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Transcription of

The Western Shore Gazetteer and Commercial Directory,
For the State of California…, Yolo County,

Compiled and published annually
by
C. P. Sprague & H. W. Atwell,
Woodland, Yolo County, 1870, pp. 41-158.

Transcribed by Peggy B. Perazzo
(Feel free to use the following transcription for your personal use or your non-profit web sites.)

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Yolo County (Description) – Continued

Fisheries of Yolo.

The principal fishery on the Sacramento is at the mouth of Sycamore Slough, near Knight's Landing. It employs several men, the average catch during the summer and fall being from one to two tons of fish per day. One small steamer is employed in transporting the catch to the markets – Sacramento and San Francisco. The principal fish taken here in the summer is the perch, along with other varieties of smaller fish.

Aside from this fishery, we have returns from thirty-two gill-nets, two men to the boat; average catch of the season, twelve hundred dollars to the net; also four pike fishermen, with twenty nets. The largest pike net on the river is at the Knight's Landing Fishery, of which we have spoken. During the salmon fishing, the fishermen take large quantities of this fine fish, along with sturgeon and other varieties not so valuable. By the twenty-fifth of June the spring run of salmon up the river is generally ended, when the perch and other small fish take their place in the market. The fall run begins in August and lasts until November, and sometimes as late as December. The spring run is the best – the fish being short, fat and of a bright color. On returning from the spring run they frequently mix with the fall run, when they are poor and of a very rusty color. The average weight of the spring fish is about fifteen pounds, though they have been caught weighing forty pounds. Sturgeon have been taken in these fisheries, weighing more – one being recorded of four hundred and ninety-five pounds weight. During the spring run, it sometimes happens that a sudden rise occurs in the river, when the fish fall back for a few days until the floods subside, when the run is renewed.

This season the first shipment of salmon overland to the East was attempted. There is no doubt that a large and profitable trade will grow out of this experiment. The salmon of the Pacific coast far surpass those of the Eastern fisheries, both in size and quality. Should the market be assured in that quarter, we may look for a large increase of boats and men on the river. Old fishermen tell us that the stock has increased in the inland waters very materially during the past few years. They attribute this to the decrease of mining, and the consequent increased purity of the waters.

About one hundred and fifty men are engaged in fishing and hunting, who are residents of this county. The annual value of the trade is estimated at eighty to one hundred thousand dollars. The value of boats, nets and other property necessary to conduct the business is estimated at forty-five thousand dollars.

Mines and Minerals.

The mining interest is but lightly represented in this county, with one exception. But little prospecting for the precious metals has been attempted, though "indications" of the existence of various kinds of minerals are not wanting in the foothills and mountain ranges that form the western boundary of the county. Gold, copper, sulphur, lead and cinnabar indications are frequently found, such as would justify extended prospecting in a country where the attention of the inhabitants was directed to mining instead of agriculture.

Gold Mining.

Has been carried on, to some extent, on Putah Creek and in some gulches and ravines in the foothills near Cache Creek Cañon. Absence of water, inexperience of mining matters, and the all-absorbing interests of agriculture, may be given as sufficient reasons why this branch of industry has received no more attention. That gold exists in the first range of hills is a fact; but whether in quantities sufficient to justify any great outlay of capital in the prospecting or working of the ground, remains to be decided. Copper "signs" are plenty in the hills, and occasionally one meets with indications of coal and iron. The formation of the ranges, their volcanic origin, and the undisputed fact of the existence of gold and cinnabar, would warrant a more extended and thorough examination of the county than has ever been given to it.

Cinnabar.

In the extreme northwestern portion of the county is located the cinnabar or quicksilver mines of Charles F. Reed & Co., known as the California Mines. This company are pushing the work on their mine, with every assurance of success. The mine lies but a few (six) miles from the celebrated Knoxville and Manhattan cinnabar mines, and is evidently a continuation of the belt which traverses a section of Lake and Yolo counties. This cinnabar-bearing belt extends from Oregon southward through the Coast Range; how far is not definitely ascertained, but either the mineral or indications have been discovered at intervals through the whole extent of the Coast Range from Oregon to Mexico.

In the district where Reed's mine is located, very rich deposits of cinnabar have been found and two large mines, with furnaces and machinery attached, employing about three hundred men and turning out from four hundred to one thousand flasks of quicksilver per week when the furnaces are in operation. These mines are located in Lake County, the dividing line between Lake and Yolo passing between these mines and that owned by Reed & Co. The surrounding hills are thickly studded with "indications" and "croppings" which reveal the existence of cinnabar-bearing lodes.

The California Mine.

By an Act of the Legislature of 1864-5 the boundaries of Yolo County were definitely determined. This location included the California and Occidental mines within the limits of Yolo County. In 1856 these mines were consolidated under the name of the "California Mine," and duly incorporated, with Charles F. Reed, of Yolo County, as President, and Henry F. Williams, of San Francisco, as Secretary. In 1867 the mine was sold to a company of English capitalists for five hundred thousand dollars, but, through some mismanagement of the company's agents sent to Europe, the sale was broken. The company then determined to prosecute the work on their own account, and have been steadily engaged in opening and developing their mine since. They own six hundred and forty acres of rich agricultural land in Davis Valley, well improved, with good farm houses, barns, etc. At present they are working fifteen men, under the superintendence of John E. Regal, an experienced miner. They have out and ready for smelting about five hundred tons of fine ore, estimated to yield thirty per cent. of quicksilver. They have good boarding-houses, blacksmith-shops and other buildings necessary to the successful prosecution of the work. A contract has been made with Messrs. Roach & Form, of San Francisco, who are to erect a large smelting furnace, to be completed by the first of October. It is confidently expected that the mine will be turning out large quantities of quicksilver by that time or immediately thereafter. Several tunnels have been driven by the company, in all of which the prospects are encouraging. One of these tunnels has been driven, through solid rock, six hundred and fifty feet, one over four hundred feet, and still another two hundred and fifty feet. At the time of writing the superintendent informed us that he had found large quantities of paying rock or ore in the new cut, one hundred feet beneath the surface. Success in this quarter will induce capitalists to turn their attention to investments in that direction, and will have the effect of introducing a class of laborers in those hills who will add wealth and prosperity to a portion of the country now comparatively non-productive and consequently valueless. Such an event would work a vast change in that section, and materially enhance the value of the foot-hill lands, especially those that are well timbered. It would open up a new market for produce and hasten the construction of a railroad through that section, and in many other ways prove of great benefit to the county.

We now leave our general description of the county, for the purpose of giving brief sketches of the principal towns of Yolo.

Woodland,

The county seat, is situated in Cache Creek Township, fifteen miles west and six and one-half miles north of Sacramento. By the road, as now laid out, the distance is rated at eighteen miles to Washington. The town lies three miles south of Cache Creek, the nearest point being at Nelson's bridge. Where the town now stands, and immediately surrounding it, was once a beautiful grove of oaks, from which the town derives its name. A few of the trees are still standing, but by far the larger portion have fallen before the army of occupation, the advance guard of which seems to be wood-choppers. This grove, which was the most prominent feature of the place and its chief beauty in its younger days, has given place to dwellings, stores and other belongings of a thriving town; yet enough remains to enable the town to hold her name rightfully, without subjecting herself to the charge of having appropriated a name that did not correspond with the surroundings. The ground on which the town is located is slightly elevated above the surrounding plains, it being the end of a gravelly ridge, or rather elevation, traceable for several miles. The belt of timber in which the town was established extends northward and westward to Cache Creek, and eastward and southeastward for some distance beyond the town.

In 1855 Henry Wyckoff established a store, the place being then known as "Yolo City." This store was purchased in 1857 by F. S. Freeman. Hyman & Brothers established the next store, building what is now known as the Woodland House. In 1861 F. S. Freeman built the first brick building. The land on which the north part of the town stands was patented by F. S. Freeman in 1862. The southern portion of the town stands on land patented by T. M. Harris, in June, 1863. Such is a brief outline of the early history of the town, given to illustrate the rapid growth and improvement of the place.

A short time since, an effort was made to incorporate the town, giving it a boundary one mile square. From causes unnecessary to mention, the scheme failed, and Woodland remains unprotected by city laws, unburthened by city taxes. We do not propose to question the wisdom of the attempt at incorporation, or the more successful effort which resulted in the defeat of the measure; but we may be permitted to express the opinion that but a few additional years of prosperity will elapse before Woodland will be found among the list of incorporated towns.

Public Buildings.

The county buildings – Court-house and jail combined – are situated in the north portion of the town. The structure is of brick, two stories high – 76 x 60 feet. The jail contains eight cells, constructed of wood and lined with sheet-iron. The building is now undergoing repairs, a contract having been entered into between the Board of Supervisors and Turton & Knox, of Sacramento City, the latter undertaking to raise the building eight and one-half feet and put under it a new foundation, the present one providing inadequate for the purpose designed. Since the above was written the work has been successfully completed. The building is commodious, provided with fire-proof vaults and safes for the various offices. The offices of the Treasurer, District Attorney, Sheriff and jail are on the first floor. On the second floor is the Court room, Supervisors' room, Grand Jury room, County Clerk's room and office. The yard or square on which the building is situated, is tastefully laid out with walks and planted with shrubbery, or rather a portion of it, and the whole has been sown in alfalfa, which thrives well, and adds much to the beauty of the place. A well one hundred and thirty feet deep furnishes a plentiful supply of good water, supposed to be the best in town.

Hesperian College.

This institution, located at Woodland, was erected in the fall of 1860 and the winter of 1861.

The school was opened March 4th, 1861 – the day of President Lincoln's first inauguration. O. L. Mathews, a graduate of Bethany College, Virginia, presided over the young institution until December, 1861; Henry Atkinson, a graduate of Howard University, assuming control of the school the following term, January, 1862.

In August following, J. W. Anderson, of Washington College, Pennsylvania, was elected to watch over the rising fortunes of a school that bid fair to attain to eminence among the schools and colleges of California.

In September, 1863, J. M. Martin, a graduate of Abingdon College, Illinois, was called to take charge of the institution. From that time till the present he has presided over its destinies.

Though laboring under many difficulties and embarrassments, it gradually increased in members, influence and popularity, until the opening of the session, August, 1867, when with almost unprecedented rapidity it rose to the first rank among the schools of the Pacific Slope. The catalogues of the institution for 1867-8-9 show an average attendance of more than two hundred students per annum.

On the fifth day of May, 1869, the institution was duly incorporated in accordance with the statutes of California in such case made and provided.

On the twenty-third of August, 1869, the Board of Trustees named in the certificate of incorporation met, organized and proceeded to elect a Faculty, and to establish rules and regulations for the good government of the school.

The present Faculty is as follows: J. M. Martin, President and Professor of Ancient Languages and Elocution; J. L. Simpson, Professor of Mathematics; G. N. Freeman, Principal of Preparatory Department; Mr. C. L. Cross, Principal of Primary Department; Miss Florence G. Johnston, Teacher of Vocal and Instrumental Music; Mrs. J. E. Dickson, Teacher of Painting, drawing, etc.; P. A. Espina, Teacher of Spencerian Penmanship; G. N. Freman (sic), Secretary of the Faculty. Hesperian College admits both sexes, and stands a striking example of the superiority of such schools when conducted upon a rational basis. "A thorough, practical education - physical, intellectual and moral," is the motto of the Institution.

