lott Russ, was a lumberman in Maine and, while he never amassed a fortune, prospered to a moderate extent. The mother of Ruel Russ was Orilla Turner, also a native of Maine. She lived to be eighty-five years of age, while the father passed away in his seventy-second year. Their family numbered five children, of whom Ruel was the third in order of birth.

The marriage of Mr. Russ and Miss Etta Allen was celebrated in Eureka, September 5, 1885. Miss Allen was born at St. Stephen, New Brunswick, and met her future husband in this county, whither she came.with her sister Leora (now Mrs. J. M. Francis, a resident of Placer county, this state), to join their father in Eureka in 1881. She is a daughter of Robert and Julia (Arbuckle) Allen, natives of New Brunswick and Liverpool, England, respectively. The mother passed away in St. John, New Brunswick, and about 1875 the father came to Humboldt county, where he followed lumbering ; he died in Eureka in March, 1910. Mrs. Russ was educated in the public schools of Eureka. Mr. and Mrs. Russ are the parents of four children, of whom Ruel, Jr., married Josephine Ohlendick, and they make their home at Fortuna, with their two sons, Harold R. and Leland I. Gracia is the wife of James F. Snow, engineer with the Northwestern Pacific Railroad, and with their three daughters, Florence, Evelyn and Eulilee, make their home in Eureka ; Eulilee married Julian Baumrucker, in the employ of the Newell Lumber Company, the family residing in Carlotta ; Glen Allen makes his home with his parents and will graduate from the Fortuna high school with the class of 1915. The Russ ranch comprises forty acres on Van Dusen river about one-half mile from Carlotta, all rich bottom land devoted to farming and dairying. Mr. Russ also has a small commercial orchard of apples and cherries. The latter are of fine quality and find a ready sale at a good figure on the place.

HORACE PEDROTTI.—The present state of cultivation to which the county of Humboldt, Cal., has attained, is due in large measure to the initiative of its foreign-born citizens, many of whom have purchased and improved ranches in that section of the state, where they carry on agriculture or stock-raising extensively. Among these natives of a distant country who are adding materially to the progress and welfare of California by their industrious and practical methods of carrying on their business, should be mentioned Horace Pedrotti, a very successful dairyman, who has made a fortune for himself in this new country, and now owns land near Colusa, Cal., where he is raising alfalfa successfully by the aid of irrigation.

The father of Mr. Pedrotti, Philip Pedrotti, came to California in the early days, and after a few years spent on the Pacific coast, returned to his native canton of Ticino, in Switzerland, where his family grew up and where his death occurred in 1913, his wife, formerly Caroline Sartori, continuing to live at the old home. Of their four children, Horace, the next to the oldest, was born on the farm in Ticino in August, 1878, received his education in the public schools of his native country, and in 1893 removed to California, spending the first ten years of his residence in this state in the counties of Sonoma and Marin, where he was employed on dairy farms. In 1903 he went to Ferndale, in Humboldt county, where six months later he entered the dairy. business for himself, leasing the old McGuire ranch of fifty acres, where for five years he conducted a dairy consisting of thirty cows. The Ragles place, which comprised eighty acres of land near the town of Waddington, was also leased by him for four years, where he ran a dairy of forty cows ; likewise his present place, formerly known as the Frank Kelly place, which consists of one hundred thirty acres Situated one-half mile north of Waddington, whereon he conducts a dairy of sixty cows, also raising hay and green feed such as corn, beets and carrots. This lease was retained by Mr. Pedrotti when he sold the lease on the Ragles property to his brother, Walter Pedrotti, a resident of Glenn county, Cal. With his brother, he owns two ranches in Glenn county, one consisting of one hundred sixty acres, situated four miles from Willows, the other of eighty acres, nine miles from the same town, both estates being under irrigation and devoted to the raising of alfalfa and to dairy and farming purposes. In July, 1915, Mr. Pedrotti purchased a dairy ranch of forty acres near Grizzly Bluff, where he intends making his residence.

The wife of Mr. Pedrotti, formerly Bridget Barca, is also a native of Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Their marriage took place in Eureka, Cal., and they are the parents of four children, namely, Nellie, Katie, Janey and George. In his political preferences, Mr. Pedrotti is a member of the Republican Party. He is an intellectual and energetic man, who brings to his work in the New World his best endeavor, and holds a high place in the esteem of all who know him.

BEN SANTI.—Another of the natives of Switzerland who have come to America to make for themselves a home in the new country, and who, having grown up in farm surroundings at home as youths, have followed the pursuit of dairying and farming with much success after coming to California, should be mentioned Ben Santi, an enterprising and liberal young man who is making a success of dairying in Humboldt county, Cal., like many others of his countrymen.

The birth of Mr. Santi took place on September 21, 1890, in the Canton of Grissons or Graubunden, Switzerland, where he was brought up on his father's farm and received a good education in the public schools. In the year 1911 he came to this country, settling in Humboldt county, Cal., where he found his first employment on a dairy farm at Ferndale. Having gained sufficient experience and means to permit of his going into business independently, Mr. Santi in 1913 leased a forty acre ranch north of the town of Waddington, in this county, where he has since that time been carrying on dairying successfully, milking a herd of twenty-seven cows. Recently he has taken a new lease, this time of the Nissen dairy ranch at Arcata, an estate of one hundred and sixty acres on the Arcata Bottoms, where he intends to operate a ranch of eighty milch cows. It will thus be seen that, entirely by his own endeavor and industry, Mr. Santi is coming to the front in his chosen line of work, making a success of the same and increasing the extent of the property whereon he conducts his business. In his political interests he favors the principles of the Republican party, while fraternally he is associated with the Druids in Fern ale, and his religious affiliations are with the Catholic Church of the same to n.

OBADIAH CYRUS HOOPER.—As postmaster at Holmes, where he also conducts a general merchandise store, and in addition engages in stock-raising, Obadiah C. Hooper is one of the best known men in the community, and also one of the most influential and popular. He has been in the mercantile business a large part of his life and is also an experienced farmer and stockman. Ibis appointment as postmaster was received in 1912, and his service in this capacity has given the greatest of satisfaction. His store is the principal one in Holmes, and the service rendered there is of the best. Mr. Hooper has never been married and his aged mother resides with him, sharing the comforts of his home, and adding greatly to its cheer.

Mr. Hooper is a native of California, born in Yuba county, November 21, 1863. Hisather, William Watson Hooper, was a native of Fanning county, Texas, born there when the Lone Star state was a part of Mexico. He crossed the plains with ox-teams in 1854, locating at Wheatland, Yuba county. He was in Oregon, for a time, where he engaged in farming, and while in Portland he met and married Miss Mary J. Hull, a native of Pittsfield, Illinois. She is the daughter of Rev. C. B. and Nancy (Shin) Hull, born in New York and Illinois, respectively. Her mother was the first white child born on Illinois river. In 1852 they brought their family by ox-teams over Oregon trail and settled in Portland. She was reared in Washington county, Ore. Mrs. Hooper bore her husband five children, three sons and two daughters. The father died in Glenn county, this state, at the age of forty-four years. Obadiah C. Hooper grew to manhood in Yuba and Glenn counties, his father having a homestead and a pre-emption claim in the latter county. He attended the public schools of his district, and remained at home with his father, assisting with the care of the farm until he was twenty-one years of age, and later engaged in. farming for himself. When he was thirty-five he engaged in the mercantile business at Chrome, now Millsap, Glenn county, where he remained for two years. In 1898 he came to Humboldt county, where during the first winter he followed the hotel business as manager of the Dyerville Hotel, and also conducted the livery barn, remaining for a year. Later, after four years of farming at Camp Grant, he returned to Dyerville and managed the hotel there for an additional year. He then moved to Lolita, where he conducted a millinery store for a year, and then went to Pepperwood where for fourteen months he conducted the Lucas Hotel. Following this he ranched for three years, having rented for that time the Pedrotti ranch at Holmes, this being the property that he is now conducting as a stock ranch. In 1912 he leased his present store building and put in a first-class stock of general merchandise, and since that time has been conducting this enterprise, with marked financial success, as well as being postmaster.

In his political preferences Mr. Hooper is a Socialist, and is a well-read, well-informed man, and a careful thinker. He takes a keen interest in all that goes on about him, and is one of the progressive men of the community, standing squarely for improvement along sane and permanent lines, and for any movement that is for the general welfare of the community. He is a member of the Wocdmen of the World at Holmes. The business interests of Mr. Hooper are well looked after by him, and his ranching interests as well as his mercantile interests are prospering. The ranch which he rents from V. Pedrotti, who is his brother-in-law, contains forty-two acres, and is one of the best in the vicinity. There Mr. Hooper is engaged in breeding a high grade of dairy cattle, the Jersey strain being developed. These cows are much sought by the dairymen of the region and find a ready market. Mr. Pedrotti is himself a well-known figure in local affairs and his sketch appears elsewhere in this edition.
Both Mr. Hooper and his mother are well liked in Holmes, and are deservedly popular. Mr. Hooper is a booster for his home city and for the county as well, and his mother is one of the finest type of the pioneer women of a day gone by, gentle, quiet, and full of a thousand kindnesses for all who come her way.
Pages 993-994

JOHN HOFFMAN.--It was in 1907 that John Hoffman came from Eureka. where he had been employed in the Bendixsen shipyard for the preceding seven years, and purchased his present place of forty acres on Holmes Flat, near what is now the village of Holmes, Mr. Hoffman being the first rancher to improve property at this point and make a home there. He paid $4,500 for the tract and has cleared and improved it in a most praiseworthy manner, and with the general increase of property valuation in this part of the county, together with the improvements that have been made, the place is now considered as valuable as any of its size in the county. The land is especially rich and five crops of alfalfa can be cut without irrigation. Mr. Hoffman is engaged in general farming and dairying, milking from twenty to thirty cows. He has a large modern barn and comfortable dwelling-house, and has utilized the natural resources of the place in his improvements in such a manner as to combine beauty and utility in a striking manner. For instance, he has hollowed out a great redwood stump and made it do service for a cellar and storehouse, and another of about twenty feet in height is mounted with a windmill and reservoir and makes a splendid tower.

Mr. Hoffman is a native of Finland, born near Wasa, April 22. 1876. His father, John Hoffman, was a farmer in Finland and especially well-to-do, owning four hundred acres.- He died in 1914. The mother was Main Lisa Rien, also a native of Finland, where she is still living, at the age of seventy years. Young Mr. Hoffman spent his boyhood days on his father's farm, where he assisted with the farm labor while attending school. When he was twenty years of age he was married to Miss Mary Rusk, also born near Wasa, after which he rented a farm from his father-in-law, Matt Rusk, where he engaged in farming for a year. He was ambitious, however, and the opportunities for advancement in his native land were small, under the hated domination of Russia, and he and his young wife determined to come to America and seek their fortune there. Accordingly they came to Pennsylvania in 1897, and for a time Mr. Hoffman was employed in the coal mines at Bitumen, Clinton county, that state. The same year, in the fall of 1897, they came to California, locating at first in Mendocino county, where for a year Mr. Hoffman was employed in the woods, near Gualala, and later went to Greenwood, where he was with the L. E. White Lumber Company for two years. In 1900 he came into Humboldt county and located at Eureka, where he entered the employ of the Bendixsen Shipyards, being employed by this company for seven years. He began at the bottom and was steadily promoted, and at the time of his resignation was an expert ship carpenter. This is a line of work that he especially likes, and often, even now, when the farm work is slack, and the ship-building season is at its height, he goes over to Eureka and works for a month or two in the shipyards where he is always certain of a welcome because of his efficiency.

It was a very fortunate move when Mr. Hoffman resigned his lucrative position in the shipyards to take up farming, for it led to his purchase of land, at low figures, in the richest section of the county, a veritable garden spot, which has since then greatly increased in value.

In addition to the management of his farm, Mr. Hoffman also contracts for the hauling of gravel in road work, and similar construction work, and thus adds materially to his annual profits. His wife has borne him six children, four daughters and two sons, as follows : Vendla Matilda, Oscar R., Alvar V., Mabel E., Olga A. and Alice. The mother of Mrs. Hoffman died in Finland about six years ago, and her father has since sold his farm in the native land and moved to Humboldt county in 1903 and now makes his home with his daughter and son-in-law on their farm.