Public School-house.

This is a two-story frame building, situated in the extreme eastern part of town, in the midst of a beautiful grove of oaks. It is not worthy, as a public building, of any extended notice.

Churches.

There are three brick churches in the town – the Christian or Campbellite, the M. E. Church and the Catholic. They are each good, substantial brick buildings, the Catholic Church being by far superior to the others in architectural beauty and design.

Theater.

Washington Hall, on Main Street, two stories high and one hundred feet long by sixty feet wide, was erected for public purposes by Adam Gerlach, at an expense of fifteen thousand dollars. The upper story is in one room, and fitted with a stage and stage scenery complete. It was opened by L. F. Beatty, with a theatrical troupe, who leased it for a season. His term having expired, Mr. Gerlach resumed the control of the hall, which is now at the service of the public.

Hotels.

The hotels in Woodland, two in number, are fine brick buildings, two and three stories high respectively. Among the

Other Buildings

Worthy of note are the bank building, the fine brick – three stories high – adjoining the bank, built by Messrs. Brown, Sill & Craft, and Elliott's carriage-shop, a fine two-story brick. Among the private residences that of F. S. Freeman takes the first place. The contract price for this building was sixteen thousand dollars. There are many tasty dwelling-houses in Woodland, of both brick and wood, but the predominating material used in construction is brick, both in stores and dwellings.

General Description.

The town consists (of) twenty stores, classed as follows: One hardware, one millinery store; dry goods, three; dry goods and groceries, two; groceries, three; produce and groceries, two; produce and fruit, one; jewelry and drugs and stationery combined, one; jewelry, one; clothing and drugs, one; tinware and stoves, two; variety stores, two. There are four barber's shops, one bath-house, two saddle and harness shops, three shoemaker's shops, one dressmaking establishment, three restaurants, one flour-mill, two large carpenter's shops, one large carriage manufactory, one ice cream saloon, three livery stables, and eighteen saloons and places where liquors are sold by the drink. This list comprises the most of the business of the town. The trade, value of exports and imports are included in the county returns.

The population of the town proper, or village, is sixteen hundred. Including the suburbs, or voting precinct, it is about twenty-two hundred.

Meat Markets.

The value of the animals slaughtered for home consumption in Yolo can hardly be accurately determined. We take the following statistics from the books of James Ashbury, the leading butcher of the county. At his two markets, in Woodland, the sales foot up as follows, for the year ending September first: Number of pounds of veal slaughtered, nine thousand six hundred; pork, twenty-three thousand; mutton, sixty-six thousand; beef, five hundred thousand nine hundred. Total pounds of meat, five hundred and ninety-nine thousand five hundred pounds, worth at an average thirteen cents per pound, or seventy-seven thousand nine hundred and ninety-five dollars. Supposing the remaining shops in the county do a business exceeding this by one-half, which is a fair estimate, we then have one million four hundred and ninety-eight thousand seven hundred and fifty pounds of meat annually sold from the markets, valued at one hundred and ninety-four thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven dollars and fifty cents.

The other markets of note are Korn's, at Woodland; Gwinn's, at Knight's Land; Marden's, at Davisville; Hines', Cacheville, and one at Buckley's. At Ashbury's five men are employed, averaging a pay-roll of seven thousand five hundred dollars. By the same average we have twelve men with a pay-roll of eleven thousand two hundred and fifty dollars.

Bank of Woodland.

This institution was organized in 1868 and incorporated on the twenty-first of November of that year, with a paid up capital stock of two hundred thousand dollars, to be increased to five hundred thousand dollars at the option of the incorporators. The officers at present are the same as at its organization, and are as follows: President J. D. Stephens; Cashier, C. W. Bush; Vice-president, F. S. Freeman. The Directors are J. D. Stephens, F. S. Freeman, C. Nelson, J. Hollingsworth, L. D. Stephens, J. Wilcoxon, N. Hastings, F. Miller and C. W. Bonynger. Since its organization three dividends have been declared, averaging each one per cent. on the paid up capital. With the organization of this institution new facilities were afforded business men, and a corresponding improvement in financial matters was the result.

Knight's Landing.

This town is situated on the Sacramento River, eight and one-half miles north and three and one-half miles east of Woodland. By the railroad the distance is eight miles; by the public roads, as generally traveled, about twelve. It is on the line of the California Pacific Railroad, thereby connected with Marysville, Woodland and the seaboard. It has a large trade, via the Sacramento River, with Sacramento and San Francisco. It contains one church, a school-house, one hotel, one lodging-house, one flour-mill, one very large wagon- and blacksmith-shop, besides some of lesser note; three large warehouses, one large carpenter-shop, two bakeries, six saloons, one very large dry-goods store, several grocery-stores, and several other places of trade, too numerous to mention.

The principal portion of the town lies on Front Street, fronting the river. The buildings are principally of wood, of one story, or cottage houses. The population is about one thousand. In 1850 "Billy" McDaniel first laid out the Town of Knight's Landing; but nothing seems to have been done toward building the town until 1853, when Charles F. Reed re-surveyed it and laid out the streets as they are now located. There are many old settlers in that community who recollect when Knight's Landing was barren of aught but brush and undergrowth.

When J. W. Snowball arrived he found one log house on the mound. He erected the first store at that place. The name of "Knights Landing" was given by the settlers in honor of the owner of the grant located there – a name it has since retained.

It seems a little strange – hard to recognize as facts – that the pleasant town of Knight's Landing, with its bustling activity, as well as the surrounding country, was an unsettled wilderness but twenty years ago. Yet such is the case, and that wilderness was rather thickly inhabited by wild and savage beasts, according to the reports of the early settlers. M. A. W. Morriss, who settled at Knight's Landing in 1852, relates that the place was then entirely unimproved, and wild animals were plenty. A few cloth tents were the only dwellings, except the log house on the mound. The only inclosure for stock was a corral. Hearing a disturbance in the corral one night, he went out to discover the cause, and found a grizzly making himself familiar with the animals inclosed. In 1853 two grizzlies made a reconnoisance (sic) on the forces of J. J. Cook, who was engaged in ditch-digging near the site of the present town. They walked out from an adjoining thicket, making directly for Mr. Cook, who, knowing it was useless to run, stood his ground bravely, and with uplifted shovel awaited the assault. Fortune generally favors the brave, and in this case she adhered to the rule; for, after a short observation of Mr. Cook and his defenses, the bears retired in good order, leaving him master of the situation. For several years, bear, elk, deer and antelope were abundant. The log house on the mound – the old landmark, the first dwelling in that part of the county – was burned in 1853. We believe it was built in 1849. Pity it had not been spared, for but few of the old landmarks and records of '49 are left.

Building in those days was rather expensive, judging by some old bills and records. Mr. J. Friel, who, by the way, says there were not three women within a square of ten miles when he settled near Knight's Landing (1853), built his first house of "shakes" split from the surrounding oaks. The nails for this building cost thirty cents per pound. The flooring boards one hundred and twenty-five dollars per thousand feet. Flour was fifty dollars per barrel, and other things in proportion. We might multiply incidents of like nature, but they are familiar to all old Californians. Among the early settlers of Knight's Landing and vicinity was Mr. Harrison Gwinn, afterwards County Judge of Yolo and member of the Legislature. He settled on the farm he now occupies in 1850, and has remained there since. To Mrs. Gwinn belongs the honor of being the first American lady who settled in that vicinity. Thomas Coleman, who landed at Fremont in 1849, came to Knight's Landing in 1850, when Mrs. William Knight occupied the "log house on the mound." In 1851 Mr. Coleman was attacked by a grizzly, and was obliged to seek safety by climbing a tree. D. W. Edson settled at the Landing in 1850; J. Dinwiddie the same year; C. O. Copp in 1852. John Burns and several others, who are still living in the county, settled there in 1853. About this period the scattering farmers began to haul their produce to this place for transportation, and the name of "Knight's Landing" became permanently established and was the only name by which the place was known. There have been some attempts to call the town after the name of its post-office, Grafton, but there is little probability of the old name every being superseded.

During the summer and fall months the streets of the town present a lively appearance. Long lines of freight wagons, loaded with grain, impart a business appearance that gives ample evidence of the wealth of the country adjoining. The flour and grain trade via the river is extensive, communication with the seaports being cheap and reliable at all seasons of the year.

The town possesses an excellent landing and extensive wharves, the only ones in the county. Charles F. Reed and Laugenour & Brownell have each extensive wharves and fine warehouses, capable of storing an immense quantity of grain. They are heavy grain purchasers for the San Francisco market, and their wharves receive the bulk of the grain raised in that section.

In point of trade, Knight's Landing is the third town in the county, as well as in population. It is a permanent, steadily-growing place, and bids far to become an important river town. Connected as it is with the interior by rail, the seaboard by rail- and water-carriage, it possesses advantages of commerce superior to those of any other town in the county. With the well-known energy of its citizens directed in the proper channels, and supported by an extensive grain-growing district, the town must rapidly assume its true position and become a leading commercial place.

Washington.

Washington is situated on the Sacramento River, immediately opposite Sacramento City, and connected therewith by the railroad bridge.

The town contains about five hundred inhabitants; is regularly laid out, and contains two hotels, four saloons, two stores, one feed-stable and the blacksmith-shop, one laundry, and one saw-mill, one rectifying apparatus and public water-works.

The proximity of the town to Sacramento, which should prove of great advantage to it, seems to produce an opposite effect, but little improvement being visible. Owing to a short-sighted policy, the traffic between the two places is seriously impeded by the toll-bridge, which levies a tax on every foot passenger that crosses. Owing to this, many who are doing business in Sacramento are deterred from residing in Washington, where lands and rents are much cheaper.

Were this restriction removed, or a free bridge constructed, Washington would improve rapidly, property would be enhanced in value, while Sacramento would reap a corresponding benefit in the increase of travel and trade from this county, which now seeks other parts, accessible only by rail, where such restrictions are removed.

Washington, by situation and by virtue of the advantages named, should become the place of residence of many business men whose business lies in Sacramento City. It should become to Sacramento what Oakland is to San Francisco, Brooklyn to New York, and, with liberal provision made for transit between the two places, the desired results would be soon secured.

The orchards in Washington are among the finest in the county, and add a peculiar beauty to the place. It is in reality the garden of the county, and susceptible to being rendered one of the richest portions of the State.

The Steam Navigation Company have extensive works located on the river front, near the bridge, consisting of carpenter-shops and blacksmith-shops, located convenient to the ways whereon their vessels are repaired. The spare steamers belonging to the Company are moored in front of the town and assessed in Yolo County. Many mechanics are constantly employed by this Company, who make the town their residence, adding materially to its prosperity.

The growth and improvements of Washington have not been in a corresponding ratio with some other towns in the county, and though one of the oldest, it falls far behind its sister towns of younger growth. The railroad, instead of being an advantage to the town and a cause of prosperity, has proved the reverse, as the business formerly transacted there in the way of freight and travel is now mostly transferred to Sacramento.

Cacheville.

The Town of Cacheville is situated on Cache Creek, four miles north by one mile west from Woodland. It contains three stores, one hotel, one saddle and harness-shop, two blacksmith- and wagon-shops, one school-house, one church, one flour-mill, one tin-shop and two saloons, with a population of about five hundred.

It is surrounded by a rich agricultural country and possesses a large mercantile trade.

There has not been much activity manifested in building, there being no leading cause to stimulate a rapid growth. the closely-settled surrounding country, with the many wealthy farmers residing near by, gives a permanency to the place which will insure a steady growth, though not rapid.

Having neither rail nor water connection with the other towns, the grain market is confined to the milling trade, which of necessity transfers a heavy trade to Woodland and Knight's Landing which would be retained under more favorable circumstances. The proposed railroad from Woodland to Colusa, if completed, would afford those facilities to Cacheville, as then the town would become the center of one of the finest grain-growing districts in the county – the shipping and receiving point – thus securing the trade which now passes through or by the town for other places, where the facilities of transportation are greater. This would insure a rapid growth, and the town would assume the position which naturally belongs to it. The Post-office at Cacheville is Yolo.

Fremont.

This town was, but is not. A glance at the history will enable the reader to learn of its past – a glance at the one house comprising the town will tell of its present. Its site is located on the Sacramento river, about nine miles northeast from Woodland, opposite to where the Feather River united with the Sacramento. The country immediately surrounding Fremont partakes of the general character of the river lands – a narrow belt of grain or garden land fronting on the river, and sloping to the tule swamps in the rear. We would there was more to say of Fremont, but unless we write a homily on the changes presented, or a regret for the old times, we must close this paragraph. The Post-office at Fremont is Charleston.

Langville.

Is situated at the mouth of Capay Valley, twenty miles northwest from Woodland, on the road leading to Clear Lake. The town consists of Lang's Hotel, one saloon, one saddler's shop and one blacksmith's shop. Population, various.

Capay City.

Is situated in Capay Valley, four miles from Langville and twenty-four miles northwest from Woodland. It contains one store, one hotel, one blacksmith's shop and one saloon. It is surrounded by a fine grain country. Capay Post-office is located at this place.

Cottonwood.

This town is located in the midst of a fine grain-growing locality, twelve miles west from Woodland. It contains two stores, one blacksmith's shop, one wagon-maker's shop, one harness and saddler's shop, one hotel, one shoe shop, one saloon and one church. Lately the town has shown signs of increasing vitality by the erection of some new and substantial dwellings. The Post-office for Cottonwood is Cache Creek.

Buckeye.

Is situated fifteen miles southwest from Woodland, in the center of a fine grain-growing locality. It contains two stores, one hotel, one saloon, one blacksmith's shop, one shoemaker's shop, one boarding-house and a Masonic Hall. One of the finest dwelling-houses in the county – that of Mr. B. Ely – is situated in the town. With this exception there are no buildings of note, unless we mention the dwelling of Mr. R. C. Biggs, whose farm adjoins that belonging to Mr. Ely. The Post-office has the same name as the town.

Davisville.

Is located on the north side of Putah Creek, ten miles south and one mile east of Woodland. By the wagon-road generally traveled the distance from Woodland to Davisville has usually been called twelve miles, the latter figure having been used by us in locating farms lying between Davisville and Woodland. The town is located on the old Jerome Davis farm, where the Sacramento branch of the California Pacific Railroad diverges from the main track. It is thirteen miles west and three and one-half miles south of Sacramento. The town is regularly laid out and contains about five hundred inhabitants. Olive street, the main street of the city, is very closely built, the buildings being of wood, mostly of one story. The town contains two large lumber-yards, two wagon and blacksmith's shops, several stores and saloons, three hotels, one restaurant, one livery stable, two saddle and harness shops and several minor places of trade. A frame church is in course of construction and will be completed this season.

Owing to its central location, Davisville possesses a large trade, especially in grain, from twenty to thirty thousand tons being annually shipped by rail from this point. The railroad buildings at Davisville are superior to any belonging to the Company in the county, and these are no larger than is necessary for the trade of the place. The town has improved during the last year, and will doubtless continue to advance in prosperity. It is surrounded by an excellent country, thickly settled with wealthy farmers. It possesses the trade of a large section lying in this and Solano County, and in this lies the elements of its future growth. As the country adjoining becomes more improved and more thickly settled, the town will feel the influence and meet with a corresponding enlargement. The celebrated cocoonery and mulberry orchard is located on the banks of Putah Creek, immediately adjoining the town.

Orders.

The Masons, Odd Fellows, Druids and Good Templars are represented by one or more Lodges in the county, each of which is said to be in a flourishing condition. Our information regarding these Orders was furnished by the officers of the various organizations, and may be considered correct.

We are indebted to W. W. Stone for the following regarding the

U.A.O.D.

On the thirteenth of July, 1870, Dodoma Grove, No. 18, United Ancient Order of Druids, was instituted in Woodland. Some two weeks previous to the organization, W. W. Stone (Principal ot (sic) the Woodland School) received the necessary instructions and encouragement, and by his energy succeeded in inducing thirty-four others to join in as charter members, who were duly initiated in the secret service of the Order on the date aforesaid. Since the installation a number of our most prominent citizens have joined the Order, which now numbers fifty-eight, and have further large increase of our best citizens may be confidently expected. There is a fair prospect of the Grove numbering one hundred members before it shall have been two months in operation.

The principles of the Order are said to be synonymous with those of the Odd Fellows and Free Masons, with an equal if not greater disposition to cause the influence of a society of public-spirited men to be felt beneficially in the moral and intellectual status of the community in which they reside.

The erection or purchase of a building suitable for a hall is now under consideration by the Grove, which meets temporarily in the College building. The creation of a library and reading-room for the benefit of the members and the public generally is also under consideration, and will doubtless soon be an accomplished fact. The present officers of the Grove are as follows: W. W. Stone, Noble Arch; W. A. Henry, Vice-Arch; H. J. Plomteaux, Recording Secretary; Abram Moger, Financial Secretary; A. C. Kean, Treasurer; G. Hafky, Inside Guard. Time of holding meetings, Monday evenings.

We are indebted to T. C. Pockman for the following regarding the Order of

Free and Accepted Masons.

The first Masonic Lodge in this county was established at Cacheville, June, 1854, by W. M., Parson Gray. The charter members were: C. Traver, N. Wycoff, J. D. Stephens, G. L. Brown and J. T. Boon.

The number of Lodges in the county is four, located at Cacheville, Woodland, Knight's Landing and Buckeye. Names of the Lodges and the nights of holding meetings are as follows:

Yolo Lodge, No. 81, Cacheville, A. Griffiths, Master, meets Saturday on or before the full moon. This Lodge has about fifty members.

Grafton Lodge, No. 141, Knight's Landing, E. L. Parremore, Master, meets on Saturday on or after the full moon. This Lodge has a membership of about forty.

Woodland Lodge, No. 156, T. C. Pockman, Master, meets on Friday on or before the full moon. This Lodge has a membership of sixty-two.

Buckeye Lodge, No. 198, M. R. York, Master, meets on Saturday on or before the full moon. This Lodge has about thirty members.

In Woodland the Order have a fine brick hall in the Mason's Block, on Main Street. The Order is in a very flourishing condition; but not being informed, we can give no further details regarding it.

I.O.O.F.

We are indebted to H. C. Grover, Recording Secretary of Woodland Lodge, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, for the following record of the Order in this county:

Woodland Lodge, No. 111, was organized on the seventeenth day of January, 1863, by R. W. Grand Warden David Kendall, assisted by John B. Harmon and other brothers of the Order from Sacramento City. The charter members were: Elias Peterson, G. J. Overshiner, Manville Barber, J. Wiley and A. Armstrong, who constituted the officers for the first term – E. Peterson, N. G.; G. J. Overshiner, V. G.; Manville Barber, R. S.; A. Armstrong, T. Six persons joined as Ancient Odd Fellows, making, in all, eleven members. For some time the young Lodge held its meetings in an old school-house in the eastern part of town, from which they removed to the College building, where the Lodge now holds its meetings. For two years the Lodge struggled on, meeting but little encouragement in the way of adding to the membership, besides being heavily burthened with debt. About the first of April, 1865, one of their most prominent members met with an accident which left him a cripple for life. This deplorable accident enabled the members of the Lodge to display the workings of their Order, and to illustrate, in the fullest sense, the principles which govern them, by practically demonstrating the grand and noble objects which have rendered the Order so deservedly popular. That which, in the weak and crippled condition of the Lodge, might have been considered as a heavy blow, was really a blessing to the Order, as through the sufferings of a member the Lodge was enabled to practice the great principles of charity and brotherly love which underlie the Order, in fact constitute its foundation and its defenses. With this incident began the prosperity of the Lodge. Its list of members increased steadily until it now (August 1st, 1870) numbers sixty-seven faithful and zealous members. A fine new hall is being erected for Lodge purposes, at a cost of four thousand two hundred dollars. It is expected that it will be ready for occupancy by November 1st of the present year.

The estimated assets of the Order (exclusive of the new hall), are one thousand dollars. The Lodge has lost but one member to death since its organization. Amount paid for funeral expenses, ninety-eight dollars and fifty cents. Amount expended for relief of brothers, over four thousand five hundred dollars. Total amount expended for relief, four thousand six hundred dollars. Officers of present term, commencing July 1st: H. J. Plomteaux, N. G.; Martin Meyers, V. G.; H. C. Graves, R. S.; R. H. Newton, F. S.; Henry Furry, T. Night of meeting, Saturday.

Yolo Lodge, 169, J. Horning N. G., was established in Davisville, April 12th, 1870. Its officers are: J. Horning, N. G.; F. Moultnor, V. G.; E. C. Hartman, R. S.; William Weinberger, T. Night of meeting, Saturday.

Davisville and Woodland Lodges were set apart as District 59, of which N. Wyckoff is District Deputy Grand Master.

We are indebted to Dr. H. Jackson for the following sketch of the Orders of Good Templars and Champions of the Red Cross:

Woodland Lodge, No. 237, I. O. of G. T.

This Lodge was organized by Rev. G. B. Taylor, October 13th, 1866, with ninety-three charger members. Officers for the first term: E. Giddings, W. C. T.; Miss Francena Fike, W. V. T.; James Sibley, W. S.; C. P. Sprague, W. F. S.; H. C. Grover, W. T.; R. P. Davidson, W. M.; Miss A. B. Ruggles, W. I. G.; Joseph Dopkings, W. O. G. Quarterly terms commence first of February, May, August and November. Night of meeting, Tuesday. Place of meeting, Good Templar's Hall. This building is of brick, and cost four thousand dollars. The property has increased in value very materially, and is now worth five thousand or over. August 1st the number of members in good standing was one hundred and nineteen. Present officers: Mrs. J. M. Plomteaux, W. C. T.; Miss A. M. Winchell, W. V. T.; Mrs. E. L. Fiske, W. S.; Jos. Briggs, W. F. S.; J. B. Ruggles, W. T.; Henry Fisher, W. M.; Mrs. Mary Maloney, W. I. G.; A. L. Fulton, W. O. G.; J. Stockwell, P. W. C. T.; Rev. C. Damon, W. C.