In his political views Mr. Hoffman is a Republican and is a stanch supporter of the principles of his party. He is keenly interested in local affairs and especially in educational matters, and gave half an acre of land for the present site of the Englewood school.

VICTOR PEDROTTI.—The sturdy little republic of Switzerland has given to the United States many citizens of ability and worth. Among those who have given us so high an estimate of the character and capabilities of the Swiss, Victor Pedrotti is an excellent representative. He has been a resident of California since he was a lad of fourteen years, having come to Humboldt county when he was eighteen. He has done exceptionally well, and is now one of the leading men of Dyerville and vicinity. He is at present the proprietor of the Dyerville Hotel, is owner and operator of a first-class blacksmith shop in Dyerville, and also owns a good forty-five acre ranch at Holmes, on what is known as Holmes Flat, in the rich bottoms of the Eel river, about three miles above Shively. In addition to this Mr. Pedrotti rents a large stock-ranch on the Inglewood range, where he has a large number of cattle. He is a man of excellent business ability, and executive force, and is well known through the southern part of the county. The Dyerville Hotel is a well known landmark of this part of the county, and is growing in importance. The coming of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad into Dyerville has greatly increased the importance of this place as a commercial center and with this increase has come a corresponding growth in all business enterprises. There is a handsome steel bridge across the South Fork of the Eel river just below the South Fork station, on which this line crosses the river, and at Dyerville there is another handsome steel structure spanning the river, on which traffic on the state highway and the county road crosses, going from San Francisco to Eureka, and the country above. The Pacific Lumber Company owns many thousands of valuable acres of redwood timber in this vicinity, there being one famous giant redwood that is more than twenty-one feet in diameter and which is said to contain more marketable lumber than any other tree in Humboldt county. Mr. Pedrotti was the manager of the Dyerville Hotel many years ago, and then gave it up, several other persons having been in charge after his resignation, including Col. Dyer and Mrs. Carland. About two years ago he again took charge of this hostelry. and has made a great success of it since that time.

Mr. Pedrotti was born in Giumaglio, canton Ticino, Switzerland, March 29, 1862. His parents were also natives of Switzerland, where they lived and died. There were six children in their family, four sons and two daughters, of whom but three sons are now living. Of these the eldest, John, is now residing in Switzerland, on the old Pedrotti home place, having returned to the land of his birth a few years ago. For many years he was a resident of California, running a large dairy farm in Marin county, where he was very successful. Since returning to Switzerland he has been engaged in the raising of goats, sheep, and cattle, dairying and making cheese, growing fruits and chestnuts, and keeping a few guests at his quaint old Swiss chalet. The other brother, Alvitio, is a well-to-do dairy farmer at Waddington. From his earliest childhood Victor Pedrotti had wonderful dreams of coming to America and making a fortune, and he is working out the fulfilment of these dreams with wonderful accuracy. When he was fourteen he came to America, joining his brother John in Marin county, Cal., where he worked first on his ranch for a year, then was with an uncle for two years, and for an additional two years was employed on various ranches in the neighborhood. He was ambitious and industrious, and willing to learn, and at the age of fourteen he was doing a man's work. He was eighteen years of age when he came to Humboldt county and settled at Rio Dell, where he rented a dairy farm, and when he was twenty-one he was running a dairy of twenty cows. At this time he married Miss Amanda Gould, by whom he had six children, all well known in Humboldt county, where they were reared and educated. They are : Victor, who is in the hotel business at Garberville ; Ray, residing at Fort Bragg, and married to Miss Frances Whipple ; Myrtle and Gertrude, twins, and attending the Normal school at Arcata ; Della, employed in a store at Arcata ; and Roy, employed at Alderpoint. Mr. Pedrotti was divorced from his first wife and in 1900 was married a second time to Miss Josephine Hooper, a native of Dayton, Butte county, Cal., their marriage being solemnized on July 6. Mrs. Pedrotti is a woman of great ability and splendid character, and has borne her husband six children : Iris, Giovanni, Pearl, Orliff, Patrick and Philip.

For several years Mr. Pedrotti continued to conduct his dairy farm at Rio Dell and then rented a place on Bull creek, which he operated for a few years, in the meantime conducting a stage line from Scotia to Garberville. He obtained the United States mails' contract and carried the mails between these and intervening points. Dyerville was a sort of central point and Mr. Pedrotti opened a blacksmith shop there to care for his horses and stages, hiring ,a man - to take charge of it. Circumstances, however, forced him to the forge and. anvil, and being apt at learning he soon became an expert in, many lines of smithing. He has given up the running of the stage line several years ago, but still maintains the blacksmith shop for general work.

Mr. Pedrotti was well educated in his mother tongue, and although he has never attended school in America, he speaks, reads and writes the English language with fluency and ease, and is well informed on all current topics. He is progressive in his political views and has taken an active part in local affairs for many years, being many times a delegate to county conventions before the days of primary elections. He is an active member of the Odd Fellows, being a member of the Ferndale Lodge, No. 220, I. 0. 0. F., and takes a prominent part in all the affairs of this order.


WILLIAM LUCAS.—Prominent among the leading men of Pepper-wood is William Lucas, veteran hotel-keeper of the county, and pioneer of California and Oregon. He is an ideal hotel man, having the details of the business always at his finger tips, and takes exceptional care for the comfort and welfare of his guests. He is the proprietor of the Lucas Hotel in Pepperwood, and also owns and operates a forty-acre ranch at this place. In all his undertakings his helpmeet and close associate is his wife, who is a woman of much ability, a native Californian and of Humboldt county.

Mr. Lucas is a native of Illinois, born at Junction .City, November 30, 1863, the son of Christopher and Celia (Hoover) Lucas. When he was nine years of age he removed with his parents to California, locating twenty-five miles east of Stockton. His father was a farmer and owned property at that point, where he died seven years ago. The mother died in Stockton two years ago. She was a native of Illinois, where she was reared and educated and where she met and married Mr. Lucas. There were ten children in their family, William being the eldest. He was reared and educated on the farm near Stockton and later worked at farming, being employed, first on his father's farm, and later on the various places in the neighborhood. He was also interested in dairying, and in saw-mill work and the work of the woods generally. Mr. Lucas has been twice married. The first time to Miss Lena Rogers, by whom he had two children, namely : Orville, who is in the United States navy, being stationed on the supply ship which runs from Apha to Hong Kong; and Lena May, married to James Larson, a farmer of Rio Dell. The first wife died in Oregon, at Coquille City, where Mr. Lucas was engaged in logging. Later he returned to California and located in Humboldt county, where he was married to Miss Rhoda Mayfield, the daughter of one of the, oldest pioneer families of this county, her father, John Mayfield, being now deceased. After this marriage Mr. Lucas went to Dyerville, where he conducted the Dyerville Hotel for a year, at the same time running the ferry and the Dyerville livery stable. Following this he went to Mendocino county, where he was employed in the saw-mills for two years, and then came back to Humboldt county and located at Pepperwood, where he has since resided. He has built up and improved his place here and now owns a very valuable property. The hotel building is a comfortable, modern structure, containing seventeen rooms, which was erected by Mr. Lucas in 1904. From 1904 to 1908 he served acceptably as postmaster of Pepperwood.

Mr. and Mrs. Lucas are both well known in Pepperwood and vicinity. Mr. Lucas is a Progressive in his political views and takes an active interest in local affairs, being especially interested in educational matters. He has rendered valuable service as a member of the local board of school trustees, of which he is at present a member. Mr. and Mrs. Lucas have six children, namely : Truman, Gladys, McKinley, Alta, Theda and Irene.

JOSEPH RUSS.—No history of Humboldt county, Cal., would be complete without a mention of Joseph Russ, now deceased, who was perhaps the most extensive cattleman and land owner who has ever lived in the county ; a miner, freighter, stockman, merchant and lumber manufacturer, having risen from a young man without means to the opulent estate of a millionaire cattleman and land owner in Humboldt county. Among other things, he established the Russ meat market at Eureka, the largest of its kind in that city and one of the largest in northern California. He made his money by taking advantage of the low price of grazing lands in Humboldt county and by attending personally to the details of his business, being an untiring worker, one who rode the ranges himself and saw that his stock received the best of care. By always dealing on the square he made and held the friendship of all with whom he was concerned. His estate in Humboldt county comprises more than fifty thousand acres, whereon are kept thousands of cattle and sheep as well as horses and mules. Mr. Russ was a native of the state of Maine, having come west in 1849, attracted by the discovery of gold in California, where, after a prosperous career of almost forty years, he died October 8, 1886. His wife is Mrs. Zipporah (Patrick) Russ, who was born in Pennsylvania, the daughter of Nehemiah Patrick, a pioneer of Humboldt county who crossed the plains to California in 1852 and settled in Humboldt county the following year. Mrs. Russ still lives at Fern Cottage ranch at Ferndale, the summer home of the Russes.

The son, Joseph Russ, is a worthy descendant of the industrious pioneer of the county, being the youngest of thirteen children and having been born November 27, 1876, at Fern Cottage ranch, where his early life was spent. He attended the schools at Eureka, after which he attended Hopkins Academy, Oakland, and later Belmont Academy in San Mateo county, after which he entered Anderson's Private Military Academy at Alameda, from which he was graduated in 1895.

When a mere lad Joseph Russ often rode his pony alongside his father in his extensive cattle business. In 1896 he began active operations himself as a cattle man, and at present is the owner of three ranches, the Mayflower, consisting of about fourteen hundred acres, the Woodland Echo, of about twelve hundred acres, both adjoining and in the Wildcat District about twelve miles from Ferndale, and the Ocean View ranch of twenty-one hundred acres below Cape Mendocino, which he purchased in 1899, and which extends nearly two miles along the ocean front. The two former places are run as dairy farms, the third as a cattle ranch, and all receive the careful attention of their owner, his business interests centering about these three prosperous ranches.

The marriage of Mr. Russ to Miss Sadie A. Flowers, a native of Ferndale, and the daughter of William J. Flowers, Sr., a pioneer of Humboldt county, took place in San Francisco in 1902, and to them were born six children, of whom only two sons, Joseph and Herbert, are at present living. The family reside at their handsome bungalow at Ferndale. In her religious belief Mrs. Russ is a Catholic. Mr. Russ is a member of Eureka Lodge No. 652. B. P. 0. E., also of Ferndale Lodge No. 220, I. 0. 0. F., and of Ferndale Encampment, I. 0. 0. F.

GEORGE R. YOUNG.—As proprietor of the principal general merchandise store at Pepperwood and ex-postmaster of that thriving little burg, George R. Young is one of the best known, as well as one of the most popular men in the vicinity. He has lived a most interesting life throughout the west, being a pioneer in half a dozen states west of the Missouri, having made his first trip to Denver in 1862, when he was but eighteen years of age. Later he drove stage from Denver to Cheyenne and on to Salt Lake for a number of years, and also from Salt Lake City westward, meeting during these years such men as Buffalo Bill (Col. Cody ), Capt. Jack Crawford, and others of early day fame. Later he went with an expedition into the mountains of Idaho and Montana, where they established forts in the back districts, and was also engaged in mining for many years through Idaho, Nevada, Utah and Colorado. Mr. Young came first to California in 1881, and has been a permanent resident of this state since 1884. He came to Pepperwood in 1903 and has been in the general merchandise business here since that time.

Mr. Young is a native of Illinois, born at Danville, Vermilion county, January 10, 1844. His father was David Wallace Young, a native of Dayton, Ohio, and started the first plow factory in Illinois, at Bloomington, in 1851. in partnership with James Bunn. The mother was Miss Elizabeth Mills, in her girlhood, a native of Frankfort, Ky., and descendant of an old Southern family. The parents came later to Iowa, and at a still later date moved to Sterling, Kan., where they both died, the father at the age of sixty-six years, and the Mother at the age of eighty-six, her death occurring in 1896. There were fifteen children in their family, nine sons and six daughters, George R. being fourth son, and the sixth child born. He lived in Danville, Ill., until he was eight years old and then moved with his parents to Bloomington, where he gi-ew to young manhood. He remembers having seen Abraham Lincoln once, at Bloomington. He started out for himself when he was fifteen years of age, but returned in 1864 to Iowa where his parents were then living. In 1865 he left home again, this being the last time he ever saw his father, although he visited his mother in Sterling, Kan., in 1892.