Lodges have been organized in Cacheville, Knight's Landing and Davisville, but we have no information regarding them; and it was with extreme difficulty that we obtained this meager information regarding Woodland Lodge.

Champions of the Red Cross.

An Encampment of this Order was established in Woodland August 11th, 1870, by Rev. George B. Taylor. Twenty charter members are on the records, which constitute the strength of the Encampment at present. Officers: H. Jackson, E. C.; S. Seely, G. C.; R. B. Mosby, W. S.; C. M. Blowers, W. T.; H. J. Plometaux, C. of the H.; W. Cole, J. C. The Encampment meets on Wednesday evenings, in Good Templars' Hall. Appointed Officers: J. A. Erskine, W. C.; Mrs. J. M. Plometaux, M. of C.; Mary Maloney, F. L.; L. Jarvis, F. G.; A. Stamp, R. S.; George Norton, C. of the R. C.; T. Christie, V.; Miss F. H. Jackson, I.

Churches and Church Organizations.

We are indebted to the pastors of the several denominations for the following account of the various Churches in the county:

The Methodist Episcopal Church.

Was first organized in 1855, by J. W. Burton. The ministers who have been in charge since are as follows: The founder, or organizer, Mr. Burton, remained in charge from 1855 to 1856, when Rev. R. Hobart succeeded, remaining through 1857; Rev. R. R. Dunlap officiated in 1858-9; Rev. H. J. Bland, 1860; Rev. B. F. Meyers, 1861; J. Corwin, 1862; J. W. Burton resumed charge in 1863, but died during that year and his place was supplied by Rev. Mr. Rightmeyer; Rev. W. N. Smith, 1864; Rev. P. Grove, 1865 (died in 1870); Rev. W. C. Curry, 1866-7-8. Rev. W. C. Damon is the present incumbent – [since transferred to Salt Lake City.]

The society has a brick church at Woodland, erected in 1866, at a cost of forty-five hundred dollars, and a parsonage erected in 1862, valued at fifteen hundred dollars; in Cacheville, a frame church, built in 1868, valued at twenty-five hundred dollars. Total value of church property, eight thousand five hundred dollars. The number of members are as follows: Cacheville Church, Rev. R. Stuart, pastor, seventeen communicants, attendance fifty; Woodland Church, Rev. W. C. Damon, pastor, eighty communicants. Sabbath Schools – One in Cacheville, attendance fifty; one in Woodland, attendance seventy-five. Summary – Two churches, with an average attendance of two hundred and twenty-five; two Sabbath Schools, with one hundred pupils; church property, value at present ten thousand dollars, original cost eight thousand five hundred dollars.

Christian Church.

We are indebted to Rev. J. N. Pendegast, pastor of this church, at Woodland, for the following "Statistics of the Church of Christ (Disciples):"

"The church at Woodland was organized early in 1854, with about twenty-five members, Elders Thomas Thompson and Joshua Lawson officiating. The membership has steadily increased, large additions having been made from time to time, until the whole number of names on the church register exceeds six hundred. The present membership numbers two hundred and fifty. In the town of Woodland this society, as a church, have college property valued at twenty thousand dollars and a brick church valued at eight thousand dollars. The church service is held on the Sabbath, morning, afternoon and evening; besides the Sunday School exercises. The Sunday School is very largely attended – the pupils number over one hundred. In Buckeye a church of this Order was organized in 1858, with twenty members, reorganized in 1865 with forty members. In Fairview, or Gordon Valley, another church was organized in 1868, with eighteen members. Throughout the county the church is in a most prosperous condition. Summary – three church organizations, membership three hundred and fifty; Sabbath Schools (one returned), membership over one hundred; value of church property, thirty thousand dollars. The figures regarding the Sabbath Schools are of necessity incomplete. The number of pupils probably approximates one hundred and fifty."

Southern Methodist Episcopal Church.

This organization has a fine church, now nearly completed, at Knight's Landing. It is frame, rustic design, with a commanding spire. Its dimensions are thirty-four by fifty feet. The contract price for the building is four thousand dollars, S. Smith, contractor and builder. Rev. Mr. Kelsey is the present pastor. We are uninformed regarding the strength of the society.

Cumberland Presbyterians.

This society has but a few members in the county. Service is held occasionally at what is commonly known as the Union Church, near Cacheville. Rev. M. M. Dodson, residing near Woodland, is, we think, the only pastor belonging to this denomination in the county.

The United Brethren.

This denomination holds service at Brown's school-house, about two miles west from Woodland. Rev. G. C. Starr, pastor.

Catholics.

This denomination have in course of construction a brick church in Woodland, of which Rev. Father Kelly, of Folsom, is the pastor. When completed, the building will be by far the finest building of the kind in the county. The congregation is large and permanent, being composed mostly of farmers, wealthy residents of the county. It is expected that the church will be completed during this year and a resident pastor established in Woodland.

Congregational Church.

The first Congregational Church of Woodland was organized during the present summer. At present the meetings are held in Templars' Hall. The attendance averages about fifty. A Sunday School has been organized with a large attendance. Rev. S. R. Rosborro is the resident pastor.

At Cottonwood is a small congregation with a frame church, built by the late Deacon Holden. This church has no pastor at present; late incumbent, Rev. J. W. Brier.

Baptist Church.

This denomination have (been) preaching in Woodland and at two other points in the county. The church is now considering the propriety of establishing their headquarters for Yolo County at Woodland, and erecting a suitable place of public worship. The Rev. J. E. Barnes is pastor. The two organizations are called Plainfield Church and Grafton Church, holding service at Plainfield and two miles north from Cacheville. The entire church numbers about fifty members.

Schools.

Owing to many causes, we are unable to present as detailed a statement of school matters pertaining to the county as we wished to. The marked apathy existing in many departments, which has prevented a fair showing of important interests, has defeated our aims. From the books of A. C. Kean, County Treasurer, who has rendered us valuable assistance, we have taken the following table, including the report of the County Superintendent, of August 26th, 1870. Names of districts, number of scholars and the amount of apportionment to each district is given, together with the balance on hand and credited to the fund of the districts named. According to the report of the State Superintendent, the whole number of school census children, between five and fifteen years of age, and entitled to receive State money, is two thousand seven hundred and forty-three. Amount of apportionment per child, one dollar and three cents. Yolo County, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-five children; amount of apportionment, two thousand fifty-seven dollars and ninety-four cents. The children having increased in this county over the census, the number now being two thousand seventy-seven, the amount of money apportioned to this county gives but ninety-nine cents per child. It has been so apportioned, leaving a balance of one dollar and seventy-one cents unapportioned:

(Headings of chart for information below - left to right)
Names of District
No. of Scholars
Balance on hand close of School year, June 30, '70
State Apportionment

Woodland - 339 - $842.54 - $335.61
Buchanan - 45 - $9.08 - $44.55
Washington - 116 - $440.23 - $114.84
Cottonwood - 52 - $80.40 - $51.48
Prairie - 39 - $436.66 - $38.61
Cache Creek - 49 - $166.13 - $48.51
Grafton - 138 - $985.29 - $136.61
Franklin - 22 - $207.53 - $21.78
Putah - 40 - $335.51 - $39.60
Buckeye - 42 - $ .10 - $41.58
Cacheville - 63 - $18.86 - $62.37
Grand Island - 17 - $91.18 - $16.83
Merritt - 49 - $253.60 - $48.51
Fillmore - 52 - $31.32 - $51.48
Plainfield - 64 - $159.65 - $63.36
Willow Slough - 24 - $64.69 - $23.76
Monument - 23 - $46.84 - $22.77
Pine Grove - 30 - $47.49 - $29.70
Cañon - 49 - $29.82 - $48.51
Union - 41 - $119.88 - $40.59
Woodland Prairie - 18 - $133.53 - $17.82
Richland - 2 - $51.30 - $1.98
Sacramento River - 35 - $61.85 - $34.65
Monitor - 51 - $19.35 - $50.49
Eureka - 48 - $28.52 - $47.52
Gordon's - 68 - $13.71 - $67.32
Capay - 59 - $41.47 - $58.41
Fairfield - 29 - $235.18 - $28.71
Enterprise - 22 - $.09 - $21.78
Liberty - 27 - $15.69 - $26.73
Vernon - 24 - $199.84 - $23.76
Pleasant Prairie - 49 - $265.00 - $48.51
Fairview - 67 - no report - $66.43
Spring Lake - 33 - $20.85 - $32.67
Yolo - 100 $3.59 - $99.00
Mt. Pleasant - 25 - $73.20 - $24.75
North Grafton - 35 - $42.60 - $34.65
Clover - 54 - new district - $53.46
Montgomery - 16 - $156.87 - $15.84
Lisbon - 21 - new district - $20.79
  Total - 2,077 - (blank) - $2,056.23

 

The school-houses of the county are of varied character, some being very good and others the opposite.

In Merritt's District, a brick school-house was erected by a few individuals, Messrs. Cave and Curtis being the most prominent in the enterprise. The main part of the expense was shared by these and a few others, who were disposed to have a school and school-house in the community. A new frame school-house was erected in Cottonwood last year and partially finished inside. In Capay Valley we find very good school-houses – one built by the late Mr. S. Arnold, and a few others, being very creditable. Near Woodland we find another brick school-house, and in Washington a very creditable frame structure. The narrowness of the inhabitable land along the Sacramento River presents an insurmountable barrier to large schools in that section. Being thinly settled in portions, the cost of maintaining efficient teachers is severely felt, and the same standard of excellence is rarely reached there that is attained in more favored localities. At Washington, Cacheville, Knight's Landing and Woodland, the schools are kept up to a high standard of merit. The returns not having been made public, we give no percentage of attendance, however much we might wish to.

Stage Lines.

From Woodland to Cacheville – Leaves Woodland, Monday, Wednesday and Friday, at twelve o'clock, noon. Returns same day in time to connect with the three o'clock down train. On Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, leaves Woodland at nine o'clock in the morning. Returns same day in time for the three o'clock train.

From Woodland to Cottonwood and Buckeye – Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, at twelve o'clock, noon. Returns same day, arriving at Woodland at six o'clock in the afternoon.

These stages carry the United States mails and Wells, Fargo & Co.'s express. A. S. House, proprietor.

The stages of the Knight's Landing and Colusa Stage Line leave Knight's Landing every Monday, Wednesday and Friday, on the arrival of the morning train from San Francisco; and return on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, arriving in time to connect with the forty-five minute past two o'clock afternoon train.

Manufacturing Interests of the County.

Under this head are included the flouring mills, saw mills, sash and door mills, carpenter shops, blacksmith shops, saddle and harness shops, boot and shoe shops, wagon and carriage shops, and other branches of industry. We have in our estimates not included the cost of material but simply the value of wares manufactured and the cost of labor employed. From this estimate must be deducted the cost of material, freight, loss, etc., which in many cases we were unable to obtain. In connection with this branch of industry, we take this opportunity of calling the attention of mill-men and manufacturers to the fact that this county possesses unrivalled water-power and facilities for the erection of large mills and manufactories. Great inducements are offered for the erection of a woolen mill- such as free power, sufficient stock for a full supply of material raised in the county, light taxes, and many other considerations of vital importance to capitalists. The annual increase of sheep is a certain guarantee of an unlimited supply of wool for a mill of the largest class. The enterprising citizens should take this matter in hand and secure the speedy erection of this much-needed element of prosperity.

The county possesses all the requisites for successful manufactories of various kinds, and we hope to see a system inaugurated which shall add to our material wealth and permanent population.

We are now placed in open competition with Eastern manufactories and Eastern labor. We possess all the elements for successful competition in our midst, and it requires but the direction of capital and labor in a comparatively new channel to change the tide of exchange and retain within our own State the money which has so long enriched Eastern manufacturers and impoverished our citizens.

High prices affect not the trade, but the consumer. The want of home industries affects not the rich; the loss is invariably borne by the poor. The laborer can well stand a reduction in wages, provided the necessaries of life at reduced in a corresponding ratio.

That wages have decreased is a fact; that they will fall still further is a foregone conclusion. We are no longer isolated from the world; we have joined hands with all nations and must expect their competition. To guard ourselves and our State against the consequences sure to follow this change, we must increase our manufactories so as to enable us to compete with foreign consumers.

Flour-Mills.

Yolo county has three flour-mills, located as follows: The Woodland Flouring Mills, Woodland; the Eagle Flouring Mills, Knight's Landing; and the Cacheville Flouring Mills, Cacheville.

The annual product of the mills averages about two hundred and fifty thousand dollars in value, which could be materially increased, as the mills possess a far greater capacity, amounting to three hundred and fifty barrels per twenty-four hours.

The brands of flour made at these mills rank among the best, having been long and favorably known.

Lately the mills have all passed into the hands of enterprising and able men, who will, we hope, run them up to their full capacity.

Eagle Mills.

Those mills are now run by Rhodes, Beatty & Co. – J. R. Rhodes, Sacramento City; George B. Beatty, of Knight's Landing, and J. L. Eaves, of Woodland, comprising the firm.

The first mill built in Knight's Landing was erected in 1856 by Lane & Sherman, and contained one run of stone.

This mill made very good flour, and stood until the growing trade compelled the erection of a larger structure.

In 1859, Mr. Zebulon Gardner erected the present flouring mill, which contains three run of French burrs, one run being used for barley, corn, etc. This run is the old flour run of the first mill.

The mill has a capacity of one hundred barrels in twenty-four hours, and turns out very superior work. The brand has taken the premium at the State Fair over all competitors, and enjoys a reputation second to none in the State.

The mill has been running day and night for some time, and will run in this manner during the fall and winter, the proprietors being unable to otherwise supply the demand. The proprietors purchase wheat for milling, paying the highest market prices therefore, and in all respects seem inclined to render this in the future, as in the past, a first-class mill.

Cacheville Flour-Mills.

These mills were erected in 1865, by Dingley & Hatch. They have been in operation from that time until the spring of the present year, when they were rented by E. H. Easthan, long and favorably known in connection with the Eagle Mills, Knight's Landing. Mr. Easthan has thoroughly overhauled and rebuilt the mills, adding a steam engine, thereby enabling him to carry on his business at any season of the year. Formerly the motive power was water.

Mr. Easthan has added a new run of French burrs, and feels confident that with his experience as a miller (thirty years), he can turn out as good work as can be found elsewhere.

It is the intention to make this a first-class merchant and custom-mill. A ready market for wheat can be obtained here at all times. The mill has a capacity of one hundred and fifty barrels in twenty-four hours.

Seeley's Flour-Mill.

Mr. George B. Seely is erecting a flour-mill on Putah Creek, the motive power of which will be water. It will contain two run of burrs, and be ready for business by the last of October.

Woodland Flouring Mills.

These mills were erected by Adam Gerlach and F. S. Freeman, in the spring of 1863. Since that time they have been in constant use, turning out a large amount of work. They are now run by Rhodes, Eaves & Co. – J. R. Rhodes, of Sacramento George R. Beatty, of Knight's Landing, and J. M. Eaves, of Woodland, constituting the company. These gentlemen have thoroughly overhauled and repaired the mills, and are now prepared to do first-class work in every particular. They will be run henceforth as merchant and custom mills. The proprietors prepared the mills expressly with this view. The farmers in the vicinity can find here a ready market for their wheat. These mills have a capacity of one hundred barrels per twenty-four hours. Their average has been sixty barrels per day, running eight months in the year.

Crouse's Saw-Mill.

Is located at Washington Water Works, Washington. It is used for wood-sawing for the railroad company and local markets, also for light splitting. A turning lathe and other machinery is connected with it. Motive, steam. Value of trade, seventy-seven thousand dollars.

Newton's Mill.

At Woodland, contains circular and jig saws for light work. Unused at present. Motive power, steam.

Smith's Mill.

Smith's carpenter-shop, Knight's Landing, is also provided with steam power, saws, turning-lathe and every essential for rapid and complete work. Value of trade, four thousand dollars.

Sibley's Mill.

Is located at Woodland. Motive power, steam. It is used in connection with the carpenter-shop and connected with a turning-lathe, planing machine and a morticing and tenoning machine. Motive power, steam. value of trade, about seven thousand dollars.

Sashes and Doors.

A sash and door manufactory is in full operation at Woodland. It is connected with Sibley's Mill and owned and conducted by him. The average annual value of the articles manufactured in this department is four thousand dollars.

Recapitulation of Mills.

Three flour mills, with a capacity of three hundred and fifty barrels per twenty-four hours. Average time of labor, eight months per year. Average capacity, eighty-four thousand barrels. About thirty men are employed at these mills, their aggregate earnings amounting to eighteen thousand dollars. Average value of products, two hundred and fifty thousand dollars (not half their capacity). Our estimates are taken from the past season, before the mills were repaired, and will probably fall short fully one-third of the amount of this year's work. We have estimated the running time as eight months; it may be much larger for this season.

The saw-mills and carpenter-shops enumerated employ an average of twenty-three men, whose annual earnings aggregate twenty-eight thousand dollars. Total earnings of milling laborers, forty-six thousand dollars.

This resume includes only the milling interest of the county in grain, and lumber, resawed or manufactured. There are no lumber-mills, the county possessing no timber suitable for lumbering purposes.

Leaving this branch of industry, we pass to a brief review of the

Wagon, Carriage and Blacksmith Shops,

Which are connected in a manner that forbids a separate consideration. There are twelve shops in the county where wagon and carriage making is extensively conducted in connection with blacksmithing, and in most of the other shops repairing and a limited amount of new work is done. As an evidence of the growth and prosperity of the county, as illustrated by its manufactories, we give a short sketch of

Elliott's Carriage Manufactory

And black-smith shop. In the spring of 1856 J. McClure established the first blacksmith-shop in woodland, then known as "Yolo City." It stood nearly in front of F. S. Freeman's old residence for some years, until removed to where it now stands, in the rear of the present manufactory. There was no wood department attached at first. In the fall of that year (1856) E. R. Moses commenced wood-working in the shop and continued till the following spring, when he opened a shop on what is known as Stringtown Lane. Meanwhile McClure had sold his interest to J. Wilgamott, who conducted the business until August, 1857, when he sold the shop to E. R. Moses, who removed from the lane and began business at the old shop, by first rebuilding it and removing it to where it now stands. From that time the business was under the supervision of Moses, who soon acquired a large trade, which constantly increased until he disposed of the business to the present proprietor, Clark Elliott, in 1864. From this small beginning has grown one of the largest manufacturing interests in the county and one of the most noted shops in the State. The reputation of the wagons first made was second to none, and by careful attention to the rules of the trade that reputation has been maintained. Fair dealing and good work, the mainsprings of success in any industry, have ever characterized the establishment, and have been the main cause of the rapidly-spreading trade and increasing demand for the products of the shop. Finding the old establishment too small for the growing trade, Mr. Elliott erected a brick shop, two stories high, twenty-eight by sixty feet, in the fall of 1866. The following year he added another, of the same height, fifty-six feet front and sixty feet deep, making a shop of ninety-four feet front and sixty feet depth.

We have no hesitancy in pronouncing this the finest and best carriage-shop outside of San Francisco, and in its completements and necessary machinery it is equal to any in that city. About twenty men are employed in the shop, which turns out from one hundred and twenty to one hundred and fifty wagons and buggies during the year. A specialty has been made in buggies, a department for this class, including trimming, having been established when the new shop was built.

In connection with this shop, we take pleasure in calling the attention of the public to the new style buggy springs manufactured here, the patent right of which is held by Messrs. Elliott & Hiller, the latter named gentleman being the inventor. We clip the following description of the article from the Scientific Press of September 24th, premising that it gives a better account of the invention than we could. A cut of the springs when in position will be found in another part of the GAZETTEER:

We have often spoken of the importance of improvements in the construction of vehicles, with respect both to the comfort of the person carried and to the ease of the draft animal. We have now another invention of the kind, which is well worth the notice of those who are accustomed to ride considerably in carriages.

"This consists in a certain arrangement of the springs and their connections, whereby all the motion imparted in traveling is given directly from the center of the body, and combining suitably inclosed rubber springs with wooden ones, so that the carriage rides very easily and noiselessly. A glance at the drawing will show how this is effected.

"Curved wooden springs, A, at each side of the body, rise in an arch from the bolster and rear axle bed, being connected at their centers by a stout transverse bar, shown in the cut. To this bar, between the springs, A, is connected also a similarly curved spring, B, which, however, curves downward, and whose ends are fastened at nor near the ends of the carriage-body. Thus, all motion received is passing over rough ground is transmitted to the body at its center, instead of at the ends, as is generally the case. The side motion, as well as the end motion, is also greatly reduced.

"The two side springs, A, are connected to the body at their center by a device denoted by C. This is constructed as follows: Two metal plates are fastened as most convenient to the carriage body and extend down on each side of the spring. A vertical slot at the lower part of each plate, and a pin extending through this slot from the sides of the spring, guide it in its motion. Between these plates is a block of rubber, usually of the form shown, tapering downwards towards each end, and curved springs inclose this block above and below (between the plates), one of which is fastened to the body, the other to the spring. Any motion forward or back will cause these springs to compress the rubber in that direction, without forcing it out of place; and if the pressure should be very great, the ends of the springs will be brought together, and thus give additional resistance.

"In order to give still greater elasticity, and at the same time prevent the connection at the ends of A and B from working loose, these ends are provided with slots, which hold blocks of rubber, which rest on the bolts. This is more especially necessary in the spring, B, as when the carriage-body rocks forward and backward it causes considerable end motion, which the lasticity of the spring, G, would not be sufficient for.

"The inventor having made strong claims for the excellence of his device, a representative of the Press was sent to test it. After a satisfactory experiment, he reports that for ease and comfort he knows of no superior, if of an equal.