In 1862, on his first trip into the Rocky mountains, Mr. Young drove a six-yoke team of oxen to Denver for Ben Haliday, the man who established the overland stage. The wagon was loaded with corn for the feeding of the stage horses. In 1865, he again drove a similar outfit to Denver for Haliday, and on his arrival in Denver was given employment by the company for two years in that city. Later he drove the Overland stage from Cheyenne to Denver, in 1868. In 1867 he went with the supply train of the Wells Fargo Express Company, with one hundred fifteen mule teams with government supplies to the Big Horn mountains and established two forts : Fort C. F. Smith, on the Big Horn river, and Fort Phil Kearney, at the headwaters of the Crazy river fork of the Powder river, the expedition being in command of Col. C. F. Smith. The Wells Fargo Express Company bought out the Overland stage from Ben Haliday in 1866, and in 1869 the coming of the railroad caused the stage line from Cheyenne to Denver to be discontinued, and Mr. Young went into the mines, continuing in this line of occupation for a number of years. He was for a time at Silver City, Idaho, and there he met and married Miss Camelia Kuhr, a native of Hamburg, Germany. In the spring of 1876 he came with his wife to Virginia City, Nev., where he was employed in the Consolidated Virginia mine, the richest silver mine known up to that time, where he continued for twelve years. Later he was made foreman of the Mt. Como mine near Virginia City. Giving up the life of the miner after a time, Mr. Young came to San Francisco, and for a number of years was in the employ of the Market Street Railway Company, as gripman on the Market Street cable .road. Following this he engaged in the theatrical business, being manager for the Bob McGinley theatrical troupe, and traveling all over the coast, from Gray's Harbor to the Mexican line of Lower California, and eastward to Denver, making all of his journeys with a horse and buggy, and continuing in the theatrical business, intermittently for twelve years. He then went to Dakota, Alameda county, where he engaged in the general merchandise business, and served as postmaster under McKinley. In the fall of 1903 he came to Pepperwood, where he established himself in the general merchandise business, and has so continued since. He was made postmaster under President Taft and served with great satisfaction for four years.

Mr. and Mrs. Young are the •parents of ten children, who are all well known in California, where they occupy, or have occupied, various positions of responsibility and trust. They are : Nettie, now the wife of Frank Suzie, a hotel keeper in San Francisco ; Chester, foreman of the shipping department of the Smith Premier Typewriter Company, residing in Syracuse, N. Y.; George Bruce, residing in San Francisco ; Frank Partlow, electrician at Mare Island, in the employ of the United States government, married and with one child ; Robert Blaine, a commercial salesman residing in Oakland; Luella Belle, the wife of George Mattieson, butcher, at Centerville, Alameda county, Cal.; Roy Albert, in the hospital corps of the United States government in the Philippine Islands ; Clarence and Raymond, residing at home, and employed in their father's store ; and Ira Dakota, aged twelve, and attending school at Pepperwood.

in addition to his interests in the general merchandise store, known by his name, Mr. Young is also a partner in the Happy Camp Shingle Mill Company, with a mill at Holmes. The partnership consists of himself and John Helms, under-sheriff at Eureka, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this edition. Mr. Helms is president, and Mr. Young is secretary. Besides _shingles, they manufacture fruit box shooks. This mill was built at Holmes Flat in 1912, and has a capacity of one hundred thousand shingles per day. In his political views Mr. Young is a Republican, his father being an old line Whig. He takes a keen interest in all that pertains to the welfare of the community, and is a man of more than ordinary business ability and judgment. Outside of his commercial interests, however, his chief interest is in the days gone by, and nothing is more delightful than to listen to the tales of early days as they are related by Mr. Young.

MRS. LYDIA MILLER GODFREY.—To the pioneer women of a state, no less than to the men, is due honor and credit for carving a great commonwealth out of the wilderness, and it is they, in reality, who make the establishment of new governments possible, for without homes there would be no stable government, and without women there can be no permanent homes. Often, too, the hardships in new lands weigh more heavily upon them, and this is especially true where marauding savages are a constant menace, for in addition to her own peril, the danger to her children was an ever-present care. One of the best known of the pioneer women of Humboldt county is Mrs. L. M. Godfrey, now the proprietress of Travelers' Inn, at Cuddeback, on the road from Carlotta to Bridgeville. Mrs. Godfrey is a woman of much charm and in her youth was very beautiful, and still possesses much of her former' grace and attractiveness, although now well along in years. She is the widow of J. P. Godfrey, who was a gold miner in Yuba county in an early day, and who is well known in that part of the state. He was a native of Vermont, born at Bennington, September 18, 1844. He came to California in 1859, when he was a lad of but fifteen years. His father and an older brother had made the journey to the coast by way of the Isthmus of Panama in 1850, and his mother, who was Achsaph Sibley, made the journey in 1860. She also was a native of Vermont, and a descendant of an old Massachusetts family. J. P. Godfrey was engaged in gold mining near Comptonville, Yuba county, for eighteen years, and while there he met his future wife, who was then Miss Lydia Miller Eddy, the daughter of John E. and Anna (Cooper) Eddy. The father was a native of Rhode Island, and the mother was an Englishwoman. They were married in Massachusetts, where they lived for a number of years. They were married in 1846, and in 1849 the father came to California, around the Horn, making the journey in the steamship Hopewell, sailing from Warren, R. I., January 17, 1849, and arriving at San Francisco, August 3, of that year. Two years later the mother came, being accompanied by her brother Solomon Cooper and his wife, who were also well known Humboldt county pioneers, Mr. Cooper having settled in Humboldt county in 1857, engaged in educational work in Eureka, then being for two years in the customs office, and then for twenty-two years was receiver of public money in the United States Land Office, at Eureka. The party sailed from New York City in the Anna Kimball on December 2, 1852, and arrived in San Francisco, April 13, 1853. Mrs. Eddy at once joined her husband at Downie\tulle, Sierra county, where he was then engaged in mining. He was at that time a partner of Mr. Downey, a famous California pioneer whose cabin was reproduced in facsimile at the Midwinter Fair at San Francisco, in 1894. The mother died at the home of Mrs. Godfrey several years ago, at the age of seventy years, the father having passed away in Marysville in 1869. Mrs. Godfrey was the only child of her parents who grew to maturity. She was born at Comptonville, Yuba county, June 18, 1854, and attended the country schools during her girlhood years. She was married to Mr. Godfrey, June 15, 1871, and for ten years they continued to reside in Yuba county, where Mr. Godfrey was then engaged in farming. In 1881 they came to Humboldt county, and immediately purchased the property which is now the family home, and there Mrs. Godfrey has since resided. They at once improved the place, and the apple orchard was planted at that time, and still is in bearing. The ranch is eighty acres, all meadow land. Since her husband died she manages the place, carrying on the farming and stockraising and running the Travelers' Hotel. Mr. Godfrey died January 23, 1912, and was buried in the I. 0. 0. F. cemetery at Hydesville, he having been for many years a prominent member of the Odd Fellows at that place, and passing through all the chairs.

Mr. and Mrs. Godfrey became the parents of twelve children, three of whom they lost in infancy, the other nine are still living, and are well and favorably known in Humboldt county. They are : Clara F., now the wife of F. P. Cooper, of Oakland, where Mr. Cooper is deputy state insurance commissioner, they have three children, Fay I., Charles P., and Eula L.; John E., a blacksmith at Scotia in the employ of the Pacific Lumber Company, he is married to Miss Mable Smith, of Blocksburg, and they have two children, Darrow E. and Frances E.; James R., residing at Cuddeback and married to Miss Ethel Wilkinson, a native of Humboldt county, they have five children, Beryl E., Clara J., Velda M., Ross E., and Nola ; Samuel W., residing in Eureka and married to Miss Jennie Langdon, who has borne him two children, Lydia V. and Heletta F.; Bertha A., now the wife of John E. Kemp, a merchant at Ferndale, where Mrs. Kemp acts as bookkeeper for the Hatch Hardware Company; Fred W., who has charge of his mother's ranch ; Elleanora G., the wife of George H. Ackerman, a resident of Oakland, and the mother of three children, Bertha G., Malloa F., and Oliver W.; Wallace W., married to Miss Doris Bates, and residing in Oakland; and George H., who is employed on the home farm.

Mrs. Godfrey takes an active interest in all that concerns the welfare of the county, and especially of her community. She has been a member of the Rebekahs at Hydesville for many years, having joined with her husband soon after they came to Humboldt county. She is also a member of the• Farm Center at Carlotta.

WILLIAM H. WAR.—Among the younger men of Blocksburg and vicinity there is none more highly esteemed than William H. War, the capable manager and operator for the local office of the Western Union Telegraph and Telephone Company. He has been in charge of this office for the past two years and has made many friends during that time, both because of his genial, pleasant personality, and of the efficiency of his service. Mr. War understands the telegraph business in every detail, having entered upon this line of work when he was twelve years of age, becoming at that time a messenger boy in the service of the company at Port Townsend, Wash., where his father was then manager of the Western Union office. Since then he has climbed upward through the various departments of the work, and is today one of the most trusted employes of this great company.

Mr. War is a native of Oak Point, Wash., born July 1, 1887, the son of Charles and Lena (Baber) War. His father has been in the service of the Western Union for more than thirty years in Oregon and California, and is still in their employ, having charge as overseer of the line from Ukiah to Eureka with headquarters at Laytonville. When he was twelve years of age William H. learned the famous Morse code and began his career as a telegraph service man. After his father left Port Townsend he removed with the family to Laytonville, Mendocino county, and there William H. took a position as equipment man for the Willits Telephone and Telegraph Company, remaining in that place until 1909, at which time he went to Lovelocks, Nev., as manager for the Western Union, remaining there for about a year.

The marriage of Mr. War took place in Eureka, June 2, 1913, the bride being Miss Paula Thomas, of Eureka, but born in Gordon, Neb., and the sister of Robert Thomas, who was the city engineer of Eureka. Mrs. War was engaged in teaching school in Humboldt county until her marriage. They have become the parents of one child, Thomas Lloyd, born October 9, 1914. Both Mr. and Mrs. War have many friends in Blocksburg, and are very popular socially. Mr. War takes an interest in fraternal and benevolent affairs and is a member of the Loyal Order of Moose at Eureka. He is progressive and public spirited and is an enthusiastic booster for Humboldt county, and especially for Blocksburg and Vicinity.

WILLIAM HENRY MULLEN.—A western man, born in Virginia City, Nev., March 26, 1869, William H. Mullen, when about fifteen months old, was brought by his parents to Humboldt county, where he grew up on the old homestead on the old Iaqua road, near Lawrence creek. His father, Jeremiah Mullen, a native of Ireland, went to sea, going on a sailer as man before the mast, to Australia, thence to Boston, returning from there to Ireland. Next he came around Cape Horn to San Francisco, where he left the ship. While working in the Woodward Gardens in San Francisco he married Elizabeth Sullivan. Following their marriage they went to Virginia City, Nev., where Mr. Mullen was employed at mining on the Comstock and other lodes. He worked on the eleven hundred foot level. Wishing to engage in ranching, he came to Humboldt county with his family in the fall of 1870 and homesteaded one hundred sixty acres on Lawrence creek, twenty-five miles east of Eureka, where he engaged in stockraising. Encouraged by his success, he bought land adjoining and acquired nearly a thousand acres. He died April 16, 1898, his wife having died April 20; 1896. Of their four children the eldest, Mary, died of black measles in Virginia City, Nev., when eighteen months old. William H. is our subject ; John P. is a farmer at Kneeland; and Timothy J. is a farmer on Lawrence creek.
William H. Mullen spent his childhood on the old home farm, where he acquired a knowledge of stockraising and farming. He was educated in the public schools of the district, and in Eureka, and remained at home, assisting his father until the latter's death. His brother Timothy was then in Alaska, and so William and his brother John ranched in partnership and purchased their Uncle David's ranch of about eight hundred acres adjoining the old home, operating both places. Four years later William bought John's interest in the two ranches, and since then has operated them alone.