"A patent for this improvement was granted August 11th, 1870, through the Scientific Press Agency, to John R. Hiller and Clark Elliott, of Woodland, Yolo County, Cal., who may be addressed for any further information."

This is one of the institutions that add wealth and prosperity to a place – first in the permanent and valuable buildings erected, and secondly in the products of the business. Mechanics are producers; and a town can rate its wealth and claim permanent prosperity according to its manufactures. In this respect Woodland is far in advance of many towns, her superiors in size but not in enterprising business men and manufacturing interest.

There are other minor shops in Woodland where the business of wagon-making is carried on to a limited extent, among which are the shops of C. L. Beach, R. Dinsmore and Mr. Perry – all on Main Street.

Plummer's Shop.

At Knight's Landing is also a large shop, employing twenty men and turning out a large number of vehicles of every description. The annual number of wagons, buggies, etc., reaches one hundred and fifty to two hundred, manufactured and sold at his shop.

Peters & Howard's Shop.

This wagon-shop in Davisville, though much smaller than either one mentioned, turns out a large amount of good work. The specialty of this shop is wagons, light and heavy, averaging from forty to fifty annually.

Robertson's Shop.

Also located in Davisville, is doing a good business in light and heavy wagons, making from forty to fifty per annum. Repairing and blacksmithing in all its branches is connected with both shops.

We can only mention the most prominent shops; hence, we pass to a brief summary of the trade:

Wagon- and blacksmith-shops, twelve; blacksmith-shops, twenty-three; total, thirty-five. Number of blacksmiths, seventy-two. Woodworkers, painters and trimmers, thirty-seven. Number of vehicles made, five hundred. Value of manufacturers, one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars; value of trade work, including cost of material, two hundred and ten thousand dollars; total value of trade, three hundred and thirty-five thousand dollars. Mechanics employed, one hundred and nine. Cost of labor, one hundred and nine thousand dollars. Cost of material consumed, one hundred and sixty-three thousand dollars. We have not included cost of damaged material, rent of buildings, bad debts, etc., in this estimate, which is based on figures obtained from the leading shops.

With this resume we pass to a consideration of the

Harness and Saddle-Shops.

We find a record of thirteen shops where the manufacture of saddles and harness is conducted, the largest of which (Deitz's) is situated in Woodland. The number of men employed in this branch of manufactures is twenty-one, whose annual earnings amount to twenty thousand dollars. The value of articles made, including cost of material, is seventy-three thousand dollars. From this must be taken the cost of material, the amount of which we are unable to determine.

Boot and Shoe-Shops.

There are eleven boot and shoe-shops in the county, with fifteen men, working at custom-work. The value of the wares aggregate about seventeen thousand dollars. Value of labor, eight thousand five hundred dollars. Estimates of material consumed not given.

Carpenters' Shops.

There are four large carpenter-shops and many small ones in the county. No estimate of the value of the manufactures can be given, as the material and labor are inseparably connected. There are ninety-five carpenters in the county, about fifty of whom are working at their trade, the others being employed at other vocations. Their earnings may be estimated at fifty thousand dollars.

Cabinet-Shops.

There are three cabinet-shops in the county, where a limited amount of furniture is manufactured. The aggregate value of wares is five thousand dollars.

Bakeries.

There are four bakeries in the county, doing an aggregate business of sixteen thousand eight hundred dollars. The labor of seven men is estimated at five thousand dollars.

Breweries – Yolo Brewery.

There are two large breweries in Woodland, one of which (the Yolo Brewery) was established in 1861 by Scherley & Miller, the present proprietors. The first brewery was a small frame building, put up about two miles from town. In 1862 it was moved to the site of the present brewery, on Main Street, where it still stands by the side of the new edifice. In 1868 the present brewery was erected, which is forty by fifty feet, two stories high and built of brick. The brewery has a capacity of six barrels per day, but is only run for the home market, averaging about eight barrels per week. A large still is included in the brewery, but is not used, owing to the revenue restrictions. A part of the hops used in brewing are raised by the proprietors, as well as a large portion of the barley. Three men are employed constantly, besides the proprietors.

Woodland Brewery.

This brewery was established in February, 1870, by George and John Wirth. This building is of wood, twenty by thirty feet and one story high. The brewery apparatus has a capacity of five to six barrels per day, but is run only for local market. The proprietors employ two men, and purchase all their hops and barley.

It is the intention of the proprietors to enlarge their business, and compete with other breweries for the trade in other localities.

The beer manufactured in Yolo County has long sustained a first-class reputation, it being asserted that the water is peculiarly adapted to the business. The annual sales from these breweries reach about fifteen thousand dollars.

Wineries.

There are several establishments in Yolo County where wine is manufactured in greater or lesser quantities. Several farmers who have small vineyards make wine from their surplus grapes. Of this class we make no mention, as the amount so made is not prepared for market, and we have no data by which to arrive at the quantity.

But there are several wineries where wine of various brands is made; also, brandies and vinegar. First among these, because the oldest, is the

Capay Valley Winery.

At Gillig's Ranch, Capay Valley. At this place the annual crop from the home vineyard is manufactured into wine, beside the crops of several small vineyards in the surrounding neighborhood. About thirty thousand gallons of wine are manufactured yearly at this place – the white and red varieties.

Woodland Winery No. 2.

This winery was established in July, 1869, by Messrs. Lallemond & Mendssole. Their specialties are claret and champagne. In 1869 they purchased two hundred and ten tons of grapes, from which they manufactured twenty-six thousand gallons of wine and twenty-five thousand gallons of brandy. Their liquors are sent to the San Francisco market, a branch of their European house having been long established in that city.

Woodland Winery No. 1, or Stoutenberg's Winery.

Was established September, 1866, by E. Barnes. On the twenty-second of October, the first wine was made. The vintage of 1866 was twelve thousand gallons of wine and nine thousand gallons of brandy.

In 1867, three thousand gallons of wine, two thousand gallons of vinegar and eight hundred gallons of brandy were manufactured.

In 1868, about the same amount was added. In 1869, the winery was idle, and it so remained until 1870, when it was purchased by the present proprietor, Mr. Stoutenberg.

About five thousand gallons of wine, red and white, are now on hand of the vintage of 1866-7-8.

The Orleans-Hills Winery.

Is owned by a joint-stock company; capital, one hundred thousand dollars; place of business, Sacramento. The vineyard is located in the foothills, near the mouth of Cache Creek Cañon, about eighteen miles northwest from Woodland. The vines are all on the hills, and receive no irrigation. The varieties grown are selections from the best known German and other foreign grapes, such as are peculiarly adapted to wine-making. A very superior article of white and red wine is prepared by this company, which commands a high price and finds a ready sale. Five thousand gallons were made last year. Mr. Knauth, a practical German wine-maker, has charge of the business.

Schindler's Winery.

At Cacheville, D. Schindler manufactures wine of different qualities, including some choice varieties. There are several places of smaller note in the county, but we have glanced at the most prominent.

The estimated manufacture for the present year is put down at one hundred thousand gallons of wine, valued at fifty thousand dollars. We cannot estimate the brandy; in that we can only take the last year's record, as much depends on the price of new wines.

In 1869, about seven thousand gallons of brandy were made, valued at ten thousand dollars. Total, wine and brandy, sixty thousand dollars.

Refinery.

At Washington, a refinery has been established, for the purpose of redistilling liquors, or the removing of the fusil oil from liquors distilled in the ordinary way. The parties putting up the machinery claim that they can remove every particle of the fusil oil from the native liquors, thereby removing the great objection to California brandies. Should they be able to perform what they promise, it will be of great benefit to the trade, as the chief objection raised against California brandy is the great quantities of this dangerous element found in all samples. So far it is but an experiment, as the machinery was put up this season, and we are obliged to await results before determining on the merits of the invention, which was patented but a short time since by an Eastern distiller. Therefore we make no estimates regarding the value of manufacturers, neither can we estimate the value of labor connected therewith. The proprietors, Messrs. Wilcox and Rock are gentlemen of large experience and practical workers. We may confidently expect satisfactory results from the undertaking. Success in this direction will be of incalculable benefit to the wine- and brandy-makers of the State.

Brick Making and Brick-Yards.

In Woodland are two large brick-yards, owned by Nathan Elliott and Mr. Craft. These yards do a large business, as large or larger than all other yards in the county combined.

Elliott's Brick-Yard.

In the spring of 1865 Mr. Elliott commenced the manufacture of brick in Woodland, making during that season three hundred and fifty thousand brick. In 1866 he made seven hundred and fifty thousand. During those two years Mr. Elliott's yard was the only one in Woodland. In 1867 A. Armstrong opened a brick-yard, the number made by him being six hundred thousand. That season Elliott turned out five hundred thousand brick. In 1868-9 the yard was idle, its owner being engaged in other business. This present season Elliott's yard will turn out twelve hundred thousand brick. Thus far the brick made in Woodland has been used in that town. With the facilities of railroad transportation the Woodland brick-yards can now compete successfully with those of any part of the State. The quality manufactured is inferior to none, and they can be furnished anywhere along the railroad at San Francisco or Sacramento prices.

Cacheville Brick-Yard.

About half a mile from Cacheville, on the Woodland road, is the brick-yard and kilns of Mr. Lott Day. About two hundred and fifty thousand brick are made here annually and are disposed of in the local market.

Lang's Brick-Yard.

At the mouth of Cache Creek Cañon, twenty miles northeast from Woodland, J. Lang has established a large brickyard, which will be conducted as a permanent business. The quality of the brick is excellent, and the nature of the soil is such that superior facilities are afforded for making an excellent article. The market for this yard will be found both in the local demand and other parts of the county. About two hundred and fifty thousand will be made at this yard this season.

Craft's Brick-Yard.

Is located in Woodland, and was established in 1867. Since it has been in operation it has turned out a large quantity of excellent brick, most of which have been used in Woodland. In fact, there has been at no time in Woodland any great amount of brick left over after the building season was past, when it was often extremely difficult to obtain small quantities; but this will be remedied in the future. Craft's yard will turn out two million brick this year, which, with those made at the other yards, will meet the constantly increasing demand.

At Elliott's, Craft's and Lang's yards, the proprietors will keep a full supply on hand.

About four million two hundred thousand brick will be made in the county this season, valued at twenty-nine thousand seven hundred dollars.

Tailors.

There are three tailor-shops in Woodland, confined to custom-work. The trade being limited to this class of work, we record no employees, the business being conducted by the proprietors. We have no means of knowing the annual trade, and therefore make no estimate.

Chicory.

In 1860 Adolph Palm and Henry Harms commenced the cultivation and manufacturing of chicory, on the Sacramento River, a few miles below Washington. Their first experiment was with seed imported from Germany, which proved successful. The first year they planted fifteen acres, which they have gradually increased, until now they cultivate sixty acres. The average yield is about thirty tons of green chicory. When prepared for market it is shipped dried to San Francisco, and there sold at wholesale.

The article is pronounced superior to the imported, and commands eight to nine cents per pound. The cost of the imported article in the United States is estimated at four million dollars per annum, which could all be supplied from this State would producers but turn their attention to it. There is almost unlimited quantities of suitable land along the rivers and creeks of this State, sufficient at least to raise all the chicory consumed in the Union.

At present there is a duty of five per cent. on the imported article, which enables our people to compete with the cheaper foreign labor. Should that be removed it would be impossible to compete with the foreign production and the growing of chicory in California would cease to be profitable, and consequently would be abandoned. We are informed by Mr. Palm that ten years of consecutive seeding has not injured the land or abated the field; on the contrary, the land appears to have improved under the culture.

Chicory, when properly prepared, is used as a substitute for coffee, being generally mixed with it in the proportion of one pound of chicory to three of coffee; and generally the ground coffee on sale is one-third chicory. Many prefer the mixed article, and there have been times in San Francisco when chicory commanded a higher price than coffee, owing to the supply being insufficient to meet the demand for that particular kind of coffee which is so largely composed of chicory.

When growing, chicory root somewhat resembles the wild parsnip in appearance, though the leaves are long, slender and swordlike, with smooth edges. The clusters of leaves, in formation and manner of growth, resemble the beet-top, though each individual leaf bears no resemblance to the leaf of the beet. In color they are of a bright green, while the bulb or root, is a dirty, yellowish white.

The ground is prepared for chicory the same as for beets or carrots. The seed is then planted in drills, about eighteen inches or two feet being left between the rows. It is planted from the latter part of February until the middle of April, thus avoiding the ripening of the whole crop at one time. It has been sown as late as the fifth of May, and ripened well, producing a good yield.

Sometimes the growing crop is injured by a species of flea which eats the tops, thereby stunting the growth of the root. This pest rarely makes its appearance, however, and as a general rule the plant is molested by nothing and requires no more care than that necessary to keep the ground clear of weeds.

There are employed on this chicory farm nine white men, the year together; and during the harvesting and curing of the crop twenty-five Chinamen are employed.

When fully ripe the chicory is pulled and the root separated from the top, the latter being of no value. The roots are then run through a cutter, which cuts them in thin slips. After they pass through the cutter they are spread out on the platforms to dry in the sun. This occupies from four to six days, according to the weather. There are two platforms for drying the root, raised about four feet from the ground and covered with boards. One is eighty-four by one hundred feet, the other forty-eight by one hundred and seventy-five feet. When sufficiently cured the chicory is removed to the mill, where it is placed in two revolving iron drums and thrust into the furnaces, where it is roasted. This s a very nice and particular operation, and great care must be exercised lest the "batch" be spoiled. From the drums it is removed to the coffee-mill, where it is ground; from thence to the packing-room, where it is packed in barrels containing from one hundred and fifty to two hundred pounds and shipped to market.

This may serve to inform our readers of the manner in which chicory is grown and prepared for their tables.

The mill, engine and machinery cost about ten thousand dollars. The yearly sales from this establishment approximate fifty thousand dollars.

Recapitulation.

We have now glanced at the most important branches of industry, with the exception of the dairy, which will be treated in connection with the dairy farms of the county. We will briefly recapitulate the value of manufactures, so far as can be ascertained.

In forming the estimates for the flour-mills we took last year's reports, and upon that shall base our estimates for this year. We have also, in most cases, recorded the working time of mechanics and shops at eight months. The various wages of tradesmen have been reckoned at the average prices – three dollars, three dollars and fifty cents, and four dollars per day, exclusive of board. We find the annual value of the flouring trade to be two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Saw-mills and sash and door manufactory, twelve thousand dollars. Employed in these two branches, fifty-three men; wages, forty-six thousand dollars. In the mills and carpenter-shops, the work might safely be put down for the year, instead of the time we have computed. Wagon, carriage and blacksmith trade, three hundred and thirty-five thousand dollars. Harness and saddle trade, fifty-three thousand dollars; cost of labor, twenty thousand dollars. Boot and shoe trade, seventeen thousand dollars; cost of labor, eight thousand five hundred dollars. Carpenters' trade (no estimate); cost of labor, fifty thousand dollars. Cabinet-ware trade, five thousand dollars. Baker's trade, sixteen thousand eight hundred dollars; cost of labor, five thousand dollars. Brewers' trade, fifteen thousand dollars; cost of labor (proprietors not included), three thousand dollars. Wine and brandy trade, sixty thousand dollars; cost of labor, seven thousand dollars. Brick trade, twenty-nine thousand four hundred dollars; cost of labor, five thousand dollars. Chicory trade, fifty thousand dollars; cost of labor, ten thousand dollars. Total value of manufactures, eight hundred and forty-three thousand two hundred dollars. Total value of labor so engaged, two hundred and sixty-three thousand five hundred dollars. Total cost of material used, no reliable estimate as a whole, but parts of the trades enumerated, return sums that foot up over three hundred and forty thousand dollars.

To this summary may be added the tinners' trade, which employs about eight men, at a yearly pay-roll of six thousand dollars, making two hundred and sixty-nine thousand five hundred dollars paid the various branches of manufactures enumerated. The sum will be increased to three hundred thousand dollars by smaller branches, of which no mention has been made. In including expenses of manufactures, we must consider all material used, rent and insurance, value of property, machinery, etc., and these particulars we were unable to obtain in season for this volume. Hence, the expenses attending these manufactures, with but few exceptions, have been omitted, as the data furnished us was too crude to be of service.

Imports.

Under this head we include all articles of merchandise, but nothing further. Stock of several varieties have been imported during the year, as will be mentioned elsewhere. For our purpose, the import trade of our merchants is sufficient. From our most reliable business men we have received full information, from which we base our estimates. The sums given embrace the lumber trade, which is very large - much heavier for this and the last year than it has been at any previous time. This fact is owing to the spirit of improvement manifested by our citizens. Buildings of various kinds are going up all over the county, and the unsightly cabins are rapidly giving place to comfortable and in many instances elegant and costly dwellings. Farms that have long "laid out to the commons," as it would be termed elsewhere, are being fenced as rapidly as the means of the owners will permit. Owing to this our imports present an alarming array of figures, which, if not rightly understood, would subject us to the charge of extravagance. For many years to come the imports of lumber in this county will reach up among the hundred thousands, or about half a million per year – another reason why this county should be connected by rail with the Mendocino lumber regions.

Another very large item in our import list is hardware and agricultural tools. A glance at the books of our importers will give an idea of the magnitude of this branch of imports. Gray & Wood, of Woodland, and Griffith & Co., of Cacheville, import largely of this class. Much of this might be saved the county were the manufacturing interest properly represented. We notice among the articles at Gray & Wood's many manufactured entirely of Eastern material and by Eastern labor. These articles could be made here and sold as cheaply as now, and the profits of the labor retained in our midst.

The amount of our annual imports foot up to two million three hundred and eighty-one thousand seven hundred and thirteen dollars.

List of the Heaviest Importers.

Gray & Wood, Woodland, hardware and agricultural tools.

Griffith & Co., Cacheville, general merchandise and agricultural tools.

F. S. Freeman, Woodland, general merchandise.

Huston & Goldman, Knight's Landing, dry goods.

Dresbach & Co., Davisville, general merchandise.

Langenour & Brownell, Knight's Landing, farming implements and lumber.

Fleishman & Kaufman, Woodland, dry goods and groceries.

Exports.

The principal articles of export are wheat, barley, fruit of all kinds, vegetables, stock of all kinds, dairy products, wood, wool, wine, eggs, poultry, and the eggs of the silkworm. Hay cannot be considered as forming a part of our exports, as the average product is no more than used here. It is true that from part of the county hay is exported in considerable quantities during some seasons, but a fair average of one year with another would leave but little, if any, surplus in the county. From various sources, our exports foot up to two million nine hundred and forty-eight thousand eight hundred and twenty dollars.

List of the Heaviest Exporters.

F. S. Freeman, Woodland, produce, wool, grain, etc.

Thomas & Hunt, Woodland, grain.

Langenour & Brownell, Knight's Landing, grain and produce of all kinds.

Palm & Harmes, Sacramento River, chicory.

C. F. Reed, Knight's Landing, grain.

Dresbach & Co., Davisville, grain, wool, etc.

G. W. Scott, Cottonwood, hogs, and stock of all kinds.

Among our heavy exporters of stock we could enumerate many whose sales run far up in the thousands annually, but a reference to our stock table is sufficient, and will answer every purpose.

We now turn our attention to other matters of interest connected with the county.

Please Note: The sections in the book listed below are presented in separate sections on this web site.

* Sales of Town Lots, and

* Sales of Land.

Grape Culture.

As will be seen by reference to other parts of this work, the grape is largely cultivated in this county. The principal variety now bearing is the Mission or California grape, though many foreign varieties have been planted, and are now producing excellent fruit. Those now engaged in putting out vineyards, mostly choose the foreign grape, preferring them for wine-making for various reasons. The number of acres in grapes is about five hundred, not including many small lots. The value of the grape culture is best exemplified by taking the records of those who have made it a specialty. Mr. N. Wyckoff, near Woodland, says: "At one cent per pound – assured – there is more money in the grape than in wheat. It will pay three times better, considering the cost of plowing, harvesting, wear of land, etc." In 1862, the gross yield of his grapes per acre amounted to one hundred and sixty-two dollars, netting him one hundred and twenty-five dollars per acre. If the farmer nets from seven to twelve dollars per acre on wheat, he does well – better by far than the average. One great want is felt, which, if supplied, would render grape culture one of the leading features of the county – an assured home market. If an organization could be formed, with capital sufficient to carry on wine-making and purchase of grapes grown in the county, but a few years would elapse before a large portion of the lands suitable would be planted in vineyards. J. Knauth, who has had the benefit of a California experience in wine-making, pronounces the foothills of Yolo County, or portions of them, equal to the vine lands of Germany. As he possesses a scientific education, combined with a practical experience of twenty years in the vineyards of Germany, he should be considered good authority in this matter. Mr. Knauth visited the whole wine-growing portions of the State, and, after carefully and critically analyzing the soil in various localities, finally settled on the foothills of Yolo, as possessing the natural qualities of soil required to enable the wine grape to be grown successfully. One main feature of the foothills essentially requisite in grape-growing districts, where it is intended to make wine, is the absence of alkali. Another fact which recommends them is this – the racy nature of the soil and the presence of the bed-rock, or a very hard substratum near the surface. This also being considered by grape-growers as essential. For these reasons principally the Orleans Vinicultural Association has located its vineyard, on the hills, near Capay Valley, where Mr. Knauth first started his vineyard, which now forms part of the Company's grounds. The quality of this wine and superior price obtained for it, at home and abroad, fully justify Mr. Knauth's predictions and selection.