For a while he ran both sheep and cattle, but later he sold the sheep and devoted his time to cattle growing. He at one time had sixteen hundred fifty acres, but sold off some, still owning, however, over twelve hundred acres. "Highland Acres," as the ranch is known, is well watered by Lawrence creek and Booth's run, as well as by numerous springs and creeks. It is wooded with redwood, pine, oak and madrone—and makes a splendid cattle ranch. His brand is his father's old brand, 0 0. Of Highland Acres
about three hundred acres can be cultivated, the balance being stock range. 'There are four different orchards on the place. In May, 1914, his residence was burned and he has since built a new one, a large two-story bungalow, with basement. By his industry and energy Mr. Mullen has a well improved and valuable place, on which he can carry two hundred head of cattle.
Mr. Mullen was married in Eureka February 11, 1915, being united with

Fortuna Furman, a native of Tennessee. Fraternally he is a member of Fortuna Lodge No. 221, I. 0. 0. F., in Eureka. For twelve years he served as road overseer in Supervisorial district No. 3, doing efficient and valuable work in his district. Politically he espouses the principles of the Republican party and is a man with a host of friends, who admire him for his uprightness, integrity and worth.

RODNEY BURNS REDWOOD NOVELTY CO.—About the beginning of the twentieth century Rodney Burns established a wholesale business in redwood novelties and built a factory at Eureka, where in February of 1911 he formed a co-partnership with J. Earl Clark and established a retail department for local sales and for a mail-order business that since has maintained a satisfactory growth. The history of the business is an epitome of continuous success most gratifying to the proprietors and to all the people of Eureka. At the San Francisco Land Show held in September, 1913. the company had a large exhibit and received a gold medal, while their famous bowl has received awards at the California state and local fairs. A specimen of their products may be seen in the Field museum at Chicago as well as in the Ferry building, San Francisco, while department stores and curio shops in many of the Pacific coast cities carry a full line of their novelties.

The Stump House which was conceived and created by Rodney Burns arid his associates in Eureka is a structure resembling a mammoth redwood log as it lies in the forest after being felled. A unique entrance adds to the attractiveness of the institution. Within the strange building is an array of manufactured articles such as can be found nowhere else except in establishments directly supplied from the Stump House. All tourists visiting Eureka visit the factory and purchase a redwood burl souvenir, which they state is, in its varied forms, the most useful and least expensive of any souvenir to be found throughout the country. Magazines frequently publish articles descriptive of the interesting enterprise on the corner of Broadway and Clark street. Perhaps no story of the place has roused a wider interest than that by Harriet Williams Myers published in the St. Nicholas of June, 1913, from which we quote as follows

"One of the most interesting natural deformities is the so-called burl, a growth found on the walnut and other trees, among them the redwood trees of Northern California. It is said to be the result of disease and makes an ungainly lump on the tree. The largest that has ever been found grew around the base of the tree and measured twenty-five feet in circumference and eighteen feet in height. It was hollow, the walls being from two to six feet thick. The tree itself was only about six feet in diameter. A burl of this size is of rare occurrence. Only one tree in every four or five hundred in the forest is thus affected and only about one burl in every thirty-five is perfect, these perfect forms being beautifully marked with darker veins and spots, in circular patterns, reminding one somewhat of the curly birch or maple. The wood is susceptible of a high polish and is made into table tops, picture. frames, bowls, plates, napkin-rings, vases and other objects. There is in Eureka, Humboldt county, Cal., a unique house made for the sale of these burl articles. It consists of the stump and log of a giant Sequoia. The log, at the end of which one enters, is forty feet long and sixteen feet in diameter, while the stump standing beside it is twenty feet in diameter. From the log-room one enters the work-room of the establishment, while the big, circular stump-room contains the finished articles for sale."

An injury to the trees, such as forest fires, insect attacks, gnawing of animals or excessive pruning, stimulates the growth of dormant buds or gives rise to a great many new ones which cannot develop into branches, but do form a gnarly and interwoven mass of woody tissue of very intricate design. The wood thus formed is very dense and hard. Inside the bark the burl is covered with spiny warts at the points where the buds emerge. The largest and most beautiful of all burls occurs on the redwood tree. At rare intervals in a redwood forest is found a tree bearing this growth, either around the base of the tree or high up on the trunk. Most of these are plain grained wood and but a small proportion possess the beautiful figure that makes the burl so valuable. The beauty of the redwood burl lies in its diversity of grain and richness of color. The variety of figuring in this wood is remarkable. Nearly every burl has a distinct pattern and this varies greatly in different parts of the same burl. The color varies from a rich dark red to a light pinkish shade. Much of the burl has a strong brownish cast resembling walnut, but some parts are light in color and others will match the deepest shades of mahogany. Redwood burl is handled and sold by board measurement and each one averages as a rule from five hundred to fifteen hundred board feet, but occasionally there is found a very large burl. In 1911 the Rodney Burns Redwood Novelty Company cut one scaling over ten thousand board feet. On account of the irregular shape and the small size of the ordinary burl, it is very difficult to get large pieces, and when found they are valued very highly. The products of the company include nut bowls, serving trays, fruit bowls, vases, cribbage boards, gavels, candle sticks, natural edged picture frames, pedestals, tabourettes, tables, match holders, napkin rings, pin cushions, cigar jars, pin trays, canes, pipes, ash trays, darners, paper weights and darning eggs, all of them very ornamental and many of them also to be valued for their practical utility.

JEFF PETERSEN NISSEN.—The early settlers of California's counties are frequently composed of men from the countries of Europe, and they are good, hard-working, substantial people and loyal to the land of their adoption. This is particularly true of Humboldt, whose citizens point with pride to Jeff Petersen Nissen, a native of Germany. Mr. Nissen was born in Schleswig, Germany, and is a son of Christian and Katrina (Jeffsen) Nissen, the former a native of Germany and the latter a native of Denmark. Christian Nissen spent the greater part of his life in farming in Germany, dying there in 1878. Jeff. Nissen attended the public schools of Germany up to the age of fifteen years, when his mother decided he should begin to help with the care of the family. He found employment and continued in it for two years. A brother had heard the call of America and had come to Ferndale, Cal., and had been writing such glowing accounts of the opportunities for the man who was willing to undertake the trip to California, the land of promise. He seemed favorably impressed with Humboldt county, and so wrote his family to join him there. Jeff Nissen started directly for Ferndale in March, 1889, arriving there shortly after his brother. They saw the possibilities of dairying, so Mr. Nissen obtained employment on a neighboring ranch, continuing in the service of others until 1901, when he decided to go into business for himself. He had gained a practical knowledge of the business by closely observing the methods of those with whom he came in contact, so he rented two hundred acres of land at Pleasant Point near Ferndale and entered the dairying and farming business. In the seven years that Mr. Nissen managed this ranch he was unusually successful. He next leased one hundred fifteen acres of fertile bottom land near Arcata, where he moved all his stock from Ferndale and continued dairying. The farm consists of one hundred fifteen acres of rich land and he milks about sixty head of cows.

In politics Jeff Nissen is a stanch Republican, entering whole-heartedly into anything for the advancement of the county. He is a member of the Danish Lutheran church in Arcata and is actively engaged in all good work pertaining to his church.

Mr. Nissen married Miss Christina Johansen, a native of Schleswig, Germany, who was born July 1, 1878. Of this union there have been born seven children, of whom five are now living: Raymond, Arnold, Cecilia, Clyde and Jeff Petersen, Jr. Mr. Nissen is a progressive, intelligent farmer, alert for the advancement and upbuilding of his business. He has devoted his entire time to his dairying and farming interests, and his success may be attributed to his own hard, painstaking labor and indomitable perseverance.

CAPT. PETER JENSEN.—Since 1897 the lighthouse off Cape Mendocino has been under the care of Captain Jensen, well known to mariners along the northern California coast for many years, who had the honor of being appointed by the government to take charge of the lighthouse exhibit at the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific exposition held at Seattle, Wash., in 1909. A lifelong seaman, his experience as a mariner included voyages to all the waters of the globe and visits to well known and obscure seaports in all its quarters, and he gave up sailing for his present calling in 1891. His courage no less than his efficiency make him one of the most trustworthy men in the dangerous coast service.

A Dane by birth, Captain Jensen is a native of the seaport of Aarhuus, Jutland, born March 9, 1856. His father, Capt. Cort Jensen, of Copenhagen, was a Danish sea captain, and was lost while piloting a ship into Aarhuus during a heavy snowstorm, in 1857, being shipwrecked and drowned. His wife, Marie (Weil), was left with a family of four children: Elizabeth, Mrs. Flemming, who died leaving two children ; Ernestina, widow of Christian Jensen, who was a mason contractor and builder of Copenhagen (she has three children) ; Emma, Mrs. Christensen, a widow, living at Aarhuus ; and Peter. Fortunately the mother had some means and was able to give her children good advantages and rear them well. She remarried, but had no children by her second union.

Peter Jensen has no recollection of his father. He attended excellent public schools until fourteen years old, at which time he shipped as a cabin boy on a sailing vessel, spending the next six years on the water in minor capacities. Meantime he visited ports in England, Spain, Russia, and on the Mediterranean and Black seas ; had been around Cape Horn, up to San Francisco ; around the Cape of Good Hope ; to Sydney and other Australian ports, and cruised in the South seas. When twenty years old he entered the Danish navigation school at Aarhuus to supplement his practical training with scientific study, to which he devoted himself four years, graduating in the year 1880. He resumed sailing as second mate on the Danish steamship "Frederick," of the United Danish Steamship Company, became first mate in a year and a half, and eventually captain, having a number of responsible commands. He made voyages to the various ports of the Baltic, North and Mediterranean seas, and in 1886 came to San Francisco, engaging with the Charles Nelson Company. He was assigned to the bark "Forest Queen" as first mate and subsequently made captain, and during the last five years of his experience on the water made twenty-two voyages to Honolulu, in the Hawaiian islands, which he visited long before they came under United States rule.

In the year 1891 Captain Jensen was appointed assistant keeper of the light station at Fort Point, Golden Gate, off San Francisco, where he remained for fifteen months, at the end of that period being transferred to the Point Bonita lighthouse, where he was first. assistant keeper for four years. In 1897 he received his present appointment, beginning his duties at the Cape Mendocino lighthouse June 15th of that year, and he has held the position continuously since, except for his absence during the exposition of 1909. A trusted and faithful employe during his sea-going years, Captain Jensen has proved equally reliable in the important work he is doing now, safeguarding lives and marine property along this perilous stretch of coast. His high sense of the responsibility and intelligent comprehension of the many services he can render to shipping are grateful security to those familiar with him and with the duties intrusted to him. The lighthouse is located off the west slope of Cape Mendocino, in latitude forty degrees, twenty-six minutes, twenty-six seconds north, and longitude one hundred and twenty-four degrees, twenty-four minutes, twenty-one seconds west, and the seventy-eight-thousand-candlepower flash is visible in clear weather for twenty-eight miles. The height above mean high water is four hundred and twenty-two feet, and there is a white flash every thirty seconds. This station was built in 1868, at a cost of twenty thousand dollars. There is only one lighthouse in the United States situated farther west, that on Tatoosh island, on the south side of the entrance to the strait of Juan de Fuca, at Cape Flattery, Wash., the longitude of the latter being one hundred and twenty-four degrees, forty-four minutes, six seconds. Captain Jensen is widely known among seamen, and he has made many warm personal friends among them, his knowledge of navigation and exemplary record of service commanding the confidence and sincere respect of all who have had occasion to be interested in his ability. He and his good wife extend a hearty welcome to all who visit their snug quarters, visiting sailors, neighbors and many strangers to the coast enjoying a trip out to the light and a friendly call on the keeper. The scenery at this point is wild and romantic, but the severe, cold winds have no terrors for the fearless captain and his companion.

Captain Jensen was highly complimented by the government for his services during the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific exposition, which he found a welcome diversion from the routine of his duties at the light, having the opportunity of greeting hundreds of his former comrades among seafaring men as well as other visitors, all of whom appreciated the courtesy he extended as well as his intelligent assistance in inspecting the exhibit.

In 1888 Captain Jensen was married in San Francisco to Miss Rosina Mentz, a native also of Aarhuus, Denmark, and they have three children : Margaret is a graduate of the San Francisco normal school and is now teaching at Willits, Mendocino county, Cal.; May is attending business college in San Francisco ; William, the second born, is an electrical engineer by profession, a graduate of the Pacific Technical College, at Oakland, Cal., and is now engaged in buying and selling cattle. Captain Jensen has endeavored to give his family proper educational opportunities, and his children have appreciated his concern. He is an Odd Fellow, belonging to Active Lodge No. 379, Ferndale, Humboldt county.

WILLIAM EDGAR JOHNSON.—Though of Danish descent, William Edgar Johnson is truly a native son of California, having been born in Carlotta, Humboldt county, this state, August 12, 1887, where his father, Frank Johnson, had come from Denmark as a young man and engaged in sheep raising, and later in farming and fruit raising at Carlotta, owning the site where the town stands, until he sold the property to John M. Vance. The mother, Mary Jensen, is also a native of Denmark, having come to Humboldt county with her mother, and both she and her husband are now living, their three sons being Fred, a rancher and dairyman on the Island ; William Edgar, a dairyman at Ferndale, and Guy, who assists his brother William in the management of his ranch.

The parents of Mr. Johnson moved into the Ferndale district when William Edgar was about eight years of age, and there he attended the public schools and remained at home on the farm until nineteen years old when he secured employment in farming and dairying for others. Determining to go into business independently, in the autumn of 1909 he started in the dairy industry at Centerville, on the Jesperson place of sixty acres, in partnership with Niss Jepsen, under the firm name of Johnson and Jepsen, for two years conducting a dairy there consisting of forty cows. Then, in 1911, they leased the McDonough ranch, which comprises one hundred and eighty acres, located two and one-half miles north of Ferndale, and here he milks from ninety to one hundred and ten cows, having lately installed three units of Empire milking machines, which he finds of great assistance. It is the wish of Mr. Johnson to have his herd one of Jerseys exclusively, and he is gradually working toward that end, increasing the number of that stock from time to time as he makes additions to his herd.

Although his dairy interests take up much of Mr. Johnson's time and thought, he is yet active in fraternal circles, where he is well known as a member of the Ferndale Lodge No. 379, I. 0. 0. F., and also of the Rebekahs, being also a member of the Humboldt County Dairymen's Association, and in political activities a Republican.

ANTONE ZANA.—An enterprising and energetic dairyman of Grizzly Bluff, Cal., Antone Zana, who has come to the United States from the distant land of Italy, has brought with him business ability and perseverance which have given him a high place among the men engaged in the dairy business in this part of the state.

The father of Mr. Zana was Julio Zana, a farmer of Domodossola, Novara, Italy, where Antone was born on January 13, 1870. The boy received his education in the local public schools, and assisted his father upon the farm until, having heard and read of the good opportunities in California, he determined to try his luck in that faraway land, a decision which he has never regretted. On June 2, 1892, he arrived at Petaluma, Sonoma county, Cal., and soon secured employment on a farm at Lakeville, at which place he remained four years, but on account of the death of his employer and the consequent failure of the payment of a note, he gained nothing but experience from the four years of hard work. His next employment was as butter maker for three years at a dairy ranch on Sonoma mountain, after which he was engaged at various other ranches in the vicinity until the year 1899, when he removed to Jackson county, Ore., renting. a stock ranch at Gold Hill, which he conducted for almost two years. Returning to California, in December, 1901, Mr. Zama secured employment in Humboldt county, upon the dairy ranch of Martin Pedrezini for nine months, after which he decided to go into business for himself.' Accordingly he rented the Roper place at Loleta, where he carried on a dairy farm for three years, later renting the Jens Clausen estate on Paradise island whereon he conducted a dairy farm for seven years, and the Holbrook place on Coffee creek for two years. The next venture of Mr. Zana was the purchase of sixty-three acres located at Port Kenyon, which he stocked with a. dairy herd, at the end of a year selling the stock, since which time he has leased the ranch. His present place he bought in the year 1913, which consists of sixteen acres of bottom land situated in the Eel river valley, in the Grizzly Bluff district, and here he carries on dairying at the present time, having all along met with much success in his farming and dairying operations.

A member of the board of directors of the Valley Flower Creamery at Port Kenyon, Mr. Zana is also a stockholder in the same. In his political interests he is a Republican, while fraternally he is associated with the Druids Lodge No. 99 at Ferndale, Cal., and the Loleta Lodge, No. 56, of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He and his family are members of the Catholic Church at Ferndale. His marriage took place in Eureka, Cal., uniting him with Miss Irminia Del Grosse, a native of Locarno, Switzerland, and they are the parents of five children, namely, Alphonzo, Lillie, Tuvigi, Florence and Felix.


AGOSTINO BRAMBANI.—Until fourteen years of age, Agostino Brambani, now a well known resident of Eureka, Cal., continued to make his home in his native land of Italy, where he was born in 1872 at Garzeno, on Lake Como. His father was John Brambani, a builder and cabinet-maker, who was born in the same town in 1845 and removed to London, England, where he engaged in the restaurant business as proprietor of the South London Cafe for many years until he retired from business, his death occurring in Italy in 1913. Since the death of his father, the son John has been the proprietor of the cafe in London. The mother, Madelina (Poncia) Brambani, was born in 1846 and still lives at the old family home in Italy. The son Agostino, when fourteen years of age, accompanied his father to London where for five years he assisted him in the cafe, coming thence to Chicago, Ill., in 1892, being in that city at the time of the World's Columbian Exposition. For ten months he was employed at the Wellington Hotel, Chicago, coming thence to San Francisco, whence he removed to Sonoma county, Cal., and was employed in a dairy at Occidental, in .that county, for four months, then in a saw mill for the Dollar Lumber Company, where he remained for five years, removing then to Usal, Mendocino county, in the employ of the same firm. The next year he spent working in the Fort Bragg woods, and then went to Santa Cruz, Cal., where he remained over a year, in 1903 removing to Eureka, where he formed a partnership with Carlo Maffia, under the firm name of Brambani and Maffia, the partners purchasing the Italian Swiss Hotel in that city and continuing in business together three years, when Mr. Maffia sold out his interest to Mr. Brambani who carried on the hotel alone for five years until his former partner returned to Eureka and bought his interest in the business again. Since that time, the two have continued under the old firm name as proprietors of the Italian Swiss Hotel, having also purchased a lot on Second street, Eureka, between B and C streets, where they erected a large new hotel in 1911, a four-story building, forty by one hundred and ten feet in dimensions, with all modern improvements, and this hotel, which they have named Flor de Italia Hotel, (the Flower of Italy), is a great addition to the city.

The marriage of Mr. Brambani with Miss Rosa Maffia, also a native of Italy, was solemnized in Eureka, and they are the parents of four children, John, Agostino, Dante and Madelina. After having been away from his old home in Italy for twenty-six years, Mr. Brambani, in April, 1912, returned to his childhood's home for a visit to his father and mother and other relatives and friends, also visiting London, and returned to California in August of the same year. In his political preferences he is a member of the Republican party, while fraternally he is a member of the Eagles, also of the Druids of which he is past president.

CHARLES C. BRYANT.—In conducting his farming enterprises in Humboldt county, Mr. Bryant has encountered the average number of drawbacks and it is to his credit that he has profited by his failures and built thereon a solid foundation for the future. He rents a large ranch of three hundred acres near Carlotta and with his son, Clarence E., is engaged in stock-raising and dairying. While the care of so great an acreage, together with a dairy of about forty cows, necessitates constant labor and untiring energy, the returns have justified the procedure and at the same time have added further proof concerning stock-raising and dairy possibilities of the county. The locality in which he now lives has for Mr. Bryant an enduring claim upon his youthful remembrances and latter-day accomplishments, for he was born at Alton, on the old Dinsmore ranch, April 1, 1864, and has passed his entire life within the confines of Humboldt county. He is a talented musician, as was his father before him, and has been a leader in musical circles for over thirty years. At the present time he is director of the Bryant orchestra at Carlotta, which consists of five pieces. His special qualifications for this position have brought the orchestra into wide prominence and its services are in great demand throughout the county. The entire family of Mr. Bryant evinces a high degree of musical ability, while Miss Ruby Bryant is an accomplished pianist and a great credit to her profession.

The name of Bryant is a familiar one in this part of the state, having been associated with many of its important happenings in its early history. The first to remove hither was Calvin Bryant, a native of Vermont and the father of Charles C. In the early days the Bryant Bros. followed mining in Yuba county ; later they settled in Humboldt county, where Calvin Bryant took part in several Indian campaigns as a volunteer. He married in this county Harriet Clayton, whose birth occurred in Iowa, and they located on a ranch at Sandy Prairie, between Fortuna and Alton, where the father successfully farmed for many years. He was a musician of marked ability and had the honor of organizing one of the first orchestras in the county, of which he was the leader. His services were in great demand at Masonic dances and it was not uncommon for him to receive one hundred dollars for his services for a single evening's performance, while the other three members of the orchestra received seventy-five dollars each. Calvin Bryant lived to the advanced age of eighty-three years. He taught the first dancing school in the county. His brother, Rolla Bryant, also lived at Alton and was a violinist and violin-maker. He was a fine mechanic in any line and made the first wagon built in Humboldt county.

Charles C. Bryant, who was the only child of his parents, was married to Miss Evelyn Strong, in 1884, and to them have been born eleven children : Calvin married Mamie Jesscn and resides at Rohnerville ; Clarence E. assists his father in the management of the home place ; Charles T., Ruby, Lula May, Annie, Ethel Miranda, Edna, Leland, Earl and Loris are at home. Mr. Bryant is a member of Alton Parlor, Native Sons of the Golden West, and politically is a Republican.

THOMAS MONROE TOBIN.—As the efficient manager of the Garberville Mercantile Company, which is the largest general merchandise establishment in southern Humboldt county, Thomas Monroe Tobin is recognized as one of the leading men of the thriving little city, and a citizen of character and worth. He has been in the employ of this company since its organization in 1911, and since 1914 has been the general manager. Under his capable administration the enterprise has prospered and is today one of the best established of its kind in the county. They handle a complete and comprehensive line of goods, carrying an up-to-date and modern stock, meeting the demands of the highest class trade. He is a man of integrity and honesty of purpose, which, coupled with his business ability, makes him a capable manager.

He was born near Louisville, Kentucky, January 18, 1877. His father, Napoleon Tobin, was engaged in farming near Louisville for many years. His mother, Mariah (Shacklett) Tobin, was also a native of Kentucky, where she was reared and married. She bore her husband eight children, only three of whom are living at this time. She died in Kentucky in 1886. Besides Thomas M., the living members of the family are William, now in the general merchandise business at Guston, Ky., and Robert, a traveling salesman, residing in Los Angeles.

The boyhood days of Thomas M. were passed on his father's farm near Louisville, where he attended school and assisted with the farm work in his spare time and during vacation. After completing the public schools he entered Kenyon College at Hodgenville., Ky., where he continued his studies for three years and then taught school in Hardin and Larue counties for a period of two years, at which time he came west as far as Chickasha, Oklahoma, where he accepted a position as bookkeeper with Swift & Co. Later he was employed at Fort Smith, Ark., doing similar work, finally resigning this position to go to Carnegie, Okla., and engage in the grocery business for himself. He remained there for almost two years and it was in 1903 that he finally came to California, locating at Garberville, Humboldt county, where he was clerk and bookkeeper in the employ of Conger & Hamilton, dealers in general merchandise, remaining with this house for seven years. At that time (September, 1911) the Garberville Mercantile Company was organized and Mr. Tobin accepted a similar position with the new concern, and in 1913 became their manager, which position he now occupies.

The marriage of Mr. Tobin took place in Garberville July 12, 1905, uniting him with Miss Margaret Robertson, a native of Garberville. She is the daughter of Alex and Belle Robertson, pioneer residents of Garberville, and well and favorably known in this vicinity. Mr. and Mrs. Tobin have two children, Margaret Ruth and Thomas Monroe, Jr.
Aside from his interests in the mercantile business, Mr. Tobin, having faith in land values in Humboldt county, has not overlooked investing in land on the south fork of the Eel river.