Stock Interests of the County – Horses

It is frequently said, when speaking of this county, that it is a grain county, and has only this one reliance; hence, in seasons when the grain crops fail, this county feels the loss more than many others. The remark is correct in the main, but still a very large amount is invested in stock in the county, a portion of which will not yield a large per cent. on the money invested, taking the supposed value of such stock as a basis for calculation. Poor stock, or poor qualities of stock, such as mustang horses and bronco cattle, will not pay well in any county, in comparison with better breeds. The half-breed cattle, now nearly exhausted in this county, do well for beef, but this market presents no demand for half-breed horses for the butchers' stalls. Although ready to adopt most of the French customs, the people of Yolo have not yet tried horse flesh as an article of food. There are in the county a large number of half-breed and mustang horses that to-day would not sell for the half of what it has cost to raise them, where pasturage is at all valuable or scarce, as it is in this county. Instead of diminishing, they are on the increase in portions of the county, where allowed to run at large, and the consequent result has been large bands of horses of little value, which deprive an equal number of good horses of a place in the range. Were this matter rectified and clean cattle and horses put in their place, the stock valuation of Yolo would be doubled at once. To those wishing to purchase saddle or light draft horses, we would say come to Yolo; they are plenty and here should be cheap.

Aside from this class, the county can truly boast of fine horses. Our most enterprising farmers have rid themselves of their half-breeds and mustangs and supplied the deficit with fine American stock. Many of our wealthier citizens have imported the best blooded stallions and brood mares to be had, of draft, carriage and roadster stock, including some of the best trotters in the State. A reference to the reports of the State Agricultural Society will enable one to form a very correct estimate of the quality of the stock in this county, for we find that Yolo has received a fair share of premiums, and has exhibited her full proportion of blooded horses, along with other first-class stock-cattle, sheep and swine. The whole number of horses in the county is eight thousand eight hundred and eighty-six, valued at five hundred and thirty-three thousand one hundred sixty dollars.

Mules.

The whole number of mules is one thousand and thirty-five, valued at one hundred and three thousand five hundred dollars.

Jacks and Jennies.

The whole number is – Jacks, two; Jennies, twenty-three; total, twenty-five, valued at three thousand five hundred dollars.

Cattle.

The county is well supplied with good cattle, and in parts of the county one can find very choice blooded stock. This can be traced in a measure to the influence of the State Fairs, but more particularly to a circumscribed limit of pasturage or range. We notice that those localities nearer the City of Sacramento average better cattle, as a rule, than is found in parts more remote. The lists of entries of cattle for competition at fairs are in favor of these localities, perhaps owing to the fact that they possess the advantages of living near the fair-grounds. But as the range for stock has been narrowed by the encroachment of the grain fields, it has been found necessary to improve the breeds, and, with a few head, reap as much or more profit than was formerly received from large herds of small, scrawny, light stock, such as formerly ranged over these plains.

Hogs.

The "root of all evil," the proverb says is money. The root of Yolo county is hogs – hogs in the marshes, hogs on the plains, hogs in the mountains, hogs everywhere, and a few scattering ones running around loose. The mountains are full of wild hogs and the valleys support their share of tame ones. Hog traps are plenty in the hills, and hog hunts are becoming as plenty and famous as the royal boar hunts of old.

The profits arising from raising this animal are very great, as it is very prolific, arrives at maturity early, and eats what other animals refuses (sic), yet refuses what other animals will eat. There are few counties in the State so well adapted to the wants of this animal as Yolo County. The vast marshes are well supplied with esculent roots, on which the hog delights to feed – in fact this animal prefers roots. The mountain ranges furnish vast fields of pasturage of little value to the cattle, and the chapparel (sic) berries refused by other stock are eagerly sought by the peculiar animal under consideration, and when driven from the hills to the stubble field of the plains, he is generally sleek and fat. During the fall vast droves of hogs can be seen scattered through the stubble fields fattening preparatory to being driven to market. The general breeds now common are the Suffolk, Berkshire and Chinese. The whole number of hogs in the county, as near as can be estimated, is thirty thousand seven hundred and twenty-five, valued at one hundred and twenty thousand dollars.

Sheep.

This county is becoming well supplied with sheep, many of which are of excellent quality. Several years since, Messrs. Gillig & Arnold imported some very fine Merino sheep for their ranch in Capay Valley; and in this connection we will remark that they also purchased for the same place some fine Cashmere goats, male and female; but of the result of the latter venture we have no record. The increased value and improved quality of the sheep in that locality is due in a great measure to this importation, giving as it did a impetus in the right direction. Later, the Hoppin Brothers, of Cacheville, became the owners of some Cotswolds, from which they have secured one of the finest bands of sheep in the county. Judge Hutton, also of Cacheville, has full-blood Spanish Merinos, his whole band averaging three-fourths to seven-eighths blood of that variety. We might enumerate others, but these stand more prominently before the public as men who have taken more interest in perfecting their stock of various kinds, and have expended much time and money in experiments tending to that result. The raising of sheep has so far proved very profitable, and the interest in this branch of stock is yearly increasing. The whole number of sheep in the county is seventy-three thousand two hundred and twenty-one; value, one hundred fifty-three thousand four hundred and fifty-two dollars.

Recapitulation of Stock.

Number of horses, eight thousand eight hundred and eighty-six; value, five hundred and thirty-three thousand one hundred and sixty dollars. Mules, one thousand and thirty-five; value, one hundred and three thousand five hundred dollars. Jacks and Jennies, twenty-five; value, three thousand five hundred dollars. Stock cattle, eight thousand and ninety; value, two hundred and forty-two thousand seven hundred dollars. Cows, three thousand three hundred and thirty; value, one hundred and sixty-six thousand five hundred dollars. Two yoke of work oxen, four; value, three hundred dollars. Hogs, thirty thousand seven hundred and twenty-five; value, one hundred and twenty thousand dollars. Sheep, seventy-three thousand seven hundred and twenty-five; value, one hundred and fifty-three thousand four hundred and fifty-two dollars. Total number of stock of all kinds, one hundred and twenty-five thousand three hundred and sixteen head; total value, one million three hundred and twenty-three thousand one hundred and twelve dollars.

County Finances.

There is money now in the county treasury to pay all warrants issued and registered on the GENERAL FUND prior to the second day of March, 1869; and the taxes to be collected the present season will doubtless extinguish all the indebtedness of that fund up to August of the present year. Warrants on this fund sell at eighty-seven per cent.

Hospital Fund.

There is money now in the treasury to pay all indebtedness of this fund that accrued prior to December 8th, 1869. The taxes of the present season will extinguish the indebtedness. Warrants sell at ninety cents.

The Road Fund is behind from December 8th, 1868. The taxes of the present year may pay all indebtedness of that fund that accrued prior to January, 1870.

Of the Swamp Land Fund there is now in the county treasury a surplus of six thousand seven hundred and eighty-four dollars and eighty-three cents. subject to warrants that may be hereafter issued.

We have now given brief notices of the leading interests of the county, as far as the size and nature of our work would permit. We will briefly refer to the general

Climate.

Of the county. The winters are mild, snow rarely falling in the valley, and we believe it has not fallen to lie twelve hours but twice within the recollection of the "oldest inhabitant." Frosts are frequent during the winter season, sometimes freezing thin ice on shallow, still water. In the foothills but little frost is felt, and from the first rains vegetation grows rapidly. During the summer the heat is very severe, the thermometer frequently standing at one hundred degrees and upwards for several days in succession, though the average length of the "hot spells" is about three days, when a cooler "spell" sets in, continuing from a week to ten days. The south wind generally is cool and refreshing, and accompanies the cooler weather, bringing the invigorating sea breezes in its train. The cessation of the south wind is frequently followed by the north wind, which in summer is hot, dry and scorching in the extreme, but in the rainy season it is cold and dry, generally, but if accompanied by rain, the storms are the most bleak of the seasons.

Newspapers.

In the historical part of this work will be found a record of the newspapers of the past. We, dealing only with the present, offer the following sketch of the newspapers now published:

The "Yolo Democrat."

This journal was established November 23d, 1867, by W. A. Henry & Co., publishers; edited by Mr. Henry. It was thus conducted until May 1st, 1868, when it passed into the hands of the "Democrat Publishing Company," under whose management it remained until September 30th, 1869. During this period the paper was conducted strictly as a democratic journal, as its name implies, and, by the way, it holds and enunciates the same doctrines now. On September 30th, 1869, Messrs. H. C. Grover and William Saunders became the proprietors, and the paper was increased to its present size at the commencement of its third year and volume, the old type giving place to a new dress. It is now a twenty-four by thirty-six sheet, equal in typographical appearance to any country paper. With this change the word "County" was dropped from the heading, leaving the present name. Grover & Saunders continued the publication until February 1st, 1870, when Mr. Grover withdrew from the firm and William Saunders became sole owner. It is now published and edited by him as a strictly Democratic journal, is deservedly popular with the party. It has a large circulation, and as an advertising medium it is equal to any. It is now the official paper of the county, steadily increasing in circulation, and fast achieving an enviable success. The job office connected with this journal is complete and ample for all business demands, and the work will compare favorably with any turned out elsewhere. Day of publication, Saturday.

The "Yolo Weekly Mail."

The first number of this journal was issued on the first Thursday of October, 1868, by C. Y. Hammond, editor and proprietor. It was in the midst of the political excitement of the Presidential campaign, and the Union Republican party being without an organ in Yolo County, the leading men of the party determined to found a newspaper which should represent their political views, believing that such a journal could be maintained and become a permanent institution. Accordingly, C. Y. Hammond, an old editor and publisher, of Amador County, was conferred with, and the result was the establishment of the Yolo Weekly Mail, as stated in the opening of this paragraph.

Mr. Hammond published the paper with marked success during the campaign of 1869, and the patronage extended evidences the success of the experiment. With the advance of the prosperity of the community, the patronage of the journal and its circulation has steadily increased to the present time, when the journal stands on a firm foundation.

On the twenty-third of December, 1869, Mr. Hammond disposed of the office to Messrs. Wagstaff and Jones, by whom it was published, the former being editor, until the twenty-third of May, 1870, when Mr. Jones retired and the present editor and proprietor became sole owner. With the first change mentioned, when Messrs. Wagstaff and Jones became the proprietors, the features of the paper were materially changed in all but its political views. During the winter of 1869-70, the future was rather gloomy, owing to the scarcity of money in the county and the anticipation of short crops. But the citizens of Woodland have generally proven themselves equal to any emergency, and with the spring came increased patronage and an assured success.

On Mr. Wagstaff's assuming sole control of the journal, he immediately relieved it of the heavy debt by which it was burdened and placed it upon a secure basis financially. The circulation of the journal is large and constantly increasing, and, as an advertising medium it has no superior in the county. The job office is complete in all its details, and is presided over by an excellent workman. Politically the paper is now, as when first issued, an uncompromising Republican journal. Day of publication, Thursday.

City Papers.

The circulation of other journals in the county is very large, the Sacramento Union having the lead, followed by the San Francisco Chronicle, which holds the second place. The Record and Bee, of Sacramento, also have a large circulation, and the Bulletin and Call of San Francisco are taken largely, the former by business firms, for its shipping and mercantile reports.

Among the weeklies the Rescue leads the list, excepting the Weekly Union, which is found in most of the farm-houses of the county. It is very rare now that you find a farm-house in the county that has not one or both of the county papers and a weekly beside, and a daily if practicable. With increased mail facilities a large increase would be noted in the circulation of daily journals in the county.

[Please note: The next sections in the book are "Marriages," "Morals," "Arrests and Convictions These sections are presented elsewhere on this web site.]

 

 

 

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