JAMES FRANKLIN THOMPSON.—One of the sturdy characters of Eureka whose impress in educational, business, social and political lines has been felt is James F. Thompson, for many years editor and proprietor of the Daily Humboldt Standard. The descendant of a family long resident in the east, he was born May 29, 1844, the son of Josiah Thompson, a Quaker, and a direct descendant of one of the old colonists that came over with William Penn. His paternal grandfather, Job Thompson, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., while his great-grandfather, Abel Thompson, was a native of New Jersey. Born in Erie county, Pa., in 1818, Josiah Thompson lived there until about 1855, in that year immigrating to Grant county, Wis., where until his death he was successfully employed as a contractor and builder. His marriage united him with Cementha A. Darrow, who was born in Jefferson county, N. Y., which was also the birthplace of both of her parents. She came of patriotic Holland-Dutch stock, one of her great-uncles, General Van Rensselaer, having served as an officer in the Revolutionary war.

James F. Thompson was a lad of twelve years when with his parents he went to Wisconsin, in which state he first attended the common schools, and later attended Tafton Collegiate Seminary. Determined to acquire a still better education, at the age of seventeen he began teaching in the district schools in order to secure the means to pay the expenses of a course at Bryant & Stratton's Commercial College, and in due time he was graduated therefrom. Following this he taught school in Wisconsin for seven or eight years, of which time he was for four years principal of the schools of Cassville and Lone Rock, Wis. From that state he went to Clayton county, Iowa, in 1869, and for two years was principal of the schools at Monona, then of the Elkader
high school for the same length of time. In 1873 he was elected superintendent of the Clayton county schools, a position which he filled very satisfactorily for two terms, but which he resigned to take up his old position as principal of the high school, filling this for three years more. In 1876, at the State Teachers' Association, he was elected president of the County Superintendents' Association of the state.

Mr. Thompson's entrance into the journalistic field dates from the year 1880, when he purchased the Clayton County (Iowa) Journal, managing this for one year. Having been elected clerk of the courts he served two terms of two years each, when he was admitted to the bar. Later he was admitted to practice in the supreme and federal courts, and for three or four years thereafter was one of Iowa's noted attorneys. His election to the state legislature took place in 1885, and by his reelection in 1887 he served two full terms. Chance brought him to Eureka on a visit in 1888, and so favorably was he impressed with the outlook that he decided to make it his future home, and in August of that year he purchased a half interest in the Daily Humboldt Standard. Two years later he bought out his partner,. thereafter managing the paper alone for twelve years, during this time increasing the circulation of the paper and making it altogether one of the best news mediums in the county. After about fourteen years as proprietor of this paper, on December 1, 1902, Mr. Thompson sold it to W. N. Speegle and George Coleman. Since then the Standard has again been acquired by members of his family, now being owned by his daughter, Mrs. F. W. Georgeson, and his son-in-law; W. N. Speegle.

In 1894, during the presidency of Grover Cleveland, Mr. Thompson was appointed receiver of the United States land office, and two months later, in July, 1894, after finishing his term as grand master of the Grand Lodge of California Odd Fellows, he assumed the duties of the office. At the close of his four-year term as receiver of the land office he was reappointed by President McKinley, and again reappointed by President Roosevelt in 1902.

Mr. Thompson's marriage occurred in August, 1864, and united him with Minerva J. Drake, a native of Wisconsin, and they became the parents of five children, as follows : Ella T., the wife of F. W. Georgeson, of Eureka ; Cora T., the wife of W. N. Speegle, editor of the Eureka Standard ; Charles F., who when seventeen years old was accidentally shot and killed by a friend ; Minerva M., the wife of Prof. W. E. Powell, of Eureka ; and Edith R., who completed her education in Hopkins Art Institute of the University of California. Originally a Republican in his political belief, Mr. Thompson subsequently supported the Democratic party until the nomination of Bryan, when he gave his vote and the support of the Standard to President McKinley, and throughout the remainder of his life continued to support Republican candidates and principles. He was well known in fraternal affairs, having served as grand master and as grand representative of the Grand Lodge of Odd Fellows in California. For five years he was one of the board of trustees for the Odd Fellows Home in Butte county, being president during the last year of his term, and for twelve years before coming to California he had been representative of the Iowa Grand Lodge. He was also active in Masonic circles, having joined that order in Beetown, Wis., when he was twenty-one years old, and as a Royal Arch Mason was at one time one of the grand officers of the Grand Chapter of that state. He passed away in 1905, at the age of sixty-one years, leaving behind him a record of usefulness and good works which might well serve as an example for young men just starting out in life.

LUCIUS CASE TUTTLE.—Although retired from active business life, and living in retirement at Eureka, Lucius Case Tuttle retains the ownership of his ranch of about ten thousand acres, situated on the South Fork of Eel river between Garberville and Harris, where he was successfully engaged in stock raising for many years, the management of which is at present carried on by his only son, Frederick A. Tuttle. At seventy-eight years of age Lucius C. Tuttle is still hale and hearty, an energetic man who attends personally to all his loans and investments and keeps strong and well by constant work in his gardens, which are marvels of neatness and thrift in which he justly takes much pride. He and his wife are well content with the success which he has made of his life, and by reason of the progress which he has achieved during his long residence in this state he is enabled to say, as did ex-president Harrison after crossing the Sierras into California, "There is but one California, and California is the poor man's home."

The father of Lucius C. Tuttle was F. B. Tuttle, a native of Rutland, Vt., and of Scotch descent, who married Lucia Case, of Irish and English ancestry, who was born in Connecticut, and removed to Dutchess county, N. Y., where the son Lucius Case was born at Brookport, April 29, 1837. The boy was only about four years old when his parents moved to Chicago, Ill., a year later settling at Plainfield, in Will county, and there he obtained his education in the public schools and academies, in young manhood learning the carpenter's trade, which was to prove extremely useful in his later experience in California. The father was one of the pioneer gold seekers in California, making the journey across the plains in the year 1850, and following mining in the western state, where he built one of the first quartz mills in the state and the first in Eldorado county, later returning to Illinois, where he spent the remainder of his life.

On May 29, 1860, the son Lucius was married to Miss Leah J. Rutan, who was born in Paterson, N. J., August 17, 1837, and in 1862 they likewise started across the plains to California, as the father had done, fitted out with two wagons, sixteen horses, four yoke of oxen and four milch cows, one wagon being drawn by the oxen, the other by four horses, a change of horses being made at stated periods. Leaving Illinois on April 1st, and journeying via Council Bluffs, Iowa, and Salt Lake City, Utah, the party arrived in the Sacramento valley, California, on September 11th of that year, having been exactly six months on the journey. After working at his trade a short time, Mr. Tuttle engaged in farming along the Cosumne river, on November 17, 1864, removing to Mendocino county, where he settled on a stock ranch of five hundred forty acres in the Sherwood valley, continuing to make his home there for the fifteen years following and engaging in the raising of short-horn cattle and merino sheep, his nearest trading place being Ukiah, about forty miles distant, until the town of Willits was started at Little Lake. Meantime, in 1867, he was appointed postmaster at the Sherwood Valley office in Mendocino county, being the first to hold the office at that point, and also owned thirteen hundred acres on the Outlet, where he carried on stock raising, selling both his ranches in Mendocino county, however, in 1882, when he purchased his present place of ten thousand acres in Humboldt county. Here he spent a number of years in the improvement of the valuable property which he had acquired, and met with enviable success in stock raising upon his new estate, which, since his retirement from business cares, has been creditably conducted by his son, Frederick A., who is represented elsewhere in this book. The buildings on the place, all constructed under the direction of Mr. Tuttle, are notably substantial and convenient in arrangement, so well finished that they have needed little repairing in all these years, and so suitable for their various purposes that they attract attention at once as eminently fitting in every particular. They have been erected on solid stone foundations, and the forethought and extreme care which Mr. Tuttle gave to their construction have been more than repaid in the years of service already had, and the many years for which they will undoubtedly be sound. The large frame barn, built of hewn native timbers, and splendidly framed, mortised and joined together with wooden pins (after the fashion of Mr. Tuttle's New York ancestors); is the principal farm building, and has its full complement of ranch buildings, sheds, smokehouse, etc.; the sheep shearing department, wool compress and warehouse, all one large building, is most commodious, having room for twelve shearers to work at once. The dwelling house is roomy and equipped with modern plumbing throughout for hot and cold water service, supplied from a nearby spring which was walled up and provided with a hydraulic ram, throwing an abundance of pure spring water into a large tank whence it is drawn for household use. The surplus water is diverted to the vegetable and horticultural gardens, which afford a luxuriant supply of berries of all kinds and choice vegetables for the home table. In this mountain section cherries, peaches, apples, plums, grapes and pears reach an exceedingly high standard of flavor and color, and the forty acres of the ranch under cultivation yield abundantly. About four thousand sheep is the average amount of stock kept on the Tuttle ranch, and large quantities of wool and mutton on the hoof are sold annually. The bountiful provisions for home comforts as well as business arrangements on this place are reminders of the old days when ranchmen were dependent almost entirely on the products of their own estates. The choicest home cured hams and bacons are on hand all the year round, and it is not uncommon for the host to treat his visitors to a feast of venison, for deer in considerable numbers still frequent the vicinity.

Since the year 1901 'VII% Tuttle has resided in Eureka, leaving the management of his ranch to his son, and purchased J. W. Henderson's interest in the Humboldt County Bank and the Home Savings Bank, afterwards selling half this interest to John M. Vance, who became president of the Humboldt County Bank, while Mr. Tuttle held the presidency of the other institution. Some years later he bought back Mr. Vance's interest in the two banks, giving his attention to their management until selling out to the Crockers of San Francisco, since which time Mr. Tuttle has devoted his attention to the care of his personal investments and loans. A man possessed of an exceptionally bright mind and wonderful business acumen, Mr. Tuttle is rich in valuable experience and interesting reminiscences of the early days in this part of the state, his interests having covered many and varied matters. While in Sherwood Valley he served as school trustee for a period of fourteen years, and while on his ranch became interested in the Humboldt County and the Home Savings Banks in Eureka, serving as director therein before his more prominent connection with them in later years. On his estate in Sherwood Valley was located an Indian rancheria, where he was instrumental in teaching many of the Indians to perform farm. work, much as the padres of the old Spanish days instructed the Indians at the California missions. At the fatal election feud between the Coats and Frosts, it happened that Mr-Tuttle was present in the town of Willits during the Little Lake tragedy, and he with Messrs. James and Fenton laid out the five or six corpses for burial. A member of the Eureka Lodge No. 652, B. P. 0. E., Mr. Tuttle is well known in local political circles as a stanch Republican, firm in his belief that under Republican rule will come the greatest prosperity for our country and for the western state where he has for so many years made his home.

JOSEPH BONOMINI.—One of the sons of Italy who has come to California to make his home and has here won success in business as well as the esteem of all who know him, is Joseph Bonomini, a wideawake business man who is making a success of the big dairy which he and his brother operate at Orick, Cal.

Born in Livemmo, Brescia, Italy, December 15, 1881, Mr. Bonomini is the son of a brick manufacturer in Livemmo, Mark Bonomini by name. The education of the son was received in the public schools, after which, until the age of eighteen years, he remained at home, assisting his father in the brickyard and likewise learning the trade of stone mason. Removing then to Canton Basel, Switzerland, he worked at his trade in that place until February, 1901, when he came to California to seek his fortune, as many others of his young countrymen had done. Locating at Point Arena, in Mendocino county, he entered the employ of the L. E. White Lumber Company, working in the woods as a swamper and a maker of ties for three years, subsequently going to Humboldt county and securing employment at Philbrook as head swamper in a shingle mill, continuing in this work for six years. At the end of that time Mr. Bonomini made a trip to his native land in the autumn of 1910, spending five months in a visit to his old home, on February 28, 1911, being united in marriage with Miss Mary Paccini, a native of the same place, and they are the parents of three children, Mark, Katie and the baby. Returning to Humboldt county two months after his marriage, Mr. Bonomini was engaged for a year in running a milk wagon in Eureka, being employed thereafter as head swamper in 'Thompson's shingle mill at Bayside until the failure of the mill in 1913, when he removed to Orick, and in partnership with his brother John began the dairy business in which he is still engaged, under the name of Bonomini Brothers. Leasing a two hundred acre ranch from Robert Swan, the brothers operate a prosperous dairy, where they milk seventy cows and also raise hay, carrots, beets and corn, and have made for themselves the reputation of good business men, upright and liberal in their dealings.

JAMES BONOMINI.—Among the numerous sons of Italy who have come to this country to make for themselves a home, and have, by persistent effort and unflagging energy, attained a high rank in their chosen line of occupation, must be mentioned James Bonomini, who was born in Livemmo, in the province of Brescia, Italy, on December 13, 1881, the son of Joseph Bonomini, a stone mason engaged in contracting and building in that section of Italy. James, the son, grew up in his native town, and attended the public schools of that place, which. is 'situated in the beautiful Alps region. After completing his studies at the local schools, he was apprenticed to the blacksmith's trade in Calleo, Italy, and after learning this business thoroughly by practical experience, he continued in that line of industry until leaving his native land in the year 1903.

The month of February, 1903, saw the removal of Mr. Bonomini to the city of San Francisco, Cal., where, not finding work at his trade immediately, he secured employment at the Hotel Del Monte, in Monterey, Cal., where he remained two years. On April 17, 1906, he started work at the Union Iron Works in San Francisco, which was the very day before the great earthquake and fire in that city, and as soon as work was once more resumed at the iron works he continued with them as blacksmith, in 1907 being sent by the company as foreman at Christie, in Contra Costa county, and after thirteen months at that place returned once more to the company's works in San Francisco. A letter from his brother Joseph, who was located in Loleta, Humboldt county, asking him to join him in engaging in the dairy business there, found favor with Mr. Bonomini, who accordingly, in the year 1908, removed to Loleta, where, with his brother, he rented three hundred twenty acres of the Herrick place, which they stocked with a dairy herd, consisting of one hundred ten cows. The brothers continued to operate the ranch until October, 1914, when they gave up the place and dissolved partnership, Joseph going to Blue Lake, to follow the same business, and James removing to, the Big Lagoon, Cal., where he leased his present ranch on the shores of the lake and established himself in the dairying business on an independent basis. Here he now has a fine herd of thirty-two cows, a number which he is constantly increasing, being likewise engaged in raising the necessary feed for them and in improving his pasture lands. His dairy business, however, is not the only interest which absorbs Mr. Bonomini's time, although he has attained a high grade of success therein, for by his fraternal associations he is a member of the Independent Order of Foresters, where he is well and favorably known, and in his political preferences upholds the principles of the Republican party.

PATRICK E. CARLAND.—Prominent among the well-known merchants of Humboldt county may be mentioned Patrick E. Carland, manager of the Eel River Mercantile Company, a subsidiary company of the Pacific Lumber Company, with branch stores wherever the parent company has large interests. Mr. Carland has been associated with this company since 1909, when it purchased his general merchandise store at Dyerville, where he had been conducting a very successful business for a number of years, and made him manager of its mercantile interests. He is of the true Irish type, a native of the Emerald Isle, bright, good-natured, large-hearted, and no man at Scotia, where he makes his headquarters, has a wider acquaintance, or is better liked. He is a man of the strictest integrity, with a splendid capacity and will for work, and has been singularly successful. He is a prominent member of the Catholic church and of the Knights of Columbus, and is popular with all with whom he comes in contact.

The Eel River Mercantile Company has its main offices at Scotia, where it also has a large general merchandise store, while its branch stores arc located at Dyerville, Shively and Field's Landing. These stores are located wherever the Pacific Lumber Company has a mill, wharf, lumberwood, or other large interest, and practically everything is carried that the employes of the company may need, either in their business, or in their home and social life. This company has two large sawmills at Scotia and is one of the largest lumber companies on the Pacific coast. In addition to carrying a splendid line of general merchandise the Eel River Mercantile Company also buys farm produce, hay, grain and livestock, and has its own slaughter house, refrigerating system and meat markets.

Mr. Carland was born in Strabane, county Tyrone, Ireland, January 8, 1862. His father, Hugh Carland, had been in America for a number of years, having been engaged in business at New Orleans in 1830. He became a man of means through the success of his business there, and returned to Ireland with a considerable sum of money. There he found that his father had become seriously involved, and the fortune made in America was used to liquidate the mortgaged indebtedness on the estate. He then became interested in the conduct of the estate, married and reared a family in his native county, although all the time he was desirous of returning to America and constantly made his plans toward that end. Fate, however, seemed to decree otherwise, for one thing after another prevented the culmination of his plans, and when at last he had sold his farm and was ready to make the journey, he was suddenly stricken and died before he left his native land. He was married to Ellen Farrell, also a native of county Tyrone, and they were the parents of ten children. The wife died in 1874, at the age of forty-three years. Patrick E. was reared and educated in his native county, attending first the Christian Brothers' school, and later taking a thorough business training in a commercial college. Following this he was employed in a large wholesale and retail establishment in his native town, where he acquired a thorough knowledge of the grocery and meat business and became an expert judge of meats, fish, poultry and game, and also of various dairy products.

It was in 1883 that Mr. Carland finally came to America, New York being his point of entry. For a year he was employed as steward at the Pleasant View House, a resort hotel in the Catskill Mountains, and from there went to Chicago, where he was clerk at the St. James hotel for eighteen months. He then went to Buffalo Gap, S. Dak., where he became manager for the B. C. McCrossan Commission Company, at that place. Later he went to Rapid City, S. Dak., where McCrossan owned another commission business, and at a still later period went to Sundance, Wyo., where he engaged in the general merchandise business in partnership with McCrossan, meeting with much success, and remaining until 1887. He then disposed of his interests, returned to Chicago, and became foreman of the Aldrich Bakery, which later became the National Biscuit Company, remaining with this company in the same capacity for fourteen years. In March, 1903, Mr. Carland came to California and for a time was traveling salesman for the National Biscuit Company, with headquarters in San Francisco, covering the territory of northern California. While thus engaged he purchased the interests of E. S. Townsend, general merchant of Dyerville, in 1903, and immediately took charge of his new business. There was a bar in connection, when he took over the business, and it was freely predicted that at least one-half of the business would be lost if this bar was closed. Mr. Carland, however, immediately closed the bar, and it is well worth recording that his business doubled within a remarkably short time. He built up a flourishing trade and prospered far above even his own expectations. Later he met C. W. Pennoy er, president of the Pacific Lumber Company, with residence in San Francisco, and in October, 1909, he sold his business to the Pacific Lumber Company, and since that time the Dyerville store has been conducted as a part of the Eel River Mercantile Company interests. This company does a very extensive business, amounting to over $250,000 per year, and its capacity has been materially increased under the capable management of Mr. Carland.
Quite aside from his business prominence, Mr. Carland is a favorite in many circles, both socially and fraternally. He is a Republican in his political preferences, and is progressive and broadminded, standing firmly for all movements which tend toward the upbuilding of the community. He is a strict temperance advocate, has never taken a drink of liquor in his life, and has given his hearty support to the cause of temperance reform for many years.
The marriage of Mr. Carland was solemnized in Deadwood, S. Dak., in 1887, uniting him with Miss Louise Knight, the daughter of Charles Knight, of Fairfield, Iowa. Mrs. Carland, like her husband, is well known socially in Scotia, where she is a prominent member of the Catholic church and of the various ladies' societies of that denomination.

CHARLES C. COTTRELL, M. D.—As assistant surgeon at the Scotia Hospital for the past six years, and general practicing physician of Scotia and the surrounding country during that time, Dr. Charles C. Cottrell enjoys, a wide circle of friends in his part of the county. Dr. Cottrell is a native of California, having been born in Eureka, February 20, 1883, the son of A. Cottrell, who has for many years been engaged in the grocery business in Eureka. The young Charles C. grew to manhood in Eureka, attending the public and high schools, graduating from the latter in 1903. During his boyhood he was a well known figure in Eureka, where he assisted his father in the grocery store when not in school. After his graduation from the local high school he matriculated, in the fall of 1903, at the Stanford University Medical College, in San Francisco, and took a four years' course there, graduating in 1907. He then accepted a position in the Lane Hospital and served as an interne for a year, acquiring much valuable experience. At the end of that time he returned to Humboldt county and joined his brother in general practice at Fortuna, under the firm name of the Drs. Cottrell.

It was in September, 1909, that Dr. Charles C. Cottrell took up his residence in Scotia. The brothers are also emergency surgeons for the Northwestern Pacific Railroad, at Scotia.

The marriage of Dr. Charles C. Cottrell took place in Scotia, in 1910, uniting him with Miss Marion Hotchkiss, the daughter of L. L. Hotchkiss, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this volume. They have become the parents of two children, Helen E. and Emett M. Dr. Cottrell is also well known in fraternal circles. He is a member of the Odd Fellows at Fortuna, and of the Weeott Tribe, I. 0. R. M., at Scotia, being past sachem of the tribe. In his political preferences he is a Republican and is well informed and keenly interested in all that pertains to the welfare of the community.

JOHN STEVEN LYSTER.--Tracing his genealogy back through many generations of Irish and English ancestry, John Steven Lyster, himself a native of Canada, proves himself to be descended from the blood of kings of the thirteenth century, or even earlier. He is, however, a true son of the Western World, a pioneer and a patriot of the truest type. For many years he has been engaged in business enterprises on the Pacific coast, principally in Oregon, and in 1906 he came to Humboldt county, and on a date early in January of that year he purchased the business of L. Feigenbaum, the pioneer merchant of Rohnerville, the business itself dating from the very beginning of the little trading post of Rohnerville, and being the first store to be opened here, long before the coming of the railroads, and even when the wagon-roads were few and difficult, and most of the traveling was done with horses and pack mules. In those days, about 1856, Rohnerville was the scene of much activity, an average of forty pack mules per day finding their way into the trading post from the mountain and farm districts farther back. Originally there was a sawmill near the present site of Rohnerville, and later Henry Rohner, a native of Switzerland, opened his first store where the farm house of 'William Degnan now stands. A grist mill soon followed, and there was the nucleus of a thriving commercial center. Some time later one Benjamin Feigenbaum bought a half interest with Henry Rohner, and they erected another building for their store near the lumber and grist mill, which were some quarter of a mile from the original site of the store. This house has since that time done business here continually, with never a closing of its doors, and never any serious financial reverses. It has always paid cash, and has enjoyed the best of credit and a flourishing trade. Later still Joe Feigenbaum bought the Rohner interest and the firm became known as Feigenbaum Brothers. Several further changes of ownership followed and eventually the firm became L. Feigenbaum, of whom Mr. Lyster purchased it. The store now carries a first-class stock of general merchandise and is thoroughly modern and progressive in every sense of the word.

Mr. Lyster was born at Montreal, Canada, May 14, 1865. This family traces back to Queens county, Ireland, where they were flour millers and farmers. The Irish Lysters are a branch of the English Listers of Yorkshire, and are descended from 'Walter Lister (or Lyster), of Milltown, county Roscommon, who was born at Westby, county York. He was the son of Anthony Lister of Newsholme Gisburn, Yorkshire, the seventh in descent from John Lister de Derby, who was married in 1312 to Isabel, the daughter and heiress of John de Bolton, bo.w-bearer of Bowland, lineal descendant of the Saxon kings of Mercia. He, Walter Lyster, came to Ireland in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, with Osbaldestone, Judge of Connaught, his father-in-law, and obtained a grant of land from James I, in county Roscommon. He died January 28, 1622, and is buried in Camden churchyard, Roscommon, where his tombstone may still be seen. The Irish branch of the family spell their name Lyster, while the English retain the "i." The progenitor of the family in America was of the Irish branch, and they have mostly continued to reside in Canada. He was one Philip Lyster, born in 1764, at or near Mountmellick, Queens county, Ireland, and emigrated to Canada in 1820, settling in Durham, Drummond county, province of Quebec, where he died in 1822. He was a farmer and landowner and his descendants have largely followed in his footsteps. The father of John Steven Lyster, the subject of this article, was Philip, the son of Richard, the son of Philip, the progenitor of the American branch of the family, and was born at Durham, Drummond county, Canada, in 1832. In 1858 he was married to Eliza Stevens. He is a farmer and still resides at Durham, Drummond county, Canada, and has but recently been the guest of his son at Rohnerville. The mother died at the family home in Canada twenty years ago. There were seven children in the family, of whom John Steven was the fourth born. They are : Annie Ruth, Findley Murdock, Benjamin Edward, John Steven, Mary Elizabeth, James Edmound and Lily A.

John Steven Lyster passed his boyhood on his father's farm in Canada, and at the age of fifteen he commenced to clerk in the general merchandise store at Ulverton. Later he attended business college, where he pursued a commercial course, at Richmond, province of Quebec. In 1889 he came to Coos Bay, Ore., and entered the general store owned by the Simpson Lumber Company, as a clerk. Later he went to San Francisco, where he was married to Miss Mary Elizabeth Lyster, and in 1894 he returned to Canada, where for four years he ran his two hundred acre farm, at Durham. He then returned to Gardner, Douglas county, Ore., and assumed the management of a general store owned by Senator Al Reed, retaining this position for almost nine years. At the expiration of that time he came to Humboldt county and purchased his present business in Rohnerville, that being in 1906. The motto of the business has always been, "Short accounts make long friends," and Mr. Lyster is following the policy laid out by the former owners and_ is meeting with his customary well-deserved success.

Mr. and Mrs. Lyster are both very popular in Rohnerville, where they are prominent in religious, fraternal and musical affairs of their home city. They have two children, a daughter, Gladys Ruth, and a son, Merton Solomon.

REV. THOMAS HICKMAN STEPHENS.—After a long life of active service in the pastorate of the Baptist church, both in the east and west, Rev. Thomas Hickman Stephens is retired from active professional labors, and is living in peace and quiet enjoyment on his beautiful little farm on Jameson creek, a half mile from Rohnerville. This is an ideal spot for a home, the location being especially beautiful. There are four bubbling springs of mountain water, and the improvements of the forty-acre ranch are very attractive, including a charming cottage, with orchards, gardens, meadows and cultivated fields. Mrs. Stephens is a splendid helpmeet to her husband and is his close companion in all his interests and labors. They have appropriately named their home Mill View Gardens, it being immediately below the Feigenbaum & Masson shingle mill.

Mr. Stephens is a native of Missouri, having been born in Cooper county in 1851. He attended the William Jewell College in Clay county,. Mo., and there took an A. B. in 1880 and an A. M. in 1882. He had been engaged in preaching for some time before his graduation and as soon as he had completed his studies in theology he became pastor of the Baptist church at Lick Fork, Mo. His marriage occurred in 1880, uniting him with Miss Mary May Sweeney, a native of Clay county, Mo., and descended from an old Kentucky family. It was in 1885 that Mr. Stephens first came to California, leaving his charge at Lick Fork to accept another at Wheatland, Yuba county, Cal., remaining in that charge for eight years. He then accepted the pastorate of the Baptist church at Medford, Ore., for two years and in 1894 returned to Wheatland. His next charge was at Chico, this state, and from there, in 1897, he came to Humboldt county, and for seven years was in charge of the Baptist church at Eureka. For the past few years he has been on the retired list, and has only been called upon to fill pulpits on special occasions, and when a supply is needed.

Mr. Stephens has accumulated an appreciable amount of property, having several desirable residence properties in Eureka, which he rents, in addition to the farm on Jameson creek. Mr. and Mrs. Stephens have one child, a son, William Jewell, who is an express messenger on the Northern Express, at Seattle, Wash. He is married to Miss Catherine Caywood. Both Mr. and Mrs. Stephens have many warm friends throughout California, where their work has brought them in close contact with the people of their denomination. In Eureka they are especially popular, having endeared themselves to the members of their charge during their many years of devoted and loving labor there.

GEORGE W. PERROTT.—As the manager of the meat market department of the Eel River Mercantile Company, at Scotia, George Perrott is one of the best known and best liked men of that part of the county. He has occupied his present responsible position for many years, nine general superintendents having come and gone since he first assumed charge of this department of the work at Scotia, the Eel River Mercantile Company being a sub-• sidiary of the larger corporation and designed to care for the wants of its employes. Mr. Perrott is particularly well fitted for this work, having learned the details of meat market business when he was a boy, and for some ten years being so employed by Lamb Bros., in Rohnerville. He is thoroughly familiar with the handling of meats and provisions, and his long incumbency of his present position is proof of his ability to discharge his duties in an efficient manner. His department is noted for the thorough and careful systematization of all work and for the scientific sanitary condition which prevails. Its importance may be the better understood when it is known that the Pacific Lumber Company is the largest in the county and one of the largest on the coast. Their interests at Scotia are very extensive and valuable, their buildings, machinery, tracks, wharves, etc., having cost some $14,000,000. E. P. Garland is the superintendent of the Eel River Mercantile Company, which maintains a branch store at the various points where the Pacific Lumber Company has interests, the main distributing station being at Scotia.

Mr. Perrott is a native of California, born in Marin county, January 21, 1862, the son of Mathew and Sarah A. (Miller) Perrott. His father was a native of New York state and came to California in 1849, locating in Marin county, where he engaged in farming. When George was six years of age the family removed to Humboldt county and located near Rohnerville, where the father again engaged in farming and stock raising. He owned and improved a farm of three hundred acres. He also had several trades, one being that of wagon maker, and he was engaged in the manufacture of heavy wagons, and also owned and conducted a livery stable. The son George attended the public schools of Rohnerville and assisted with the farm work at home. His first work for others was when he entered the employ of A. Lamb, of Rohnerville, in the meat market, where he learned the trade which has since stood him in such good stead. He has a splendid record of fifty-five months in this business without the loss of a single day. He was also interested in the training of trotting horses and became very expert in this work, being in the employ of A. and Winfield Lamb as a trainer of fast horses for several years, remaining with these brothers altogether for ten years, from the time he was twenty-four until he was thirty-four. He then went to the Santa Clara valley and drove fast horses for George P. Mclninny, a millionaire and a great fancier of trotting horses, Mr. Perrott being his trainer for five months. In 1896 he came to Scotia and at the special request of his former employer, A. Lamb, took charge of his meat market here. Since that time he has remained here, the market of which he was in charge being later taken over by the Eel River Mercantile Company and Mr. Perrott being put in charge of the department which he has since so ably handled, except for a brief period of nine months, when he acted as manager of the Scotia hotel for the Pacific Lumber Company.

Mr. Perrott has been twice married, the first time being in 1891, when he espoused Miss Kathryn Davis, the daughter of John B. Davis, of Rohnerville. She bore him two children, George Leland, now a machinist in the employ of the Pacific Lumber Company, at Scotia, and Lyle Preston, a resident of Metropolitan. Mr. Perrott' was married a second time in 1906, being united with Miss Daisy Leonora Rickart, of Scotia.

In addition to his popularity in the commercial world, Mr. Perrott is well known and especially well liked in fraternal and social circles, where he takes an influential part in affairs generally. He is a member of the Odd Fellows, Rohnerville Lodge, and is past grand of the same. He is also a member of the Knights of Pythias, Scotia Lodge, and of the Weeott Tribe No. 147, I. 0. R. M., at Scotia, and has been through all the chairs twice, and a delegate to the grand lodge six times. He is also a charter member of both these last named orders. He is also prominent in politics and has been a member of the Republican County Central Committee.

The family of Mr. Perrott's parents was a large one, he being one of nine children, eight of whom grew to maturity and are still living. The living members of the family are : Frank Mathew, residing at Haywards, Cal. : William, of Fortuna ; Charles E., of Rohnerville ; Benjamin, also of Rohnerville; George W., our subject ; Dr. W. L., of Eureka ; May, Mrs. T. J. Smith, of Fortuna ; Harry A., deceased, and Sadie, Mrs. Starks, of Fortuna.

E. LESTER COTTRELL, M. D.—Dr. E. Lester Cottrell has been physician and surgeon of the Scotia Hospital since November 1, 1909. The attending surgeon is constantly called upon to perform operations of minor and major importance in cases of accidents, of which there are bound to be many.

Dr. Cottrell is a native of California, born in Eureka,
August 14, 1874, the son of A. Cottrell, a grocer of that city, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this edition. He passed his boyhood days in Eureka, where he attended the public and high schools, and later entered the San Jose State Normal, graduating in 1896. For several years he taught school, being principal of the grammar school at Petrolia for a year, and then for three years teaching in the grammar schools of Eureka, being principal of the Grant school for two years of that time. He bid good-bye to the pedagogical profession with the old century, and in the fall of 1899 matriculated at the Cooper Medical College in San Francisco, where he remained for a year. He then went to Washington, D. C., where he filled a position with the census bureau for a year, at the same time completing his second year of medical study. The third and fourth years of his course were taken at the Jefferson Medical College, at Philadelphia, where he graduated in 1903. He then became resident physician at the Western Pennsylvania Hospital, in Pittsburg, during 1903-4, at the close of which time he returned to Eureka, where he practiced for three months. He then went to Fortuna, where he succeeded Dr. S. M. L. Dougherty. For almost five years he remained at Fortuna, and then accepted the post which he occupies at present, and removed to Scotia, where he has since resided.

Dr. Cottrell has taken an active part in the medical affairs of Humboldt county since his return here from his studies in the east, and was president of the County Medical Society in 1914.

Aside from his splendid reputation in a professional way, Dr. Cottrell is also popular fraternally and socially and enjoys the widest acquaintance among the people of his part of the county. He is a prominent Mason, a member of the Blue Lodge, Chapter and Commandery, of Eureka, and is also a Shriner, being affiliated with Islam Temple, San Francisco. He is also a member of the Knights of Pythias at Scotia. In his political preferment Dr. Cottrell is a Republican and is keenly alive to all that pertains to the best interests of the community, following the line of his own judgment on men and measures in all local issues, rather than confining himself to party lines.

The marriage of Dr. Cottrell and Miss Ethel Williams, of Fortuna, was solemnized at the latter city June 12, 1906. Mrs. Cottrell was for some years engaged in educational work in Humboldt county, and is past president of the Sequoia Club of Scotia.

LEWIS LARSON.—One of the best known manufacturers of shingles and shakes in Humboldt county is Lewis Larson, who lives on a splendid eighty-acre ranch between Rohnerville and Hydesville and operates his shingle mill, which is three miles beyond Cuddeback. He is one of the very few operators in this line who have not closed their mills during the depression of 1913-14, and this is largely due to the splendid cooperation of the Larson family, the sons and daughters being in the employ of their father, and giving their best effort toward making a success of the undertaking. They are all energetic, enthusiastic and hard working, and the product of their mill is a superior grade of shingles.

Mr. Larson is a native of Sweden, born at Engelholm, January 10, 1864. His father was a farmer and owned a ninety-acre farm in the mother country, where he died at the age of sixty-eight years. The mother lived to be seventy.

The boyhood days of the son Lewis were passed on his father's farm and his education was received in the public schools of the district. In 1882 he came to
America, locating first in Kansas, where he worked as a farm hand in Wilson county. In October, 1883, he came to California, spending a brief time in San Francisco, and then coming up the coast to Eureka. He was with the California Redwood Company for a year and then entered the employ of John Vance, veteran lumber man, in his lumber mills, first as a sawyer, and later became a filer. After the death of his father he inherited $2500 from the estate, and this he invested in property, purchasing a fine ranch of eighty acres on the road between Hydesville and Rohnerville, forty acres of which is bottom land. His first venture in the making of shingles was on the Van Dusen river, where he built a shingle mill on the Irvine place, four miles further up than his present property. This he ran for twelve years, with great success. His present mill he built in 1912, and has operated it continuously. since that time. It has a capacity of fifty thousand shingles and ten thousand shakes per day.

The marriage of Mr. Larson took place in 1890, when he was united with Miss Hannah Person, a native of Sweden. They have become the parents of nine children, all of whom have been born in Humboldt county, where the elder members of the family have been educated, and where they all reside at this time. They are : Roland, a sawyer in the shingle mill ; Elsie, now the wife of Arthur Johnson, who is employed in the moulding mills at Eureka ; Emma, who is employed at the shingle mill ; Lloyd, also employed at the mill ; Allen, Elsa and Eva, all attending school in Rohnerville ; and Sophus, Benjamin and Arthur, younger members of the family.

Mr. Larson takes a keen interest in all public questions and is deeply interested in the local and political affairs of the state, but as a non-partisan. He is a member of the Woodmen of the World, and is well known in that order. Among business men with whom he is brought in contact he is known as a man of ability and strength of character, honest, industrious and upright, and well above the average in native ability.

History of Humboldt County California
History by Leigh H. Irvine: Historic Record Company, Los Angeles, California, 1915
Transcribed by Martha A Crosley Graham 17 July 2006, Pages 866-1025


Site Updated: 4 December 2009

Martha A Crosley Graham